Dec 302017
 
Information on Cellular telephone frequencies and theory of operation.
File CELL.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Various Text files
Information on Cellular telephone frequencies and theory of operation.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
CELLFONE.TXT 180329 42952 deflated

Download File CELL.ZIP Here

Contents of the CELLFONE.TXT file


This file is Public Domain, July, 1988 -- Distribution unlimited.
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Revision: March, 1989 (Part 2 added)
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Revision: April, 1989 (Part 3 added)
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Revision: December, 1988 (Part 4 added)
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Revision: March, 1990 (Part 5 added)
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Revision: March, 1989 (Part 6 added)
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Revision: June, 1990 (Part 7 added)
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CONTENTS:

Part 1 - Cellular phone channel construction
Part 2 - Cellular phone frequency and cell construction
Part 3 - The Electronic Communications Privacy Act and CMT
Part 4 - The ECPA
Part 5 - A lawyer's review and perspective of the ECPA
Part 6 - Modifying two scanners for cellular reception
Part 7 - How to discover other scanner modifications

===============================================================================

Cellular phone channel construction

===============================================================================

Here is a method of determining which frequencies are used in a cellular
system, and which ones are in what cells. If the system uses OMNICELLS, as
most do, you can readily find all the channels in a cell if you know just one
of them, using tables constructed with the instructions below.

Cellular frequencies are assigned by channel number, and for all channel
numbers, in both wireline and non-wireline systems, the formula is:

Transmit Frequency = (channel number x .030 MHz) + 870 MHz
Receive Frequency = (channel number x .030 Mhz) + 825 Mhz

"Band A" (one of the two blocks) uses channels 1 - 333. To construct a
table showing frequency by cells, use channel 333 as the top left corner of a
table. The next entry to the right of channel 333 is 332, the next is 331,
etc., down to channel 313. Enter channel 312 underneath 333, 311 under 332,
etc. Each channel across the top row is the first channel in each CELL of the
system; each channel DOWN from the column from the the first channel is the
next frequency assigned to that cell. You may have noted that each channel
down is 21 channels lower in number. Usually the data channel used is the
highest numbered channel in a cell.

"Band B" uses channels from 334 to 666. Construct your table in a similar
way, with channel 334 in the upper left corner, 335 the next entry to the
right. The data channel should be the lowest numbered channel in each cell
this time.

Cellular Phone Band A (Channel 1 is Data)

Cell # 1
--------------------------------------------------

Channel 1(333)Tx 879.990Rx 834.990
Channel 2(312)Tx 879.360Rx 834.360
Channel 3(291)Tx 878.730Rx 833.730
Channel 4(270)Tx 878.100Rx 833.100
Channel 5(249)Tx 877.470Rx 832.470
Channel 6(228)Tx 876.840Rx 831.840
Channel 7(207)Tx 876.210Rx 831.210
Channel 8(186)Tx 875.580Rx 830.580
Channel 9(165)Tx 874.950Rx 829.950
Channel 10(144)Tx 874.320Rx 829.320
Channel 11(123)Tx 873.690Rx 828.690
Channel 12(102)Tx 873.060Rx 828.060
Channel 13(81)Tx 872.430Rx 827.430
Channel 14(60)Tx 871.800Rx 826.800
Channel 15(39)Tx 871.170Rx 826.170
Channel 16(18)Tx 870.540Rx 825.540

Cell # 2
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(332)Tx 879.960Rx 834.960
Channel 2(311)Tx 879.330Rx 834.330
Channel 3(290)Tx 878.700Rx 833.700
Channel 4(269)Tx 878.070Rx 833.070
Channel 5(248)Tx 877.440Rx 832.440
Channel 6(227)Tx 876.810Rx 831.810
Channel 7(206)Tx 876.180Rx 831.180
Channel 8(185)Tx 875.550Rx 830.550
Channel 9(164)Tx 874.920Rx 829.920
Channel 10(143)Tx 874.290Rx 829.290
Channel 11(122)Tx 873.660Rx 828.660
Channel 12(101)Tx 873.030Rx 828.030
Channel 13(80)Tx 872.400Rx 827.400
Channel 14(59)Tx 871.770Rx 826.770
Channel 15(38)Tx 871.140Rx 826.140
Channel 16(17)Tx 870.510Rx 825.510

Cell # 3
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(331)Tx 879.930Rx 834.930
Channel 2(310)Tx 879.300Rx 834.300
Channel 3(289)Tx 878.670Rx 833.670
Channel 4(268)Tx 878.040Rx 833.040
Channel 5(247)Tx 877.410Rx 832.410
Channel 6(226)Tx 876.780Rx 831.780
Channel 7(205)Tx 876.150Rx 831.150
Channel 8(184)Tx 875.520Rx 830.520
Channel 9(163)Tx 874.890Rx 829.890
Channel 10(142)Tx 874.260Rx 829.260
Channel 11(121)Tx 873.630Rx 828.630
Channel 12(100)Tx 873.000Rx 828.000
Channel 13(79)Tx 872.370Rx 827.370
Channel 14(58)Tx 871.740Rx 826.740
Channel 15(37)Tx 871.110Rx 826.110
Channel 16(16)Tx 870.480Rx 825.480

Cell # 4
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(330)Tx 879.900Rx 834.900
Channel 2(309)Tx 879.270Rx 834.270
Channel 3(288)Tx 878.640Rx 833.640
Channel 4(267)Tx 878.010Rx 833.010
Channel 5(246)Tx 877.380Rx 832.380
Channel 6(225)Tx 876.750Rx 831.750
Channel 7(204)Tx 876.120Rx 831.120
Channel 8(183)Tx 875.490Rx 830.490
Channel 9(162)Tx 874.860Rx 829.860
Channel 10(141)Tx 874.230Rx 829.230
Channel 11(120)Tx 873.600Rx 828.600
Channel 12(99)Tx 872.970Rx 827.970
Channel 13(78)Tx 872.340Rx 827.340
Channel 14(57)Tx 871.710Rx 826.710
Channel 15(36)Tx 871.080Rx 826.080
Channel 16(15)Tx 870.450Rx 825.450

Cell # 5
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(329)Tx 879.870Rx 834.870
Channel 2(308)Tx 879.240Rx 834.240
Channel 3(287)Tx 878.610Rx 833.610
Channel 4(266)Tx 877.980Rx 832.980
Channel 5(245)Tx 877.350Rx 832.350
Channel 6(224)Tx 876.720Rx 831.720
Channel 7(203)Tx 876.090Rx 831.090
Channel 8(182)Tx 875.460Rx 830.460
Channel 9(161)Tx 874.830Rx 829.830
Channel 10(140)Tx 874.200Rx 829.200
Channel 11(119)Tx 873.570Rx 828.570
Channel 12(98)Tx 872.940Rx 827.940
Channel 13(77)Tx 872.310Rx 827.310
Channel 14(56)Tx 871.680Rx 826.680
Channel 15(35)Tx 871.050Rx 826.050
Channel 16(14)Tx 870.420Rx 825.420

Cell # 6
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(328)Tx 879.840Rx 834.840
Channel 2(307)Tx 879.210Rx 834.210
Channel 3(286)Tx 878.580Rx 833.580
Channel 4(265)Tx 877.950Rx 832.950
Channel 5(244)Tx 877.320Rx 832.320
Channel 6(223)Tx 876.690Rx 831.690
Channel 7(202)Tx 876.060Rx 831.060
Channel 8(181)Tx 875.430Rx 830.430
Channel 9(160)Tx 874.800Rx 829.800
Channel 10(139)Tx 874.170Rx 829.170
Channel 11(118)Tx 873.540Rx 828.540
Channel 12(97)Tx 872.910Rx 827.910
Channel 13(76)Tx 872.280Rx 827.280
Channel 14(55)Tx 871.650Rx 826.650
Channel 15(34)Tx 871.020Rx 826.020
Channel 16(13)Tx 870.390Rx 825.390

Cell # 7
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(327)Tx 879.810Rx 834.810
Channel 2(306)Tx 879.180Rx 834.180
Channel 3(285)Tx 878.550Rx 833.550
Channel 4(264)Tx 877.920Rx 832.920
Channel 5(243)Tx 877.290Rx 832.290
Channel 6(222)Tx 876.660Rx 831.660
Channel 7(201)Tx 876.030Rx 831.030
Channel 8(180)Tx 875.400Rx 830.400
Channel 9(159)Tx 874.770Rx 829.770
Channel 10(138)Tx 874.140Rx 829.140
Channel 11(117)Tx 873.510Rx 828.510
Channel 12(96)Tx 872.880Rx 827.880
Channel 13(75)Tx 872.250Rx 827.250
Channel 14(54)Tx 871.620Rx 826.620
Channel 15(33)Tx 870.990Rx 825.990
Channel 16(12)Tx 870.360Rx 825.360

Cell # 8
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(326)Tx 879.780Rx 834.780
Channel 2(305)Tx 879.150Rx 834.150
Channel 3(284)Tx 878.520Rx 833.520
Channel 4(263)Tx 877.890Rx 832.890
Channel 5(242)Tx 877.260Rx 832.260
Channel 6(221)Tx 876.630Rx 831.630
Channel 7(200)Tx 876.000Rx 831.000
Channel 8(179)Tx 875.370Rx 830.370
Channel 9(158)Tx 874.740Rx 829.740
Channel 10(137)Tx 874.110Rx 829.110
Channel 11(116)Tx 873.480Rx 828.480
Channel 12(95)Tx 872.850Rx 827.850
Channel 13(74)Tx 872.220Rx 827.220
Channel 14(53)Tx 871.590Rx 826.590
Channel 15(32)Tx 870.960Rx 825.960
Channel 16(11)Tx 870.330Rx 825.330

Cell # 9
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(325)Tx 879.750Rx 834.750
Channel 2(304)Tx 879.120Rx 834.120
Channel 3(283)Tx 878.490Rx 833.490
Channel 4(262)Tx 877.860Rx 832.860
Channel 5(241)Tx 877.230Rx 832.230
Channel 6(220)Tx 876.600Rx 831.600
Channel 7(199)Tx 875.970Rx 830.970
Channel 8(178)Tx 875.340Rx 830.340
Channel 9(157)Tx 874.710Rx 829.710
Channel 10(136)Tx 874.080Rx 829.080
Channel 11(115)Tx 873.450Rx 828.450
Channel 12(94)Tx 872.820Rx 827.820
Channel 13(73)Tx 872.190Rx 827.190
Channel 14(52)Tx 871.560Rx 826.560
Channel 15(31)Tx 870.930Rx 825.930
Channel 16(10)Tx 870.300Rx 825.300

Cell # 10
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(324)Tx 879.720Rx 834.720
Channel 2(303)Tx 879.090Rx 834.090
Channel 3(282)Tx 878.460Rx 833.460
Channel 4(261)Tx 877.830Rx 832.830
Channel 5(240)Tx 877.200Rx 832.200
Channel 6(219)Tx 876.570Rx 831.570
Channel 7(198)Tx 875.940Rx 830.940
Channel 8(177)Tx 875.310Rx 830.310
Channel 9(156)Tx 874.680Rx 829.680
Channel 10(135)Tx 874.050Rx 829.050
Channel 11(114)Tx 873.420Rx 828.420
Channel 12(93)Tx 872.790Rx 827.790
Channel 13(72)Tx 872.160Rx 827.160
Channel 14(51)Tx 871.530Rx 826.530
Channel 15(30)Tx 870.900Rx 825.900
Channel 16(9)Tx 870.270Rx 825.270

Cell # 11
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(323)Tx 879.690Rx 834.690
Channel 2(302)Tx 879.060Rx 834.060
Channel 3(281)Tx 878.430Rx 833.430
Channel 4(260)Tx 877.800Rx 832.800
Channel 5(239)Tx 877.170Rx 832.170
Channel 6(218)Tx 876.540Rx 831.540
Channel 7(197)Tx 875.910Rx 830.910
Channel 8(176)Tx 875.280Rx 830.280
Channel 9(155)Tx 874.650Rx 829.650
Channel 10(134)Tx 874.020Rx 829.020
Channel 11(113)Tx 873.390Rx 828.390
Channel 12(92)Tx 872.760Rx 827.760
Channel 13(71)Tx 872.130Rx 827.130
Channel 14(50)Tx 871.500Rx 826.500
Channel 15(29)Tx 870.870Rx 825.870
Channel 16(8)Tx 870.240Rx 825.240

Cell # 12
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(322)Tx 879.660Rx 834.660
Channel 2(301)Tx 879.030Rx 834.030
Channel 3(280)Tx 878.400Rx 833.400
Channel 4(259)Tx 877.770Rx 832.770
Channel 5(238)Tx 877.140Rx 832.140
Channel 6(217)Tx 876.510Rx 831.510
Channel 7(196)Tx 875.880Rx 830.880
Channel 8(175)Tx 875.250Rx 830.250
Channel 9(154)Tx 874.620Rx 829.620
Channel 10(133)Tx 873.990Rx 828.990
Channel 11(112)Tx 873.360Rx 828.360
Channel 12(91)Tx 872.730Rx 827.730
Channel 13(70)Tx 872.100Rx 827.100
Channel 14(49)Tx 871.470Rx 826.470
Channel 15(28)Tx 870.840Rx 825.840
Channel 16(7)Tx 870.210Rx 825.210

Cell # 13
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(321)Tx 879.630Rx 834.630
Channel 2(300)Tx 879.000Rx 834.000
Channel 3(279)Tx 878.370Rx 833.370
Channel 4(258)Tx 877.740Rx 832.740
Channel 5(237)Tx 877.110Rx 832.110
Channel 6(216)Tx 876.480Rx 831.480
Channel 7(195)Tx 875.850Rx 830.850
Channel 8(174)Tx 875.220Rx 830.220
Channel 9(153)Tx 874.590Rx 829.590
Channel 10(132)Tx 873.960Rx 828.960
Channel 11(111)Tx 873.330Rx 828.330
Channel 12(90)Tx 872.700Rx 827.700
Channel 13(69)Tx 872.070Rx 827.070
Channel 14(48)Tx 871.440Rx 826.440
Channel 15(27)Tx 870.810Rx 825.810
Channel 16(6)Tx 870.180Rx 825.180

Cell # 14
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(320)Tx 879.600Rx 834.600
Channel 2(299)Tx 878.970Rx 833.970
Channel 3(278)Tx 878.340Rx 833.340
Channel 4(257)Tx 877.710Rx 832.710
Channel 5(236)Tx 877.080Rx 832.080
Channel 6(215)Tx 876.450Rx 831.450
Channel 7(194)Tx 875.820Rx 830.820
Channel 8(173)Tx 875.190Rx 830.190
Channel 9(152)Tx 874.560Rx 829.560
Channel 10(131)Tx 873.930Rx 828.930
Channel 11(110)Tx 873.300Rx 828.300
Channel 12(89)Tx 872.670Rx 827.670
Channel 13(68)Tx 872.040Rx 827.040
Channel 14(47)Tx 871.410Rx 826.410
Channel 15(26)Tx 870.780Rx 825.780
Channel 16(5)Tx 870.150Rx 825.150

Cell # 15
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(319)Tx 879.570Rx 834.570
Channel 2(298)Tx 878.940Rx 833.940
Channel 3(277)Tx 878.310Rx 833.310
Channel 4(256)Tx 877.680Rx 832.680
Channel 5(235)Tx 877.050Rx 832.050
Channel 6(214)Tx 876.420Rx 831.420
Channel 7(193)Tx 875.790Rx 830.790
Channel 8(172)Tx 875.160Rx 830.160
Channel 9(151)Tx 874.530Rx 829.530
Channel 10(130)Tx 873.900Rx 828.900
Channel 11(109)Tx 873.270Rx 828.270
Channel 12(88)Tx 872.640Rx 827.640
Channel 13(67)Tx 872.010Rx 827.010
Channel 14(46)Tx 871.380Rx 826.380
Channel 15(25)Tx 870.750Rx 825.750
Channel 16(4)Tx 870.120Rx 825.120

Cell # 16
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(318)Tx 879.540Rx 834.540
Channel 2(297)Tx 878.910Rx 833.910
Channel 3(276)Tx 878.280Rx 833.280
Channel 4(255)Tx 877.650Rx 832.650
Channel 5(234)Tx 877.020Rx 832.020
Channel 6(213)Tx 876.390Rx 831.390
Channel 7(192)Tx 875.760Rx 830.760
Channel 8(171)Tx 875.130Rx 830.130
Channel 9(150)Tx 874.500Rx 829.500
Channel 10(129)Tx 873.870Rx 828.870
Channel 11(108)Tx 873.240Rx 828.240
Channel 12(87)Tx 872.610Rx 827.610
Channel 13(66)Tx 871.980Rx 826.980
Channel 14(45)Tx 871.350Rx 826.350
Channel 15(24)Tx 870.720Rx 825.720
Channel 16(3)Tx 870.090Rx 825.090

Cell # 17
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(317)Tx 879.510Rx 834.510
Channel 2(296)Tx 878.880Rx 833.880
Channel 3(275)Tx 878.250Rx 833.250
Channel 4(254)Tx 877.620Rx 832.620
Channel 5(233)Tx 876.990Rx 831.990
Channel 6(212)Tx 876.360Rx 831.360
Channel 7(191)Tx 875.730Rx 830.730
Channel 8(170)Tx 875.100Rx 830.100
Channel 9(149)Tx 874.470Rx 829.470
Channel 10(128)Tx 873.840Rx 828.840
Channel 11(107)Tx 873.210Rx 828.210
Channel 12(86)Tx 872.580Rx 827.580
Channel 13(65)Tx 871.950Rx 826.950
Channel 14(44)Tx 871.320Rx 826.320
Channel 15(23)Tx 870.690Rx 825.690
Channel 16(2)Tx 870.060Rx 825.060

