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THE NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE:
AGENDA FOR ACTION




TABLE OF CONTENTS




Executive Summary Tab A

The NII: Agenda for Action Tab B

Benefits and Application Examples Tab C

Information Infrastructure Task Force Tab D

U.S. Advisory Council on the NII Tab E

NII Accomplishments to Date Tab F

Key Contacts Tab G

TAB A THE NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE:
AGENDA FOR ACTION

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

All Americans have a stake in the construction of an
advanced National Information Infrastructure (NII), a seamless
web of communications networks, computers, databases, and
consumer electronics that will put vast amounts of information at
users' fingertips. Development of the NII can help unleash an
information revolution that will change forever the way people
live, work, and interact with each other:

o People could live almost anywhere they wanted, without
foregoing opportunities for useful and fulfilling
employment, by "telecommuting" to their offices through an
electronic highway;

o The best schools, teachers, and courses would be available
to all students, without regard to geography, distance,
resources, or disability;

o Services that improve America's health care system and
respond to other important social needs could be available
on-line, without waiting in line, when and where you needed
them.

Private sector firms are already developing and deploying
that infrastructure today. Nevertheless, there remain essential
roles for government in this process. Carefully crafted
government action will complement and enhance the efforts of the
private sector and assure the growth of an information
infrastructure available to all Americans at reasonable cost. In
developing our policy initiatives in this area, the
Administration will work in close partnership with business,
labor, academia, the public, Congress, and state and local
government. Our efforts will be guided by the following
principles and objectives:

o Promote private sector investment, through appropriate tax
and regulatory policies.

o Extend the "universal service" concept to ensure that
information resources are available to all at affordable prices.
Because information means empowerment--and employment--the
government has a duty to ensure that all Americans have access to
the resources and job creation potential of the Information Age.


o Act as a catalyst to promote technological innovation and
new applications. Commit important government research programs
and grants to help the private sector develop and demonstrate
technologies needed for the NII, and develop the applications and
services that will maximize its value to users.

o Promote seamless, interactive, user-driven operation of
the NII. As the NII evolves into a "network of networks,"
government will ensure that users can transfer information across
networks easily and efficiently. To increase the likelihood that
the NII will be both interactive and, to a large extent, user-
driven, government must reform regulations and policies that may
inadvertently hamper the development of interactive applications.

o Ensure information security and network reliability. The
NII must be trust- worthy and secure, protecting the privacy of
its users. Government action will also ensure that the overall
system remains reliable, quickly repairable in the event of a
failure and, perhaps most importantly, easy to use.

o Improve management of the radio frequency spectrum, an
increasingly critical resource.

o Protect intellectual property rights. The Administration
will investigate how to strengthen domestic copyright laws and
international intellectual property treaties to prevent piracy
and to protect the integrity of intellectual property.

o Coordinate with other levels of government and with other
nations. Because information crosses state, regional, and
national boundaries, coordination is critical to avoid needless
obstacles and prevent unfair policies that handicap U.S.
industry.

o Provide access to government information and improve
government procurement. The Administration will seek to ensure
that Federal agencies, in concert with state and local
governments, use the NII to expand the information available to
the public, ensuring that the immense reservoir of government
information is available to the public easily and equitably.
Additionally, Federal procurement policies for telecommunications
and information services and equipment will be designed to
promote important technical developments for the NII and to
provide attractive incentives for the private sector to
contribute to NII development.

The time for action is now. Every day brings news of
change: new technologies, like hand-held computerized
assistants; new ventures and mergers combining businesses that
not long ago seemed discrete and insular; new legal decisions
that challenge the separation of computer, cable, and telephone
companies. These changes promise substantial benefits for the
American people, but only if government understands fully their
implications and begins working with the private sector and other
interested parties to shape the evolution of the communications
infrastructure.

The benefits of the NII for the nation are immense. An
advanced information infrastructure will enable U.S. firms to
compete and win in the global economy, generating good jobs for
the American people and economic growth for the nation. As
importantly, the NII can transform the lives of the American
people -- ameliorating the constraints of geography, disability,
and economic status -- giving all Americans a fair opportunity to
go as far as their talents and ambitions will take them. TAB B THE NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE:
THE ADMINISTRATION'S AGENDA FOR ACTION
Version 1.0

I. The Promise of the NII

Imagine you had a device that combined a telephone, a TV, a
camcorder, and a personal computer. No matter where you went or
what time it was, your child could see you and talk to you, you
could watch a replay of your team's last game, you could browse
the latest additions to the library, or you could find the best
prices in town on groceries, furniture, clothes -- whatever you
needed.

Imagine further the dramatic changes in your life if:

o The best schools, teachers, and courses were available
to all students, without regard to geography, distance,
resources, or disability;

o The vast resources of art, literature, and science were
available everywhere, not just in large institutions or
big-city libraries and museums;

o Services that improve America's health care system and
respond to other important social needs were available
on-line, without waiting in line, when and where you
needed them;

o You could live in many places without foregoing
opportunities for useful and fulfilling employment, by
"telecommuting" to your office through an electronic
highway instead of by automobile, bus or train;

o Small manufacturers could get orders from all over the
world electronically -- with detailed specifications --
in a form that the machines could use to produce the
necessary items;

o You could see the latest movies, play the hottest video
games, or bank and shop from the comfort of your home
whenever you chose;

o You could obtain government information directly or
through local organizations like libraries, apply for
and receive government benefits electronically, and get
in touch with government officials easily; and

o Individual government agencies, businesses and other
entities all could exchange information electronically
-- reducing paperwork and improving service.

Information is one of the nation's most critical economic
resources, for service industries as well as manufacturing, for
economic as well as national security. By one estimate, two-
thirds of U.S. workers are in information-related jobs, and the
rest are in industries that rely heavily on information. In an
era of global markets and global competition, the technologies to
create, manipulate, manage and use information are of strategic
importance for the United States. Those technologies will help
U.S. businesses remain competitive and create challenging, high-
paying jobs. They also will fuel economic growth which, in turn,
will generate a steadily-increasing standard of living for all
Americans.

That is why the Administration has launched the National
Information Infrastructure initiative. We are committed to
working with business, labor, academia, public interest groups,
Congress, and state and local government to ensure the
development of a national information infrastructure (NII) that
enables all Americans to access information and communicate with
each other using voice, data, image or video at anytime,
anywhere. By encouraging private sector investment in the NII's
development, and through government programs to improve access to
essential services, we will promote U.S. competitiveness, job
creation and solutions to pressing social problems.

II. What Is the NII?

The phrase "information infrastructure" has an expansive
meaning. The NII includes more than just the physical facilities
used to transmit, store, process, and display voice, data, and
images. It encompasses:

o A wide range and ever-expanding range of equipment
including cameras, scanners, keyboards, telephones, fax
machines, computers, switches, compact disks, video and
audio tape, cable, wire, satellites, optical fiber
transmission lines, microwave nets, switches,
televisions, monitors, printers, and much more.

The NII will integrate and interconnect these physical
components in a technologically neutral manner so that no one
industry will be favored over any other. Most importantly, the
NII requires building foundations for living in the Information
Age and for making these technological advances useful to the
public, business, libraries, and other nongovernmental entities.
That is why, beyond the physical components of the
infrastructure, the value of the National Information
Infrastructure to users and the nation will depend in large part
on the quality of its other elements:

o The information itself, which may be in the form of
video programming, scientific or business databases,
images, sound recordings, library archives, and other
media. Vast quantities of that information exist today
in government agencies and even more valuable
information is produced every day in our laboratories,
studios, publishing houses, and elsewhere.

o Applications and software that allow users to access,
manipulate, organize, and digest the proliferating mass
of information that the NII's facilities will put at
their fingertips.

o The network standards and transmission codes that
facilitate interconnection and interoperation between
networks, and ensure the privacy of persons and the
security of the information carried, as well as the
security and reliability of the networks .

o The people -- largely in the private sector -- who
create the information, develop applications and
services, construct the facilities, and train others to
tap its potential. Many of these people will be
vendors, operators, and service providers working for
private industry.

