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Delivery-Date: 16 August 1993 03:56 edt
Delivery-By: Network_Server.Daemon ([email protected]@hpfcla.fc.h)
Date: Monday, 16 August 1993 03:00 edt
From: homebrew-request at HPFCMI.FC.HP.COM (Verify address before sending)
Subject: Homebrew Digest #1204 (August 16, 1993)
To: homebrew at HPFCMI.FC.HP.COM
Errors-To: [email protected]
Precedence: bulk

HOMEBREW Digest #1204 Mon 16 August 1993

Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

Stainless Steel Pot (F. G. Patterson Jr.)
Re: Chiller Conversion (Bill Szymczak)
Re: Tabasco pepper question (wegeng.xkeys)
Re: Water and mineral content (hardness) (smc)
Mexicali Rogue/chipotles (Robin Garr)
Re: Zymurgy (card)
Malta & "Malzbier" (Patrick Sobalvarro)
Tannic verses (Cisco)
Lite, Aeration (Jack Schmidling)
Yeast FAQ (WEIX)

Send articles for __publication_only__ to [email protected]
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Date: Thu, 12 Aug 1993 22:14:01 -0400
From: [email protected] (F. G. Patterson Jr.)
Subject: Stainless Steel Pot

Last year (the year before?) there was a discussion of the best
place to buy a SS Pot. Has anyone bought one recently of good
quality for a good price? I will appreciate a recommendation of
a supplier.

Pat Patterson
Fairfax, Virginia


Date: Fri, 13 Aug 93 08:25:33 EDT
From: bszymcz%[email protected] (Bill Szymczak)
Subject: Re: Chiller Conversion

In HBD1202 Norm asks

> Actually, one of my ideas was to convert to a chiller (I can't come up
> with a descriptive name) in which there is one coil sitting in a
> bucket of sorts. The bucket contains cold water, maybe ice water, and
> the coil contains the wort. The cooling liquid could, probably should
> be flowing in/out. The wort would be siphoned through the coil,
> cooling it. Stoelting makes something like this for several hundred
> dollars, which I refuse to pay. Anyone done this? Anything I should
> be aware of?

and Drew Lynch responded

> I did this, and you can have it if you want it. I am building a
>true counterflow chiller tonight. I had to run _huge_ amounts of water
>through the damn thing to get sufficient cooling, and that's not PC
>out here in drought land. I put 50' of 3/8" od? copper tubing in a 5
>gallon bucket, and attached garden hose fittings to the bucket as
>well. When I tried to attach a hose to the outflow to use the water
>in the garden, the top of the bucket kept popping off, if I used
>enough cold water flow to chill the wort enough.

A slight modification of Drew's idea can work very well.
First, I needed an immersion in ice chiller not because of a small
kettle opening but because our tap water in the summer is 80 deg.
F. What I use (in the summer) is a large plastic bucket (they sell
them at the Price Club for storing toys for about $7 and hold about
20 gallons). Drill a hole near the bottom so that a flexible
siphon hose can fit snugly (without leaking too much). This hose
will be connected inside the tub to the copper coil carrying the
wort and outside to your carboy. Fill the tub with a few gallons
of water and you'll need about 5 gallons of ice (about 45 pounds)
to chill 5 gallons of boiling wort to about 60 deg F. With a
little more ice and stirring the ice water in the tub you can
get your wort down to 50 degrees F in 15 - 20 minutes (for lagers).
One problem with this procedure is the amount of ice needed. You
could use less if you first chilled the wort using an immersion (in
hot wort) chiller using tap water and then running it through the
immersion in ice chiller. (I've done this for my last two batches
and also noticed Rick Garvin has done this when he described his
award winning old ale recipe). Another
problem with this setup is starting the siphon through the copper
coil. I found it was too difficult to begin by simply sucking,
which is why I attach the flexible hose coming out of the tub to
a small copper racking cane which fits snugly into one of the holes
on the carboy cap. Through the other hole I use a hand pump to
begin the siphon. (Of course you wouldn't have this problem if you
had a spigot at the bottom of your kettle.)

Hope this helps.

Bill Szymczak
[email protected]


Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 05:56:44 PDT
From: [email protected]
Subject: Re: Tabasco pepper question

kj says:
>As a fan of *hot* food, I've been enjoying the discussion about
>using chili peppers in beer. I love Tabasco(R) sauce, and I was
>wondering if anyone knew what kind of pepper is used to make it?

We`re getting off the subject of homebrewing, but since someone may want to
brew some tabasco beer...