Cell # 18
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(316)Tx 879.480Rx 834.480
Channel 2(295)Tx 878.850Rx 833.850
Channel 3(274)Tx 878.220Rx 833.220
Channel 4(253)Tx 877.590Rx 832.590
Channel 5(232)Tx 876.960Rx 831.960
Channel 6(211)Tx 876.330Rx 831.330
Channel 7(190)Tx 875.700Rx 830.700
Channel 8(169)Tx 875.070Rx 830.070
Channel 9(148)Tx 874.440Rx 829.440
Channel 10(127)Tx 873.810Rx 828.810
Channel 11(106)Tx 873.180Rx 828.180
Channel 12(85)Tx 872.550Rx 827.550
Channel 13(64)Tx 871.920Rx 826.920
Channel 14(43)Tx 871.290Rx 826.290
Channel 15(22)Tx 870.660Rx 825.660
Channel 16(1)Tx 870.030Rx 825.030

Cell # 19
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(315)Tx 879.450Rx 834.450
Channel 2(294)Tx 878.820Rx 833.820
Channel 3(273)Tx 878.190Rx 833.190
Channel 4(252)Tx 877.560Rx 832.560
Channel 5(231)Tx 876.930Rx 831.930
Channel 6(210)Tx 876.300Rx 831.300
Channel 7(189)Tx 875.670Rx 830.670
Channel 8(168)Tx 875.040Rx 830.040
Channel 9(147)Tx 874.410Rx 829.410
Channel 10(126)Tx 873.780Rx 828.780
Channel 11(105)Tx 873.150Rx 828.150
Channel 12(84)Tx 872.520Rx 827.520
Channel 13(63)Tx 871.890Rx 826.890
Channel 14(42)Tx 871.260Rx 826.260
Channel 15(21)Tx 870.630Rx 825.630

Cell # 20
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(314)Tx 879.420Rx 834.420
Channel 2(293)Tx 878.790Rx 833.790
Channel 3(272)Tx 878.160Rx 833.160
Channel 4(251)Tx 877.530Rx 832.530
Channel 5(230)Tx 876.900Rx 831.900
Channel 6(209)Tx 876.270Rx 831.270
Channel 7(188)Tx 875.640Rx 830.640
Channel 8(167)Tx 875.010Rx 830.010
Channel 9(146)Tx 874.380Rx 829.380
Channel 10(125)Tx 873.750Rx 828.750
Channel 11(104)Tx 873.120Rx 828.120
Channel 12(83)Tx 872.490Rx 827.490
Channel 13(62)Tx 871.860Rx 826.860
Channel 14(41)Tx 871.230Rx 826.230
Channel 15(20)Tx 870.600Rx 825.600

Cell # 21
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(313)Tx 879.390Rx 834.390
Channel 2(292)Tx 878.760Rx 833.760
Channel 3(271)Tx 878.130Rx 833.130
Channel 4(250)Tx 877.500Rx 832.500
Channel 5(229)Tx 876.870Rx 831.870
Channel 6(208)Tx 876.240Rx 831.240
Channel 7(187)Tx 875.610Rx 830.610
Channel 8(166)Tx 874.980Rx 829.980
Channel 9(145)Tx 874.350Rx 829.350
Channel 10(124)Tx 873.720Rx 828.720
Channel 11(103)Tx 873.090Rx 828.090
Channel 12(82)Tx 872.460Rx 827.460
Channel 13(61)Tx 871.830Rx 826.830
Channel 14(40)Tx 871.200Rx 826.200
Channel 15(19)Tx 870.570Rx 825.570

**************************************************

Cellular Phone Band B (Channel 1 is Data)

Cell # 1
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1 (334) Tx 880.020 Rx 835.020
Channel 2(355)Tx 880.650Rx 835.650
Channel 3(376)Tx 881.280Rx 836.280
Channel 4(397)Tx 881.910Rx 836.910
Channel 5(418)Tx 882.540Rx 837.540
Channel 6(439)Tx 883.170Rx 838.170
Channel 7(460)Tx 883.800Rx 838.800
Channel 8(481)Tx 884.430Rx 839.430
Channel 9(502)Tx 885.060Rx 840.060
Channel 10(523)Tx 885.690Rx 840.690
Channel 11(544)Tx 886.320Rx 841.320
Channel 12(565)Tx 886.950Rx 841.950
Channel 13(586)Tx 887.580Rx 842.580
Channel 14(607)Tx 888.210Rx 843.210
Channel 15(628)Tx 888.840Rx 843.840
Channel 16(649)Tx 889.470Rx 844.470

Cell # 2
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(335)Tx 880.050Rx 835.050
Channel 2(356)Tx 880.680Rx 835.680
Channel 3(377)Tx 881.310Rx 836.310
Channel 4(398)Tx 881.940Rx 836.940
Channel 5(419)Tx 882.570Rx 837.570
Channel 6(440)Tx 883.200Rx 838.200
Channel 7(461)Tx 883.830Rx 838.830
Channel 8(482)Tx 884.460Rx 839.460
Channel 9(503)Tx 885.090Rx 840.090
Channel 10(524)Tx 885.720Rx 840.720
Channel 11(545)Tx 886.350Rx 841.350
Channel 12(566)Tx 886.980Rx 841.980
Channel 13(587)Tx 887.610Rx 842.610
Channel 14(608)Tx 888.240Rx 843.240
Channel 15(629)Tx 888.870Rx 843.870
Channel 16(650)Tx 889.500Rx 844.500

Cell # 3
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(336)Tx 880.080Rx 835.080
Channel 2(357)Tx 880.710Rx 835.710
Channel 3(378)Tx 881.340Rx 836.340
Channel 4(399)Tx 881.970Rx 836.970
Channel 5(420)Tx 882.600Rx 837.600
Channel 6(441)Tx 883.230Rx 838.230
Channel 7(462)Tx 883.860Rx 838.860
Channel 8(483)Tx 884.490Rx 839.490
Channel 9(504)Tx 885.120Rx 840.120
Channel 10(525)Tx 885.750Rx 840.750
Channel 11(546)Tx 886.380Rx 841.380
Channel 12(567)Tx 887.010Rx 842.010
Channel 13(588)Tx 887.640Rx 842.640
Channel 14(609)Tx 888.270Rx 843.270
Channel 15(630)Tx 888.900Rx 843.900
Channel 16(651)Tx 889.530Rx 844.530

Cell # 4
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(337)Tx 880.110Rx 835.110
Channel 2(358)Tx 880.740Rx 835.740
Channel 3(379)Tx 881.370Rx 836.370
Channel 4(400)Tx 882.000Rx 837.000
Channel 5(421)Tx 882.630Rx 837.630
Channel 6(442)Tx 883.260Rx 838.260
Channel 7(463)Tx 883.890Rx 838.890
Channel 8(484)Tx 884.520Rx 839.520
Channel 9(505)Tx 885.150Rx 840.150
Channel 10(526)Tx 885.780Rx 840.780
Channel 11(547)Tx 886.410Rx 841.410
Channel 12(568)Tx 887.040Rx 842.040
Channel 13(589)Tx 887.670Rx 842.670
Channel 14(610)Tx 888.300Rx 843.300
Channel 15(631)Tx 888.930Rx 843.930
Channel 16(652)Tx 889.560Rx 844.560

Cell # 5
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(338)Tx 880.140Rx 835.140
Channel 2(359)Tx 880.770Rx 835.770
Channel 3(380)Tx 881.400Rx 836.400
Channel 4(401)Tx 882.030Rx 837.030
Channel 5(422)Tx 882.660Rx 837.660
Channel 6(443)Tx 883.290Rx 838.290
Channel 7(464)Tx 883.920Rx 838.920
Channel 8(485)Tx 884.550Rx 839.550
Channel 9(506)Tx 885.180Rx 840.180
Channel 10(527)Tx 885.810Rx 840.810
Channel 11(548)Tx 886.440Rx 841.440
Channel 12(569)Tx 887.070Rx 842.070
Channel 13(590)Tx 887.700Rx 842.700
Channel 14(611)Tx 888.330Rx 843.330
Channel 15(632)Tx 888.960Rx 843.960
Channel 16(653)Tx 889.590Rx 844.590

Cell # 6
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(339)Tx 880.170Rx 835.170
Channel 2(360)Tx 880.800Rx 835.800
Channel 3(381)Tx 881.430Rx 836.430
Channel 4(402)Tx 882.060Rx 837.060
Channel 5(423)Tx 882.690Rx 837.690
Channel 6(444)Tx 883.320Rx 838.320
Channel 7(465)Tx 883.950Rx 838.950
Channel 8(486)Tx 884.580Rx 839.580
Channel 9(507)Tx 885.210Rx 840.210
Channel 10(528)Tx 885.840Rx 840.840
Channel 11(549)Tx 886.470Rx 841.470
Channel 12(570)Tx 887.100Rx 842.100
Channel 13(591)Tx 887.730Rx 842.730
Channel 14(612)Tx 888.360Rx 843.360
Channel 15(633)Tx 888.990Rx 843.990
Channel 16(654)Tx 889.620Rx 844.620

Cell # 7
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(340)Tx 880.200Rx 835.200
Channel 2(361)Tx 880.830Rx 835.830
Channel 3(382)Tx 881.460Rx 836.460
Channel 4(403)Tx 882.090Rx 837.090
Channel 5(424)Tx 882.720Rx 837.720
Channel 6(445)Tx 883.350Rx 838.350
Channel 7(466)Tx 883.980Rx 838.980
Channel 8(487)Tx 884.610Rx 839.610
Channel 9(508)Tx 885.240Rx 840.240
Channel 10(529)Tx 885.870Rx 840.870
Channel 11(550)Tx 886.500Rx 841.500
Channel 12(571)Tx 887.130Rx 842.130
Channel 13(592)Tx 887.760Rx 842.760
Channel 14(613)Tx 888.390Rx 843.390
Channel 15(634)Tx 889.020Rx 844.020
Channel 16(655)Tx 889.650Rx 844.650

Cell # 8
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(341)Tx 880.230Rx 835.230
Channel 2(362)Tx 880.860Rx 835.860
Channel 3(383)Tx 881.490Rx 836.490
Channel 4(404)Tx 882.120Rx 837.120
Channel 5(425)Tx 882.750Rx 837.750
Channel 6(446)Tx 883.380Rx 838.380
Channel 7(467)Tx 884.010Rx 839.010
Channel 8(488)Tx 884.640Rx 839.640
Channel 9(509)Tx 885.270Rx 840.270
Channel 10(530)Tx 885.900Rx 840.900
Channel 11(551)Tx 886.530Rx 841.530
Channel 12(572)Tx 887.160Rx 842.160
Channel 13(593)Tx 887.790Rx 842.790
Channel 14(614)Tx 888.420Rx 843.420
Channel 15(635)Tx 889.050Rx 844.050
Channel 16(656)Tx 889.680Rx 844.680

Cell # 9
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(342)Tx 880.260Rx 835.260
Channel 2(363)Tx 880.890Rx 835.890
Channel 3(384)Tx 881.520Rx 836.520
Channel 4(405)Tx 882.150Rx 837.150
Channel 5(426)Tx 882.780Rx 837.780
Channel 6(447)Tx 883.410Rx 838.410
Channel 7(468)Tx 884.040Rx 839.040
Channel 8(489)Tx 884.670Rx 839.670
Channel 9(510)Tx 885.300Rx 840.300
Channel 10(531)Tx 885.930Rx 840.930
Channel 11(552)Tx 886.560Rx 841.560
Channel 12(573)Tx 887.190Rx 842.190
Channel 13(594)Tx 887.820Rx 842.820
Channel 14(615)Tx 888.450Rx 843.450
Channel 15(636)Tx 889.080Rx 844.080
Channel 16(657)Tx 889.710Rx 844.710

Cell # 10
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(343)Tx 880.290Rx 835.290
Channel 2(364)Tx 880.920Rx 835.920
Channel 3(385)Tx 881.550Rx 836.550
Channel 4(406)Tx 882.180Rx 837.180
Channel 5(427)Tx 882.810Rx 837.810
Channel 6(448)Tx 883.440Rx 838.440
Channel 7(469)Tx 884.070Rx 839.070
Channel 8(490)Tx 884.700Rx 839.700
Channel 9(511)Tx 885.330Rx 840.330
Channel 10(532)Tx 885.960Rx 840.960
Channel 11(553)Tx 886.590Rx 841.590
Channel 12(574)Tx 887.220Rx 842.220
Channel 13(595)Tx 887.850Rx 842.850
Channel 14(616)Tx 888.480Rx 843.480
Channel 15(637)Tx 889.110Rx 844.110
Channel 16(658)Tx 889.740Rx 844.740

Cell # 11
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(344)Tx 880.320Rx 835.320
Channel 2(365)Tx 880.950Rx 835.950
Channel 3(386)Tx 881.580Rx 836.580
Channel 4(407)Tx 882.210Rx 837.210
Channel 5(428)Tx 882.840Rx 837.840
Channel 6(449)Tx 883.470Rx 838.470
Channel 7(470)Tx 884.100Rx 839.100
Channel 8(491)Tx 884.730Rx 839.730
Channel 9(512)Tx 885.360Rx 840.360
Channel 10(533)Tx 885.990Rx 840.990
Channel 11(554)Tx 886.620Rx 841.620
Channel 12(575)Tx 887.250Rx 842.250
Channel 13(596)Tx 887.880Rx 842.880
Channel 14(617)Tx 888.510Rx 843.510
Channel 15(638)Tx 889.140Rx 844.140
Channel 16(659)Tx 889.770Rx 844.770

Cell # 12
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(345)Tx 880.350Rx 835.350
Channel 2(366)Tx 880.980Rx 835.980
Channel 3(387)Tx 881.610Rx 836.610
Channel 4(408)Tx 882.240Rx 837.240
Channel 5(429)Tx 882.870Rx 837.870
Channel 6(450)Tx 883.500Rx 838.500
Channel 7(471)Tx 884.130Rx 839.130
Channel 8(492)Tx 884.760Rx 839.760
Channel 9(513)Tx 885.390Rx 840.390
Channel 10(534)Tx 886.020Rx 841.020
Channel 11(555)Tx 886.650Rx 841.650
Channel 12(576)Tx 887.280Rx 842.280
Channel 13(597)Tx 887.910Rx 842.910
Channel 14(618)Tx 888.540Rx 843.540
Channel 15(639)Tx 889.170Rx 844.170
Channel 16(660)Tx 889.800Rx 844.800

Cell # 13
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(346)Tx 880.380Rx 835.380
Channel 2(367)Tx 881.010Rx 836.010
Channel 3(388)Tx 881.640Rx 836.640
Channel 4(409)Tx 882.270Rx 837.270
Channel 5(430)Tx 882.900Rx 837.900
Channel 6(451)Tx 883.530Rx 838.530
Channel 7(472)Tx 884.160Rx 839.160
Channel 8(493)Tx 884.790Rx 839.790
Channel 9(514)Tx 885.420Rx 840.420
Channel 10(535)Tx 886.050Rx 841.050
Channel 11(556)Tx 886.680Rx 841.680
Channel 12(577)Tx 887.310Rx 842.310
Channel 13(598)Tx 887.940Rx 842.940
Channel 14(619)Tx 888.570Rx 843.570
Channel 15(640)Tx 889.200Rx 844.200
Channel 16(661)Tx 889.830Rx 844.830

Cell # 14
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(347)Tx 880.410Rx 835.410
Channel 2(368)Tx 881.040Rx 836.040
Channel 3(389)Tx 881.670Rx 836.670
Channel 4(410)Tx 882.300Rx 837.300
Channel 5(431)Tx 882.930Rx 837.930
Channel 6(452)Tx 883.560Rx 838.560
Channel 7(473)Tx 884.190Rx 839.190
Channel 8(494)Tx 884.820Rx 839.820
Channel 9(515)Tx 885.450Rx 840.450
Channel 10(536)Tx 886.080Rx 841.080
Channel 11(557)Tx 886.710Rx 841.710
Channel 12(578)Tx 887.340Rx 842.340
Channel 13(599)Tx 887.970Rx 842.970
Channel 14(620)Tx 888.600Rx 843.600
Channel 15(641)Tx 889.230Rx 844.230
Channel 16(662)Tx 889.860Rx 844.860

Cell # 15
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(348)Tx 880.440Rx 835.440
Channel 2(369)Tx 881.070Rx 836.070
Channel 3(390)Tx 881.700Rx 836.700
Channel 4(411)Tx 882.330Rx 837.330
Channel 5(432)Tx 882.960Rx 837.960
Channel 6(453)Tx 883.590Rx 838.590
Channel 7(474)Tx 884.220Rx 839.220
Channel 8(495)Tx 884.850Rx 839.850
Channel 9(516)Tx 885.480Rx 840.480
Channel 10(537)Tx 886.110Rx 841.110
Channel 11(558)Tx 886.740Rx 841.740
Channel 12(579)Tx 887.370Rx 842.370
Channel 13(600)Tx 888.000Rx 843.000
Channel 14(621)Tx 888.630Rx 843.630
Channel 15(642)Tx 889.260Rx 844.260
Channel 16(663)Tx 889.890Rx 844.890

Cell # 16
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(349)Tx 880.470Rx 835.470
Channel 2(370)Tx 881.100Rx 836.100
Channel 3(391)Tx 881.730Rx 836.730
Channel 4(412)Tx 882.360Rx 837.360
Channel 5(433)Tx 882.990Rx 837.990
Channel 6(454)Tx 883.620Rx 838.620
Channel 7(475)Tx 884.250Rx 839.250
Channel 8(496)Tx 884.880Rx 839.880
Channel 9(517)Tx 885.510Rx 840.510
Channel 10(538)Tx 886.140Rx 841.140
Channel 11(559)Tx 886.770Rx 841.770
Channel 12(580)Tx 887.400Rx 842.400
Channel 13(601)Tx 888.030Rx 843.030
Channel 14(622)Tx 888.660Rx 843.660
Channel 15(643)Tx 889.290Rx 844.290
Channel 16(664)Tx 889.920Rx 844.920