Every component of the information infrastructure must be
developed and integrated if America is to capture the promise of
the Information Age.

The Administration's NII initiative will promote and support
full development of each component. Regulatory and economic
policies will be adopted that encourage private firms to create
jobs and invest in the applications and physical facilities that
comprise the infrastructure. The Federal government will assist
industry, labor, academia, and state and local governments in
developing the information resources and applications needed to
maximize the potential of those underlying facilities. Moreover,
and perhaps most importantly, the NII initiative will help
educate and train our people so that they are prepared not only
to contribute to the further growth of the NII, but also to
understand and enjoy fully the services and capabilities that it
will make available.

III. Need for Government Action To Complement Private Sector
Leadership

The foregoing discussion of the transforming potential of
the NII should not obscure a fundamental fact -- the private
sector is already developing and deploying such an infrastructure
today. The United States communications system -- the conduit
through which most information is accessed or distributed -- is
second to none in speed, capacity, and reliability. Each year
the information resources, both hardware and software, available
to most Americans are substantially more extensive and more
powerful than the previous year.

The private sector will lead the deployment of the NII. In
recent years, U.S. companies have invested more than $50 billion
annually in telecommunications infrastructure -- and that figure
does not account for the vast investments made by firms in
related industries, such as computers. In contrast, the
Administration's ambitious agenda for investment in critical NII
projects (including computing) amounts to $1-2 billion annually.
Nonetheless, while the private sector role in NII development
will predominate, the government has an essential role to play.
In particular, carefully crafted government action can complement
and enhance the benefits of these private sector initiatives.
Accordingly, the Administration's NII initiative will be guided
by the following nine principles and goals, which are discussed
in more detail below:

1) Promote private sector investment, through tax and
regulatory policies that encourage innovation and promote long-
term investment, as well as wise procurement of services.

2) Extend the "universal service" concept to ensure that
information resources are available to all at affordable prices.
Because information means empowerment, the government has a duty
to ensure that all Americans have access to the resources of the
Information Age.

3) Act as catalyst to promote technological innovation and
new applications. Commit important government research programs
and grants to help the private sector develop and demonstrate
technologies needed for the NII.

4) Promote seamless, interactive, user-driven operation of
the NII. As the NII evolves into a "network of networks,"
government will ensure that users can transfer information across
networks easily and efficiently.

5) Ensure information security and network reliability.
The NII must be trustworthy and secure, protecting the privacy of
its users. Government action will also aim to ensure that the
overall system remains reliable, quickly repairable in the event
of a failure and, perhaps most importantly, easy to use.

6) Improve management of the radio frequency spectrum, an
increasingly critical resource.

7) Protect intellectual property rights. The
Administration will investigate how to strengthen domestic
copyright laws and international intellectual property treaties
to prevent piracy and to protect the integrity of intellectual
property.

8) Coordinate with other levels of government and with
other nations. Because information crosses state, regional, and
national boundaries, coordination is important to avoid
unnecessary obstacles and to prevent unfair policies that
handicap U.S. industry.

9) Provide access to government information and improve
government procurement. As described in the National Performance
Review, the Administration will seek to ensure that Federal
agencies, in concert with state and local governments, use the
NII to expand the information available to the public, so that
the immense reservoir of government information is available to
the public easily and equitably. Additionally, Federal
procurement policies for telecommunications and information
services and equipment will be designed to promote important
technical developments for the NII and to provide attractive
incentives for the private sector to contribute to NII
development.

The time for action is now. Every day brings news of
change: new technologies, like hand-held computerized
assistants; new ventures and mergers combining businesses that
not long ago seemed discrete and insular; new legal decisions
that challenge the separation of computer, cable and telephones.
These changes promise substantial benefits for the American
people, but only if government understands fully the implications
of these changes and to work with the private sector and other
interested parties to shape the evolution of the communications
infrastructure.

IV. Managing Change/ Forging Partnerships

We will help to build a partnership of business, labor,
academia, the public, and government that is committed to
deployment of an advanced, rapid, powerful infrastructure
accessible and accountable to all Americans.

Forging this partnership will require extensive inter-
governmental coordination to ensure that Administration,
Congressional, state and local government policy regarding the
NII is consistent, coherent, and timely. It also requires the
development of strong working alliances among industry groups and
between government and the businesses responsible for creating
and operating the NII. Finally, close cooperation will be needed
between government, users, service providers, and public interest
groups to ensure that the NII develops in a way that benefits the
American people.

Specifically, the Administration will:

(1) Establish an interagency Information Infrastructure
Task Force

The President has convened a Federal inter-agency
"Information Infrastructure Task Force" (IITF) that will work
with Congress and the private sector to propose the policies and
initiatives needed to accelerate deployment of a National
Information Infrastructure. Activities of the IITF include
coordinating government efforts in NII applications, linking
government applications to the private sector, resolving
outstanding disputes, and implementing Administration policies.
Chaired by Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown and composed of high-
level Federal agency representatives, the IITF's three committees
focus on telecommunications policy, information policy, and
applications.

(2) Establish a private sector Advisory Council on the
National Information Infrastructure

To facilitate meaningful private sector participation in the
IITF's deliberations, the President will sign an Executive Order
creating the "United States Advisory Council on the National
Information Infrastructure" to advise the IITF on matters
relating to the development of the NII. The Council will consist
of 25 members, who will be named by the Secretary of Commerce by
December 1993. Nominations will be solicited from a variety of
NII constituencies and interested parties. The IITF and its
committees also will use other mechanisms to solicit public
comment to ensure that it hears the views of all interested
parties.

(3) Strengthen and streamline Federal communications and
information policy-making agencies

In order to implement the ambitious agenda outlined in this
document, the federal agencies most directly responsible for the
evolution of the NII (such as NTIA, the Office of Information and
Regulatory Affairs at OMB, and the FCC) must be properly
structured and adequately staffed to address many new and
difficult policy issues. The Administration intends to ensure
that these agencies have the intellectual and material resources
they need. In addition, in accord with the Vice President's
National Performance Review, these agencies will make the
organizational and procedural changes needed to most effectively
contribute to the NII initiative.

V. Principles and Goals for Government Action

The Task Force currently is undertaking a wide-ranging
examination of all issues relevant to the timely development and
growth of the National Information Infrastructure. Specific
principles and goals in areas where government action is
warranted have already been identified and work has begun on the
following matters:

1. Promote Private Sector Investment

One of the most effective ways to promote investments in our
nation's information infrastructure is to introduce or further
expand competition in communications and information markets.
Vibrant competition in these markets will spur economic growth,
create new businesses and benefit U.S. consumers.

To realize this vision, however, policy changes will be
necessary:

Action: Passage of communications reform legislation. The
Administration will work with Congress to pass legislation
by the end of 1994 that will increase competition and ensure
universal access in communications markets -- particularly
those, such as the cable television and local telephone
markets, that have been dominated by monopolies. Such
legislation will explicitly promote private sector
infrastructure investment -- both by companies already in
the market and those seeking entry.

Action: Revision of tax policies. Tax policies are
important determinants of the amount of private sector
investment in the NII. The President has signed into law
tax incentives for private sector investment in R&D and new
business formation, including a three-year extension of the
R&D credit and a targeted capital gains reduction for
investments in small businesses. Both of these tax
incentives will help spur the private sector investment
needed to develop the NII.

