Contents of the MNULFINL.TXT file
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Document Purpose 1-1
IN-2000 Hardware Features 1-1
IN-2000 Software Features 1-2
Performance Discussion 1-3
IN-2000 Installation 2
Default Switch Setting 2-1
Adapter Installation 2-1
SCSI Cables 2-3
Terminating Resistors 2-3
Floppy Disk Drive Installation 2-4
Switch Configuration 2-4
Diagnostic Routine 2-8
Diagnostic Report 2-9
SCSI Hard Disk Installation 3
Configuration Options 3-1
Selecting SCSI ID for Hard Disks 3-1
Terminating Resistors 3-2
SCSI Cable Length 3-2
Low Level Formatting 3-3
Disk Parameters 3-6
Removable Media Disk Drives 3-7
SCSI Tape Drive Installation 4
Selecting a SCSI ID 4-1
Bus Termination 4-2
SCSI Cable Length 4-2
SYTOS PLUS Drivers 4-2
DOS Installation 5
DOS Compatibility 5-1
DOS Partitioning 5-1
System Formatting 5-2
Special Disk Partitioning Software 5-2
386 Software Compatibility 5-3
Novell NetWare Device Driver Installation 6
NOVELL Support 6-1
IN-2000 Adapter Preparation 6-2
SCSI Hard Disk Preparation 6-3
Preparing the Device Driver (VAD) 6-3
Installation Procedure - NetWare 2.1X 6-3
COMPSURF Routine, Important Comments 6-4
Installation Procedure - NetWare 2.2 6-5
Xenix Device Driver Installation 7
Adding the IN-2000 as a Second Controller 7-2
Using the IN-2000 as the Primary Controller 7-5
Appendix A. Trouble Shooting A
Problems and Their Solutions A-1
Conflict Isolation A-4
Common Installation Errors A-6
Most Commonly Asked Questions A-7
If All Else Fails A-11
Appendix B. External SCSI Connector Pinout B-1
Warranty Inside Back
1 Document Purpose
This manual provides information regarding the installation and use of
the ALWAYS Technology IN-2000 16 bit high performance SCSI Host
Adapter. The manual details the procedures to install SCSI devices
including; disk drives, tape drives and other devices under the
following operating systems:
DOS (including latest 5.0)
Novell NetWare 2.1X and 2.2
Other software drivers and associated installation information is
available from ALWAYS Technology dealers and distributors
Comprehensive troubleshooting information is also included.
1.2 IN-2000 Hardware Features
* Operates in any 80286/386/486 based IBM AT or EISA bus computer.
* Supports all SCSI peripherals including hard disks, (including
SyQuest and Iomega drives), 1/4" and 1/2" streaming and 9 track
tape drives, DAT drives, CD-ROMs, optical disk drives and other
* Advanced programmed I/O, dual port FIFO buffer architecture for
* Completely user configurable from one easily accessible, 10
position DIP switch.
* No first party DMA incompatibilities, works with Windows and
programs featuring extended memory management.
* Highly integrated chip technology and surface mount (S.M.T.)
construction for highest reliability and low power consumption.
* Compact, half size card only 6.65" long.
* Built in AT style floppy disk controller for 5 1/4" and 3 1/2",
high and low density floppy disk drives
* Internal and external SCSI connectors
* Made in the U.S.A.
* Lifetime Warranty
1.3 IN-2000 Software Features
* Supports Common Command Set and many extended instructions.
* BIOS PROM for AT disk emulation included.
* DOS driver in EPROM, does not use any system memory.
* Supports any SCSI hard disk size and type up to 2000 MBytes in
* Hard disk low level format and diagnostic routine included in BIOS.
* Novell NetWare 2.1x and 2.2 driver supports all S.F.T. environments
including duplexing and mirroring. Works in both dedicated and
* Includes S.C.O. Xenix 386 driver for versions 2.3.1 - 2.3.3.
Drivers for S.C.O.Unix, Novell NetWare 3.1 (3.11) and other
operating systems available.
1.4 Performance Discussion
The IN-2000 adapter is one of the fastest SCSI Host Adapters
available. The design is based on programmed I/O using a fast dual
port RAM buffer. The RAM buffer can be accessed from the host computer
at the same time the SCSI peripheral is transferring data, eliminating
all overhead time for buffer handling. SCSI devices, such as hard
disks, can transfer data to or from the computer as fast as their own
transfer rate limitations. No slow DMA channel or external `first
party DMA' logic is used.