Cell # 17
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(350)Tx 880.500Rx 835.500
Channel 2(371)Tx 881.130Rx 836.130
Channel 3(392)Tx 881.760Rx 836.760
Channel 4(413)Tx 882.390Rx 837.390
Channel 5(434)Tx 883.020Rx 838.020
Channel 6(455)Tx 883.650Rx 838.650
Channel 7(476)Tx 884.280Rx 839.280
Channel 8(497)Tx 884.910Rx 839.910
Channel 9(518)Tx 885.540Rx 840.540
Channel 10(539)Tx 886.170Rx 841.170
Channel 11(560)Tx 886.800Rx 841.800
Channel 12(581)Tx 887.430Rx 842.430
Channel 13(602)Tx 888.060Rx 843.060
Channel 14(623)Tx 888.690Rx 843.690
Channel 15(644)Tx 889.320Rx 844.320
Channel 16(665)Tx 889.950Rx 844.950

Cell # 18
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(351)Tx 880.530Rx 835.530
Channel 2(372)Tx 881.160Rx 836.160
Channel 3(393)Tx 881.790Rx 836.790
Channel 4(414)Tx 882.420Rx 837.420
Channel 5(435)Tx 883.050Rx 838.050
Channel 6(456)Tx 883.680Rx 838.680
Channel 7(477)Tx 884.310Rx 839.310
Channel 8(498)Tx 884.940Rx 839.940
Channel 9(519)Tx 885.570Rx 840.570
Channel 10(540)Tx 886.200Rx 841.200
Channel 11(561)Tx 886.830Rx 841.830
Channel 12(582)Tx 887.460Rx 842.460
Channel 13(603)Tx 888.090Rx 843.090
Channel 14(624)Tx 888.720Rx 843.720
Channel 15(645)Tx 889.350Rx 844.350
Channel 16(666)Tx 889.980Rx 844.980

Cell # 19
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(352)Tx 880.560Rx 835.560
Channel 2(373)Tx 881.190Rx 836.190
Channel 3(394)Tx 881.820Rx 836.820
Channel 4(415)Tx 882.450Rx 837.450
Channel 5(436)Tx 883.080Rx 838.080
Channel 6(457)Tx 883.710Rx 838.710
Channel 7(478)Tx 884.340Rx 839.340
Channel 8(499)Tx 884.970Rx 839.970
Channel 9(520)Tx 885.600Rx 840.600
Channel 10(541)Tx 886.230Rx 841.230
Channel 11(562)Tx 886.860Rx 841.860
Channel 12(583)Tx 887.490Rx 842.490
Channel 13(604)Tx 888.120Rx 843.120
Channel 14(625)Tx 888.750Rx 843.750
Channel 15(646)Tx 889.380Rx 844.380

Cell # 20
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(353)Tx 880.590Rx 835.590
Channel 2(374)Tx 881.220Rx 836.220
Channel 3(395)Tx 881.850Rx 836.850
Channel 4(416)Tx 882.480Rx 837.480
Channel 5(437)Tx 883.110Rx 838.110
Channel 6(458)Tx 883.740Rx 838.740
Channel 7(479)Tx 884.370Rx 839.370
Channel 8(500)Tx 885.000Rx 840.000
Channel 9(521)Tx 885.630Rx 840.630
Channel 10(542)Tx 886.260Rx 841.260
Channel 11(563)Tx 886.890Rx 841.890
Channel 12(584)Tx 887.520Rx 842.520
Channel 13(605)Tx 888.150Rx 843.150
Channel 14(626)Tx 888.780Rx 843.780
Channel 15(647)Tx 889.410Rx 844.410

Cell # 21
--------------------------------------------------
Channel 1(354)Tx 880.620Rx 835.620
Channel 2(375)Tx 881.250Rx 836.250
Channel 3(396)Tx 881.880Rx 836.880
Channel 4(417)Tx 882.510Rx 837.510
Channel 5(438)Tx 883.140Rx 838.140
Channel 6(459)Tx 883.770Rx 838.770
Channel 7(480)Tx 884.400Rx 839.400
Channel 8(501)Tx 885.030Rx 840.030
Channel 9(522)Tx 885.660Rx 840.660
Channel 10(543)Tx 886.290Rx 841.290
Channel 11(564)Tx 886.920Rx 841.920
Channel 12(585)Tx 887.550Rx 842.550
Channel 13(606)Tx 888.180Rx 843.180
Channel 14(627)Tx 888.810Rx 843.810
Channel 15(648)Tx 889.440Rx 844.440

===============================================================================

Cellular phone frequency and cell construction

===============================================================================
__ __
\__/C \__/D \__
\__/G \__/A \__/
_/D \__/E \__/F \__
\__/B \__/C \__/
_/F \__/G \__/A \__
\__/D \__/E \__/
_/A \__/B \__/C \__
\__/ \__/ \__/

This represents how a cellular system might be laid out. Cells A and B
never share a common border. Neither do B and C, A and G, etc. Cells that
are next to each other are never assigned adjacent frequencies. They always
differ by at least 60 kiloHertz. To track a mobile phone as it changes cells,
let's put the mobile in a B cell. When the mobile switches frequencies, you
know that he could only go to an D, E, F or G cell because A and C have
adjacent frequencies. The two tables below will help you determine which
channel cells can go next to each other. You can contact your local cellular
phone company and see if they have any maps of the cells available. This is
not a sure thing, but it couldn't hurt to try.

Cells that can go next to each other:

Cell Compatible cells
A C, D, E, F
B D, E, F, G
C E, F, G, A
D F, G, A, B
E G, A, B, C
F A, B, C, D
G B, C, D, E

Here is a frequency/cell layout chart. The cell frequencies are used by
the cell site towers, and the mobile frequencies are the input frequencies
used by the cars.

Wireline company cell frequencies (BAND B)

CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G
======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= =======
889.890 889.920 889.950 889.980
889.680 889.710 889.740 889.770 889.800 889.830 889.860
889.470 889.500 889.530 889.560 889.590 889.620 889.650
889.260 889.290 889.320 889.350 889.380 889.410 889.440
889.050 889.080 889.110 889.140 889.170 889.200 889.230
888.840 888.870 888.900 888.930 888.960 888.990 889.020
888.630 888.660 888.690 888.720 888.750 888.780 888.810
888.420 888.450 888.480 888.510 888.540 888.570 888.600
888.210 888.240 888.270 888.300 888.330 888.360 888.390
888.000 888.030 888.060 888.090 888.120 888.150 888.180
887.790 887.820 887.850 887.880 887.910 887.940 887.970
887.580 887.610 887.640 887.670 887.700 887.730 887.760
887.370 887.400 887.430 887.460 887.490 887.520 887.550
887.160 887.190 887.220 887.250 887.280 887.310 887.340
886.950 886.980 887.010 887.040 887.070 887.100 887.130
886.740 886.770 886.800 886.830 886.860 886.890 886.920
886.530 886.560 886.590 886.620 886.650 886.680 886.710
886.320 886.350 886.380 886.410 886.440 886.470 886.500 Voice
886.110 886.140 886.170 886.200 886.230 886.260 886.290
885.900 885.930 885.960 885.990 886.020 886.050 886.080
885.690 885.720 885.750 885.780 885.810 885.840 885.870
885.480 885.510 885.540 885.570 885.600 885.630 885.660
885.270 885.300 885.330 885.360 885.390 885.420 885.450
885.060 885.090 885.120 885.150 885.180 885.210 885.240
884.850 884.880 884.910 884.940 884.970 885.000 885.030
884.640 884.670 884.700 884.730 884.760 884.790 884.820
884.430 884.460 884.490 884.520 884.550 884.580 884.610
884.220 884.250 884.280 884.310 884.340 884.370 884.400
884.010 884.040 884.070 884.100 884.130 884.160 884.190 Channels
883.800 883.830 883.860 883.890 883.920 883.950 883.980
883.590 883.620 883.650 883.680 883.710 883.740 883.770
883.380 883.410 883.440 883.470 883.500 883.530 883.560
883.170 883.200 883.230 883.260 883.290 883.320 883.350
882.960 882.990 883.020 883.050 883.080 883.110 883.140
882.750 882.780 882.810 882.840 882.870 882.900 882.930
882.540 882.570 882.600 882.630 882.660 882.690 882.720
882.330 882.360 882.390 882.420 882.450 882.480 882.510
882.120 882.150 882.180 882.210 882.240 882.270 882.300
881.910 881.940 881.970 882.000 882.030 882.060 882.090
881.700 881.730 881.760 881.790 881.820 881.850 881.880
881.490 881.520 881.550 881.580 881.610 881.640 881.670
881.280 881.310 881.340 881.370 881.400 881.430 881.460
881.070 881.100 881.130 881.160 881.190 881.220 881.250
880.860 880.890 880.920 880.950 880.980 881.010 881.040
880.650 880.680 880.710 880.740 880.770 880.800 880.830
-------------------------------------------------------------------
880.440 880.470 880.500 880.530 880.560 880.590 880.620 Digital
880.230 880.260 880.290 880.320 880.350 880.380 880.410 Control
880.020 880.050 880.080 880.110 880.140 880.170 880.200 Channels

Wireline company mobile frequencies (BAND B)

CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G
======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= =======
844.890 844.920 844.950 844.980
844.680 844.710 844.740 844.770 844.800 844.830 844.860
844.470 844.500 844.530 844.560 844.590 844.620 844.650
844.260 844.290 844.320 844.350 844.380 844.410 844.440
844.050 844.080 844.110 844.140 844.170 844.200 844.230
843.840 843.870 843.900 843.930 843.960 843.990 844.020
843.630 843.660 843.690 843.720 843.750 843.780 843.810
843.420 843.450 843.480 843.510 843.540 843.570 843.600
843.210 843.240 843.270 843.300 843.330 843.360 843.390
843.000 843.030 843.060 843.090 843.120 843.150 843.180
842.790 842.820 842.850 842.880 842.910 842.940 842.970
842.580 842.610 842.640 842.670 842.700 842.730 842.760
842.370 842.400 842.430 842.460 842.490 842.520 842.550
842.160 842.190 842.220 842.250 842.280 842.310 842.340
841.950 841.980 842.010 842.040 842.070 842.100 842.130
841.740 841.770 841.800 841.830 841.860 841.890 841.920
841.530 841.560 841.590 841.620 841.650 841.680 841.710
841.320 841.350 841.380 841.410 841.440 841.470 841.500 Voice
841.110 841.140 841.170 841.200 841.230 841.260 841.290
840.900 840.930 840.960 840.990 841.020 841.050 841.080
840.690 840.720 840.750 840.780 840.810 840.840 840.870
840.480 840.510 840.540 840.570 840.600 840.630 840.660
840.270 840.300 840.330 840.360 840.390 840.420 840.450
840.060 840.090 840.120 840.150 840.180 840.210 840.240
839.850 839.880 839.910 839.940 839.970 840.000 840.030
839.640 839.670 839.700 839.730 839.760 839.790 839.820
839.430 839.460 839.490 839.520 839.550 839.580 839.610
839.220 839.250 839.280 839.310 839.340 839.370 839.400
839.010 839.040 839.070 839.100 839.130 839.160 839.190 Channels
838.800 838.830 838.860 838.890 838.920 838.950 838.980
838.590 838.620 838.650 838.680 838.710 838.740 838.770
838.380 838.410 838.440 838.470 838.500 838.530 838.560
838.170 838.200 838.230 838.260 838.290 838.320 838.350
837.960 837.990 838.020 838.050 838.080 838.110 838.140
837.750 837.780 837.810 837.840 837.870 837.900 837.930
837.540 837.570 837.600 837.630 837.660 837.690 837.720
837.330 837.360 837.390 837.420 837.450 837.480 837.510
837.120 837.150 837.180 837.210 837.240 837.270 837.300
836.910 836.940 836.970 837.000 837.030 837.060 837.090
836.700 836.730 836.760 836.790 836.820 836.850 836.880
836.490 836.520 836.550 836.580 836.610 836.640 836.670
836.280 836.310 836.340 836.370 836.400 836.430 836.460
836.070 836.100 836.130 836.160 836.190 836.220 836.250
835.860 835.890 835.920 835.950 835.980 836.010 836.040
835.650 835.680 835.710 835.740 835.770 835.800 835.830
-------------------------------------------------------------------
835.440 835.470 835.500 835.530 835.560 835.590 835.620 Digital
835.230 835.260 835.290 835.320 835.350 835.380 835.410 Control
835.020 835.050 835.080 835.110 835.140 835.170 835.200 Channels

===============================================================================

Non-wireline company cell frequencies (BAND A)

CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G
======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= =======
879.900 879.930 879.960 879.990 Digital
879.690 879.720 879.750 879.780 879.810 879.840 879.870 Control
879.480 879.510 879.540 879.570 879.600 879.630 879.660 Channels
------------------------------------- 879.390 879.420 879.450
879.270 879.300 879.330 879.360 ---------------------------
879.060 879.090 879.120 879.150 879.180 879.210 879.240
878.850 878.880 878.910 878.940 878.970 879.000 879.030
878.640 878.670 878.700 878.730 878.760 878.790 878.820
878.430 878.460 878.490 878.520 878.550 878.580 878.610
878.220 878.250 878.280 878.310 878.340 878.370 878.400
878.010 878.040 878.070 878.100 878.130 878.160 878.190
877.800 877.830 877.860 877.890 877.920 877.950 877.980
877.590 877.620 877.650 877.680 877.710 877.740 877.770
877.380 877.410 877.440 877.470 877.500 877.530 877.560
877.170 877.200 877.230 877.260 877.290 877.320 877.350
876.960 876.990 877.020 877.050 877.080 877.110 877.140
876.750 876.780 876.810 876.840 876.870 876.900 876.930
876.540 876.570 876.600 876.630 876.660 876.690 876.720
876.330 876.360 876.390 876.420 876.450 876.480 876.510
876.120 876.150 876.180 876.210 876.240 876.270 876.300
875.910 875.940 875.970 876.000 876.030 876.060 876.090
875.700 875.730 875.760 875.790 875.820 875.850 875.880 Voice
875.490 875.520 875.550 875.580 875.610 875.640 875.670
875.280 875.310 875.340 875.370 875.400 875.430 875.460
875.070 875.100 875.130 875.160 875.190 875.220 875.250
874.860 874.890 874.920 874.950 874.980 875.010 875.040
874.650 874.680 874.710 874.740 874.770 874.800 874.830
874.440 874.470 874.500 874.530 874.560 874.590 874.620
874.230 874.260 874.290 874.320 874.350 874.380 874.410
874.020 874.050 874.080 874.110 874.140 874.170 874.200
873.810 873.840 873.870 873.900 873.930 873.960 873.990
873.600 873.630 873.660 873.690 873.720 873.750 873.780
873.390 873.420 873.450 873.480 873.510 873.540 873.570 Channels
873.180 873.210 873.240 873.270 873.300 873.330 873.360
872.970 873.000 873.030 873.060 873.090 873.120 873.150
872.760 872.790 872.820 872.850 872.880 872.910 872.940
872.550 872.580 872.610 872.640 872.670 872.700 872.730
872.340 872.370 872.400 872.430 872.460 872.490 872.520
872.130 872.160 872.190 872.220 872.250 872.280 872.310
871.920 871.950 871.980 872.010 872.040 872.070 872.100
871.710 871.740 871.770 871.800 871.830 871.860 871.890
871.500 871.530 871.560 871.590 871.620 871.650 871.680
871.290 871.320 871.350 871.380 871.410 871.440 871.470
871.080 871.110 871.140 871.170 871.200 871.230 871.260
870.870 870.900 870.930 870.960 870.990 871.020 871.050
870.660 870.690 870.720 870.750 870.780 870.810 870.840
870.450 870.480 870.510 870.540 870.570 870.600 870.630
870.240 870.270 870.300 870.330 870.360 870.390 870.420
870.030 870.060 870.090 870.120 870.150 870.180 870.210

Non-wireline company mobile frequencies (BAND A)

CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G
======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= =======
834.900 834.930 834.960 834.990 Digital
834.690 834.720 834.750 834.780 834.810 834.840 834.870 Control
834.480 834.510 834.540 834.570 834.600 834.630 834.660 Channels
------------------------------------- 834.390 834.420 834.450
834.270 834.300 834.330 834.360 ---------------------------
834.060 834.090 834.120 834.150 834.180 834.210 834.240
833.850 833.880 833.910 833.940 833.970 834.000 834.030
833.640 833.670 833.700 833.730 833.760 833.790 833.820
833.430 833.460 833.490 833.520 833.550 833.580 833.610
833.220 833.250 833.280 833.310 833.340 833.370 833.400
833.010 833.040 833.070 833.100 833.130 833.160 833.190
832.800 832.830 832.860 832.890 832.920 832.950 832.980
832.590 832.620 832.650 832.680 832.710 832.740 832.770
832.380 832.410 832.440 832.470 832.500 832.530 832.560
832.170 832.200 832.230 832.260 832.290 832.320 832.350
831.960 831.990 832.020 832.050 832.080 832.110 832.140
831.750 831.780 831.810 831.840 831.870 831.900 831.930
831.540 831.570 831.600 831.630 831.660 831.690 831.720
831.330 831.360 831.390 831.420 831.450 831.480 831.510
831.120 831.150 831.180 831.210 831.240 831.270 831.300
830.910 830.940 830.970 831.000 831.030 831.060 831.090
830.700 830.730 830.760 830.790 830.820 830.850 830.880 Voice
830.490 830.520 830.550 830.580 830.610 830.640 830.670
830.280 830.310 830.340 830.370 830.400 830.430 830.460
830.070 830.100 830.130 830.160 830.190 830.220 830.250
829.860 829.890 829.920 829.950 829.980 830.010 830.040
829.650 829.680 829.710 829.740 829.770 829.800 829.830
829.440 829.470 829.500 829.530 829.560 829.590 829.620
829.230 829.260 829.290 829.320 829.350 829.380 829.410
829.020 829.050 829.080 829.110 829.140 829.170 829.200
828.810 828.840 828.870 828.900 828.930 828.960 828.990
828.600 828.630 828.660 828.690 828.720 828.750 828.780
828.390 828.420 828.450 828.480 828.510 828.540 828.570 Channels
828.180 828.210 828.240 828.270 828.300 828.330 828.360
827.970 828.000 828.030 828.060 828.090 828.120 828.150
827.760 827.790 827.820 827.850 827.880 827.910 827.940
827.550 827.580 827.610 827.640 827.670 827.700 827.730
827.340 827.370 827.400 827.430 827.460 827.490 827.520
827.130 827.160 827.190 827.220 827.250 827.280 827.310
826.920 826.950 826.980 827.010 827.040 827.070 827.100
826.710 826.740 826.770 826.800 826.830 826.860 826.890
826.500 826.530 826.560 826.590 826.620 826.650 826.680
826.290 826.320 826.350 826.380 826.410 826.440 826.470
826.080 826.110 826.140 826.170 826.200 826.230 826.260
825.870 825.900 825.930 825.960 825.990 826.020 826.050
825.660 825.690 825.720 825.750 825.780 825.810 825.840
825.450 825.480 825.510 825.540 825.570 825.600 825.630
825.240 825.270 825.300 825.330 825.360 825.390 825.420
825.030 825.060 825.090 825.120 825.150 825.180 825.210

Monitoring of the base sites is obviously going to be easier than
monitoring the mobiles. The cell base sites are towers (usually blue) with a
triangle shaped "head" on top, and sporting a couple of what appear to be
vertical antennas. These base sites have a range of 3-5 miles. If you take a
look at the honeycomb diagram, you can see how they are laid out. The cell
transmitter is in the middle of the cell. It is possible to hear many, most,
or all of the cells in your city, depending on your location. The closer you
live to a boundary, the greater the chances of your being able to receive more
cells. Due to the nature of radio signals, the actual cell shape is more or
less round. However, the hexagon shape lends itself better to show how the
system is laid out. With a circular coverage area, there will be some
overlapping between adjacent cells.