2. Extend the "Universal Service" Concept to Ensure that
Information Resources Are Available to All at Affordable
Prices

The Communications Act of 1934 articulated in general terms
a national goal of "Universal Service" for telephones --
widespread availability of a basic communications service at
affordable rates. A major objective in developing the NII will
be to extend the Universal Service concept to the information
needs of the American people in the 21st Century. As a matter of
fundamental fairness, this nation cannot accept a division of our
people among telecommunications or information "haves" and "have-
nots." The Administration is committed to developing a broad,
modern concept of Universal Service -- one that would emphasize
giving all Americans who desire it easy, affordable access to
advanced communications and information services, regardless of
income, disability, or location.

Devising and attaining a new goal for expanded Universal
Service is consistent with efforts to spur infrastructure
development by increasing competition in communications and
information markets. As noted above, competition can make low
cost, high quality services and equipment widely available.
Policies promoting greater competition in combination with
targeted support for disadvantaged users or especially high cost
or rural areas would advance both rapid infrastructure
modernization and expanded Universal Service.

Action: Develop a New Concept of Universal Service. To
gather information on the best characteristics of an
expanded concept of Universal Service, the Commerce
Department's National Telecommunications and Information
Administration (NTIA) will hold a series of public hearings
on Universal Service and the NII, beginning by December
1993. The Administration will make a special effort to hear
from public interest groups. Building on the knowledge
gained from these activities, the IITF will work with the
Advisory Council on the National Information Infrastructure,
as well as with state regulatory commissions, to determine
how the Universal Service concept should be applied in the
21st Century.

3. Promote Technological Innovation and New Applications

Government regulatory, antitrust, tax, and intellectual
property policies all affect the level and timing of new
offerings in services and equipment -- including the technology
base that generates innovations for the marketplace. But
technological innovations ultimately depend upon purposeful
investment in research and development, by both the private
sector and government. R&D investment helps firms to create
better products and services at lower costs.

As noted in the Administration's February 22, 1993
technology policy statement: "We are moving to accelerate the
development of technologies critical for long-term growth but not
receiving adequate support from private firms, either because the
returns are too distant or because the level of funding required
is too great for individual firms to bear." Government research
support already has helped create basic information technologies
in computing, networking and electronics. We will support
further NII-related research and technology development through
research partnerships and other mechanisms to accelerate
technologies where market mechanisms do not adequately reflect
the nation's return on investment. In particular, these
government research and funding programs will focus on the
development of beneficial public applications in the fields of
education, health care, manufacturing, and provision of
government services.

Action: Continue the High-Performance Computing and
Communications Program. Established by the High-Performance
Computing Act of 1991, the HPCC Program funds R&D designed
to create more powerful computers, faster computer networks,
and more sophisticated software. In addition, the HPCC
Program is providing scientists and engineers with the tools
and training they need to solve "Grand Challenges," research
problems -- like designing new drugs -- that cannot be
solved without the most powerful computers. The
Administration has requested $1 billion for the HPCC Program
in fiscal year 1994, and is in the process of forming a
"High-Performance Computing Advisory Committee," to provide
private sector input on the Program.

We have also requested an additional $96 million in the FY
1994 budget to create a new component of the HPCC Program --
Information Infrastructure Technologies and Applications
(IITA). The Administration is working with Congress to
obtain authorization to fund this effort, which will develop
and apply high-performance computing and high-speed
networking technologies for use in the fields of health
care, education, libraries, manufacturing, and provision of
government information.

Action: Implement the NII Pilot Projects Program. In its
FY 94 budget, the Administration has requested funding from
the Congress for NII networking pilot and demonstration
projects. Under NTIA's direction, this pilot program will
provide matching grants to state and local governments,
health care providers, school districts, libraries,
universities, and other non-profit entities. The grants
will be awarded after a competitive merit review process and
will be used to fund projects to connect institutions to
existing networks, enhance communications networks that are
currently operational, and permit users to interconnect
among different networks. Funded projects will demonstrate
the potential of the NII and provide tangible benefits to
their communities. Equally important, they will help
leverage the resources and creativity of the private sector
to devise new applications and uses of the NII. The
successes of the these pilot projects will create an
iterative process that will generate more innovative
approaches each year.

Action: Inventory NII Applications Projects. Many insights
can be gained by sharing information about how government
can effectively use the NII. By the end of January 1994,
the IITF will complete an inventory of current and planned
government activities and will widely disseminate the
results through electronic and printed means. An electronic
forum is being established to encourage government and
private sector contributions and comments about government
applications projects.

4. Promote Seamless, Interactive, User-Driven Operation

Because the NII will be a network of networks, information
must be transferable over the disparate networks easily,
accurately, and without compromising the content of the messages.
Moreover, the NII will be of maximum value to users if it is
sufficiently "open" and interactive so that users can develop new

services and applications or exchange information among
themselves, without waiting for services to be offered by the
firms that operate the NII. In this way, users will develop new
"electronic communities" and share knowledge and experiences that
can improve the way that they learn, work, play, and participate
in the American democracy.

To assure interoperability and openness of the many
components of an efficient, high-capacity NII, standards for
voice, video, data, and multi-media services must be developed.
Those standards also must be compatible with the large installed
base of communications technologies, and flexible and adaptable
enough to meet user needs at affordable costs. The United States
has long relied on a consensus-based, voluntary standards-setting
process in communications. Particularly in the area of
information and communications technology, where product cycles
are often measured in months, not years, the standards process is
critical and has not always worked to speed technological
innovation and serve end-users well. Government can catalyze
this industry-driven process by participating more actively in
private-sector standards-writing bodies and by working with
industry to address strategic technical barriers to
interoperability and adoption of new technologies.

To increase the likelihood that the NII will be both
interactive and, to a large extent, user-driven, government also
must reform regulations and policies that may inadvertently
hamper the development of interactive applications. For example,
government regulations concerning the lack of reimbursement of
health care procedures may deter the growth of distance medicine
applications.

Action: Review and clarify the standards process to speed
NII applications. By October 15, 1993 the Commerce
Department's National Institute for Standards and Technology
(NIST) will establish a panel and work with other
appropriate agencies to review the government's involvement
in establishing network requirements and standards with
domestic and international partners. The panel, with input
from the private sector and other levels of government, will
consider the role of the government in the standards process
and will identify opportunities for accelerating the
deployment of the NII.

Action: Review and reform government regulations that
impede development of interactive services and applications.
The Administration will work closely with the private
sector, as well as state and local governments, to identify
government policies and regulations that may hinder the
growth of interactive services and applications. The IITF
will determine how those regulations should be changed.

5. Ensure Information Security and Network Reliability

The trustworthiness and security of communications channels
and networks are essential to the success of the NII. Users must
be assured that information transmitted over the infrastructure
will go when and where it is intended to go. Electronic
information systems can create new vulnerabilities. For example,
electronic files can be broken into and copied from remote
locations, and cellular phone conversations can be monitored
easily. Yet these same systems, if properly designed, can offer
greater security than less advanced communications channels.

Through the use of information systems, gathering, sending,
and receiving a wide variety of personal information is now
simple, quick, and relatively inexpensive. The use of
information technologies to access, modify, revise, repackage,
and resell information can benefit individuals, but unauthorized
use can encroach on their privacy. While media reports often
emphasize the role of modern information technology in invading
privacy, technology advances and enhanced management oversight
also offer the opportunity for privacy protection. This
protection is especially important to businesses that
increasingly transmit sensitive proprietary data through
electronic means. In a climate of tough global competitiveness
to gain market advantage, the confidentiality of this information
can spell the difference between business success or failure.

In addition, it is essential that the Federal government
work with the communications industry to reduce the vulnerability
of the nation's information infrastructure. The NII must be
designed and managed in a way that minimizes the impact of
accident or sabotage. The system must also continue to function
in the event of attack or catastrophic natural disaster.

Action: Review privacy concerns of the NII. The IITF has
developed a work plan to investigate what policies are
necessary to ensure individual privacy, while recognizing
the legitimate societal needs for information, including
those of law enforcement. The IITF has also developed a
work plan to investigate how the government will ensure that
the infrastructure's operations are compatible with the
legitimate privacy interests of its users.