Tabasco(tm) sauce is made using tabasco peppers. There are at least two
varieties, but I`m not sure which variety is used to make the sauce. The
Tabasco Country Store (a mailorder catalog from the Tabasco sauce people) sells

a "kit" for growing the peppers. I`ve also seen the seeds in the Tomato
Grower`s Supply Co. catalog (and a catalog from a California supplier: the
Redwood City Seed Company or something like that). I`ve grown them here in New
York state, and they are *very* hot.

[email protected]


Date: Fri, 13 Aug 93 08:56 EDT
From: [email protected]
Subject: Re: Water and mineral content (hardness)

> Jeff Benjamin writes:
> Certainly the water is only a small part of what goes into a fine beer,
> but the importance of a good water source (especially for large
> commercial breweries) can't be underestimated...

We are moving into a new house with a well and water softener. The
water tastes *slightly* salty, (but it maybe that's because I was
expecting it to taste salty), and is clean and clear and free of any
bacteria (at least from our lab test).

A few questions:

1. Where is the best place to get a water hardness analysis?
2. Given the above info, is there a target for hardness?
I understand that different beer styles usually call for
different mineral content.
3. Are there better methods for water softening than
the standard salt method (sodium/calcium exchange)?

I'm an extract brewer (for now), if that helps.


Steve Casagrande
[email protected]


Date: 13 Aug 93 08:58:45 EDT
From: Robin Garr <[email protected]>
Subject: Mexicali Rogue/chipotles

In HB1203, Alan in Austin (where there's a Tex-Mex restaurant on every
corner) asks about the procedure Rogue Brewery uses to make its
chipotle-flavored Mexicali Rogue Ale.

I asked the Rogue folks that question at last year's GABF and didn't get a
totally forthcoming answer, but the short of it is, they "dry pepper" with
chipotles in the secondary. How many? "Not too many." How long? "Not very
long." It really is great stuff, and goes ever so well with Tex-Mex and other
spicy stuff. It's starting to turn up here and there around the U.S. in 22-
ounce bottles. I found some at Carlo Russo's World of Wine & Spirits in Fort
Lee, N.J., the other day.

Say hello to Evita's Salsitas for me, Alan. I love that place ...

Robin Garr | "I have enjoyed great health at a great age because
Associate Sysop | every day since I can remember I have consumed a bottle
CompuServe | of wine except when I have not felt well. Then I have
Wine/Beer Forum | consumed two bottles." -- A Bishop of Seville
[email protected] [email protected]


Date: Fri, 13 Aug 93 9:42:03 EDT"
From: [email protected]
Subject: Re: Zymurgy

I think we should lighten up a bit here regarding Elizabeth Gold's
request for light beer recipe's. Give her a chance and at least
read the article before condemning her. Personally, I'm flattered that
she respects our opinions.

/Mal Card


Date: Fri, 13 Aug 93 10:21:52 EDT
From: [email protected] (Patrick Sobalvarro)
Subject: Malta & "Malzbier"

Date: Mon, 9 Aug 1993 14:11:48 -0400 (EDT)
From: [email protected]
Subject: Prescription for Brew (ref. Domenick Venzia)

In response to Domenick Venezia's question about a
prescription for beer. Yes, My wife's grandmother, who
lives in South America, was prescribed a dark beer w/ a
raw egg everyday. The dark beer in South America is
different, however. The refer to it as "malta" and has no
alcohol in it, its just used for cooking. What the purpose
of this is, I'm sorry I can't say.

I grew up in Puerto Rico, where "malta" was a popular drink for
children, in the way that root beer is here. I never heard of it
being used in cooking, though. I'm not sure what the brewing process
is, but malta is available here in the Boston area at major
supermarkets (like Star Market) in the section where they sell
Hispanic foods. I think the ingredients on the variety I bought
recently were barley, hops, molasses, and water.

I've had it recently, and it's really quite sweet, with just a little
hop bitterness and no hop nose. The molasses and malt tastes can be
readily distinguished. It is dark brown or black, with a lot of body,
and forms a brown head that was not retained very long in the brand I
tried. It's drinkable, if you're in the mood for something very

When I was growing up, malta was brewed by a number of major brewers
who distributed in Puerto Rico. Two Puerto Rican breweries were
"India" and "Corona" (distinct, to my knowledge, from the Mexican
brewer of the same name); they both sold undistinguished (and
indistinguishable) pilseners, and also Malta India and Malta Corona.
But some non-local brewers sold a malta product, as well. In
particular, I remember that Rheingold sold a "Malta Rheingold," and
there may have been a "Malta Amstel," although I'm not sure; but it
must be admitted that there was no "Malta Miller" or "Malta Budweiser"
(although both of these beers were popular on the island).