__ __
\__/C \__/D \__
\__/G \__/A \__/
_/D \__/E \__/F \__
\__/B \__*C \__/
_/F \__/G \__/A \__
\__/D \__/E \__/
_/A \__/B \__/C \__
\__/ \__/ \__/

If, for example, you live near the asterisk (*) in the above diagram, you
will be able go easily hear the G, C, E, and A cells you're near. Since the
maximum _practical_ range of a cell is 3-5 miles, you'll be able to hear them
a bit farther away. However, due to the nature of the FM transceivers at the
cell sites (they capture only the _strongest_ signal), you should be able to
hear all seven cells. Which _one_ of each cell you hear will depend on your
location and the strength of the received signal. In the above diagram,
you'll most likely hear the F cell in the upper right, rather than the one on
the left.

Mobile reception is almost a waste of time unless you have an outdoor
antenna. And, since the mobile will be repeated on the cell site, it's better
to listen to the cell frequencies. You may not be able to hear both sides of
the conversation if you listen only to the mobile frequencies!!! It is useful,
however, for determining which channel cell you're in. If you use the antenna
that came with the scanner, mobile range will be decreased down to 1 or 2
miles. By checking the scanner readout against the cell list above
(825.030-844.980 MHz), you can tell what cell the mobile is in. This is also
useful on the cell site frequencies. If you hear someone say, "I'm at the
corner of highway FF and 37," and you know where the cell site antenna is in
that area, you can check the frequency listing above and determine what cell
that antenna belongs to.

===============================================================================

The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 and CMT

===============================================================================

The ECPA, passed in 1986, is partly responsible for the extreme interest
in CMT monitoring. After all, if you tell someone they can't listen to these
phone calls, they'll immediately want to do so. "There must be _something_
going on there that's either interesting or important. Why else would they
want to keep us from listening?" seems to be the predominant reaction.

Be assured that it is illegal under the ECPA to listen to cellular phone
calls. This law was passed mainly to satisfy the CMT manufacturers. They can
now tell their customers that their conversations are 'protected by federal
law.' However, when this law was drawn up, it was obviously felt to be too
narrow in its views, since it protected only one service. So it was amended
to include various services, such as microwaves, some satellites, broadcast
STL links (studio-transmitter links), and the descrambling of scrambled
signals.

However, from the very beginning, the government has shown an extremely
bored attitude when it comes to the ECPA. There is virtually no attempt at
enforcement, unless it's a case involving blackmail, or an overt attempt is
being made to provide radios with CMT-specific frequencies. In the latter
case, a dealer was modifying the radios he was selling. After a government
visit, he agreed not to modify the radios, but he was allowed to include
instructions on how to make the modification. With the Pro-2005 and Pro-2005,
this consists of opening the radio and clipping one diode, an operation that
takes all of 15 minutes, including disassembly.

What does all this mean? You can receive any frequency you wish. There
is literally no way to tell what you're listening to in the privacy of your
home. Your scanner (as well as EVERY radio) _does_ transmit an extremely
small amount of RF energy from the local oscillator, but unless the radio is
in very bad shape, that energy won't go past 40 or 50 feet. The "gummint"
would have to drive around in detection vans with beam antennas, and with
100,000 scanner owners, it's an extremely good bet that they're not even going
to consider thinking about the merest possibility that someone might put this
idea forward to be comtemplated. They've got more important stuff to worry
about. What it comes down to is this: listen to whatever you want to, but
don't divulge it or use the information for personal or illegal gain. That
will get you into deep doo-doo in double-quick time.

Most people have the opinion that if it's unscrambled, and it's passing
freely through their home and body, that they have the right to receive it.
This sounds like good solid thinking. The laws of this land provide for just
compensation to individuals. Perhaps a few bills to CMT companies for
transmission rights would help to remove this silly law from the books.

===============================================================================

The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986

===============================================================================

February 2, 1987


TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I. CRIMES

Chapter Sec.
* * *
General provisions............................................. 1
* * *
119. Wire and electronic communications interception and
interception of oral communications................. 2510
* * *
121. Stored Wire and Electronic Communications and Transactional
Records Access...................................... 2701
* * *


PART II. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

201. General provisions.................................. 3001
* * *
206. Pen Registers and Trap and Trace Devices............ 3121
* * *


CHAPTER 65 - MALICIOUS MISCHIEF

Sec.
* * *
1367. Interference with the operation of a satellite.
* * *

{ 1367. Interference with the operation of a satellite

(a) Whoever, without the authority of the satellite operator,
intentionally or maliciously interferes with the authorized operation of a
communications or weather satellite or obstructs or hinders any satellite
transmission shall be fined in accordance with this title or imprisoned not
more than ten years of both.

(b) This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized
investigative, protective, or intelligence activity of a law enforcement
agency or of an intelligence agency of the United States.

* * *
CHAPTER 109 - SEARCHES AND SEIZURES
* * *

{ 2232. Destruction or removal of property to prevent seizure

(a) Physical Interference With Search. -- Whoever, before, during, or
after seizure of any property by any person authorized to make searches and
seizures, in order to prevent the seizure or securing of any goods, wares,
or merchandise by such person, staves, breaks, throws overboard, destroys,
or removes the same, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned more
than five years, or both.

(b) Notice of Search. -- Whoever, having knowledge that any person
authorized to make searches and seizures has been authorized or is otherwise
likely to make a search or seizure, in order to prevent the authorized
seizing or securing of any per- son, goods, wares, merchandise or other
property, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible search or
seizure to any person shall be fined not more than $100,000 or imprisoned
not more than five years, or both.

(c) Notice of Certain Electronic Surveillance. -- Whoever, having
knowledge that a Federal investigative or law enforcement officer has been
authorized or has applied for authorization under chapter 119 to intercept a
wire, oral, or electronic communication, in order to obstruct, impede, or
prevent such interception, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the
possible interception to any person shall be fined under this title or
imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

Whoever, having knowledge that a Federal officer has been
authorized or has applied for authorization to conduct electronic
surveillance under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (50 U.S.C.
1801, et seq.), in order to obstruct, impede, or prevent such activity,
gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible activity to any
person shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five
years, or both.

* * *

CHAPTER 119 -- WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS
INTERCEPTION AND INTERCEPTION OF ORAL COMMUNICATIONS

Sec.
2510. Definitions.

2511. Interception and disclosure of wire or oral communications
prohibited.

2512. Manufacture, distribution, possession, and advertising of
wire or oral communication intercepting devices
prohibited.

2513. Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication
intercepting devices.

2514. Immunity of witnesses.

2515. Prohibition of use as evidence of intercepted wire, oral,
or electronic communications.

2516. Authorization for interception of wire, oral, or electronic
communications.

2517. Authorization for disclosure and use of intercepted wire,
oral, or electronic communications.

2518. Procedure for interception of wire, oral, or electronic
communications.

2519. Reports concerning intercepted wire, oral or electronic
communications.

2520. Recovery of civil damages authorized.

2521. Injunction against illegal interception.


{ 2510. Definitions

As used in this chapter --

(1) "wire communication" means any aural transfer made in whole
or in part through the use of facilities for the transmission of
communications by the aid of wire, cable, or other like connection
between the point of origin and the point of reception (including the
use of such connection in a switching station) furnished or operated by
any person engaged in providing or operating such facilities for the
transmission of interstate or foreign communications or communications
affecting interstate or foreign commerce and such term includes any
electronic storage of such communication, but such term does not
include the radio portion of a cordless telephone communication that is
transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the base unit;

(2) "oral communication" means any oral communication uttered by
a person exhibiting an expectation that such communication is not
subject to interception under circumstances justifying such
expectation, but such term does not include any electronic
communication;

* * *

(4) "intercept" means the aural or other acquisition of the
contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication through the use
of any electronic, mechanical, or other device.

(5) "electronic mechanical, or other device" means any device or
apparatus which can be used to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic
communication other than --


(a) any telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment or
facility, or any component thereof, (i) furnished to the
subscriber or user by a provider of wire or electronic
communication service in the ordinary course of its business and
being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of its
business or furnished by such subscriber or user for connection to
the facilities of such service and used in the ordinary course of
its business; or (ii) being used by a communications common
carrier in the ordinary course of its business, or by an
investigative or law enforcement officer in the ordinary course of
his duties;

* * *

(8) "contents", when used with respect to any wire, oral, or
electronic communication, includes any information concerning the
substance, purport, or meaning of that communication;

(9) "Judge of competent jurisdiction" means --

(a) a judge of a United States district court or a United
States court of appeals; and

(b) a judge of any court of general criminal jurisdiction of
a State who is authorized by a statute of that State to enter
orders authorizing interceptions of wire, oral, or electronic
communications;

(10) "communication common carrier" shall have the same meaning
which is given the term "common carrier" by section 153(h) of title 47
of the United States Code;

(11) "aggrieved person" means a person who was a party to any
intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communication or a person against
whom the interception was directed;

(12) "electronic communication" means any transfer of signs,
signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature
transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic,
photoelectronic or photo optical system that affects interstate or
foreign commerce, but does not include --

(A) the radio portion of a cordless telephone communication
that is transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the
base unit;

(B) any wire or oral communication;

(C) any communication made through a tone-only paging
device; or

(D) any communication from a tracking device (as defined in
section 3117 of this title);

(13) "user" means any person or entity who --

(A) uses an electronic communication service; and

(B) is duly authorized by the provider of such service to
engage in such use;

(14) "electronic communications system" means any wire, radio,
electromagnetic, photooptical or photoelectronic facilities for the
transmission of electronic communications, and any computer facilities
or related electronic equipment for the electronic storage of such
communications;

(15) "electronic communication service" means any service which
provides to users thereof the ability to send or receive wire or
electronic communications;

(16) "readily accessible to the general public" means, with
respect to a radio communication, that such communication is not --

(A) scrambled or encrypted;

(B) transmitted using modulation techniques whose essential
parameters have been withheld from the public with the intention
of preserving the privacy of such communication;

(C) carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a
radio transmission;

(D) transmitted over a communication system provided by a
common carrier, unless the communication is a tone only paging
system communication; or

(E) transmitted on frequencies allocated under part 25,
subpart D, E, or F of part 74, or part 94 of the Rules of the
Federal Communications Commission, unless, in the case of a
communication transmitted on a frequency allocated under part 74
that is not exclusively allocated to broadcast auxiliary services,
the communication is a two-way voice communication by radio;


(17) "electronic storage" means --

(A) any temporary, intermediate storage of a wire or
electronic communication incidental to the electronic transmission
thereof; and

(B) any storage of such communication by an electronic
communication service for purposes of backup protection of such
communication; and

(18) "aural transfer" means a transfer containing the human voice
at any point between and including the point of origin and the point of
reception.


{ 2511. Interception and disclosure of wire or oral
communications prohibited

(1) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter any
person who--

(a) intentionally intercepts, endeavors to intercept, or procures
any other person to intercept or endeavor to intercept, any wire, oral,
or electronic communication;

(b) intentionally uses, endeavors to use, or procures any other
person to use or endeavor to use any electronic, mechanical, or other
device to intercept any oral communication when --

(i) such device is affixed to, or otherwise transmits a
signal through, a wire, cable, or other like connection used in
wire communication; or

(ii) such device transmits communications by radio, or
interferes with the transmission of such communication; or

(iii) such person knows, or has reason to know, that such
device or any component thereof has been sent through the mail or
transported in interstate or foreign commerce; or

(iv) such use or endeavor to use (A) takes place on the
premises of any business or other commercial establishment the
operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or (B)
obtains or is for the purpose of obtaining information relating to
the operations of any business or other commercial establishment
the operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or

(v) such person acts in the District of Columbia, the
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the
United States;

(c) intentionally discloses, or endeavors to disclose, to any
other person the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic
communication, knowing or have reason to know that the information was
obtained through the interception of a wire oral, or electronic
communication in violation of this subsection; or

(d) intentionally uses, or endeavors to use, the contents of any
wire, oral, or electronic communication, knowing or having reason to
know that the information was obtained through the interception of a
wire, oral, or electronic communication in violation of this
subsection; shall be punished as provided in subsection (4) or shall be
subject to suit as provided in subsection (5).

(2)(a)(i) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an operator
of a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or agent of a provider of wire or
electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in the
transmission of a wire communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that
communication in the normal course of his employment while engaged in any
activity which is a necessary incident to the rendition of his service or to
the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service,
except that a provider of wire communication service to the public shall not
utilize service observing or random monitoring except for mechanical or
service quality control checks.

(ii) Notwithstanding any other law, providers of wire or electronic
communication service, their officers, employees, and agents, landlords,
custodians, or other persons, are authorized to provide information
facilities, or technical assistance to persons authorized by law to
intercept wire, oral, or electronic communications or to conduct electronic
surveillance, as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence
Surveillance Act of 1978, if such provider its officers, employees, or
agents, land- lord, custodian, or other specified person has been provided
with --

(A) a court order directing such assistance signed by the
authorizing judge, or

(B) a certification in writing by a person specified in section
2518(7) of this title or the Attorney General of the United States that
no warrant or court order is required by law, that all statutory
requirements have been met, and that the specified assistance is
required.

setting forth the period of time during which the provision of the
information, facilities, or technical assistance is authorized and
specifying the information, facilities, or technical assistance required.
No provider of wire or electronic communication service officer, employee,
or agent thereof, or landlord, custodian, or other specified person shall
disclose the existence of any interception or surveillance of the device
used to accomplish the interception or surveillance with respect to which
the person has been furnished an order or certification under this
subparagraph, except as may otherwise be required by legal process and then
only after prior notification to the Attorney General or to the principal
prosecuting attorney of a State or any political subdivision of a State, as
may be appropriate. Any such disclosure, shall render such person liable
for the civil damages provided for in section 2520. No cause of action
shall lie in any court against any provider of wire or electronic
communication service its officers, employees, or agents, landlord,
custodian, or other specified person for providing information, facilities,
or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order or certification
under this chapter.

(b) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an officer,
employee, or agent of the Federal Communications Commission, in the normal
course of his employment and in discharge of the monitoring responsibilities
exercised by the Commission in the enforcement of chapter 5 of title 57 of
the United States Code, to intercept a wire or electronic communication, or
oral communication transmitted by radio, or to disclose or use the
information thereby obtained.

(c) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person acting
under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication,
where such person is a party to the communication or one of the parties to
the communication has given prior consent to such interception.

(d) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person not
acting under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic
communication where such person is a party to the communication or where one
of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such
interception unless such communication is intercepted for the purpose of
committing any criminal or tortious act in violation of the Constitution or
laws of the United States or of any State.

(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title or section 705
or 706 of the Communications Act of 1934, it shall not be unlawful for an
office, employee, or agent of the United States in the normal course of his
official duty to conduct electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101
of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as authorized by that
Act.


(f) Nothing contained in this chapter or chapter 121, or section 705
of the Communications Act of 1934, shall be deemed to affect the acquisition
by the United States Government of foreign intelligence information from
international or foreign communication, or foreign intelligence activities
conducted in accordance with otherwise applicable Federal law involving a
foreign electronic communications system, utilizing a means other than
electronic surveillance as defined in section 101 of the Foreign
Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, and procedures in this chapter and
the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 shall be the exclusive
means by which electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of such
Act, and the interception of domestic wire and oral communications may be
conducted.