Action: Review of encryption technology. In April, the
President announced a thorough review of Federal policies on
encryption technology. In addition, Federal agencies are
working with industry to develop new technologies that
protect the privacy of citizens, while enabling law
enforcement agencies to continue to use court-authorized
wiretaps to fight terrorism, drug rings, organized crime,
and corruption. Federal agencies are working with industry
to develop encryption hardware and software that can be used
for this application.

Action: Work with industry to increase network reliability.
The National Communications System brings together 23
Federal agencies with industry to reduce the vulnerability
of the nation's telecommunications systems to accident,
sabotage, natural disaster, or military attack. And the
Federal Communications Commission has an industry and user
Network Reliability Council to advise it on ensuring the
reliability of the nation's commercial telecommunications
networks. These efforts are increasingly important as the
threat posed by terrorism and computing hacking grows. The
NCS will continue its work and will coordinate with the
IITF. In addition, the National Security Telecommunications
Advisory Committee, which advises the President in
coordination with the NCS, as well as the FCC's Network
Reliability Council, will coordinate with and complement the
work of the Advisory Council on the National Information
Infrastructure.

6. Improve Management of the Radio Frequency Spectrum

Many of the dramatic changes expected from the development
of the information infrastructure will grow out of advances in
wireless technologies. The ability to access the resources of
the NII at any time, from anywhere in the country, will be
constrained, however, if there is inadequate spectrum available.
To ensure that spectrum scarcity does not impede the development
of the NII, the Administration places a high priority on
streamlining its procedures for the allocation and use of this
valuable resource.

Action: Streamline allocation and use of spectrum. The
Administration is working with Congress to fully implement
the spectrum management provisions of the Omnibus Budget and
Reconciliation Act of 1993, to streamline government use of
spectrum and to get spectrum to the public efficiently.
These provisions will provide greater flexibility in
spectrum allocation, including increased sharing of spectrum
between private sector and government users, increased
flexibility in technical and service standards, and
increased choices for licensees in employing their assigned
spectrum.

Action: Promote market principles in spectrum distribution.
Further, the Administration will continue to support
policies that place a greater reliance on market principles
in distributing spectrum, particularly in the assignment
process, as a superior way to apportion this scarce resource
among the widely differing wireless services that will be a
part of the NII. At the same time, the Administration will
develop policies to ensure that entrepreneurs and small,
rural, minority- and women-owned businesses are able to
participate in spectrum auctions.

7. Protect Intellectual Property Rights

Development of an advanced information infrastructure will
create unprecedented market opportunities and new challenges for
our world-preeminent media and information industries. The broad
public interest in promoting the dissemination of information to
our citizens must be balanced with the need to ensure the
integrity of intellectual property rights and copyrights in
information and entertainment products. This protection is
crucial if these products -- whether in the form of text, images,
computer programs, databases, video or sound recordings, or
multimedia formats -- are to move in commerce using the full
capability of the NII.

Action: Examine the adequacy of copyright laws. The IITF
will investigate how to strengthen domestic copyright laws
and international intellectual property treaties to prevent
piracy and to protect the integrity of intellectual
property. To ensure broad access to information via the
NII, the IITF will study how traditional concepts of fair
use should apply with respect to new media and new works.

Action: Explore ways to identify and reimburse copyright
owners. The IITF will explore the need for standards for
the identification of copyright ownership of information
products in electronic systems (e.g., electronic headers,
labels or signature techniques). The Task Force will also
evaluate the need to develop an efficient system for the
identification, licensing, and use of work, and for the
payment of royalties for copyrighted products delivered or
made available over electronic information systems.

8. Coordinate with Other Levels of Governmental and With Other
Bodies

Domestic: Many of the firms that will likely participate in
the NII are now subject to regulation by Federal, state, and
local government agencies. If the information infrastructure is
to develop quickly and coherently, there must be close
coordination among the various government entities, particularly
with respect to regulatory policy. It is crucial that all
government bodies -- particularly Congress, the FCC, the
Administration, and state and local governments -- work
cooperatively to forge regulatory principles that will promote
deployment of the NII.

Action: Seek ways to improve coordination with state and
local officials. The IITF will meet with state and local
officials to discuss policy issues related to development of
the NII. The Task Force will also seek input from the
private sector and non-federal agencies as it devises
proposals for regulatory reform. The Administration is
committed to working closely with state and local
governments in developing its telecommunications policies.

International: The NII also will develop in the context of
evolving global networks. Because customers typically demand
that U.S. communications providers offer services on a global
basis, it is critical that the infrastructure within this country
can meet international, as well as domestic, requirements.

Action: Open up overseas markets. The Administration has
shown its willingness to work directly on behalf of U.S.
firms to ensure that they have an equal opportunity to
export telecommunications-related goods and services to
potential overseas customers. For example, the Commerce
Department is developing new export control policies
governing computers and telecommunications equipment
manufactured by U.S. firms. These changes will remove
export restrictions on many of these products and permit
U.S. manufacturers to enter new markets not previously
available to them. The Administration will continue to work
to open overseas markets for U.S. services and products.

Action: Eliminate barriers caused by incompatible
standards. Equally important is the need to avoid trade
barriers raised by incompatible U.S. and foreign standards
or -- more subtly -- between the methods used to test
conformance to standards. Through its participation in
international standards committees, the Administration is
working to eliminate or avert such barriers.

Action: Examine international and U.S. trade regulations.
The IITF will coordinate the Administration's examination of
policy issues related to the delivery of telecommunications
services to and from the U.S., including claims by some U.S.
companies that regulatory practices in foreign countries --
including denial of market access for U.S. carriers and the
imposition of excessive charges for completing calls from
the United States -- are harming the competitiveness of the
industry and the costs charged to U.S. customers for
service. The IITF also will reexamine U.S. regulation of
international telecommunications services.

9. Provide Access to Government Information and Improve
Government Procurement

Thomas Jefferson said that information is the currency of
democracy. Federal agencies are among the most prolific
collectors and generators of information that is useful and
valuable to citizens and business. Improvement of the nation's
information infrastructure provides a tremendous opportunity to
improve the delivery of government information to the taxpayers
who paid for its collection; to provide it equitably, at a fair
price, as efficiently as possible.

The Federal government is improving every step of the
process of information collection, manipulation, and
dissemination. The Administration is funding research programs
that will improve the software used for browsing, searching,
describing, organizing, and managing information. But it is
committed as well to applying those tools to the distribution of
information that can be useful to the public in their various
roles as teachers, researchers, businesspeople, consumers, etc.

The key questions that must be addressed are: What
information does the public want? What information is in
electronic form? By what means can it be distributed? How can
all Americans have access to it? A secondary question is: How
can government itself improve through better information
management?

Action: Improve the accessibility of government
information. IITF working groups will carefully consider
the problems associated with making government information
broadly accessible to the public electronically.
Additionally, several inter-agency efforts have been started
to ensure that the right information is stored and
available. Finally, to help the public find government
information, an inter-agency project has been formed to
develop a virtual card catalogue that will indicate the
availability of government information in whatever form it
takes.

Action: Upgrade the infrastructure for the delivery of
government information. The Federal government has already
taken a number of steps to promote wider distribution of its
public reports. Legislation has been enacted to improve
electronic dissemination of government documents by the
Government Printing Office. A number of Federal agencies
have moved aggressively to convert their public information
into electronic form and disseminate it over the Internet,
where it will be available to many more people than have
previously had access to such information. In the future,
substantial improvements will be made to "FedWorld," an
electronic bulletin board established by the Department of
Commerce's National Technical Information Service (NTIS),
which links the public with more than 100 Federal bulletin
boards and information centers. These improvements will
enhance FedWorld's ability to distribute to the public
scientific, technical, and business-related information
generated by the U.S. Government and other sources.
Finally, a conference will be held in the Fall of 1993 to
begin teaching Federal employees how they can use these
distribution mechanisms.