2. IN-2000 Installation
2.1 Default Switch Setting
The SCSI Host Adapter can be configured to use different I/O addresses
and other hardware options. There is only one DIP switch area on the
adapter to simplify the configuration procedure. The default switch
settings are 'all switches in the off position. The default values are
Default factory configuration:
BIOS segment address: C800h
I/O address range: 220h-22Fh
Interrupt line: 15
Floppy controller: Disabled
2.2 Adapter Installation
This section describes the installation procedures for a single as
well as a multiple IN-2000 adapter installation.
2.2.1 Single Adapter Installation
Caution: Make absolutely sure that the computer is powered off before
beginning the installation procedure.
Avoid touching the components on the circuit board. Static electricity
discharge may cause damage to the board.
The SCSI adapter can be plugged into any 16 bit AT or 32 bit EISA slot
on the computer motherboard. Fasten the SCSI adapter metal bracket
with a screw into the computer chassis.
2.2.2 Multiple Adapter Installation
Under some operating systems, such as Novell NetWare it is possible to
install up to three IN-2000 Host Adapters in one system. Refer to
documentation supplied with the operating system for limitations and
The installation procedure for the second and third adapter(s) is
identical to the first adapter except for the DIP switch settings.
Change the DIP switches for BIOS address, I/O address and interrupt on
the 2nd and 3rd boards so that no conflicts exist. The IN-2000 BIOS
will check for conflicts during the BOOT sequence and halt the system
if any conflicts are found.
2.3 SCSI cables
There are two SCSI connectors on the SCSI adapter, one internal 2x25
pin header and one external 25 pin (female) DB25 connector. The
internal connector should be used with a 50 pin ribbon cable. This
connector is for use with SCSI peripherals that are mounted inside the
computer chassis. The external DB25 connector uses a Macintosh
compatible SCSI cable (see Appendix B for pinout). It is very
important that the TOTAL SCSI cable length does not exceed 6 meters
(18 feet) including the cable inside the host computer.
Notice: Do not plug a parallel printer into the IN-2000's external
SCSI connector. Damage to the printer, SCSI adapter and/or disk drive
2.4 Terminating Resistors
Terminating resistors are used to eliminate signal reflections at the
ends of the SCSI cable caused by the impedance difference between the
cable and an open circuit.
The end of each cable must be terminated with terminating resistor
packs. These resistor packs are normally mounted on the circuit board
of the SCSI device itself (hard disks, tapes ...). If more than one
device is connected to the SCSI interface, the last device on the
cable, and only that one, must have its resistor pack(s) installed.
2.5 Floppy Disk Drive Installation
The IN-2000 contains an AT compatible floppy controller which operates
in conjunction with the motherboard BIOS. If the floppy controller on
the IN-2000 SCSI adapter is to be used, connect the floppy cable to
the floppy connector marked 'J2' on the SCSI adapter. Enable the
floppy disk controller by setting SW1-9 to the 'on' position (see next
section). Make sure there are no other floppy disk controllers enabled
(including one on the motherboard).
2.6 Switch Configuration
There is only one switch area on the SCSI adapter. This is a 10
position on/off switch at the top edge of the card, labeled SW1. This
DIP switch selects all of the options available on the adapter.
Switches may be changed with the power turned on. However, the system
should be rebooted to pick up the changed configuration.
The function of each switch is shown on the following page.
| ------- 1234567890 :::::::::::::: | |
| | P | | |ON FLOPPY PORT . . | |
| | R | |xxxxxxxxxx|OFF . . | |--|
| | O | . . | | |
| | M | . . | | | EXTERNAL
| | | . . | | | SCSI PORT
| ------- . . | | |
| . . | | |
| . . | |--
| . . | |
| INTERNAL | |
| PORT | |
| | |
BIOS Address It is possible to select between 3 different BIOS segment
addresses. It is also possible to disable the BIOS for system
SW 1-1 SW 1-2 SEGMENT ADDRESS
OFF OFF C800h - CBFFh *
ON OFF D800h - DBFFh
OFF ON D000h - D3FFh
ON ON BIOS DISABLE
* = factory defaults
I/O Port Address I/O address conflicts are among the most common
installation problems. The SCSI adapter allows the use of 4 different
I/O port base addresses.