Sometimes children would mix malta with milk when drinking it. Some
people would even go so far as to mix this already very sweet and
heavy drink with sweetened condensed milk (I swear I did not make this
up). What I find interesting is that, while malta was popular with
some adults, none of the brewers on the island ever seemed to realize
that this might mean that there would be a market for a darker,
sweeter, heavier beer for adults, in addition to the watery pilseners
that they sold.

Close to ten years ago, I did have such a beer that was in fact brewed
in Latin America. I was doing some consulting in Sao Paulo, where two
of the more popular brands of beer were called "Antarctica" and
"Brahma." It seemed that most of the beer sold by these brewers was
(the ubiquitous and undistinguished) pilsener, but they also sold a
black beer that they called "Malzbier," pronounced as it would be in
German. These "Malzbiers" were typically sold in 22-ounce bottles,
and, if memory serves, tasted sort of like a highly sweetened
Doppelbock. The popular claim was that "Malzbier" was rich in
vitamins and minerals, and thus this beer was recommended to pregnant
women (I suppose fetal alcohol syndrome wasn't so well-documented then
as it is now). People would often mix a sort of black and tan from a
bottle of "Malzbier" and a pilsener, but I never saw an attempt to
keep the layers separate, as seems to be the practice when mixing a
stout and an ale.

There is a Brazilian beer sold in the United States that is a similar
to these beers -- it's called "Xingu," and I'm sure that a lot of
people reading the HBD will be familiar with it. However, it is a
little different, in that it isn't nearly as sweet as I remember
"Malzbier" being.

Which brings up a question -- was "Malzbier" indeed what I suspect, a
local mutant style derived from Doppelbock by sweetening or possibly
brewing with an unattentuative yeast, or is such an extremely sweet
black beer known in other parts of the world? I'd be interested in
hearing about similar styles.



Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 09:00:10 -0700 (MST)
From: Cisco
Subject: Tannic verses

> From: [email protected] (Joel Birkeland)
> Subject: Tannic verses
> I was wondering if anyone out there can give me some advice
> about treating my water for brewing. Our water here in Phoenix is very
> hard and very alkaline, (pH ~ 8). As I recall, the hardness number is
> about 250 (ppm?) and the alkalinity is about 170.
> I tried my first partial mash a few weeks ago, tasted the results last night,
> and it is OK, but had noticeable tannic astringency. I recall hearing that
> the pH of the sparge water has a strong effect on tannin extraction during
> sparging.
I brew all grain English style ales here in Tucson which has almost
identical water to Phoenix - it's wonderfull for ales! When I sparge
I add one teaspoon of lactic acid to reduce the PH for sparging. I
just can't seem to remember what it drops the PH to at the moment but
I used the info I got from Miller's book. I noticed that when I
started using lactic acid to reduce my PH for sparging that any tannic
astringency was now gone and the most importantly my extraction rate
improved. Remember not to over sparge because you can still extract
tannins even if you adjust the PH.
[email protected]


Date: Fri, 13 Aug 93 11:34 CDT
From: [email protected] (Jack Schmidling)
Subject: Lite, Aeration

>From: "Manning, Martin P"

>I was just this morning thinking that no one had responded to the posting by
Elizabeth Gold requesting information on amateur-brewed light beer. Today Dick
Dunn did the unthinkable - he asked WHY?

I suspect most of us who did respond, did so via email for obvious reasons.

However, I see no reason not to share my two cents with the Digest so here is
what I told her, more or less.....

>Subject: Light Beer for zymurgy

First of all, please do not dismiss this as a joke. It is serious and in the
final analysis, more or less what the commercial brewers do.

To make a "lite" beer, one makes ones favorite beer and at bottling time,
simply add an appropriate amount of "brewing water", prime and bottle or keg
and carbonate as usual.

"Brewing water" is defined as boiled and cooled or otherwise de-oxygenated
and sterile water.

To make a "lite" beer to style, it should be a Pilsner type beer but in the
generic notion of a lite beer, i.e., lower calories, lower alcohol and easy
drinkability, any beer can be used.

I have used as high as a 50:50 ratio of beer to water to produce very nice
"lawn mower" beer. I would suggest starting at one gallon in a five gallon
batch and working up to one's liking.

As outrageous as this seems to homebrewers, there obviously are people out
there who like lite and we might as well know how to make it. I would also
point out that "lightened" homebrew, if made from a good beer, will out-taste
the commercial stuff by a mile.

I then pointed out that I developed this process in conjunction with my
experiments with NA and included my NA process for her edification.