Action: Enhance citizen access to government information.
In June 1993, OMB prescribed new polices pertaining to the
acquisition, use, and distribution of government information
by Federal agencies. Among other things, the policies
mandate that, in distributing information to the public,
Federal agencies should recoup only those costs associated
with the dissemination of that information, not with its
creation or collection. Moreover, a number of inter-agency
efforts are under way to afford greater public access to
government information. One project seeks to turn thousands
of local and field offices of various Federal agencies into
Interactive Citizen Participation Centers, at which citizens
can communicate with the public affairs departments of all
Federal agencies.

Action: Strengthen inter-agency coordination through the
use of electronic mail. To implement the National
Performance Review's recommendation on expanded use of
electronic mail within the Federal government, an inter-
agency coordinating body has been established to incorporate
electronic mail into the daily work environment of Federal
workers. The group is also sponsoring three pilot projects
to expand connectivity that will build a body of experience
that other Federal agencies can draw on when they begin to
use electronic mail.


Action: Reform the Federal procurement process to make
government a leading-edge technology adopter. The Federal
government is the largest single buyer of high technology
products. The government has played a key role in
developing emerging markets for advanced technologies of
military significance; it can be similarly effective for
civilian technologies. The Administration will implement
the procurement policy reforms set forth in the National
Performance Review report.

VI. America's Destiny is Linked to our Information
Infrastructure

The principles and goals outlined in this document provide a
blueprint for government action on the NII. Applying them will
ensure that government provides constructive assistance to U.S.
industry, labor, academia and private citizens as they develop,
deploy and use the infrastructure.

The potential benefits for the nation are immense. The NII
will enable U.S. firms to compete and win in the global economy,
generating good jobs for the American people and economic growth
for the nation. As importantly, the NII promises to transform
the lives of the American people. It can ameliorate the
constraints of geography and economic status, and give all
Americans a fair opportunity to go as far as their talents and
ambitions will take them. TAB C BENEFITS AND APPLICATIONS OF THE
NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE


The development of the National Information Infrastructure
is not an end in itself; it is a means by which the United States
can achieve a broad range of economic and social goals. Although
the NII is not a "silver bullet" for all of the problems we face,
it can make an important contribution to our most pressing
economic and social challenges.

This infrastructure can be used by all Americans, not just
by scientists and engineers. As entrepreneurs, factory workers,
doctors, teachers, federal employees, and citizens, Americans can
harness this technology to:

o Create jobs, spur growth, and foster U.S. technological
leadership;

o Reduce health care costs while increasing the quality
of service in underserved areas;

o Deliver higher-quality, lower-cost government services;

o Prepare our children for the fast-paced workplace of
the 21st century; and

o Build a more open and participatory democracy at all
levels of government.

This is not a far-fetched prediction. As shown below, our
current information infrastructure is already making a difference
in the lives of ordinary Americans, and we have just begun to tap
its potential.



ECONOMIC BENEFITS

The National Information Infrastructure will help create
high-wage jobs, stimulate economic growth, enable new products
and services, and strengthen America's technological leadership.
Whole new industries will be created, and the infrastructure will
be used in ways we can only begin to imagine. Below are some of
the potential benefits to the U.S. economy:

1. Increased economic growth and productivity

o The Computer Systems Policy Project estimates that the
NII will "create as much as $300 billion annually in
new sales across a range of industries."

o The Economic Strategy Institute concluded that
accelerated deployment of the NII would increase GDP by
$194 - $321 billion to GNP by the year 2007, and
increase productivity by 20 to 40 percent.

2. Job creation

Although there are no definitive estimates for the total
number of U.S. jobs the deployment of the NII will create, it is
clear that it has the potential to create hundreds of thousands
of jobs. For example:

o Industry experts believe that the Personal
Communications Services industry, a new family of
wireless services, could create as many as 300,000 jobs
in the next 10-15 years. The development of this
industry will be accelerated by the Emerging
Telecommunications Technology Act, which was signed by
President Clinton as part of the budget package.

3. Technological leadership

The NII will serve as the driver for a wide variety of
technologies, such as semiconductors, high-speed networking,
advanced displays, software, and human/computer interfaces such
as speech recognition.

This technology will be used to create exciting new products
and services, strengthening U.S. leadership in the electronics
and information technology sector. For example, experts envision
the production of powerful computers that will be held in the
palm of our hand, "as mobile as a watch and as personal as a
wallet, ... [they] will recognize speech, navigate streets, take
notes, keep schedules, collect mail, manage money, open the door
and start the car, among other computer functions we cannot
imagine today." 4. Regional, state, and local economic development

In today's knowledge-based, global economy in which capital
and technology are increasingly mobile, the quality of America's
information infrastructure will help determine whether companies
invest here or overseas. States and regions increasingly
recognize that development of their information infrastructure is
key to creating jobs and attracting new businesses:

o In May 1993, Governor Jim Hunt announced the creation
of the North Carolina Information Highway, a network of
fiber optics and advanced switches capable of
transmitting the entire 33-volume Encyclopedia
Britannica in 4.7 seconds. This network, which will be
deployed in cooperation with BellSouth, GTE, and
Carolina Telephone, is a key element of North
Carolina's economic development strategy.

o In California's Silicon Valley, academics, business
executives, government officials, and private citizens
are working together to build an "advanced information
infrastructure and the collective ability to use it."
A non-profit organization, Smart Valley Inc., will help
develop the information infrastructure and its
applications. Many business applications are
envisioned, including desktop videoconferencing, rapid
delivery of parts designs to fabrication shops, design
of chips on remote supercomputers, electronic commerce,
and telecommuting.

o The Council of Great Lakes Governors has developed a
regional telecommunications initiative, which includes
creating an open data network as a first step towards
creation of a Great Lakes Information Highway,
promoting access in rural areas, developing a set of
telecommunications service goals and a time table for
achieving them, and developing a computerized inventory
of each state's advanced telecommunications
infrastructure.

5. Electronic commerce

Electronic commerce (e.g., on-line parts catalogues, multi-
media mail, electronic payment, brokering services, collaborative
engineering) can dramatically reduce the time required to design,
manufacture, and market new products. "Time to market" is a
critical success factor in today's global marketplace. Electronic
commerce will also strengthen the relationships between
manufacturer, suppliers, and joint developers. In today's
marketplace, it is not unusual to have 12 or more companies
collaborating to develop and manufacture new products.



HEALTH CARE

The NII can help solve America's health care crisis. The
Clinton Administration is committed to health care reform that
will ensure that Americans will never again lose their health
care coverage and that controls skyrocketing health care costs.
The costs of doing nothing are prohibitive:

o Since 1980, our nation's health care costs have
quadrupled. Between 1980 and 1992, health expenditures
shot up from 9 percent to 14 percent of GDP; under
current policies, they will hit 19 percent by the year
2000. Health care cost increases will eat up more than
half of the new federal revenue expected over the next
four years.

o Twenty-five cents out of every dollar on a hospital
bill goes to administrative costs and does not buy any
patient care. The number of health care administrators
is increasing four times faster than the number of
doctors.

These problems will not be solved without comprehensive
health care reform. Better use of information technology and the
development of health care applications for the NII, however, can
make an important contribution to reform. Experts estimate that
telecommunications applications could reduce health care costs by
$36 to $100 billion each year while improving quality and
increasing access. Below are some of the existing and potential
applications:

1. Telemedicine: By using telemedicine, doctors and other care
givers can consult with specialists thousands of miles away;
continually upgrade their education and skills; and share
medical records and x-rays.