SW 1-3 SW 1-4 I/O PORT ADDRESS
OFF OFF 220h - 22Fh *
ON OFF 200h - 20Fh
OFF ON 110h - 11Fh
ON ON 100h - 10Fh
Four different Interrupt channels can be selected. The original hard
disk controller uses Interrupt channel 14 as default. Do not use this
channel if the original hard disk controller is installed in the
SW 1-5 SW 1-6 SW 1-7 INTERRUPT
OFF OFF OFF 15 *
OFF ON OFF 14
OFF OFF ON 11
OFF ON ON 10
ON OFF OFF DISABLE
ON ON ON DOS 5.0 SUPPORT OF MORE THAN 2 DRIVES
WITH PROM "VCN:1.02" OR GREATER
IN PS/2 installations, use INT 10
Synchronous/Asynchronous Operation Some SCSI peripherals support
synchronous data transfers under certain operating systems. Under DOS
SW1-8 should normally be left 'off'.
Floppy Disk Controller Make sure that only one floppy disk controller
is enabled in the system. It is not possible to use the SCSI adapter
floppy disk controller at the same time as the original floppy
controller. Turn SW1-9 to the on position to enable the floppy controller.
SW 1-10 is not currently used.
2.7 Diagnostic Routine
A SCSI adapter diagnostic and selftest routine has been included in
the BIOS prom. This routine can be used to list the setup selection,
test the SCSI adapter hardware, and sense the SCSI bus to find out if
devices have been connected to it.
This diagnostic routine can be started by using the DOS utility
'DEBUG.EXE'. The DEBUG utility is used to make a jump to a special
address at which this diagnostic routine is stored. The jump address
can be one of the following:
C800:8, D000:8 or D800:8 with C800:8 as the default choice.
To determine which address to use, read the DIP switch BIOS segment
address you have selected. To start the diagnostic routine simply type
in the correct jump address, at the DEBUG prompt, as follows (example):
and press 'Enter'. A menu will show up on the screen with the
different options available. Typical diagnostic results are shown on
the following page.
ALWAYS IN-2000 SCSI Host Adapter
SCSI Diagnostic routine
(C)Copyright 89,90 ALWAYS Technology Corporation
1) Sense SCSI bus
2) SCSI adapter self test
3) Hard Disk self test
*********** Sense SCSI Bus *********************
SCSI id 0 = Disk YOUR SCSI DRIVE
SCSI id 1 = not used (or additional device)
SCSI id 2 = not used
SCSI id 3 = not used
SCSI id 4 = not used
SCSI id 5 = not used
SCSI id 6 = not used
SCSI id 7 = Used by Host Adapter
******** SCSI Adapter self test routine ********
- BIOS checksum test, must be xx00. Checksum =
- SCSI logic test ... O.K.
- Data buffer test ... O.K.
- Interrupt logic test ... Interrupt detected,
3. SCSI Hard Disk Installation
3.1 Configuration Options
The IN-2000 adapter can control up to seven SCSI hard disks drives at
a time depending on which operating system software is used. Most
types and sizes of SCSI hard disks can be used. It is also possible
to have a combination of SCSI hard disks and one or two original ST506
type (including IDE) disk drives in the same system. Some limitations
may exist depending on what operating system is being used.
NOTE: The AT system CMOS setup MUST NOT be informed of the presence
of any SCSI hard disks. The CMOS setup is only used to inform the
original hard disk controller of ST506 (MFM/RLL), ESDI and IDE drives.
3.2 Selecting SCSI ID for Hard Disks
Every peripheral device that is connected to the SCSI cable must have
a unique address called a SCSI ID (Identification). The SCSI ID is
selected by installing jumpers in a SCSI ID select jumper area on the
hard disk drive. Consult the hard disk documentation on how to select
the SCSI ID. The first SCSI hard disk MUST have SCSI ID 0, the second
SCSI hard disk, if used, MUST have SCSI ID 1 and the third must have
ID 2 and so on. SCSI ID 0 is normally used as the default ID. The host
adapter itself uses SCSI ID 7.
Read the corresponding installation description for each SCSI
peripheral before connecting it to the SCSI bus.
3.3 Terminating Resistors
The SCSI bus (SCSI cable) must have terminating resistor packs
installed at each end. All SCSI devices have sockets for these
resistor packs on the circuit board close to the SCSI connector.