>From: Jason Goldman

>Lag time is controlled by a lot of variables. Pitching volume (and what
stage the pitched yeast are in) probably has a greater effect on lag time
than the aquarium pump.

That is why I designed my experiment to include only one variable; viz.,
aeration. Should be ready for Monday's Digest.

>BTW, I would expect that Miller was almost certainly talking about ale
yeast in his 3-8 hours figure.

Gotta be as I have not heard anyone yet make any such claims for lager since
posting my comments.

>From: [email protected] (Joel Birkeland)

>Subject: Tannic Verses {cute}

>I was wondering if anyone out there can give me some advice
about treating my water for brewing. Our water here in Phoenix is very
hard and very alkaline, (pH ~ 8). As I recall, the hardness number is
about 250 (ppm?) and the alkalinity is about 170.

>I tried my first partial mash a few weeks ago, tasted the results last
night, and it is OK, but had noticeable tannic astringency. I recall hearing
that the pH of the sparge water has a strong effect on tannin extraction
during sparging.

I think we need to turn the Ayatola loose on those who continue to scare
people about the pH of the sparge water.

You may indeed have a problem but you can not assume this unless you actually
do a mash. My water also has a pH of around 8 but as soon as I dough in the
malt, it drops below 6.

As you are making extract beer and sparging adjuncts grains this could
present different problems but it's worth looking into anyway.

In any case, mix some malt into your water and check the pH before and after
before concluding that you need to do something about.

In an all grain beer, the mash can buffer out the high pH of a lot of sparge
water without increasing the pH of the runnoff more than a few tenths of a

The important thing is to run through your whole process before messing with
the water.

>For the record, I kept the sparge water at or below 168 deg F, and I had
to cut the sparging short because another user needed the kitchen resources.
The initial runnings were > 1.080, final > 1.020.

You threw away a lot of beer.

>From: [email protected] (Patrick Casey)
>Subject: fermenting a lager

>Is there any way to ferment a lager without using a refridgerator and
one of the fancy thermostats? For example, what's wrong with shoving
the carboy into the normal fridge?

Nothing. Other than the fact that most people can't spare the space in the
kitchen fridge for the time it take to make a lager. If you have a spare and
a carboy fits, you'er in business.



Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 13:16:54 -0500 (CDT)
From: [email protected]
Subject: Yeast FAQ

Hi to all in HBD land. I have received several requests both to post the
information that I collected on yeast and to make a Yeast FAQ. I will have to
divide the information into several chunks to post to the HBD. Almost all of
this data was plagerized from somewhere by me or others; however, I have not
knowingly used any copyrighted stuff. (I was very careful *not* to check
anything for a copyright ;-).) I have altered the focus of some documents to
more accurately reflect what I feel to be the interests of the *home*brewer.
Some of the information is very basic; some, more technical. I have tried to
give a basic introduction to what yeast are, how they affect beer taste, and the
proper handling of yeast.
Some portions of the following were taken from the Wyeast information
circular mailed to me by David Adams; the sections pertaining to yeast culturing
are adapted from an upcoming book by Dr. Fix. Dr. Fix also provided the section
on the proper method of yeast rehydration. The information on the "reputations"
of the many yeast strains was collected from the HBD over the years by Doug
O'Brien. Many thanks to David Adams, Dr. George Fix, and Doug O'Brien for
providing me with almost all the materials used to write this summary. Others
are thanked for their contributions where appropriate. My name is Patrick Weix,
and I am a graduate student in the Genetics and Development program at UT
Southwestern at Dallas. I hope you find this document useful. I would appreciate
any comments and criticisms of a contructive nature before I submit this to
the homebrew archives at
This document is composed of rampant hearsay and rumor. Any attempts to pin
anything on me or my co-conspiritors will be resisted. If all else fails I will
call your boss and ask him why you are reading the HBD at work instead of
grinding out the Fitzsimmons contract. What do they pay you for anyway? Don't
you have anything better to do?...


Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 13:17:24 -0500 (CDT)
From: [email protected]

SECTION II: Yeast Profiles

Part 1: Dry Ale Yeast

Ales (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

Coopers Ale Yeast
Good to very good reputation. The Coopers is quite
fruity fermented at 65F. It's not phenolic at all and
all the flavour is a very clean fruitiness.

Glenbrew Special Ale Yeast
Specially designed for use in "all malt" beers. Contains
a special enzyme to obtain extremely low terminal

Doric Ale Yeast
Ok to very good reputation.