(g) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter or chapter 121 of this
title for any person --

(i) to intercept or access an electronic communication made
through an electronic communication system that is configured so that
such electronic communication is readily accessible to the general
public;

(ii) to intercept any radio communication which is transmitted --

(I) by any station for the use of the general public, or
that relates to ships, aircraft, vehicles, or persons in distress;

(II) by any governmental, law enforcement, civil defense
private land mobile, or public safety communications system,
including police and fire, readily accessible to the general
public;

(III) by a station operating on an authorized frequency
within the bands allocated to the amateur, citizens band, or
general mobile radio services; or

(IV) by any marine or aeronautical communications system;

(iii) to engage in any conduct which --

(I) is prohibited by section 633 of the Communications Act
of 1934; or

(II) is excepted from the application of section 705(a) of
the Communications Act of 1934 by section 705(b) of that Act;

(iv) to intercept any wire or electronic communication the
transmission of which is causing harmful interference to any lawfully
operating station or consumer electronic equipment, to the extent
necessary to identify the source of such interference; or

(v) for other users of the same frequency to intercept any radio
communication made through a system that utilizes frequencies monitored
by individuals engaged in the provision or the use of such system, if
such communication is not scrambled or encrypted.

(h) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter --

(i) to use a pen register or a trap and trace device (as those
terms are defined for the purposes of chapter 206 (relating to pen
registers and trap and trace devices) of this title); or

(ii) for a provider of electronic communication service to record
the fact that a wire or electronic communication was initiated or
completed in order to protect such provider, another provider
furnishing service toward the completion of the wire or electronic
communication, or a user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or
abusive use of such service.

(3)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection a
person or entity providing an electronic communication service to the public
shall not intentionally divulge the contents of any communication (other
than one to such person or entity, or an agent thereof) while in
transmission on that service to any person or entity other than an addressee
or intended recipient of such communication or an agent of such addressee or
intended recipient.

(b) A person or entity providing electronic communication service to
the public may divulge the contents of any such communication --

(i) as otherwise authorized in section 2511(2)(a) or 2517 of this
title;

(ii) with the lawful consent of the originator or any addressee
or intended recipient of such communication;

(iii) to a person employed or authorized, or whose facilities are
used, to forward such communication to its destination; or

(iv) which were inadvertently obtained by the service provider
and which appear to pertain to the commission of a crime, if such
divulgence is made to a law enforcement agency.

(4)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection or in
subsection (5), whoever violates subsection (1) of this section shall be
fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(b) If the offense is a first offense under paragraph (a) of this
subsection and is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of
direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain, and the
wire or electronic communication with respect to which the offense under
paragraph (a) is a radio communication that is not scrambled or encrypted,
then --

(i) If the communication is not the radio portion of a cellular
telephone communication, a public land mobile radio service
communication or a paging service communication, and the conduct is not
that described in subsection (5), the offender shall be fined under
this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both, and

(ii) if the communication is the radio portion of a cellular
telephone communication, a public land mobile radio service
communication or a paging service communication, the offender shall be
fined not more than $500.

(c) Conduct otherwise an offense under this subsection that consists
of or relates to the interception of a satellite transmission that is not
encrypted or scrambled and that is transmitted --

(i) to a broadcasting station for purposes of retransmission to
the general public; or

(ii) as an audio subcarrier intended for redistribution to
facilities open to the public, but not including data transmissions or
telephone calls,

is not an offense under this subsection unless the conduct is for the
purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private financial
gain.

(5)(a)(i) If the communication is --

(A) a private satellite video communication that is not scrambled
or encrypted and the conduct in violation of this chapter is the
private viewing of that communication and is not for a tortious or
illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial
advantage or private commercial gain; or

(B) a radio communication that is transmitted on frequencies
allocated under subpart D of part 74 of the rules of the Federal
Communications Commission that is not scrambled or encrypted and the
conduct in violation of this chapter is not for a tortious or illegal
purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or
private commercial gain.

then the person who engages in such conduct shall be subject to suit by the
Federal Government in a court of competent jurisdiction.

(ii) In an action under this subsection --

(A) if the violation of this chapter is a first offense for the
person under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) and such person has not
been found liable in a civil action under section 2520 of this title,
the Federal Government shall be entitled to appropriate injunctive
relief; and

(B) if the violation of this chapter is a second or subsequent
offense under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) or such person has been
found liable in any prior civil action under section 2520, the person
shall be subject to a mandatory $500 civil fine.

(b) The court may use any means within its authority to enforce an
injunction issued under paragraph (ii)(A), and shall impose a civil fine of
not less than $500 for each violation of such an injunction,


{ 2512. Manufacture, distribution, possession, and advertising of wire
or oral communication intercepting devices prohibited

(1) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, any
person who intentionally --

(a) sends through the mail, or sends or carriers in interstate or
foreign commerce, any electronic, mechanical, or other device, knowing
or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it
primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of
wire, oral, or electronic communications;

(b) manufacturers, assembles, possesses, or sells any electronic,
mechanical, or other device, knowing or having reason to know that the
design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of
the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic
communications, and that such device or any component thereof has been
or will be sent through the mail or transported in interstate or
foreign commerce; or

(c) places in any newspaper, magazine, handbill, or other
publication any advertisement of--

(i) any electronic, mechanical, or other device knowing or
having reason to know that the design of such device renders it
primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception
of wire, oral, or electronic communications; or

(ii) any other electronic, mechanical, or other device, where
such advertisement promotes the use of such device for the purpose
of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic
communications,

knowing or having reason to know that such advertisement will be sent
through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce,

shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years,
or both.

(2) It shall not be unlawful under this section for-

(a) a provider of wire or electronic communication service or an
officer, agent, or employee of, or a person under contract with, such a
provider, in the normal course of the business of providing that wire
or electronic communication service, or

(b) an officer, agent, or employee of, or a person under contract
with, the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof,
in the normal course of the activities of the United States, a State,
or a political subdivision thereof, to send through the mail, send or
carry in interstate or foreign commerce, or manufacture, assemble,
possess, or sell any electronic, mechanical, or other device knowing or
having reason to know that the design of such device renders it
primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of
wire, oral, or electronic communications.

{ 2513. Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication
intercepting devices

Any electronic, mechanical, or other device used, sent, carried,
manufactured, assembled, possessed, sold, or advertised in violation of
section 2511 or section+ 2512 of this chapter may be seized and forfeited to
the United States. All provisions of law relating to (1) the seizure,
summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of vessels, vehicles,
merchandise, and baggage for violations of the customs laws contained in
title 19 of the United States Code, (2) the disposition of such vessels, -
vehicles, merchandise, and baggage or the proceeds from the sale thereof,
(3) the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture, (4) the compromise of
claims, and (5) the award of compensation to informers in respect of such
forfeitures, shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to
have been incurred, under the provisions of this section, insofar as
applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this section; except
that such duties as are imposed upon the collector of customs or any other
person with respect to the seizure and forfeiture of vessels, vehicles,
merchandise, and baggage under the provisions of the customs laws contained
in title 19 of the United States Code shall be performed with respect to
seizure and forfeiture of electronic, mechanical, or other intercepting
devices under this section by such officers, agents, or other persons as may
be authorized or designated for that purpose of the Attorney General.

{ 2515. Prohibition of use as evidence of intercepted wire, oral, or
electronic communications

Whenever any wire, oral, or electronic communications has been
intercepted, no part of the contents of such communication and no evidence
derived therefrom may be received in evidence in any trial, hearing, or
other proceeding in or before any court, grand jury, department, officer,
agency, regulatory body, legislative committee, or other authority of the
United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof if the disclosure
of that information would be in violation of this chapter.


{ 2516. Authorization for interception of wire, oral, or electronic
communications

(1) The Attorney General, Deputy Attorney General, Associate Attorney
General, any Assistant Attorney General, any acting Assistant Attorney
General, or any Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Criminal Division
specially designated by the Attorney General, may authorize an application
to a Federal judge of competent jurisdiction for, and such judge may grant
in conformity with section 2518 of this chapter an order authorizing or
approving the interception of wire of oral communications by the Federal
Bureau of Investigation, or a Federal agency having responsibility for the
investigation of the offense as to which the application is made, when such
interception may provide or has provided evidence of-

(a) any offense punishable by death or by imprisonment for more
than one year under sections 2274 through 2277 of title 42 of the
United States Code (relating to the enforcement of the Atomic Energy
Act of 1954), section 2284 of title 42 of the United States Code
(relating to sabotage of nuclear facilities or fuel), or under the
following chapters of this title: chapter 37 (relating to espionage),
chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), chapter 115 (relating to treason),
chapter 192 (relating to riots), chapter 65 (relating to malicious
matter mischief), chapter 111 (relating to destruction of vessels), or
chapter 81 (relating to piracy);

(b) a violation of section 186 or section 501(c) of title 29,
United States Code (dealing with restrictions on payments and loans to
labor organizations), or any offense which involves murders,
kidnapping, robbery, or extortion, and which is punishable under this
title;

c) any offense which is punishable under the following section
of this title: section 201 (bribery of public officials and
witnesses), section 224 (bribery in sporting contests), subsection (d),
(e), (f), (g), (h), or (i) of section 844 (unlawful use of explosives),
section 1084 (transmission of wagering information), section 751
(relating to escape), sections 1503, 1512, and 1513 (influencing or
injuring an officer, juror, or witness generally), section 1510
(obstruction of criminal investigations), section 1511 (obstruction of
State or local law enforcement), section 1751 (Presidential and
Presidential staff assassination, kidnapping, and assault), section
1951 (interference with commerce by threats or violence), section 1952
(interstate and foreign travel or transportation in aid of racketeering
enterprises), section 1952A (relating to use of interstate commerce
facilities in the commission of murder for hire), section 1952B
(relating to violent crimes in aid of racketeering activity), section
1954 (offer acceptance, or solicitation to influence operations of
employee benefit plan), section 1955 (prohibition of business
enterprises of gambling), section 659 (theft from interstate shipment),
section 664 (embezzlement from pension and welfare funds), section 1343
(fraud by wire, radio, or television), section 2252 or 2253 (sexual
exploitation of children), Section 2251 and 2252 (sexual exploitation
of children), section 2312, 2313, 2314, and 2315 (interstate

transportation of stolen property), the second section 2320 (relating
to trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts),
section 1203 (relating to hostage taking), section 1029 (relating to
fraud and related activity in connection with access devices), section
3146 (relating to penalty for failure to appear), section 3521(b)(3)
(relating to witness relocation and assistance), section 32 (relating
to destruction of aircraft or aircraft facilities), section 1963
violations with respect to racketeer influenced and corrupt
organizations), section 115 (relating to threatening or retaliating
against a Federal official), the section in chapter 65 relating to
destruction of an energy facility, and section 1341 (relating to mail
fraud), section 351 (violations with respect to congressional, Cabinet,
or Supreme Court assassination, kidnapping, and assault), section 831
(relating to prohibited transaction involving nuclear materials),
section 33 (relating to destruction of motor vehicles or motor vehicle
facilities), or section 1992 (relating to wrecking trains);

(d) any offense involving counterfeiting punishable under section
471, 472, or 473 of this title;

(e) any offense involving fraud connected with a case under title
11 or the manufacture, importation, receiving, concealment, buying,
selling, or otherwise dealing in narcotic drugs, marijuana, or other
dangerous drugs, punishable under any law of the United States;

(f) any offense including extortionate credit transactions under
sections 892, 893, or 894 of this title;

(g) a violation of section 5322 of title 31, United States Code
(dealing with the reporting of currency transactions);

(h) any felony violation of sections 511 and 2512 (relating to
interception and disclosure of certain communications and to certain
intercepting devices) of this title;

(i) any violation of section 1679(c)(2) (relating to destruction
of a natural gas pipeline) or subsection (i) or (n) of the United
States Code;

(j) any criminal violation of section 2778 of title 22 (relating
to the Arms Export Control Act); or

(k) the location of any fugitive from justice from an offense
described in this section; or

(l) any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses.

(2) The principal prosecuting attorney of any State, or the principal
prosecuting attorney of any political subdivision thereof, if such attorney
is authorized by a statute of that State to make application to a State
court judge of competent jurisdiction for an order authorizing or approving
the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, may apply to
such judge for, and such judge may grant in conformity with section 2518 of
this chapter and with the applicable State statute an order authorizing, or
approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications by
investigative or law enforcement of officers having responsibility for the
investigation of the offense as to which the application is made, when such
interception may provide or has provided evidence of the commission of the
offense of murder, kidnapping, gambling, robbery, bribery, extortion, or
dealing in narcotic drugs, marijuana or other dangerous drugs, or other
crime dangerous to life, limb, or property, and punishable by imprisonment
for more than one year, designated in any applicable State statute
authorizing such interception, or any conspiracy to commit any of the
foregoing offenses.

(3) Any attorney for the Government (as such term is defined for the
purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure) may authorize an
application to a Federal judge of competent jurisdiction for, and such judge
may grant, in conformity with section 2518 of this title, an order
authorizing or approving the interception of electronic communications by an
investigative or law enforcement officer having responsibility for the
investigation of the offense s to which the application is made, when such
interception may provide or has provided evidence of any Federal felony.

{ 2517. Authorization for disclosure and use of intercepted
wire, oral, or electronic communication

(1) Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by any means
authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any
wire, oral, or electronic communication, or evidence derived therefrom may
disclose such contents to another investigative or law enforcement officer
to the extent that such disclosure is appropriate to the proper performance
of the official duties of the officer making or receiving the disclosure.

(2) Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by an means
authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any
wire, oral, or electronic communication or evidence derived therefrom any
use such contents to the extent such use is appropriate to the proper
performance of his official duties.

(3) Any person who has received, by any means authorized by this
chapter, any information concerning a wire, oral, or electronic
communication, or evidence derived therefrom intercepted in accordance with
the provisions of this chapter may disclose the contents of that
communication or such derivative evidence while giving testimony under oath
or affirmation in any proceeding held under the authority of the United
States of of any State or political subdivision thereof.

(4) No otherwise privileged wire, oral, or electronic communication
intercepted in accordance with, or in violation of, the provisions of this
chapter shall lose its privileged character.

(5) When an investigative or law enforcement officer, while engaged in
intercepting wire or oral communications in the manner authorized herein,
intercepts wire, oral, or electronic communications relating to offenses
other than those specified in the order of authorization or approval, the
contents thereof, and evidence derived therefrom, may be disclosed or used
as provided in subsections (1) and (2) of this section. Such contents and
any evidence derived therefrom may be used under subsection (3) of this
section when authorized or approved by a judge of competent jurisdiction
where such judge finds on subsequent application that the contents were
otherwise intercepted in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.
Such application shall be made as soon as practicable.


{ 2518. Procedure for interception of wire, oral, or electronic
communications

(1) Each application for an order authorizing or approving the
interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication under this chapter
shall be made in writing upon oath or affirmation to a judge of competent
jurisdiction and shall state the applicant's authority to make such
application. Each application shall include the following information:

(a) the identity of the investigative or law enforcement officer
making the application, and the officer authorizing the application;

(b) a full and complete statement of the facts and circumstances
relied upon by the applicant, to justify his belief that an order
should be issued, including (i) details as to the particular offense
that has been, is being, or is about to be committed, (ii) except as
provided in subsection (11), a particular description of the nature and
location of the facilities from which or the place where the
communication is to be intercepted, (iii) a particular description of
the type of communications sought to be intercepted, (iv) the identity
of the person, if known, committing the offense and whose
communications are to be intercepted;

(c) a full and complete statement as to whether or not other
investigative procedures have been tried and failed or why they
reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too
dangerous;

(d) a statement of the period of time for which the interception
is required to be maintained. If the nature of the investigation is
such that the authorization for interception should not automatically
terminate when the described type of communication has been first
obtained, a particular description of facts establishing probable cause
to believe that additional communications of the same type will occur
thereafter;

(e) a full and complete statement of the facts concerning all
previous applications known to the individual authorizing and making
the application, made to any judge for authorization to intercept, or
for approval of interceptions of, wire, oral, or electronic
communications involving any of the same persons, facilities or places
specified in the application; and

(f) where the application is for the extension of an order, a
statement setting forth the results thus far obtained from the
interception, or a reasonable explanation of the failure to obtain such
results.

(2) The judge may require the applicant to furnish additional
testimony or documentary evidence in support of the application.

(3) Upon such application the judge may enter an ex parte order, as
requested or as modified, authorizing or approving interception of wire,
oral or electronic communications within the territorial jurisdiction of the
court in which the judge is sitting (and outside that jurisdiction but
within the United States in the case of a mobile interception device
authorized by a Federal court within such jurisdiction) if the judge
determines on the basis of the facts submitted by the applicant that-

(a) there is probable cause for belief that an individual is
committing, has committed, or is about to commit a particular offense
enumerated in section 2516 of this chapter;

(b) there is probable cause for brief that particular
communications concerning that offense will be obtained through such
interception;

(c) normal investigative procedures have been tried and have
failed or reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be
too dangerous;

(d) except as provided in subsection (11), there is probable
cause for belief that the facilities from which, or the place where the
wire, oral, or electronic communications are to be intercepted are
being used, or are about to be used, in connection with the commission
of such offense, or are leased to, listed in the name of, or commonly
used by such person.