Example: In Texas, over 70 hospitals, primarily in rural
areas, have been forced to close since 1984. The Texas
Telemedicine Project in Austin, Texas offers interactive
video consultation to primary care physicians in rural
hospitals as a way of alleviating the shortage of
specialists in rural areas. This trial is increasing the
quality of care in rural areas and providing at least 14
percent savings by cutting patient transfer costs and
provider travel.

2. Unified Electronic Claims: More than 4 billion health care
claims are submitted annually from health care providers to
reimbursement organizations such as insurance companies,
Medicare, Medicaid, and HMOs. Moreover, there are 1500
different insurance companies in the United States using
many different claims forms. The administrative costs of
the U.S. health care system could be dramatically reduced by
moving towards standardized electronic submission and
processing of claims.

3. Personal Health Information Systems: The United States can
use computers and networks to promote self care and
prevention by making health care information available 24
hours a day in a form that aids decision making. Most
people do not have the tools necessary to become an active
and informed participant in their own health care. As a
result, far too many people (estimates range from 50 to 80
percent) entering the health care system do not really need
a physician's care. Many improperly use the system by, for
example, using the emergency room for a cold or back strain.
Many of those who end up with serious health problems enter
the health care system too late, and thus require more
extensive and costly therapy. Michael McDonald, chairman of

the Communications and Computer Applications in Public
Health (CCAPH), estimates that even if personal health
information systems were used only 25 to 35 percent of the
time, $40 to $60 billion could be saved.

Example: InterPractice Systems, a joint venture of Harvard
Community Health Plan in Boston and Electronic Data Systems,
has placed terminals in the homes of heavy users of health
care, such as the elderly, pregnant women, and families with
young children. Based on a patient's symptoms and their
medical history, an electronic advice system makes
recommendations to HCHP's members about using self care,
talking with a doctor, or scheduling an appointment. In one
instance, "an 11-year old who regularly played with the
terminal heard his father complain one day of chest pains
and turned to the system for help; it diagnosed the symptoms
as a probable heart attack. The diagnosis was correct."

4. Computer-Based Patient Records: The Institute of Medicine
has concluded that Computer-Based Patient Records are
critical to improving the quality and reducing the cost of
health care. Currently:

o 11 percent of laboratory tests must be re-ordered
because of lost results;

o 30 percent of the time, the treatment ordered is not
documented at all;

o 40 percent of the time a diagnosis isn't recorded; and

o 30 percent of the time a medical record is completely
unavailable during patient visits.




CIVIC NETWORKING
TECHNOLOGY IN THE PUBLIC INTEREST


The benefits of the NII extend far beyond economic growth.
As the Center for Civic Networking observed,

"A country that works smarter; enjoys efficient, less costly
government, guided by a well-informed citizenry; that
produces high quality jobs and educated citizens to fill
them; that paves a road away from poverty; that promotes
life-long learning, public life and the cultural life of our
communities. This is the promise of the National
Information Infrastructure."

The NII could be used to create an "electronic commons" and
promote the public interest in the following ways:

1. Community Access Networks: Grass-roots networks are
springing up all over the country, providing citizens with a
wide range of information services. The National
Information Infrastructure should expand a citizen's
capacity for action in local institutions, as it must honor
regional differences and the cultural diversity of America's
heritage.

Example: The Heartland FreeNet in Peoria, Illinois provides
a wide range of community information to the citizens of
Central Illinois 24 hours a day. Topics covered include 113
areas of social services; a year long community calendar;
the American Red Cross; current listings from the Illinois
Job Service; resources for local businesses; and local
government information. Experts in all fields from law to
the Red Cross to chemical dependency volunteer their time
and expertise to answer questions anonymously asked by the
public.

Example: The Big Sky Telegraph began operation in 1988 as
an electronic bulletin board system linking Montana's 114
one-room schools to each other and to Western Montana
College. Today, the Big Sky Telegraph enables the formation
of "virtual communities" -- linking schools, libraries,
county extension services, women's centers, and hospitals.
Montana's high-school students learning Russian can now
communicate with Russian students, and science students are
participating in a course on "chaos theory" offered by MIT.

2. Dissemination of government information: The free flow of
information between the government and the public is
essential to a democratic society. Improvements in the
National Information Infrastructure provide a tremendous
opportunity to improve the delivery of government
information to the taxpayers who paid for its collection; to
provide it equitably, at a fair price, as equitably as
possible.

Example: Some of the most powerful examples of the power
inherent in information collection and dissemination come
from the experience of Federal agencies. For example, the
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986
established a Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), which required
industries to report their estimated total releases of toxic
chemicals to the environment. The Environmental Protection
Agency has used a variety of means for making the data
available to the public, including a collaborative effort
involving the agency, the nonprofit community, and
philanthropy. This effort involved making the TRI available
through an online service called RTK NET (the Right-to-Know
Computer Network), operated by OMB Watch and Unison
Institute.

As a result of the TRI program, EPA and industry developed
the "33/50" program, in which CEOs set a goal of reducing
their pollution by 33 percent by 1992 and 50 percent by
1995. Because of RTK NET's success, EPA is seeking to
expand the information available on the service.

3. Universal access: The NII must be used to bring Americans
together, as opposed to allowing a further polarization
between information "haves" and "have nots."

Example: As part of a recent cable franchise negotiation,
fiber optic cable was deployed in Harlem, where 40 percent
of the residents live below the poverty line. New York City
is exploring the use of interactive video conferencing
between community rooms in housing projects and government
offices, schools, and New York corporations. These
facilities could be used to teach parenting to teenage
mothers, and promote mentoring programs between inner city
youth and employees of New York corporations.



RESEARCH

One of the central objectives of the High Performance
Computing and Communications Initiative (HPCCI) is to increase
the productivity of the research community and enable scientists
and engineers to tackle "Grand Challenges," such as forecasting
the weather, building more energy-efficient cars, designing life-
saving drugs, and understanding how galaxies are formed.

As a result of advances in computing and networking
technologies promoted by the HPCCI, America's scientists and
engineers (and their colleagues and peers around the world) are
able to solve fundamental problems that would have been
impossible to solve in the past. U.S. researchers will continue
to benefit from the HPCCI and the emerging National Information
Infrastructure. Below are just a few of the ways in which this
technology is being used by U.S. researchers:

1. Solving Grand Challenges: As a result of investments in
high performance computers, software, and high-speed
networks, researchers have access to more and more
computational resources. As a result, scientists and
engineers have been able to more accurately model the
Earth's climate; design and simulate next-generation
aircraft (the High Speed Civil Transport); improve detection
of breast cancer by turning two-dimensional MRI images into
three-dimensional views; and enhance the recovery of oil and
gas from America's existing reservoirs.

2. Enabling remote access to scientific instruments: Because
of advancements in networks and visualization software,
scientists can control and share remote electron
microscopes, radio telescopes, and other scientific
instruments.

3. Supporting scientific collaboration: The Internet has
allowed scientists in the United States and around the world
to access databases, share documents, and communicate with
colleagues. For example, one computer language was
developed by 60 people in industry, government and academia
over a period of 3 years with only two days of face-to-face
meetings. Instead, project participants sent 3,000 e-mail
messages to each other, dramatically reducing the time
required to develop the language. As scientific research
becomes increasingly complex and interdisciplinary,
scientists see the need to develop "collaboratories,"
centers without walls in which "the nations' researchers can
perform their research without regard to geographical
location -- interacting with colleagues, access
instrumentation, sharing data and computational resources,
[and] accessing information in digital libraries."



LIFE-LONG LEARNING

Increasingly, what we earn depends on what we learn.
Americans must be well-educated and well-trained if we are
compete internationally and enjoy a healthy democracy. The
magnitude of the challenge we face is well-known:

o 25 percent of students nation-wide no longer complete
high-school, a figure which rises to 57 percent in some
large cities.

o Currently, 90 million adults in the United States do
not have the literacy skills they need to function in
our increasingly complex society.