Normally, SCSI devices come with these resistor packs installed as
default. If more than one SCSI device is to be used, make absolutely
sure that only the last device, at the end of the internal and/or
external SCSI cable, has its resistor packs installed. If more than
one set of resistor packs are installed read\write problems may occur
with any/all devices on the bus.
3.4 SCSI Cable Length
It is very important that the total SCSI cable length does not exceed
6 meters (18 feet). This includes the internal SCSI cable and any
cable found inside the chassis of the SCSI device.
3.5 Low Level Formatting
When a new drive is to be connected to a system it may need to be
initialized to operate correctly under the system's parameters. This
is called low level formatting. Most SCSI hard disks are low level
formatted at the factory; however a format routine is supplied on the
IN-2000. This formatting routine is included in the adapter BIOS and
is invoked by using the DOS 'DEBUG' utility.
Note: Low level formatting of a NetWare Ready drive will destroy the
NetWare signature block.
This DEBUG program is used to make a jump to a special address at
which the low level formatting routine is stored. This address can be
one of the following:
C800:5 , D000:5 or D800:5 with C800:5 as default.
To determine which address to use, refer to the BIOS segment address
switch settings on page 2-4. Start the formatting by typing in the
jump address, at the DEBUG prompt, as follows:
and press 'enter'. A menu will appear on the screen. Select the low
level format choice in this menu. Before the format begins, the
routine will scan the SCSI bus for hard disk drives. It will start at
SCSI ID 0 and continue with SCSI 1 and so on until it senses a SCSI ID
that is not being used by any hard disk.
The next prompt will be to select which disk drive is to be formatted.
Finally you will be prompted for the interleave factor. This should
normally be set to 1, which is the default.
Low level formatting will take from 5 to 30 minutes to complete
depending on the disk size.
CAUTION: Never abort a low level format operation. Doing so will
render some drives in-operable; requiring the drive to be returned to
The following are typical displays associated with the low level
ALWAYS IN-2000 SCSI Host Adapter
Low Level formatting routine
(C)Copyright 89,90 ALWAYS Technology Corporation
1) Sense SCSI bus
2) Low Level format SCSI Hard disk(s)
3) Information about this installation
*****************Sense SCSI bus*****************
SCSI id 0 = Disk YOUR SCSI DRIVE
SCSI id 1 = not used (or additional device)
SCSI id 2 = not used
SCSI id 3 = not used
SCSI id 4 = not used
SCSI id 5 = not used
SCSI id 6 = not used
SCSI id 7 = Used by Host Adapter
***********Low level format routine************
1 SCSI Hard disk installed
Select disk to format (0,1,2...)
Warning!!! All data on disk (SCSI id 0) will be destroyed. The unit
LED has been activated for identification. Do you really want to
Are you absolutely sure? (Y/N)
Enter interleave factor (press return for default = 1):
Formatting started. Wait 5-20 min for completion
- SCSI adapter uses: Segment address = C800h
I/O addresses = 0220h
Interrupt line = 15
Floppy controller= Enabled
- SCSI BIOS ver: Rev X.XX MONTH YEAR
- Hardware ver: Rev XX
3.6 Disk parameters.
A SCSI hard disk controlled by the IN-2000 reports the following disk
parameters to the operating system:
Number of heads: 64 Sectors per track: 32 (or 64)
1 (or 2) Megabyte(s) per cylinder
These are logical parameters. A SCSI device is not accessed by using
the real physical disk parameters. A disk is instead seen as one long
string of blocks. Every block has a block number. This block number
has to be translated into a head/sector/track value for DOS to
understand how to talk to the disk. The IN-2000 BIOS handles this and
sets the parameters to these fixed values.
By translating drives to a larger number of heads and sectors per
track, much larger drives (up to 2000 MBytes) may be used in an AT
compatible computer. Disk drives with capacities of 1200 MBytes are
logically converted to 32 sectors per track and will have a capacity
of approximately 1 MByte per cylinder. Above 1200 MBytes the IN-2000
converts to 64 sectors per track, yielding approximately 2 MBytes per
Programs reporting disk parameters such as the number of heads,
sectors per track and cylinders will report values that differ from
the physical characteristics of your drive(s). For the same reason
some disk performance utilities may return invalid disk seek time and
transfer rate measurements.
3.7 Removable Media Disk Drives.
The IN-2000 supports a variety of removable media disk drives.
Supported devices include read/write optical drives such as the
Maxoptix "Tahiti" (1 and 2), Sony M.O. and others, and the Iomega
Bernoulli drive (44 and 90 MByte).