Edme Ale Yeast
Starts quick. Produces some fruity esters. Attenuative.
Good reputation

Lallemand Nottingham Yeast
This yeast is remarkable for its high degree of
flocculation. It settles out very quickly and firmly.
Very good reputation. Very fast to create a krausen and
needed blowoff tube 6 hours after pitching hydrated
yeast. Quick fermentation at 62F. It's very clean and
only very slightly fruity in the keg, but tastes/smells
nutty in the bottled version. Nottingham appears to be
relatively attenuative (more so than the Coopers).

Lallemand Windsor Yeast
Produces a beer which is clean and well balanced.
This yeast produces an ale which is estery to both palate
and nose with a slight fresh yeast flavour. Very good
reputation. Not a quick as the Nottingham. Not
attenuative. Definite banana smell at racking.

Munton-Fison Ale Yeast
Starts quick. Produces some fruity esters. Attenuative.
Phenolic taste. Fair to good reputation.

Red Star Ale Yeast
This brand had a very bad reputation in the past,
and for a while production was suspended. A different
strain (AHY 43391) was selected by the company and is now being
sold as Red Star Ale Yeast. The new strain is much
improved! Reports from Dr. Fix, a brewer's yeast
consultant, suggest that this is an excellent general
purpose ale yeast with a clean taste.
Apparent attenuation 76-78%.

Whitbread Ale Yeast
Fast starter. Distribution switch[ed][ing] to Crosby and
Baker with [evidently] a change in the yeast. Very good
reputation despite past quality problems.

Part 2: Liquid Ale Yeast


Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 13:17:45 -0500 (CDT)
From: [email protected]

Part 2: Liquid Ale Yeast

WYeast 1007 German Ale Yeast
Ferments dry and crisp leaving a complex yet mild
flavour. Produces an extremely rocky head and ferments
well down to 55 deg. F (12 deg. C). Flocculation is high
and apparent attenuation is 73-77%. Optimum fermentation
temperature: 62 deg. F (17 deg. C). A good balance of
sweetness and tartness, with a pronounced green-apple
note. A very pleasing yeast.

WYeast 1024 Belgian Ale Yeast
Banana estery flavour. With both clove-like phenolics
and alcohol spice, the Belgian will tell you right away
that it's no ordinary yeast. Tartness often develops
over time. Ferment warm or with inadequate aeration and
you're likely to get a bubblegum-like note. Intended for
abbey beers, and works very well for that. And,
depending on the wort composition, *lots* of banana

WYeast 1028 London Ale Yeast
Rich minerally profile, bold woody slight diacetyl
production. Medium flocculation. Apparent attenuation
73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg. F (20
deg. C). Complex, woody, tart, with strong mineral
notes, this one will bite you horribly if you over-hop or
if your water is high in carbonates. If you avoid that
Scylla and Charybdis, it produces ales of marvellous
complexity and sophistication. Most of the time you'll
wish you'd used 1098 or 1056. Had best results in
porters. Over-hopping is especially bad, but if you
throttle the hops back, the results are indeed
marvellous. Used this yeast in a Kolsch once, and it was
*fantastic* The wood and mineral notes fused with the
Hallertauer hops (which were used with some restraint),
and a couple of months of cool ageing brought out some
green apple in the aroma as well as the pallette. It
tasted a good bit hoppier than it really was, and overall
was well-balanced and smooth.

WYeast 1056 American/Chico Ale Yeast
Ferments dry, finishes soft, smooth and clean, and is
very well balanced. Flocculation is low to medium.
Apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation
temperature: 68 deg. F (20 deg. C). The cleanest of the
bunch, but mutation-prone. This is Sierra Nevada's
yeast. Probably the best available all-around yeast,
this strain can be used for anything, without

WYeast 1084 Irish Ale Yeast
Slight residual diacetyl is great for stouts. It is
clean smooth, soft and full bodied. Medium flocculation
and apparent attenuation of 71-75%. Optimum fermentation
temperature: 68 deg. F (20 deg. C). Soft, round, malty;
the least attenuative of the Wyeast line. Very nice for
any cold-weather ale, at its best in stouts and Scots

WYeast 1098 British Ale Yeast
Ale yeast from Whitbread. Ferments dry and crisp,
slightly tart and well balanced. Ferments well down to
55 deg. F (12 deg. C). Medium flocculation, apparent
attenuation 73-75%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 70
deg. F (21 deg. C). Tart, crisp, clean. Great in pale
ales and bitters, good in porters.

WYeast 1338 European Ale Yeast
Ale yeast from Wissenschaftliche in Munich. A full
bodied complex strain finishes very malty. Produces a
dense rocky head during fermentation. High flocculation,
apparent attenuation 67-71%. Optimum fermentation
temperature: 70 deg. F (21 deg. C). It's clean and
malty, especially well suited to Altbier.