The Clinton Administration has set ambitious national goals
for lifelong learning. The "Goals 2000: Educate America Act"
would make six education goals part of national policy: 90
percent high school graduation rate; U.S. dominance in math and
science; total adult literacy; safe and drug-free schools;
increased competency in challenging subjects; and having every
child enter school "ready to learn." Secretary of Labor Robert
Reich also has emphasized the need to move towards "new work."
New work requires problem-solving as opposed to rote repetition,
upgrading worker skills, and empowering front-line workers to
continuously improve products and services. All of the
Administration's policy initiatives (national skill standards,
school-to-work transition, training for displaced workers) are
aimed at promoting the transition towards high-wage, higher-value
"new work."

Although technology alone can not fix what is wrong with
America's education and training system, the NII can help.
Studies have shown that computer-based instruction is cost-
effective, enabling 30% percent more learning in 40% less time at
30% less cost. Fortune recently reported that:

"From Harlem to Honolulu, electronic networks are sparking
the kind of excitement not seen in America's classrooms
since the space race ... In scores of programs and pilot
projects, networks are changing the way teachers teach and
students learn."

The United States has just begun to exploit the educational
applications of computers and networks. Students and teachers
can use the NII to promote collaborative learning between
students, teachers, and experts; access on-line "digital
libraries"; and take "virtual" field trips to museums and
science exhibits without leaving the classroom.

Example: Headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts and
funded by the National Science Foundation, the Global
Laboratory Project links students from over 101 schools in
27 states and 17 foreign countries, including Japan, Saudi
Arabia, Russia and Argentina. All over the world, students
establish environmental monitoring stations to study climate
change, monitor pollutants such as pesticides and heavy
metals, and measure ultraviolet radiation. Students share
their data over the Global Lab telecommunications network
with each other and with scientists to make comparisons,
conduct analyses, and gain a global perspective on
environmental problems.

Example: In Texas, the Texas Education Network (TENET) now
serves over 25,000 educators, and is making the resources of
the Internet available to classrooms. One Texas educator
from a small school district described the impact it was
having on the learning experiences of children:

"The smaller districts can now access NASA, leave
messages for the astronauts, browse around in libraries
larger than ever they will ever be able to visit,
discuss the Superconducting Supercollider project with
the physicist in charge, discuss world ecology with
students in countries around the world, read world and
national news that appears in newspapers that are not
available in their small towns, work on projects as
equals and collaborators with those in urban areas, and
change the way they feel about the size of their world.
This will create students that we could not create
otherwise. This is a new education and instruction."

As computers become more powerful and less expensive,
students may eventually carry hand-held, computer-based
"intelligent tutors," or learn in elaborate simulated
environments. One expert predicted the following educational use
of virtual reality:

"Imagine a biology student entering an immersive virtual
laboratory environment that includes simulated molecules.
The learner can pick up two molecules and attempt to fit
them together, exploring docking sites. In addition to the
three-dimensional images in the head-mounted display, the
gesture gloves on his hands press back to provide feedback
to his sense of touch. Alternatively, the student can
expand a molecule to the size of a large building and fly
around in it, examining the internal structure."




CREATING A GOVERNMENT THAT
WORKS BETTER & COSTS LESS

The Vice President Gore's National Performance Review (NPR)
provides a bold vision of a federal government which is
effective, efficient and responsive. Moving from red tape to
results will require sweeping changes: emphasizing accountability
for achieving results as opposed to following rules; putting
customers first; empowering employees; and reengineering how
government agencies do their work. As part of this vision, the
NPR emphasizes the importance of information technology as a tool
for reinventing government:

"With computers and telecommunications, we need not do
things as we have in the past. We can design a customer-
driven electronic government that operates in ways that, 10
years ago, the most visionary planner could not have
imagined."

The NPR has identified a number of ways in which "electronic
government" can improve the quality of government services while
cutting costs, some of which are described below:

1. Develop a nationwide system to deliver government benefits
electronically: The government can cut costs through
"electronic benefits transfer" for programs such as federal
retirement, social security, unemployment insurance, AFDC,
and food stamps. For example, 3 billion Food Stamps are
printed and distributed to over 10 million households.
Estimates suggest that $1 billion could be saved over five
years once electronic benefits for food stamps is fully
implemented.

2. Develop integrated electronic access to government
information and services: Currently, citizen access to
federal government information is uncoordinated and not
customer-friendly. Electronic kiosks and computer bulletin
boards can result in quick response, complete information,
and an end to telephone tag.

Example: Info/California is a network of kiosks in
places like libraries and shopping malls. Californians
can use these touch-screen computers to renew vehicle
registration, register for employment openings, and get
information on 90 different subjects, such as applying
for student loans or resolving tenant-landlord
disputes. These kiosks have reduced the cost of job-
match services from $150 to $40 per person. 3. Establish a National Law Enforcement/Public Safety Network:
Whether responding to natural or technological disasters, or
performing search and rescue or interdiction activities,
federal, state, and local law enforcement and public safety
workers must be able to communicate with each other
effectively, efficiently, and securely. Currently, federal,
state and local law enforcement agencies have radio systems
which can not communicate with each other because they
occupy different parts of the spectrum.

4. Demonstrate and Provide Governmentwide Electronic Mail:
Government-wide e-mail can provide rapid communications
among individuals and groups, break down barriers to
information flows between and within agencies, allow better
management of complex interagency projects, and permit more
communication between government officials and the public.



TAB D THE INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE TASK FORCE


Mission

While the private sector will build and run virtually all of
the National Information Infrastructure (NII), the President and
the Vice President have stated clearly that the Federal
government has a key leadership role to play in its development.
Accordingly, the White House formed the Information
Infrastructure Task Force (IITF) to articulate and implement the
Administration's vision for the NII. The task force consists of
high-level representatives of the Federal agencies that play a
major role in the development and application of information
technologies. Working together with the private sector, the
participating agencies will develop comprehensive

telecommunications and information policies that best meet the
needs of both the agencies and the country. By helping build
consensus on thorny policy issues, the IITF will enable agencies
to make and implement policy more quickly and effectively.

A high-level Advisory Council on the National Information
Infrastructure has been established by Executive Order to
provide advice to the IITF. It will consist of representatives
of the many different stakeholders in the NII, including
industry, labor, academia, public interest groups, and state and
local governments. The Secretary of Commerce will appoint the 25
members of the advisory committee.

The IITF is working closely with the High Performance
Computing, Communications, and Information Technology (HPCCIT)
Subcommittee of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science,
Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), which is chaired by the
White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The HPCCIT
Subcommittee provides technical advice to the IITF and
coordinates Federal research activities that support development
of the National Information Infrastructure.

Membership

All the key agencies involved in telecommunications and
information policy are represented on the task force. The task
force operates under the aegis of the White House Office of
Science and Technology Policy and the National Economic Council.
Ron Brown, the Secretary of Commerce, chairs the IITF, and much
of the staff work for the task force will be done by the National
Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) of the
Department of Commerce.


Structure

To date, three committees of the IITF have been established:

(1) Telecommunications Policy Committee, which will formulate a
consistent Administration position on key telecommunications
issues, is chaired by Larry Irving, head of the National
Telecommunications and Information Administration of the
Department of Commerce. Recently, the Committee created:

The Working Group on Universal Service, which will work to
ensure that all Americans have access to and can enjoy the
benefits of the National Information Infrastructure.

(2) Information Policy Committee, which is addressing critical
information policy issues that must be addressed if the National
Information Infrastructure is to be fully deployed and utilized.
Sally Katzen, head of the Office of Information and Regulatory
Affairs at the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), chairs the
Committee. The Committee has created three working groups:

The Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights, to
develop proposals for protecting copyrights and other IPR in
an electronic world. Bruce Lehman, head of the Patent and
Trademark Office of the Department of Commerce, chairs this
group.