Note: This section does not pertain to SyQuest removable cartridge
drives. SyQuest support is discussed in Appendix A-10.
To support the removability features of these drives two utilities
have been included with the IN-2000. The utilities are called
BOOPT.EXE and SWOPT.EXE and are in the \OPTICAL sub-directory in the
NetWare 286/Utility diskette.
BOOPT.EXE is a utility that locks the removable media into the drive
so that it cannot be inadvertently removed/ejected. The cartridge(s)
are locked upon system boot-up if BOOPT.EXE is in the root directory
and the following is added to AUTOEXEC.BAT:
SWOPT.EXE ejects the cartridge after the file allocation tables are
closed. Copy SWOPT.EXE to the root directory and add the following to
PATH = C:\
To eject cartridge close any open files, return to the DOS prompt in
the root directory and enter: "SWOPT".
4. SCSI Tape Drive Installation
Most SCSI tape drives on the market today can be interfaced with the
IN- 2000 Host Adapter. Software and device drivers are available for
1/4 inch streamers, 1/2 inch 9 track tape systems, 4mm DAT devices,
the EXABYTE 8mm helical scan drive and other devices.
There are two things that must be verified before installation: SCSI
ID selection and bus termination.
4.2 Selecting a SCSI ID
Before connecting any device to the host adapter make sure that the
device has a valid SCSI ID selected. Refer to the tape drive
documentation on how to select the correct SCSI ID. There are seven
SCSI IDs that can be used by units on the SCSI bus. Those ID's are 0
to 6. The tape drive can have any of those addresses but it is very
important that no other SCSI unit has the same SCSI ID. This will
cause an address conflict. The tape drive(s) must have ID's above all
disk drives. It is possible to use the built in diagnostic routine to
find out what SCSI ID's are currently being used. Simply select the
Sense SCSI bus command in the diagnostic menu and a list will be
produced which identifies what is connected to the SCSI bus.
Note: SCSI hard disks always use the lowest SCSI IDs starting at 0
and up. Use SCSI IDs above the highest disk drive ID for tape drives.
The SCSI Host Adapter itself uses SCSI ID 7.
4.3 Bus Termination
Terminating resistor packs must be installed in the SCSI device at the
end of the cable. If the tape drive is the only SCSI unit connected to
the SCSI adapter, make absolutely sure that it has its terminating
resistor packs installed. If there are other SCSI units connected to
the SCSI bus, make sure that ONLY THE PHYSICALLY LAST UNIT on the bus
has its terminating resistor packs installed (see section 2). It is
also recommended that the SCSI unit that has its terminators installed
supplies the terminating power as well.
4.4 SCSI Cable Length
It is very important that the total SCSI cable length, from one end
to the other (including SCSI cable inside the system), does not exceed
6 meters (18 feet).
4.5 SYTOS PLUS Drivers
SYTOS PLUS drivers for a number of different tape drives are included
on the Novell/Utility diskette. Please see 'readme' in /SYPLUS and
SYTOS PLUS manual.
5. DOS Installation
5.1 DOS Compatibility
The IN-2000 SCSI Host Adapter is fully DOS INT 13H compatible. This
means that it is possible to use a SCSI hard disk like a standard AT
style disk drive. It is also possible to install the IN-2000 adapter
as the second controller in a system that has the original AT ST506
(MFM or RLL), IDE, or ESDI controller installed. When used
"co-residently" with an AT type drive the system will boot from the AT
If more than two disks are installed in one system it may be necessary
to use a disk partitioning software such as Speedstor or Disk Manager.
The IN-2000 does not require any main system RAM memory space, if
installed using only DOS. The IN-2000 BIOS will run under DOS version
3.X ,4.X and 5.X.
5.2 DOS Partitioning
The SCSI hard disk(s) can and should be partitioned as if they were
standard AT type hard disks. Use the DOS 'FDISK' utility as described
in the DOS manual and partition the SCSI disks. Note that the computer
setup must not be informed of the presence of any SCSI hard disks. The
disk parameters presented by FDISK will not reflect the actual
physical parameters of the SCSI disk. Read Section 3.6 about these
5.3 System Formatting
After making the DOS partition, it is time to do the system
generation. This is done by using the DOS utility 'FORMAT'. Format
should be performed as described in your DOS users manual. Be sure
to format all partitions. If the SCSI drive will be used as the boot
drive use FORMAT /S on the boot partition. A media check will be done
and the system files will be written to the SCSI disk.