(4) Each order authorizing or approving the interception of any wire,
oral, or electronic communication under this chapter shall specify-

(a) the identity of the person, if known, whose communications
are to be intercepted;

(b) the nature and location of the communications facilities as
to which, or the place where, authority to intercept is granted;

(c) a particular description of the type of communication sought
to be intercepted, and a statement of the particular offense to which
it relates;

(d) the identity of the agency authorized to intercept the
communications, and of the person authorizing the application; and

(e) the period of time during which such interception is
authorized, including a statement as to whether or not the interception
shall automatically terminate when the described communication has been
first obtained.

An order authorizing the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic
communication under this chapter shall, upon request of the applicant,
direct that a provider of wire or electronic communication service,
landlord, custodian or other person shall furnish the applicant forthwith
all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to
accomplish the interception unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference
with the services that such service provider, landlord, custodian, or person
is according the person whose communications are to be intercepted. Any
provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian or
other person furnishing such facilities or technical assistance shall be
compensated therefor by the applicant for reasonable express incurred in
providing such facilities or assistance.

(5) No order entered under this section may authorize or approve the
interception of any wire, oral, or electronic communication for any period
longer than is necessary to achieve the objective of the authorization nor
in any event longer than thirty days. Such thirty-day period begins on the
earlier of the day on which the investigative or law enforcement officer
first begins to conduct an interception under the order or ten days after
the order is entered. Extensions of an order may be granted, but only upon
application for an extension made in accordance with subsection (1) of this
section and the court making the findings required by subsection (3) of this
section. The period of extension shall be no longer than the authorizing
judge deems necessary to achieve the purposes for which it was granted and
in no event for longer than thirty days. Every order and extension thereof
shall contain a provision that the authorization to intercept shall be
executed as soon as practicable, shall be conducted in such a way as to
minimize the interception of communications not otherwise, subject to
interception under this chapter, and must terminate upon attainment of the
authorized objective, or in any event in thirty days. In the event the
intercepted communications is in a code or foreign language, and an expert
in that foreign language or code is not reasonably available during the
interception period, minimization may be accomplished as soon as practicable
after such interception. An interception under this chapter may be
conducted in whole or in part by Government personnel, or by an individual
operating under a contract with the Government, acting under the supervision
of an investigative or law enforcement officer authorized to conduct the
interception.

(6) Whenever an order authorizing interception is entered pursuant to
this chapter, the order may require reports to be made to the judge who
issued the order showing what progress has been made toward achievement of
the authorized objective and the need for continued interception. Such
reports shall be made at such intervals as the judge may require.

(7) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any
investigative or law enforcement officer, specially designated by the
Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney
General, or by the principal prosecuting attorney of any State or
subdivision thereof acting pursuant of that State, who reasonably determines
that-

(a) an emergency situation exists that involves-

(i) immediate danger of death or serious physical injury to
any person;

(ii) conspiratorial activities threatening the national
security interest; or

(iii) conspiratorial activities characteristic of organized
crime,

that requires a wire, oral, or electronic communication to be
intercepted before an order authorizing such interception can, with due
diligence, be obtained, and

(b) there are grounds upon which an order could be entered under
this chapter to authorize such interception.

may intercept such wire, oral, or electronic communication if an application
for an order approving the interception is made in accordance with this
section within forty-eight hours after the interception has occurred, or
begins to occur. In the absence of an order, such interception shall
immediately terminate when the communication sought is obtained or when the
application for the order is denied, whichever is earlier. In the event
such application for approval is denied, or in any other case where the
interception is terminated without an order having been issued, the contents
of any wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted shall be treated
as having been obtained in violation of this chapter, and an inventory shall
be served as provided for in subsection (d) of this section on the person
named in the application.

(8)(a) The contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication
intercepted by any means authorized by this chapter shall, if possible, be
recorded on tape or wire or other comparable device. The recording of the
contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication under this
subsection shall be done in such a way as will protect the recording from
editing or other alterations. Immediately upon the expiration of the period
of the order, or extensions thereof, such recordings shall be made available
to the judge issuing such order and sealed under this directions. Custody
of the recordings shall be wherever the judge orders. They shall not be
destroyed except upon an order of the issuing or denying judge and in any
event shall be kept for ten years. Duplicate recordings may be made for use
or disclosure pursuant to the provisions of subsections (2) and (2) of
section 2517 of this chapter for investigations. The presence of the seal
provided for by this section, or a satisfactory explanation for the absence
thereof, shall be a prerequisite for the use or disclosure of the contents
of any wire, oral, or electronic communication or evidence derived therefrom
under subsection (3) of section 2517.

(b) Applications made and orders granted under this chapter shall be
sealed by the judge. Custody of the applications and orders shall be
wherever the judge directs. Such applications and orders shall be disclosed
only upon a showing of good cause before a judge of competent jurisdiction
and shall not be destroyed except on order of the issuing or denying judge,
and in any event shall be kept for ten years.

(c) Any violation of the provisions of this subsection may be punished
as contempt of the issuing or denying judge.

(d) Within a reasonable time but not later than ninety days after the
filing of an application for an order of approval under section 2518(7)(b)
which is denied or the termination of the period of an order or extensions
thereof, the issuing or denying judge shall cause to be served, on the
persons named in the order or the application, and such other parties to
intercepted communications as the judge may determine in his discretion that
is in the interest of justice, and inventory which shall include notice of-

(1) the fact of the entry of the order or the application;

(2) the date of the entry and the period of authorized, approved
or disapproved interception, or the denial of the application, and

(3) the fact that during the period wire, oral, or electronic
communications were or were not intercepted.

The judge, upon the filing of a motion, may in his discretion make available
to such person or his counsel for inspection such portions of the
intercepted communications, applications and orders as the judge determines
to be in the interest of justice. On an ex parte showing of good cause to a
judge of competent jurisdiction the serving of the inventory required by
this subsection may be postponed.

(9) The contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication
intercepted pursuant to this chapter or evidence derived therefrom shall not
be received in evidence or otherwise disclosed in any trial, hearing, or
other proceeding in a Federal or State court unless each party, not less
then ten days before the trial, hearing, or proceeding, has been furnished
with a copy of the court order, and accompanying application, under which
the interception was authorized or approved. This ten-day period may be
waived by the judge if he finds that it was not possible to furnish the
party with the above information ten days before the trial, hearing, or
proceeding and that the party will not be prejudiced by the delay in
receiving such information.

(10)(a) Any aggrieved person in any trial, hearing, or proceeding in
or before the any court, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, or
other authority of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision
thereof, may move to suppress the contents of any wire or oral communication
intercepted pursuant to this chapter, or evidence derived therefrom, on the
grounds that-

(i) the communication was unlawfully intercepted;

(ii) the order of authorization or approval under which it was
intercepted is insufficient on its face; or

(iii) the interception was not made in conformity with the order
of authorization or approval.

Such motion shall be made before the trial, hearing, or proceeding unless
there was no opportunity to make such motion or the person was not aware of
the grounds of the motion. If the motion is granted, the contents of the
intercepted wire or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom, shall
be treated as having been obtained in violation of this chapter. The judge,
upon the filing of such motion by the aggrieved person, may in his
discretion make available to the aggrieved person or his counsel for
inspection such portions of the intercepted communication or evidence
derived therefrom as the judge determines to be in the interests of justice.

(b) In addition to any other right to appeal, the United States shall
have the right to appeal from an order granting a motion to suppress made
under paragraph (a) of this subsection, or the denial of an application for
an order of approval, if the United States attorney shall certify to the
judge or other official granting such motion or denying such application the
the appeal is not taken for purposes of delay. Such appeal shall be taken
within thirty days after the date the order was entered and shall be
diligently prosecuted.

(c) The remedies and sanctions described in this chapter with respect
to the interception of electronic communications are the only judicial
remedies and sanctions for nonconstitutional violations of this chapter
involving such communications.

(11) The requirements of subsections (1)(b)(ii) and (3)(d) of the
section relating to the specification of the facilities from which, or the
place where, the communication is to be intercepted do not apply if-

(a) in the case of an application with respect to the
interception of an oral communication-

(i) the application is by a federal investigative or law
enforcement officer and is approved by the Attorney General, the
Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, an
Assistant Attorney General, or an acting Assistant Attorney
General;

(ii) the application contains a full and complete statement
as to why such specification is not practical and identifies the
person committing the offense and whose communications are to be
intercepted; and

(iii) the judge finds that such specification is not
practical; and

(b) in the case of an application with respect to a wire or
electronic communication-

(i) the application is by a Federal investigative or law
enforcement officer and is approved by the Attorney General, the
Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, and
Assistant Attorney General, or an acting Assistant Attorney
General;

(ii) the application identifies the person believed to be
committing the offense and whose communications are to be
intercepted and the applicant makes a showing of a purpose, on the
part of that person, to thwart interception by changing
facilities; and

(iii) the judge finds that such purpose has been adequately
shown.

(12) An interception of a communication under an order with respect to
which the requirements of subsections (1)(b)(ii) and (3)(d) of this section
do not apply by reason of subsection (11) shall not begin until the
facilities from which, or the place where, the communication is to be
intercepted is ascertained by the person implementing the interception
order. A provider of wire or electronic communications service that has
received an order as provided for in subsection (11)(b) may move the court
to modify or quash the order on the ground that its assistance with respect
to the interception cannot be performed in a timely or reasonable fashion.
The court, upon notice to the government, shall decide such a motion
expeditiously.

{ 2519. Reports concerning intercepted wire, oral, or electronic
communications

(1) Within thirty days after the expiration of an order (or each
extension thereof) entered under section 2518, or the denial of an order
approving an interception, the issuing or denying judge shall report to the
Administrative Office of the United States Courts-

(a) the fact that an order or extension was applied for;

(b) the kind of order or extension was applied for (including
whether or not the order was an order with respect to which the
requirements of sections 2518(1)(b)(ii) and 2581(3)(d) of this title
did not apply by reason of section 2518(11) of title);

(c) the fact that the order or extension was granted as applied
for, was modified, or was denied;

(d) the period of interceptions authorized by the order, and the
number and duration of any extensions of the order;

(e) the offense specified in the order or application, or
extension or an order;

(f) the identity of the applying investigative or law enforcement
officer and agency making the application and the person authorizing
the application; and

(g) the nature of the facilities from which or the place where
communications were to be intercepted.

(2) In January of each year the Attorney General, an Assistant
Attorney General specially designated by the Attorney General, or the
principal prosecuting attorney of a State, or the principal prosecuting
attorney for any political subdivision of a State, shall report to the
Administrative Office of the United States Courts-

(a) the information required by paragraphs (a) through (g) of
subsection (1) of this section with respect to each application for an
order or extension made during the preceding calendar year;

(b) a general description of the interceptions made under such
order or extension, including (i) the approximate nature and frequency
of incriminating communications intercepted, (ii) the approximate
nature and frequency of other communications intercepted, (iii) the
approximate number of persons whose communications were intercepted,
and (iv) the approximate nature, amount, and cost of the manpower and
other resources used in the interceptions;

(c) the number of arrests resulting from interceptions made under
such order or extension, and the offenses for which arrests were made;

(d) the number of trials resulting from such interceptions;

(e) the number of motions to suppress made with respect to such
interceptions, and the number granted or denied;

(f) the number of convictions resulting from such interceptions
and the offenses for which the convictions were obtained and a general
assessment of the importance of the interceptions; and

(g) the information required by paragraphs (b) through (f) of
this subsection with respect to orders or extensions obtained in a
preceding calendar year.

(3) In April of each year the Director of the Administrative Office of
the United States Courts shall transmit to the Congress a full and complete
report concerning the number of applications for orders authorizing or
approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications
pursuant to this chapter and the number of orders and extensions granted or
denied pursuant to this chapter during the preceding calendar year. Such
report shall include a summary and analysis of the data required to be filed
with the Administrative Office by subsections (1) and (2) of this section.
The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts is
authorized to issue binding regulations dealing with the content and form of
the reports required to be filed by subsections (1) and (2) of this section.


{ 2520. Recovery of civil damages authorized

(a) IN GENERAL,--Except as provided in section 2511(2)(a)(ii), any
person whose wire, oral, or electronic communication is intercepted,
disclosed, or intentionally used in violation of this chapter may in a civil
action recover from the person or entity which engaged in that violation
such relief as may be appropriate.

(b) RELIEF.--In an action under this section, appropriate relief
includes-

(1) such preliminary and other equitable or declaratory relief as
may be appropriate;

(2) damages under subsection (c) and punitive damages in
appropriate cases; and

(3) a reasonable attorney's fee and other litigation costs
reasonably incurred.

(c) COMPUTATION OF DAMAGES.--(1) In an action under this section, if
the conduct is in violation of this chapter is the private viewing of a
private satellite video communication that is not scrambled or encrypted or
if the communication is a radio communication that is transmitted on
frequencies allocated under subpart D of part 74 of the rules of the Federal
Communications Commission that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct
is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or
indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain, then the court
shall assess damages as follows:

(A) If the person who engaged in that conduct has not previously
been enjoined under section 2511(5) and has not been found liable in a
prior civil action under this section, the court shall assess the
greater of the sum of actual damages suffered by the plaintiff, or
statutory damages of not less than $50 and not more than $500.

(B) If, on one prior occasion, the person who engaged in that
conduct has been enjoined under section 2511(5) or has been found
liable in a civil action under this section, the court shall assess the
greater of the sum of actual damages suffered by the plaintiff, or
statutory damages of not less than $100 and not more than $1,000.

(2) In any other action under this section, the court may assess as
damages whichever is the greater of-

(A) the sum of the actual damages suffered by the plaintiff and
any profits made by the violator as a result of the violation; or

(B) statutory damages of whichever is the greater of $100 a day
for each day of violation or $10,000.

(d) DEFENSE.--A good faith reliance on-

(1) a court warrant or order, a grand jury subpoena, a
legislative authorization, or a statutory authorization;

(2) a request of an investigative or law enforcement officer
under section 2518(7) of this title; or

(3) a good faith determination that section 2511(3) of this title
permitted the conduct complained of;

is a complete defense against any civil or criminal action brought under
this chapter or any other law.

(e) LIMITATION.--A civil action under this section may not be
commenced later than two years after the date upon which the claimant first
has a reasonable opportunity to discover the violation.


{ 2521. Injunction against illegal interception

Whenever it shall appear that any person is engaged or is about to
engage in any act which constitutes or will constitute a felony violation of
this chapter, the Attorney General may initiate a civil action in a district
court of the United States to enjoin such violation. The court shall
proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination of such an
action, and may, at any time before final determination, enter such a
restraining order or prohibition, or take such other action, as is warranted
to prevent a continuing and substantial injury to the United States or to
any person or class of persons for whose protection the action is brought.
A proceeding under this section is governed by the Federal Rules of Civil
Procedure, except that, if an indictment has been returned against the
respondent, discovery is governed by the federal Rules of Criminal
Procedure.


CHAPTER 121- STORED WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSACTIONAL
RECORDS ACCESS

Sec.
2701. Unlawful access to stored communications.
2702. Disclosure of contents.
2703. Requirements for governmental access.
2704. Backup preservation.
2705. Delayed notice.
2706. Cost reimbursement.
2707. Civil action.
2708. Exclusivity of remedies.
2709. Counterintelligence access to telephone toll and
transactional records.
2710. Definitions

2701. Unlawful access to stored communications

(a) OFFENSE.- Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section
whoever-

(1) intentionally accesses without authorization a facility through
which an electronic communication service is provided; or

(2) intentionally exceeds an authorization to access that facility;

and thereby obtains, alters, or prevents authorized access to a wire or
electronic communication while it is in electronic storage in such system
shall be punished as provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) PUNISHMENT.- The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) of
this section is-

(1) if the offense is committed for purposes of commercial advantage,
malicious destruction or damage, or private commercial gain-

(A) a fine of not more than $250,000 or imprisonment for not more than
one year, or both, in the case of a first offense under this subparagraph;
and

(B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than two
years, or both, for any subsequent offense under this subparagraph; and

(2) a fine of not more than $5,000 or imprisonment for not more than
six months, or both, in any case.

(c) EXCEPTIONS.- Subsection (a) of this section does not apply with
respect to conduct authorized-

(1) by the person or entity providing a wire or electronic
communications service;

(2) by a user of that service with respect to a communication of or
intended for that user; or

(3) in section 2703, 2704 or 2518 of this title.

{ 2702. Disclosure of contents

(a) PROHIBITIONS.- Except as provided in subsection (b)-

(1) a person or entity operating an electronic communication service to
the public shall not knowingly divulge to any person or entity the contents
of a communication while in electronic storage by that service; and

(2) a person or entity providing remote computing service to the public
shall not knowingly divulge to any person or entity the contents of any
communication which is carried or maintained on that service-

(A) on behalf of, and received by means of electronic transmission from
(or created by means of computer processing of communications received by
means of electronic transmission from), a subscriber or customer of such
service; and

(B) solely for the purpose of providing storage or computer processing
services to such subscriber or customer, if the provider is not authorized
to access the contents of any such communications for purposes of providing
any services other than storage or computer processing.

(b) EXCEPTIONS.- A person or entity may divulge the contents of a
communication-

(1) to an addressee or intended recipient of such communication or an
agent of such addressee or intended recipient;

(2) as otherwise authorized in section 2516, 2511(2)(a), or 2703 of
this title;

(3) with the lawful consent of the originator or an addressee or
intended recipient of such communication, or the subscriber in the case of
remote computing service;

(4) to a person employed or authorized or whose facilities are used to
forward such communication to its destination;

(5) as may be necessarily incident to the rendition of the service or
to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service;
or

(6) to a law enforcement agency, if such contents-

(A) were inadvertently obtained by the service provider; and

(B) appear to pertain to the commission of a crime.