The Working Group on Privacy, to design Administration
policies to protect individual privacy despite the rapid
increase in the collection, storage, and dissemination of
personal data in electronic form. It is chaired by Pat
Faley, Acting Director of the Office of Consumer Affairs,
Department of Health and Human Services.

The Working Group on Government Information focuses on ways
to promote dissemination of government data in electronic
form. Bruce McConnell, OMB's Office of Information and
Regulatory Affairs, chairs this group.

(3) Applications Committee, which coordinates Administration
efforts to develop, demonstrate, and promote applications of
information technology in manufacturing, education, health care,
government services, libraries, and other areas. This group
works closely with the High-Performance Computing and
Communications Program, which is funding development of new
applications technologies, to determine how Administration
policies can best promote the deployment of such technologies.
Arati Prabhakar, Director of the National Institute of Standards
and Technology, chairs the committee. This committee is
responsible for implementing many of the recommendations of the
Vice President's National Performance Review that pertain to
information technology. So far, the Committee has created one
working group:

The Working Group on Government Information Technology
Services (GITS) will coordinate efforts to improve the
application of information technology by Federal agencies.
TAB E UNITED STATES ADVISORY COUNCIL
ON THE NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE



o The President will sign an Executive Order creating the
"United States Advisory Council on the National Information
Infrastructure" to facilitate private sector input to the
Information Infrastructure Task Force. The IITF, which is
chaired by the Secretary of Commerce, will work with
Congress and the private sector to propose the policies and
initiatives needed to accelerate deployment of the NII.

o The Council will consist of not more than 25 senior-level
individuals to be named by the Secretary of Commerce this
year. A chair and/or vice chair will be appointed by the
Secretary from among the Council members.

o Nominations will be solicited from a variety of NII
constituencies and interest groups. The IITF and its
committees also will use other mechanisms to solicit public
input to ensure that it hears the views of all interested
parties.

o The Council will be broadly representative of the key
constituencies impacted by the NII, including business,
labor, academia, public interest groups, and state and local
governments.

o The Council shall advise the IITF on matters related to the
development of the NII, such as: the appropriate roles of
the private and public sectors in NII development; a vision
for the evolution of the NII and its public and commercial
applications; the impact of current and proposed regulatory
regimes on the evolution of the NII; privacy, security, and
copyright issues; national strategies for maximizing
interconnection and interoperability of communications
networks; and universal access.

o The Council is expected to invite experts to submit
information to the Council and form subcommittees of the
Council to review specific issues.

o The Department of Commerce will act as "secretariat" for the
Council, providing administrative services, facilities,
staff and other support services.

o The Council will exist for two years unless its charter is
extended.

o The Council will be separate from, and complementary to, the
High Performance Computing Advisory Committee, which will be
established to provide private sector input on the High
Performance Computing and Communications Initiative. TAB F ADMINISTRATION NII ACCOMPLISHMENTS

During its first seven months, the Clinton-Gore
Administration has taken major steps to make its vision of the
National Information Infrastructure a reality:

1. Freeing up spectrum to create information "skyways":

o The President recently signed the Emerging
Telecommunications Technology Act, which directs the
Secretary of Commerce to transfer, over a ten-year
period, at least 200 MHz of spectrum now used by
federal agencies to the FCC for subsequent licensing to
the private sector. It allows the FCC to use
competitive bidding to grant new license assignments
for spectrum.

o This will create high-tech jobs and accelerate the
development of new wireless industries such as Personal
Communications Services. The entire cellular industry,
which has created 100,000 jobs, was created by
licensing only 50 MHz of spectrum.

2. Reinventing Government:

o The Administration is committed to using "electronic
government" to ensure that the federal government works
better and costs less.

o As part of the National Performance Review, the Vice
President has identified a number of concrete ways to
use information technology to cut costs and improve
services, such as electronic benefits transfer; access
to government information and services through
electronic "kiosks"; a national law enforcement/public
safety network; and electronic procurement.

3. Investing in technology:

The President's FY 1994 budget includes:

o $1.1 billion for the High-Performance Computing and
Communications Initiative, including a new $100 million
program to develop applications in areas such as
education, manufacturing, health, and digital
libraries. The House has passed legislation which
would authorize these new programs; Senate action is
expected in the fall of 1993.

o $50 million for NTIA grants to demonstrate the
applications of the NII for non-profit institutions
such as schools, hospitals, and libraries.

o $40 million for research by the Department of Energy's
National Labs on the information infrastructure.

The ARPA-led Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), funded
at $472 million in FY 1993, has generated almost 3,000 proposals
from the private sector, requesting a total of $8.5 billion.
Many of these proposals are for technology development for the
National Information Infrastructure and its applications in
health care, manufacturing, electronic commerce, and education
and training. The President recently endorsed increasing the
funding of the TRP to $600 million for FY 1994.

4. Making government information more available to citizens:

o The Office of Management and Budget issued a new policy
in June (OMB Circular A-130) to encourage agencies to
increase citizen access to public information.

o Also in June, the President and Vice President
announced that the White House would be accessible to
the public via electronic mail. The Administration is
using on-line information services and the Internet to
make available speeches, press briefings, executive
orders, and a summary of the budget.

5. Creating the right environment for private sector investment
in the National Information Infrastructure:

o The President has signed into law tax incentives for
private sector investment in R&D and new business
formation, including a three-year extension of the R&D
credit and a targeted capital gains reduction for
investments in small businesses. Both of these tax
incentives will help spur the private sector investment
needed to develop the National Information
Infrastructure.





TAB G ADMINISTRATION NII INFORMATION SOURCES


To submit comments on "The National Information Infrastructure:
Agenda for Action" or to request additional copies of this
package:

Write: NTIA NII Office
15th Street and Constitution Avenue
Washington, D.C. 20230
Call: 202-482-1840
Fax: 202-482-1635
Internet: [email protected]

To obtain copies of this package electronically see instructions
on next page.

Key Administration Contacts:

Ronald H. Brown, Secretary of Commerce
Chair, Information Infrastructure Task Force
15th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20230
phone: 202-482-3934
fax: 202-482-4576
internet: [email protected]

Larry Irving, Assisant Secretary for Communications and
Information, Director, National Telecommunications and
Information Administration, Chair, IITF Telecommuni-cations
Policy Committee
15th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20230
phone: 202-482-1840
fax: 202-482-1635
internet: [email protected]

Arati Prabhakar, Director, National Institute of Standards and
Technology, Chair, IITF Applications Committee
NIST, Administration Building, Room A1134
Gaithersburg, MD. 20899
phone: 301-975-2300
fax: 301-869-8972
internet: [email protected]

Sally Katzen, Administrator, Office of Information and Regulatory
Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, Chair, IITF
Information Policy Committee
New Executive Office Building, Room 350
Washington, D.C. 20503
phone: 202-395-4852
fax: 202-395-3047


Mike Nelson, Special Assistant, Information Technology, Office of
Science and Technology
Old Executive Office Building, Room 423
Washington, D.C. 20500
phone: 202-395-6175
fax: 202-395-4155
internet: [email protected]

Tom Kalil, Director of Science and Technology
National Economic Council
Old Executive Office Building, Room 233
Washington, D.C. 20500
phone: 202-456-2801
fax: 202-456-2223
internet: [email protected]

Donald Lindberg, Director,
HPCC National Coordination Office
National Library of Medicine
8600 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, MD. 20894
phone: 301-402-4100
fax: 301-402-4080
internet: [email protected]

Press contact:
Carol Hamilton, Deputy Director, Office of Public Affairs,
Department of Commerce
phone: 202-482-6001
fax: 202-482-6027
internet: [email protected]


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3. National Technology Information
1. National Information Infrastructure Agenda

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