Yeast Lab A01 Australian Ale Yeast
This all purpose strain produces a very complex woody and
flavourful beer. Australian origin. Medium attenuation,
medium flocculation. Great for Brown Ales and Porters.

Yeast Lab A02 American Ale Yeast
This clean strain produces a very fruity aroma, with soft
and smooth flavour when fermented cool. Medium
attenuation and low flocculation. This is an all purpose
ale yeast.

Yeast Lab A03 London Ale Yeast
Classic Pale Ale strain, very dry. A powdery yeast with
a hint of diacetyl and rich minerally profile, crisp and
clean. Medium attenuation and medium flocculation.

Yeast Lab A04 British Ale Yeast
This strain produces a great light bodied ale, excellent
for Pale Ales and Brown Ales, with a complex estery
flavour. Ferments dry with a sharp finish. Medium
attenuation and medium flocculation.

Yeast Lab A05 Irish Ale Yeast
This top fermenting strain is ideal for Stouts and
Porters. Slightly acidic, with a hint of butterscotch in
the finish, soft and full bodied. Medium attenuation,
high flocculation.

Yeast Lab A06 Dusseldorf Ale Yeast
German Altbier yeast strain finishes with full body,
complex flavour and spicy sweetness. Medium attenuation,
high flocculation.

Yeast Lab A07 Canadian Ale Yeast
This strain produces a light bodied, clean and flavourful
beer, very fruity when fermented cool. High attenuation,
medium flocculation. Good for light and cream ales.

Yeast Lab A08 Trappist Ale Yeast
This is a typical Trappist strain, producing a malty
flavour with a balance of fruity, phenolic overtones when
fermented warm. Alcohol tolerant, high attenuation and
high flocculation.


Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 13:17:57 -0500 (CDT)
From: [email protected]

Part 3: Lager Yeast (Saccharomyces uvarum)

Dry Lager Yeast:(generally not recommend--tend to be inconsistent)

Liquid Lager Yeast: Much preferred over dry types!

WYeast 2007 Pilsen Lager Yeast
Our original Lager Yeast Strain. Specific for pilsner
style beers. Known as many things, we call it Pilsen.
Ferments dry, crisp, clean and light. Medium
flocculation. Apparent attenuation from 71-75%. Optimum
fermentation temperature: 52 deg. F (11 deg. C).

WYeast 2035 American Lager Yeast
American Lager Yeast. Unlike American pilsner styles.
It is bold, complex and woody. Produces slight diacetyl.
Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-77%.
Optimum fermentation temperature: 50 deg. F (10 deg. C).

WYeast 2042 Danish Lager Yeast
Danish Yeast Strain. Rich, yet crisp and dry. Soft,
light profile which accentuates hop characteristics.
Flocculation is low, apparent attenuation is 73-77%.
Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C).

WYeast 2112 California Lager Yeast
Warm fermenting bottom cropping strain, ferments well to
62 deg. F (17 deg. C) while keeping lager
characteristics. Malty profile, highly flocculant,
clears brilliantly. Apparent attenuation 72-76%.

WYeast 2124 Bohemian Lager Yeast
The traditional saaz yeast from Czechoslovakia. Ferments
clean and malty, rich residual maltiness in high gravity
pilsners, medium flocculation, apparent attenuation
69-73%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9
deg. C).

WYeast 2206 Bavarian Lager Yeast
Lager yeast strain used by many German breweries. Rich
flavour, full bodied, malty and clean. Medium
flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum
fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C).

WYeast 2308 Munich Lager Yeast
Lager yeast from Wissenschaftliche in Munich #308. One
of the first pure yeast available to American home
brewers. Sometimes unstable, but smooth soft well rounded
and full bodied. Medium flocculation, apparent
attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 50
deg.F (10 deg. C).

Yeast Lab L31 Pilsner Lager Yeast

This classic strain produces a light lager in both
flavour and body, fermenting dry and clean. High
attenuation and medium flocculation.

Yeast Lab L32 Bavarian Lager Yeast
Use this classic strain for medium bodied lagers and
bocks, as well as Vienna and Marzen styles, rich in
flavour with a clean, malty sweetness. Medium
attenuation and medium flocculation.

Yeast Lab L33 Munich Lager Yeast
Wissenschaftliche strain for medium bodied lagers and
bocks, subtle and complex flavours, smooth and soft, a
hint of sulphur when fresh. Medium attenuation and
medium flocculation.

Yeast Lab L34 St. Louis Lager Yeast
This strain produces a round, very crisp and clean fruity
flavour, with medium body. High attenuation and medium
flocculation. Good for American style lagers.