{ 2703. Requirements for governmental access

(a) CONTENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS IN ELECTRONIC STORAGE.- A
governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic
communication service of the contents of an electronic communication, that
is in electronic storage in an electronic communications system for one
hundred and eighty days or less, only pursuant to a warrant issued under the
Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant. A
governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic
communications services of the contents of an electronic communication that
has been in storage in an electronic communications system for more than one
hundred and eighty days by the means available under subsection (b) of this
section.

(b) CONTENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS IN A REMOTE COMPUTING
SERVICE.- (1) A governmental entity may require a provider of remote
computing service to disclose the contents of any electronic communication
to which this paragraph is made applicable by paragraph (2) of this
subsection-

(A) without required notice to the subscriber or customer, if the
governmental entity obtains a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of
Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant; or

(B) with prior notice from the governmental entity to the subscriber or
customer if the governmental entity-

(i) uses an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State
statute or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena; or

(ii) obtains a court order for such disclosure under subsection (d) of
this section; except that delayed notice may be given pursuant to section
2705 of this title.

(2) Paragraph (1) is applicable with respect to any electronic
communication that is held or maintained on that service-

(A) on behalf of, and received by means of electronic transmission from
(or created by means of computer processing of communications received by
means of electronic transmission from), a subscriber or customer of such
remote computing service; and

(B) solely for the purpose of providing storage or computer processing
services to such subscriber or customer, if the provider is not authorized
to access the contents of any such communications for purposes of providing
any services other than storage or computer processing.

(c) RECORDS CONCERNING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION SERVICE OR REMOTE
COMPUTING SERVICE.- (1)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a
provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service may
disclose a record or other information pertaining to a subscriber to or
customer of such service (not including the contents of communications
covered by subsection (a) or (b) of this section) to any person other than a
governmental entity.

(B) A provider of electronic communication service or remote computing
service shall disclose a record or other information pertaining to a
subscriber to or customer of such service (not including the contents of
communications covered by subsection (a) or (b) of this section) to a
governmental entity only when the governmental entity-

(i) uses an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State
statute, or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena;

(ii) obtains a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of Criminal
Procedure or equivalent State warrant;

(iii) obtains a court order for such disclosure under subsection (d) of
this section; or

(iv) has the consent of the subscriber or customer to such disclosure.

(2) A governmental entity receiving records or information under this
subsection is not required to provide notice to a subscriber or customer.

(d) REQUIREMENTS FOR COURT ORDER.- A court order for disclosure under
subsection (b) or (c) of this section shall issue only if the governmental
entity shows that there is reason to believe the contents of a wire or
electronic communication, or the records or other information sought, are
relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry. In the case of a State
governmental authority, such a court order shall not issue if prohibited by
the law of such State. A court issuing an order pursuant to this section,
on a motion made promptly by the service provider, may quash or modify such
order, if the information or records requested are unusually voluminous in
nature or compliance with such order otherwise would cause an undue burden
on such provider.

(e) NO CAUSE OF ACTION AGAINST A PROVIDER DISCLOSING INFORMATION UNDER
THIS CHAPTER.- No cause of action shall lie in any court against any
provider of wire or electronic communication service, its officers,
employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing information,
facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order,
warrant, subpoena or certification under this chapter.

{ 2704. Backup preservation

(a) BACKUP PRESERVATION.- (1) A governmental entity acting under
section 2703(b)(2) may include in its subpoena or court order a requirement
that the service provider to whom the request is directed create a backup
copy of the contents of the electronic communications sought in order to
preserve those communications. Without notifying the subscriber or customer
of such subpoena or court order, such service provider shall create such
backup copy as soon as practicable consistent with its regular business
practices and shall confirm to the governmental entity that such backup copy
has been made. Such backup copy shall be created within two business days
after receipt by the service provider of the subpoena or court order.

(2) Notice to the subscriber or customer shall be made by the
governmental entity within three days after receipt of such confirmation,
unless such notice is delayed pursuant to section 2705(a).

(3) The service provider shall not destroy such backup copy until the
later of --

(A) the delivery of the information; or

(B) the resolution of any proceedings (including appeals of any
proceeding) concerning the government's subpoena or court order.

(4) The service provider shall release such backup copy to the
requesting governmental entity no sooner than fourteen days after the
governmental entity's notice to the subscriber or customer if such service
provider --

(A) has not received notice from the subscriber or customer that the
subscriber or customer has challenged the governmental entity's request; and

(B) has not initiated proceedings to challenge the request of the
governmental entity.

(5) A governmental entity may seek to require the creation of a backup
copy under subsection (a)(1) of this section if in its sole discretion such
entity determines that there is reason to believe that notification under
section 2703 of this title of the existence of the subpoena or court order
may result in destruction of or tampering with evidence. This determination
is not subject to challenge by the subscriber or customer or service
provider.

(b) CUSTOMER CHALLENGES -- (1) Within fourteen days after notice by the
governmental entity to the subscriber or customer under subsection (a)(2) of
this section, such subscriber or customer may file a motion to quash such
subpoena or vacate such court order, with copies served upon the
governmental entity and with written notice of such challenge to the service
provider. A motion to vacate a court order shall be filed in the court
which issued such order. A motion to quash a subpoena shall be filed in the
appropriate United States district court or State court. Such motion or
application shall contain an affidavit or sworn statement --

(A) stating that the applicant is a customer or subscriber to the
service from which the contents of electronic communications maintained for
him have been sought; and

(B) stating the applicant's reasons for believing that the records
sought are not relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry or that
there has not been substantial inquiry or that there has not been
substantial compliance with the provisions of this chapter in some other
respect.

(2) Service shall be made under this section upon a governmental entity
by delivering or mailing by registered or certified mail a copy of the
papers to the person, office, or department specified in the notice which
the customer has received pursuant to this chapter. For the purposes of
this section, the term "delivery" has the meaning given that term in the
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(3) If the court finds that the customer has complied with paragraphs
(1) an (2) of this subsection, the court shall order the governmental entity
to file a sworn response, which may be filed in camera if the governmental
entity includes in its response the reasons which make in camera review
appropriate. If the court is unable to determine the motion or application
on the basis of the parties' initial allegations and response, the court may
conduct such additional proceedings as it deems appropriate. All such
proceedings shall be completed and the motion or application decided as soon
as practicable after the filing of the governmental entity's response.

(4) If the court finds that the applicant is not the subscriber or
customer for whom the communications sought by the governmental entity are
maintained, or that there is a reason to believe that the law enforcement
inquiry is legitimate and that the communications sought are relevant to
that inquiry, it shall deny the motion or application and order such process
enforced. If the court finds that the applicant is the subscriber or
customer for whom the communications sought by the governmental entity are
maintained, and that there is not a reason to believe that the
communications sought are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry,
or that there has not been substantial compliance with the provisions of
this chapter, it shall order the process quashed.

(5) A court order denying a motion or application under this section
shall not be deemed a final order and no interlocutory appeal may be taken
therefrom by the customer.

{ 2705. Delayed notice

(a) DELAY OF NOTIFICATION --(1) A governmental entity acting under
section 2703(b) of this title may --

(A) where a court order is sought, include in the application a
request, which the court shall grant, for an order delaying the notification
required under section 2703(b) of this title for a period not to exceed
ninety days, if the court determines that there is reason to believe that
notification of the existence of the court order may have an adverse result
described in paragraph (2) of this subsection; or

(B) where an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State
statute or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena is obtained, delay the
notification required under section 2703(b) of this title for a period not
to exceed ninety days upon the execution of a written certification of a
supervisory official that there is reason to believe that notification of
the existence of the subpoena may have an adverse result described in
paragraph (2) of this subsection.

(2) An adverse result for the purposes of paragraph (1) of this
subsection is --

(A) endangering the life or physical safety of an individual;

(B) flight from prosecution;

(C) destruction of or tampering with evidence;

(D) intimidation of potential witnesses; or

(E) otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly
delaying a trial.

(3) The governmental entity shall maintain a true copy of certification
under paragraph (1)(B).

(4) Extensions of the delay of notification provided in section 2703 of
up to ninety days each may be granted by the court upon application, or by
certification by a governmental entity, but only in accordance with
subsection (b) of this section.

(5) Upon expiration of the period of delay of notification under
paragraph (1) or (4) of this subsection, the governmental entity shall serve
upon, or deliver by registered or first-class mail to, the customer or
subscriber a copy of the process or request together with notice that --

(A) states with reasonable specificity the nature of the law
enforcement inquiry; and

(B) informs such customer or subscriber --

(i) that information maintained for such customer or subscriber by the
service provider named in such process or request was supplied to or
requested by that governmental authority and the date on which the supplying
or request took place.

(ii) that notification of such customer or subscriber was delayed;

(iii) what governmental entity or court made the certification or
determination pursuant to which that delay was made; and

(iv) which provision of this chapter allowed such delay.

(6) As used in this subsection, the term "supervisory official" means
the investigative agent in charge or assistant investigative agent in charge
or an equivalent of an investigating agency's headquarters or regional
office, or the chief prosecuting attorney or the first assistant prosecuting
attorney or an equivalent of a prosecuting attorney's headquarters or
regional office.

(b) PRECLUSION OF NOTICE TO SUBJECT OF GOVERNMENTAL ACCESS. -- A
governmental entity acting under section 2703, when it is not required to
notify the subscriber or customer under section 2703(b)(1), or to the extent
that it may delay such notice pursuant to subsection (a) of this section,
may apply to a court for an order commanding a provider of electronic
communications service or remote computing service to whom a warrant,
subpoena, or court order is directed, for such period as the court deems
appropriate, not to notify any other person of the existence of the warrant,
subpoena, or court order. The court shall enter such an order if it
determines that there is reason to believe that notification of the
existence of the warrant, subpoena, or court order will results in --

(1) endangering the life or physical safety of an individual;

(2) flight from prosecution;

(3) destruction of or tampering with evidence;

(4) intimidation of potential witnesses; or

(5) otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly
delaying a trial.

{ 2706. Cost reimbursement

(a) PAYMENT -- Except as otherwise provided in subsection (c), a
governmental entity obtaining the contents of communications, records, or
other information under section 2702, 2703, or 2704 of this title shall pay
to the person or entity assembling or providing such information a fee for
reimbursement for such costs as are reasonably necessary and which have been
directly incurred in searching for, assembling, reproducing, or otherwise
providing such information. Such reimbursable costs shall include any costs
due to necessary disruption of normal operations of any electronic
communication service or remote computing service in which such information
may be stored.

(b) AMOUNT -- The amount of the fee provided by subsection (a) shall be
as mutually agreed by the governmental entity and the person or entity
providing the information, or in the absence of agreement, shall be as
determined by the court which issued the order for production of such
information (or the court before which a criminal prosecution relating to
such information would be brought, if no court order was issued for
production of the information).

(c) The requirement of subsection (a) of this section does not apply
with respect to records or other information maintained by a communications
common carrier that relate to telephone toll records and telephone listings
obtained under section 2703 of this title. The court may, however, order a
payment as described in subsection (a) if the court determines the
information required is unusually voluminous in nature or otherwise caused
an undue burden on the provider.

{ 2707. Civil action

(a) CAUSE OF ACTION. -- Except as provided in section 2703(e), any
provider of electronic communication service, subscriber, or customer
aggrieved by any violation of this chapter in which the conduct constituting
the violation is engaged in with a knowing or intentional state of mind may,
in a civil action, recover from the person or entity which engaged in that
violation such relief as may be appropriate.

(b) RELIEF. -- IN a civil action under this section, appropriate relief
includes --

(1) such preliminary and other equitable or declaratory relief as may
be appropriate;

(2) damages under subsection (c); and

1/2 of (b), all of (c) & (d) omitted see p. 514,447

(e) LIMITATION. -- A civil action under this section may not be
commenced later than two years after the date upon which the claimant first
discovered or had a reasonable opportunity to discover the violation.

{ 2708. Exclusivity of remedies

The remedies and sanctions described in this chapter are the only
judicial remedies and sanctions for nonconstitutional violations of this
chapter.

{ 2709. Counterintelligence access to telephone toll and transactional
records

(a) DUTY TO PROVIDE. -- A wire or electronic communication service
provider shall comply with a request for subscriber information and toll
billing records information, or electronic communication transactional
records in its custody or possession made by the Director of the Federal
Bureau of Investigation under subsection (b) of this section.

(b) REQUIRED CERTIFICATION. -- The Director of the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (or an individual within the Federal Bureau of Investigation
designated for this purpose by the Director) may request any such
information and records if the Director (or the Director's designee)
certifies in writing to the wire or electronic communication service
provider to which the request is made that --

(1) the information sought is relevant to an authorized foreign
counterintelligence investigation; and

(2) there are specific and articulable facts giving reason to believe
that the person or entity to whom the information sought pertains is a
foreign power or an agent of a foreign power as defined in section 101 of
the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801).

(c) PROHIBITION OF CERTAIN DISCLOSURE. -- No wire or electronic
communication service provider, or officer, employee, or agent thereof,
shall disclose to any person that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has
sought or obtained access to information or records under this section.

(d) DISSEMINATION BY BUREAU. -- The Federal Bureau of Investigation may
disseminate information and records obtained under this section only as
provided in guidelines approved by the Attorney General for foreign
intelligence collection and foreign counterintelligence investigations
conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and, with respect to
dissemination to an agency of the United States, only if such information is
clearly relevant to the authorized responsibilities of such agency.

(e) REQUIREMENT THAT CERTAIN CONGRESSIONAL BODIES BE INFORMED. -- On a
semi-annual basis the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall
fully inform the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of
Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate
concerning all requests made under subsection (b) of this section.

{ 2710. Definitions for chapter

As used in this chapter -

(1) the terms defined in section 2510 of this title have, respectively,
the definitions given such terms in that section; and

(2) the term "remote computing service" means the provision to the
public of computer storage or processing services by means of an electronic
communications system.

CHAPTER 205-SEARCHES AND SEIZURES

Sec. 3101. Effect of rules of court--Rules

* * *

3117. Mobile tracking devices.

* * *

{ 3117. Mobile tracking devices

(a). IN GENERAL.--If a court is empowered to ussue a warrant or other
order for the installation of a mobile tracking device, such order may
authorize the use of that device within the jurisdiction of the court, and
outside that jurisdiction if the device is installed in that jurisdiction.

(b). DEFINITION.--As used in this section, the term "tracking device"
means an electronic or mechanical device which permits the tracking of the
movement of a person or object.

CHAPTER 206-PEN REGISTERS AND TRAP TRACE DEVICES

Sec.

3121. General prohibition on pen register on trap and trace device use;
exception.

3122. Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace
device.

3123. Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap or trace
device.

3124. Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and
trace device.

3125. Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices.

3126. Definitions for chapter.

{ 3121. General prohibition on pen register and trap and trace device use;
exception

(a) In General.-Except as provided in this section, no person may
install or use a pen register or a trap and trace device without first
obtaining a court order under section 3123 of this title or under the
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.).

(b) Exception.-The prohibition of subsection (a) does not apply with
respect to the use of a pen register or a trap and trace device by a
provider of electronic or wire communication service-

(1) relating to the operation, maintenance, and testing of a wire or
electronic communication service or to the protection of the rights or
property of such provider, or to the protection of users of that service
from abuse of service or unlawful use of service; or

(2) to record the fact that a wire or electronic communication was
initiated or completed in order to protect such provider, another provider
furnishing service toward the completion of the wire communication, or a
user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or abusive use of service;
or with the consent of the user of that service.

(c) Penalty.-Whoever knowingly violates subsection (a) shall be fined
under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

{ 3122. Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace
device

(a) Application.-(1) An attorney for the Government may make
application for an order or an extension of an order under section 3123 of
this title authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen
register or a trap and trace device under this chapter, in writing under
oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of competent jurisdiction.

(2) Unless prohibited by State law, a State investigative law
enforcement officer may make application for an order or an extension of an
order under section 3123 of this title authorizing or approving the
installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device under this
chapter, in writing under oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of
competent jurisdiction of such State.

(b) Contents Of Application.-An application under subsection (a) of
this section shall include-

(1) the identity of the attorney for the Government or the State law
enforcement or investigative officer making the application and the identity
of the law enforcement agency conducting the investigation; and

(2) a certification by the applicant that the information likely to be
obtained is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation being conducted by
that agency.

{ 3123. Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device

(a) In General.-Upon an application made under section 3122 of this
title, the court shall enter an ex parte order authorizing the installation
and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device within the jurisdiction
of the court if the court finds that the attorney for the Government or the
State law enforcement or investigative officer has certified to the court
that the information likely to be obtained by such installation and use is
relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation.

(b) Contents Of Order.-An order issued under this section-

(1) shall specify-

(A) the identity, if known, of the person to whom is leased or in
whose name is listed the telephone line to which the pen register or trap
and trace device is to be attached;

(B) the identity, if known, of the person who is the subject of the
criminal investigation;

(C) the number and, if known, physical location of the telephone line
to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached and, in
the case of a trap and trace device, the geographic limits of the trap and
trace order; and

(D) a statement of the offense to which the information likely to be
obtained by the pen register or trap and trace device relates; and

(2) shall direct, upon the request of the applicant, the furnishing of
information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish
the installation of the pen register or trap and trace device under section
3124 of this title.

(c) Time Period And Extensions.-(1) An order issued under this section
shall authorize the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and
trace device for a period not to exceed sixty days.

(2) Extensions of such an order may be granted, but only upon an
application for an order under section 3122 of this title and upon the
judicial finding required by subsection (a) of this section. The period of
extension shall be for a period not to exceed sixty days.