5.4 Special Disk Partitioning Software
Third party disk partition software such as VFEATURE Deluxe,
SPEEDSTOR, DISK MANAGER and others can be used together with the
IN-2000 SCSI Adapter. This is one way to avoid the 32 MByte DOS
partition limit with DOS versions 3.3 and below. Follow the
installation guide for the different software packages and complete
the installation as if it was done on an original disk controller.
Never enter any defect table information into the partition software.
Media defect management with SCSI disk drives is performed by the
hard disk drives internal firmware.
5.5 386 Software Compatibility
Certain 'protected mode' programs, such as Microsoft Windows,
Quarterdecks' QEMM and DESQview have special configuration options for
SCSI hard disks. DO NOT USE any of these options when using the
These special configurations are "work-arounds" for SCSI adapters
which use "first party DMA transfers" that conflict with extended
memory addressing. The IN-2000's programmed I/O architecture works
flawlessly with all DOS applications.
6. Novell 2.1x and 2.2 NetWare Device Driver (VAD) Installation
IMPORTANT The NOVELL 2.1x certified driver supports NetWare versions
2.11, 2.12, 2.15 and 2.2 on 286, 386, or 486 based computers. NETWARE
386 is not required for operation on a 386 based computer.
A Novell NetWare 3.1X NLM is also available. Please contact your
dealer for further information on this driver.
The ELS version of NetWare is a limited version that does not have
support for third party hard disk drivers (VAD's), such as those for
the IN-2000. It is therefore not possible to use the IN-2000 host
adapter together with the ELS version of NetWare. Novell has
discontinued ELS and has replaced it with NetWare 2.2 that supports
6.1 NOVELL Support
The device driver that is supplied with the IN-2000 adapter allows
Novell NetWare to be installed and run on SCSI hard disks The driver
supports NetWare versions 2.11, 2.12 2.15 and 2.2. Both Advance and
System Fault Tolerant (SFT) versions can be used. Up to three host
adapters can be installed in one NetWare file server and each host
adapter can handle up to 7 SCSI hard disks at the same time. There are
no limitations in using the IN-2000 host adapter in a fileserver. All
of the advanced NetWare features, such as Disk mirroring, duplexing
and caching are supported.
6.2 IN-2000 Host Adapter Preparation
Verify that the default DIP switch setting can be used. If not,
configure the DIP switches as described in the host adapter
installation section. The host adapter should be configured as if it
was to become a DOS system disk.
If two or three host adapters are to be used, make absolutely sure
that no address conflict occurs. No DIP switch address option can be
the same as that selected on another host adapter. NetWare will always
boot on the host adapter with the lowest BIOS base address. Read host
adapter installation Section 2. for further information.
Note! When installing 2 or 3 IN-2000's for duplex operation DO NOT
disable the BIOS on either IN-2000. They should all be enabled but
have different BIOS addresses (See section 2).
6.3 SCSI Hard Disk Preparation
Before the NetWare installation begins, low level format the SCSI hard
disks as described in the hard disk installation section 3.5. DO NOT
LOW LEVEL FORMAT NETWARE READY DRIVES! The first SCSI hard disk on
every host adapter must have SCSI ID 0, the second disk SCSI ID 1,
third SCSI ID 2 and so on. If multiple hard disks are used make sure
that only the last disk in the daisy chain has its terminating
resistor packs installed. Read more about hard disk installations in
the hard disk installation Section 3.
6.4 Prepare the Device Driver
The NetWare driver is supplied on a floppy disk. It contains files
that will be loaded by the NetWare "Netgen" software utility.
6.5 Installation Procedure - NetWare 2.1X
Follow the NetWare Netgen installation manual. The installation
program will ask for additional device drivers. See "loading a New
Disk Driver" in the Novell NetWare installation manual. This is the
time to insert the IN-2000 diskette and let the installation program
read and download it. Every IN-2000 board that is to be installed has
to have a channel number dedicated to it. If more than one hard disk
is installed on one IN-2000 adapter, they will show up as multiple
hard disks on one channel. Always select the lowest channel number
available for the IN- 2000 board. Note that the NetWare system will
boot on channel.
If more than one IN-2000 is installed, the one with the lowest PROM
segment address MUST be configured on disk channel 0.