Yeast Lab L35 California Lager Yeast
A California common beer strain, malty with a sweet woody
flavour and subtle fruitiness. Medium attenuation and
high flocculation.

Part 4: Weissen, mead, and barleywine styles.

Saccharomyces delbrueckii, S. cerevisiae

WYeast 3056 Bavarian Weissen Yeast
A 50/50 blend of S. cerevisiae and delbrueckii to produce
a south German style wheat beer with cloying sweetness
when the beer is fresh. Medium flocculation, apparent
attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 56
deg. F (13 deg. C). Problematical to get the right
flavour, often just produces bland beer, without the
lactic flavour.

Yeast Lab W51 Bavarian Weizen
This strain produces a classic German style wheat beer,
with moderately high, spicy phenolic overtones
reminiscent of cloves. Medium attenuation, moderately
flocculent. Evidently much more consistent than WYeast
at producing a true Weizen flavour.

The following are available from Brewtek at (800) 8BREWTE:
(P.S. I swiped the following descriptions of the net myself (PW).)

CL-90 Belgian Wheat -- A top fermenting yeast which produces a
soft, bread like flavor and leaves a sweet,
mildly estery finish.
CL-92 German Wheat -- A true, top fermenting Weizenbier yeast, Spicy,
clovy and estery. High attenuative.
CL-94 American Wheat - Offers a smooth, slightly sweet wheat beer,
with a full, clean, underattenuated malt

Mead Yeast

Yeast Lab M61 Dry Mead
Very alcohol tolerant, ferments dry, fruity and clean,
yet leaves noticeable honey flavour and aroma.

Yeast Lab M62 Sweet Mead
This strain has reduced alcohol tolerance, therefore
produces a very fruity, sweet mead with tremendous honey

Wine Yeast

Lallemand Lalvin Wine Yeast
S. Bayanus. Good reputation.

Red Star Pasteur Champagne Yeast
Very attenuative. Good for mead. Good reputation.

WYeast 3021 Prise de mousse Champagne Yeast
Institute Pasteur champagne yeast race bayanus. Crisp
and dry, ideal for sparkling and still red, white and
fruit wines. Also can be used for Barley wines. Optimum
fermentation temperature: 58 deg. F (14 deg. C).

WYeast 3028 Wine Yeast
French wine yeast ideally suited for red and white wines
which mature rapidly. Enhances the fruity
characteristics of most wines. Optimum fermentation
temperature: 72 deg. F (22 deg. C).

Malo-lactic Bacteria

Leuconostoc oenos

WYeast 4007 Wine Yeast
Malo-lactic culture blend isolated from western Oregon
wineries. Includes strains Ey2d and Er1a. Excellent for
high acid wines and low pH. Softens wines by converting
harsh malic acid to milder lactic acid. Can be added to
juice any time after the onset of yeast fermentation when
sulphur dioxide is less than 15 ppm.


Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 13:18:08 -0500 (CDT)
From: [email protected]


Part 1: Hydration Procedure For Dry Yeast

a. Use 14 grams of dry yeast (usually 2 packets) per 5 gallons of brew.
***Rigorously*** sterilize everything used in the hydration procedure.

b. Add the dry yeast to 1/2 cup of water at 90F (32C). Leave for 15 mins.

c. Combine the hydrated yeast with 1-2 gallons of wort that is as close to
the wort to be fermented as possible. You can take samples from the main
wort at the end of the mash/sparge and rapidly boil and cool it.

d. Aerate the starter as much as possible under sanitary conditions.

e. Don't forget to properly oxygenate the main wort once it is *chilled*.
(Shaking hot wort is dangerous, but even worse it can cause oxidation and
give your beer funny flavors.)

f. Pitch the starter into the main wort once the latter has been chilled to
the recommended fermentation temperature (65-68F or 18-20C). Yeast with good
viability will result in minimal lags. (The longest experienced in test
brews using the new Red Star Ale Yeast was 2 hrs.)

An alternative but slightly sub-optimal method is to cool the yeast-in-water
mix from "b" to room temperature. Once the wort has been chilled and aerated
(shaking the carboy works well), pitch the yeast. Stir or invert the carboy to
disperse the yeast. Put in the blow-off tube or fermentation lock.

The two most essential things are to:
1. Sanitize everything in sight.
2. Aerate your wort to insure rapid initial yeast growth--your best defence
against secondary infection.

- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Part 2: Propagation of Yeast Strains
How to have your very own yeast ranch!