(d) Non-disclosure Of Existence Of Pen Register Or A Trap And Trace
Device.-An order authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen
register or a trap and trace device shall direct that-

(1) the order be sealed until otherwise ordered by the court; and

(2) the person owning or leasing the line to which the pen register or
a trap and trace device is attached, or who has been ordered by the court to
provide assistance to the applicant, not disclose the existence of the pen
register or trap and trace device or the existence of the investigation to
the listed subscriber, or to any other person, unless or until otherwise
ordered by the court.

{ 3124. Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and
trace device

(a) Pen Registers.-Upon the request of an attorney for the Government
or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to install and use a
pen register under this chapter, a provider of wire or electronic
communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person shall furnish
such investigative or law enforcement officer forthwith all information,
facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the
installation of the pen register unobtrusively and with a minimum of
interference with the services that the person so ordered by the court
accords the party with respect to whom the installation and use is to take
place, if such assistance is directed by a court order as provided in
section 3123(b)(2) of this title.

(b) Trap And Trace Device.-Upon the request of an attorney for the
Government or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to receive
the results of a trap and trace device under this chapter, a provider of a
wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other
person shall install such device forthwith on the appropriate line and shall
furnish such investigative or law enforcement officer all additional
information, facilities and technical assistance including installation and
operation of the device unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference
with the services that the person so ordered by the court accords the party
with respect to whom the installation and use is to take place, if such
installation and assistance is directed by a court order as provided in
section 3123(b)(2) of this title. Unless otherwise ordered by the court,
the results of the trap and trace device shall be furnished to the officer
of a law enforcement agency, designated in the court, at reasonable
intervals during regular business hours for the duration of the order.

(c) Compensation.-A provider of a wire or electronic communication
service, landlord, custodian, or other person who furnishes facilities or
technical assistance pursuant to this section shall be reasonably
compensated for such reasonable expenses incurred in providing such
facilities and assistance.

(d) No Cause Of Action Against A Provider Disclosing Information Under
This Chapter.-No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider
of a wire or electronic communication service, its officers, employees,
agents, or other specified persons for providing information, facilities, or
assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order under this chapter.

(e) Defense.-A good faith reliance on a court order, a legislative
authorization, or a statutory authorization is a complete defense against
any civil or criminal action brought under this chapter or any other law.

{ 3125. Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices

The Attorney General shall annually report to Congress on the number of
pen register orders and orders for trap and trace devices applied for by law
enforcement agencies of the Department of Justice.

{ 3126. Definitions for chapter

As used in this chapter-

(1) the terms "wire communication", "electronic communication", and
"electronic communication service" have the meanings set forth for such
terms in section 2510 of this title;

(2) the term "court of competent jurisdiction" means-

(A) a district court of the United States (including a magistrate of
such a court) or a United States Court of Appeals; or

(B) a court of general criminal jurisdiction of a State authorized by
the law of that State to enter orders authorizing the use of a pen register
or a trap and trace device;

(3) the term "pen register" means a device which records or decodes
electronic or other impulses which identify the numbers dialed or otherwise
transmitted on the telephone line to which such device is attached, but such
term does not include any device used by a provider or customer of a wire or
electronic communication service for billing, or recording as an incident to
billing, for communications services provided by such provider or any device
used by a provider or customer of a wire communication service for cost
accounting or other like purposes in the ordinary course of its business;

(4) the term "trap and trace" device means a device which captures the
incoming electronic or other impulses which identify the originating number
of an instrument or device from which a wire or electronic communication was
transmitted;

(5) the term "attorney for the Government" has the meaning given such
term for the purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure; and

(6) the term "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, Puerto
Rico, and any other possession or territory of the United States.


===============================================================================

A lawyer's review and perspective of the ECPA

===============================================================================

WHEN IS LISTENING TO THE RADIO A CRIME?

By FRANK TERRANELLA

The federal Electronic Communications Privacy Act has turned many radio
listeners into criminals. The problem is, most of them don't know about it. I
will attempt here to describe in very non-legalistic and general terms
(extremely difficult for a lawyer), exactly what listening is legal and what
is illegal.

Section 2511 of the Federal Criminal Statutes (18 U.S.C.) is where most of
the action is in this field. The statute is primarily a wiretap and bug
statute and only recently has been expanded to include radio listening. I
will not be discussing the provisions dealing with oral communications or
wiretaps and bugging devices here.

The statute starts out by saying that it is illegal to intentionally
intercept, disclose or use the contents of any wire or electronic
communication. The statute then goes on to carve out exceptions to this
general rule.

It is important to understand what the law means by wire or electronic
communication. A wire communication is any communication over a telephone or
other wire. However, the definition specifically includes cellular telephones
and excludes cordless telephones (even though both involve the use of radio
and wire transmission). An electronic communication includes all radio
transmissions, but excludes cordless telephones and pagers.

After making a blanket prohibition of intercepting all electronic (i.e.
radio) transmissions, the statute lists the exceptions. The first exception
is that it is legal to listen to all radio transmissions which are "readily
accessible to the general public." This term is defined in the statute to
mean radio signals which are (1) not encrypted, scrambled, carried on a
subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission; (2) not
transmitted over a common carrier communications system (such as the phone
company); (3) not special transmissions such as point-to-point private relay
transmissions for the broadcast services, not meant for reception by the
general public.

The next exception to the general rule is that it is legal to listen to
all radio broadcasts "relating to ships, aircraft, vehicles or persons in
distress." The statute also says that it is legal to listen to a broadcast by
any governmental, law enforcement, civil defense, private land mobile or
public safety communications system, including police and fire, which are
readily accessible to the general public. It is also legal to listen to
transmissions on the amateur bands, citizens band or general mobile radio
services as well as any marine or aeronautical communications system and
cordless telephone transmission.

Finally, it is not illegal to intercept satellite transmissions of cable
programming as long as the transmission is not encrypted, there is no monetary
gain by the viewer, and there is no marketing system available (meaning no one
is selling the rights to view the programming via satellite).

There is also an interesting section of the statute which may provide a
loophole for lawyers defending clients charged with a violation of this law.
The statute says that it is not illegal to intercept a radio transmission
which is causing interference with any lawfully operating station (including
ham radio operators), or is causing interference with any consumer electronic
equipment, to the extent necessary to identify the source of the interference.
I can see a lawyer arguing that his client was only listening to that cellular
telephone transmission because it was interfering with his client's reception
on the 23 centimeter band.

After all of the exceptions are carved out, the bottom line is that the
only radio frequency transmissions which are off limits are those which are
not readily accessible to the general public, as that term is defined in the
statute. The definition of "readily accessible to the general public" is
stated in the statute as follows:

(a) not scrambled or encrypted;

(b) not transmitted using modulation techniques whose essential
parameters have been withheld from the public with the intention of
preserving the privacy of such communication;

(c) not carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio
transmission;

(d) not transmitted over a communication system provided by a common
carrier, unless the communication is a tone only paging system
communication;

(e) not transmitted on frequencies allocated under part 25; subpart
D,E, or F of part 74; or part 94 of the Rules of the Federal
Communications Commission, unless, in the case of a communication
transmitted on a frequency allocated under part 74 that is not
exclusively allocated to broadcast auxiliary services, the
communication is a two-way voice communication by radio.

The first two of these are no problem. If the signal is scrambled,
law-abiding DXers will leave it alone. Paragraph (c) begins the real
restrictions on DXers. Under the statutory definition, signals on a
subcarrier, such as the types being experimented with in television at the
moment, are not readily accessible to the general public and are not permitted
listening.

The next section poses the greatest problem for DXers. Under the
definition, any signal, other than a tone, which is transmitted by a common
carrier is off limits. The FCC defines a common carrier as "any person
engaged in rendering communication service for hire to the public." (47 CFR
21.2) The statutory definition given in 47 U.S.C. 153(h) is a bit more
specific in that it specifically excludes radio broadcasters who, through sale
of commercials, do render a communication service for hire. But, even with
the removal of broadcasters, this definition is very broad and will include,
beyond obvious services such as cellular telephone, just about every utility
station on the face of the earth.

The types of radio transmissions made off limits to DXers by paragraph (e)
are certain satellite communications, certain microwave communications, and
auxiliary stations to broadcasters used for such things as feeds from the
mobile van back to the studio or from the studio to the transmitter. The
frequencies of these services are all above 1 Gigahertz except for the bands
928-929 MHz and 944-960 Mhz. The exception to this is the frequency
assignment given to remote broadcast pickup stations under subpart D of part
74. This service, which is off-limits to DXers, is assigned bits and pieces
of the radio spectrum from 1606 kHz through 455.925 Mhz. Twenty-six
frequencies in the shortwave bands are allocated to this service. The
allocations are scattered between 25.87 Mhz and 26.47 Mhz, but unless you have
a copy of the FCC Rules and Regulations, there is no easy way for a DXer to
know that listening to these transmissions is a federal offense.

This is precisely why I maintain that this law is unenforceable. In order
for a prosecution under 18 U.S.C. 2511 to be successful, the government must
prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the DXer intentionally intercepted a
protected transmission. Since even attorneys are unsure what frequencies are
off-limits, how can the government hope to prove that a DXer who happens upon
one of these federally-legislated minefields in the radio spectrum, actually
intended to do so?

It should be noted that the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 605) has
not been repealed by the new law. It is still illegal, as it has been since
at least 1934, to divulge the contents of any transmission except for general
broadcast stations, amateur radio and CB transmissions, and transmissions
relating to ships, aircraft, vehicles or persons in distress. A recent case
(Edwards v. State Farm Insurance Co., 833 F.2d 535) concluded that in order to
prove an offense under this statute, the speaker must have held a subjective
expectation of privacy that was justifiable under the circumstances.

I hope that this brief trip through the legal maze of communications
privacy has been useful. I can see the day coming when some industrious
lawyer, defending a client of means, decides to challenge this unjust law. The
basis is very simple. Just as there is no Fourth Amendment right of privacy
where there is no reasonable expectation of privacy, so too there should not
be a statutory right of privacy where anyone with a receiver can listen in.
To use an analogy, the providers of cellular service want the right to parade
down Main Street with no clothes on and then prosecute anyone who looks. This
is simply unfair and unrealistic.

And beyond that, our First Amendment freedom of speech has a corollary
freedom to be informed and to gather information. This freedom must extend to
the spoken as well as the printed word, as long as no reasonable expectations
of privacy are violated. Anyone with a receiver should be entitled to hear
anything which is broadcast in the clear over the "public" airwaves for the
simple reason that it is not reasonable for anyone to transmit in this manner
and expect this transmission to be private. An expectation of privacy can
only be achieved by scrambling the signal, not by governmental decree.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FRANK TERRANELLA is an attorney, ham radio operator and short wave listener
(not necessarily in that order).


===============================================================================

Modifying two scanners for cellular reception

===============================================================================

The word "modifying" in this case is wrong. That implies that there is a
_conversion_ process whereby you can cause your scanner to suddenly begin
receiving cellular mobile telephone calls. This is wrong thinking. A scanner
that is _designed_ to receive those frequencies above 512 MHz can have those
frequencies RESTORED (_sometimes_). A scanner that covers from 30-512 MHz can
NEVER receive 800-900 MHz frequencies without the aid of an external RF
converter. Many times you will see messages from people asking how to modify
such-and-such a receiver to pick up CMT. The sad truth is, the answer is $$$,
as that's what it will take to get a new scanner that covers those
frequencies.

Some older scanners (most of them in fact) have no modifications so that
they will cover these frequencies. There may be cosmetic changes, such as the
addition of an S-meter, or squelch or tone improvement, but there will never,
ever be anything that can be done to most of them to make them cover CMT. The
PRO-2004/2005/34 receivers originally had those frequencies, but had them
blocked out. Restoring those frequencies was simply a matter of _unblocking_
them. There was really no "modifying" taking place. If a scanner was never
intended to cover 800 MHz, it never will. You can get RF converters that will
convert 800-912 MHz down to 400-512 MHz, however, and these should work on all
scanners.

MOST SCANNERS CANNOT BE MODIFIED OR CHANGED TO RECEIVE THE CMT FREQUENCIES.

There are a handful of exceptions to this. It started out with the
Realistic PRO-2004 and the PRO-34, and went to the PRO-2005. To restore CMT
for the 2004, open the radio and turn it upside down. You'll see a large
metal box. Carefully remove the cover. Find diode D-513. It may be in the
line of diodes, or it may be on the bottom of the PC board, in which case
you'll have to VERY carefully remove the board. In either case, the cure is
the same. Clip one leg of D-513 to restore CMT frequencies.

If you're careful, you can unsolder this diode and place it in the empty
spot at D-510. That will give you 400 channels instead of 300.

For the PRO-2005, the procedure is the same, except you clip one leg of
D-502 to restore cellular reception. In the 2004, put a 1N914 diode in D-514
and you'll increase your scan/search speed by 25%. Watch your diode polarity!
For the PRO-2005, it's D-501, which is on the display board behind the
keyboard. Adding D-504 to the PRO-2005 will DELETE 66-88 MHz coverage -- TV
channels, radio control, etc., so don't add D-504!!!! As far as is known,
there is no channel expansion capability on the order of the PRO-2004 for the
PRO-2005. 400 channels appears to be its limit.

The PRO-34 handheld can also have CMT restored, and all can be modified to
receive 6,400 channels (3,200 on the PRO-34), but that's beyond the capability
of this article. I could have typed in the directions for restoring CMT to
the PRO-34, but you really need pictures to go with the modification. The
original article was in "Popular Communications." All these are described in
great detail in the "Scanner Modification Handbook" by Bill Cheek, available
from CRB Research Books, Inc., PO Box 56, Commack, New York, 11725. It's
$17.95 + $2.00 postage and handling, but is well worth the price due to the
treasure trove of info that's in it.

===============================================================================

How to discover other scanner modifications

===============================================================================

HOW TO 'DISCOVER' THOSE NEAT RADIO MODIFICATIONS

by Bob Parnass, AJ9S

How do the people that discover modifications to radios go about finding
them? Good question!

The first rule of thumb is to obtain service manuals, as they contain more
than just troubleshooting information. For example, the alignment procedure
outlined in the Regency K500 and M400 service manuals describes how to
circumvent the frequency limit checking firmware, which allows out of band
frequency programming. The Uniden 200/205XLT service manual describes a
keyboard sequence that clears most of the 200 memory channels, and loads the
others with bizarre test frequencies.

Service manuals often describe the circuit changes in models intended for
export to other countries. This can reveal features disabled for some
customers but enabled for others.

A good library of IC and semiconductor data books is very helpful,
although radio service manuals can also include IC internal diagrams. Old TTL
databooks are no longer enough. The transition to surface mount components in
radios like the Uniden/Bearcat 760XLT is motivation for acquiring data books
for leadless components.

Although some modifications involve discovery of "hidden" features, many
others involve designing new circuitry or applying old circuitry from another
radio. I can't claim credit for many "add/delete a diode" modifications, but
here are the factors that accounted for a few other modifications.

***** Recognize Common Radio Circuits *****

Modification: Improve the squelch on the PRO-24, PRO-2004, 800XLT, etc.
Motivation: Unsatisfied with stock performance.

Almost all modern scanners use MC3357, MC3359, or Japanese pin equivalent
chips, which contain the IF, squelch, limiter & discriminator circuitry.
Older Bearcat and Regency scanners, like the BC300 and M400, often hid the
identity of their IC with "house numbers" painted over them. I compared these
ICs pin for pin with the MC3357 and other known radio ICs to unmask their true
identity. Having the Motorola IC data sheet and scanner service manuals made
learning the chip internals easy, so I found the way to decrease hysteresis
involved changing one resistor.

***** Be Curious *****

Modification: Trick the Icom R-71A to tune below 100 kHz.
Motivation: Curiosity.

Tried manipulating several front panel controls at the same time to see if
I could confuse the microprocessor into doing something neat. I did.

***** Study the Schematic, Look for Unused Pins *****

Modification: Double the memory in the R-7000 (also published by another
radio hobbyist).
Motivation: curiosity.

I studied the schematic of the R-7000, and looked up the memory IC in a
data book. Icom grounded an address lead, so only 1/2 the chip capacity was
used. Not having enough time to try the idea on my own radio, I suggested the
idea Jack Albert, who writes the RTTY column in "Monitoring Times", who used
his R-7000 as a guinea pig.

***** Borrow Circuits from Other Radio Models *****

Modification: S-meter circuit for Bearcat scanners (unpublished).
Motivation: wanted to use scanners for transmitter hunting.

I looked for other radios that used the same IF/squelch chip and already
featured S-meters (like the Kenwood TR- 2600A, IC-28A, IC228H, etc.) I grafted
their S-meter circuitry to my scanners.

***** Vary Parameters and Measure the Impact *****

Modification: Speed up the R-7000 scan rate.
Motivation: dissatisfied with stock performance.

I studied the radio schematic, found the components that determined scan
rate, and substituted various values of resistance, measuring the affect of
each change.

***** Apply Simple Theory *****

Modification: COR light for the PRO-2004.
Motivation: make scanner easier to use in a roomful of other active radios.

Having studied the schematics of many scanners, I was familiar with FM
receiver and scanner circuitry. I used service manual and found the proper
point in the circuit where a logic level signal was produced depending on
whether a signal was absent or present. Again, the PRO-2004 used a popular
IF/squelch chip. I used the simplest transistor switching principles to
design a COR light circuit.

***** Fashion a Test Harness *****

Marvin Moss used an interesting approach to explore his portable scanner.
He wired the diodes in the diode matrix of his Radio Shack PRO-34 to separate
DIP switches so he could experiment with switching in and out different
combinations of diodes.

***** All That Glitters is Not Gold *****

I always find other peoples' modifications very interesting, although not
all are meritorious. For instance, avoid changing the crystal or RC time
constant circuitry used as a clock for the microprocessor controller in your
receiver. The controller performs many functions, so this alteration can
produce undesirable side effects which outweigh any small increase in scan
rate.


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