A. General Comments

There is no single item as important as the selection of a yeast strain, or
if appropriate strains, to be used in commercial brewing. The same applies to
homebrewing. Sensory characteristics -- taste and smell --will normally
determine the type of yeast that is appropriate to any particular beer
formulation. This section contains the necessary procedures for achieving
self-sufficiency in pitching yeast. The part treated in this section is often
called the Hansen pure culture system. The heart of this system is the
so-called "yeast slant". It is a test tube containing a solidified media
sloped at an angle. Often Petri dishes are used, but the media is level, and
hence the term "slant" is not always appropriate. In any case, yeast cells
are streaked on the surface of the solid media. When refrigerated, these
slants will keep at least 3-4 months before they have to be recultured. Yeast
are taken from the slants, and built up so there is enough to pitch a full
batch. The system also contains procedures for doing the exact opposite,
i.e., adding yeast to slants for storage and future use.

B. Equipment

The equipment needs for operating a pure culture system with slants are
rather modest. The following are the major items.

1. Refrigerator. This is needed for slant and media storage.

2. Autoclave or pressure cooker. This will be needed to sterilize equipment
and media for yeast work. A pressure cooker will do, but it should have a
pressure gauge attached so that the conditions during sterilization can be

3. Media. The preferred media for slants is malt extract and agar. These
can be obtained from any scientific outlet. Food grade agar is also available
from some oriental markets. The flaked form is easier to work with.

4. Misc. A number of minor items will also be needed. These include
inoculation loops, glassware, petri dishes, and test tubes.

C. Propagation of Yeast

This process consists of transfering some of the yeast on slants to a
small flask or jar containing wort, then building this up until there is
enough to pitch a full brew. the most delicate steps are the initial ones.
Experience has shown that the best results are obtained by using full
strength hopped wort for propagating yeast. The ideal situation is when the
wort used in propagation is identical to the wort that will be used in

Practical experience has also shown that it is best to pitch yeast freshly
harvested from slants at the maximum acceptable rate. Anticipating the
results in the next section, this for lager yeast amounts to pitching
1 volume of yeast *SOLIDS* for each 250 volumes of wort. Thus, we need
5gal/250 = 0.02gal*128oz/gal = 2.5oz of yeast solids for a 5 gallon batch.
Using the estimation that yeast solids are 1/10 the total volume of a
yeast culture, that means that one needs about 25oz or a little more than 3
cups culture. For ale yeast all of these numbers are reduced by a factor of
two, so (3/2) to 2 cups of an ale yeast culture would be sufficient.

In the procedure described below new wort is added just after the end
of the period of high kraeusen, and in particular after the foam starts
to recede. The reason for this is to keep the yeast in the aerobic
exponential growth mode. This will insure a steady buildup of yeast
cells, and thereby minimize the number of wort charges that are
required. The importance of taking great care when adding fresh wort
can not be overemphasized. To avoid infections not only is it necessary
to properly sanitize equipment, but it also important to sterilize necks
of vessels and jars by flame or 200 proof alcohol solutions. The easiest
way to flame a jar at home is with a lighter (esp. the ones for pipe-
smokers!). Be extremely careful, and don't use both alcohol and a lighter.

The first four steps described below are done under the cleanest conditions
possible using 1000 ml. starter jars. At the end of step (iv) there will
invariably be more than enough yeast in each starter jar to pitch a 25 liter
brew (about 6gal); i.e., there will be at least 1/10 liter of yeast solids as
can be checked by visual inspection. These numbers are based on the
requirements of lager yeast. As will be seen below there will be no harm in
producing too much yeast in this procedure since at the end only the correct
amount will be added to the fermenter.

(i) Preparations:

a. Carefully inspect all the slants that are to be propagated. Those
which have unusual growth patterns and/or discoloration should be
discarded. The ideal is thin white yeast layer on top of the solid

b. Autoclave the starter jars and the rubber stoppers for the airlocks
for 5 mins. at 15 psi. Alternatively, use your favorite chemical sanitizing

c. Add 250 ml. (about 8 oz) of wort to each starter jar. Wipe their necks
with a 200 proof alcohol solution. After this add the airlocks.

d. Pasteurize the wort by adding the starter jars to a water bath at
60 C (140 F), and hold this temperature for 20 mins. Cool to 18 C (75 F).

e. In a clean room with no air movement (turn off fans and air conditioning
for at least 15 min to give the dust a chance to settle) and then place
starter jars, yeast slants, inoculation loops, and a 200 proof alcohol
solution in a clean, quiet spot (i.e. lock the door after first insuring
that Fido, Fluffy, and Junior are on the other side of it 🙂 !).


End of HOMEBREW Digest #1204, 08/16/93


  3 Responses to “Category : Various Text files
Archive   : HBD120X.ZIP
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