Finally, verify during the installation that the NetWare driver
supports the DIP-switch settings that have been selected.
6.6 Compsurf Routine, Important Comments
The NetWare Compsurf routine will ask the installer if it should do
the low level format of the Hard Disks. Always answer NO to this
question. Low level formatting should be performed using the IN-2000
format routine as described in Section 3., if necessary.
When running Compsurf on a new SCSI Hard Disk, enter 'NO' to "Maintain
current media defect list" and 'NO' to "Enter media defects". Always
set the "Interleave value" to 1. This will give the overall highest
6.7 Installation Procedure - NetWare 2.2
The procedure for NetWare 2.2 is similar to that of 2.1X. When
prompted insert the 2.1X VAD diskette in the floppy drive.
7. Xenix Device Driver Installation
The Xenix driver software, supplied by ALWAYS Technology, supports
S.C.O. 386 Xenix versions 2.3.1, 2.3.2 and 2.3.3. The IN-2000 can be
used in a Xenix environment in two different configurations as
The first configuration adds the IN-2000 to an existing system with an
existing disk controller. Note that in this configuration, the
IN-2000 is always a secondary controller, with the original AT
controller as the primary and boot device. The original AT controller
may be an ST506 (MFM or RLL), IDE, or in some cases an ESDI controller.
The second configuration uses the IN-2000 as the only disk controller
in the system. The attached disk will be the primary bootable root
device. An additional drive can be attached to the IN-2000.
Note: The Xenix device driver handles 1 or 2 SCSI hard disks connected
to the IN-2000 host adapter.
Note: DOS cannot read Xenix disks.
Before the installation procedure is started, install the IN-2000 host
adapter according to Section 2. in this manual. Verify that the DIP
switch settings are correct. It is recommended that the default
switch settings be used. If necessary, you may use any other
combination of valid BIOS, I/O, and interrupt settings.
Install the SCSI hard disk/disks as described in Section 3.
7.3 Adding the IN-2000 as a Second Controller
This section describes the option of adding the IN-2000 as a second
hard disk controller, used in conjunction with an AT style
controller. To use the IN-2000 in a SCSI only system (the IN-2000 as
the only controller), please skip to section 7.4.
7.3.1 System Preparation
The Xenix system that the IN-2000 adapter is being installed into must
have the basic run-time utilities loaded as well as the kernel link
kit. For details, refer to the SCO manual for the "custom" (ADM)
7.3.2 Install the Device Driver
Power up the system and log in as super-user (root). Run the utility
named 'custom' by typing in "custom". If this is the first time the
IN-2000 driver is being installed on the system, select:
'Add a supported product'
If you are reinstalling or updating the driver, an entry for the
IN-2000 should already be listed. Select:
'... IN-2000 ...'
You will then be prompted for the first disk of the device driver.
Insert the IN-2000 driver disk, and press return.
The system will read the disk and then ask several questions. One of
the questions will ask whether you wish to support your original disk
controller. Answer yes ("y"). The system files will then be updated,
and the kernel relinked.
After the kernel has been rebuilt, you will be prompted to reboot the
machine, and run an initialization script.
7.3.3 Final Steps
After the new kernel has been built and the system has been rebooted,
you will have to initialize the file systems on the new drive. This
is done using a utility called /etc/mkin2000.
This utility will ask how many drives are attached to the IN-2000 host
adapter. When you answer this question, include all SCSI drives which
are connected to the IN-2000. Do not include drives attached to any
As each drive is initialized, a procedure similar to the initial
installation will be performed. The drive configuration, partition
table, divvy table, bad track information and file system will
automatically be initialized.
When each drive has been successfully initialized you will be asked if
the drive should be automatically mounted at boot. If you answer "Y",
the system scripts will be modified so that the drive will be mounted
before the multi-user mode is entered. As the drive is mounted, a
message will be presented describing the mounted drive and associated
directory. If you answer "N", the drive will have to be manually
This procedure only has to be performed once. The next time the
system is booted, the added drives will become available.
7.4 Using the IN-2000 as the Primary Controller
This section discusses installing the IN-2000 in a SCSI only system,
using the IN-2000 as the only hard disk controller in the system.
7.4.1 System Preparation
The IN-2000 is not currently supported directly by SCO Xenix.
Therefore, it is necessary to build a version of the kernel that
includes the IN-2000 driver. This build process requires access to a
system already running the SAME version of Xenix as you will be
installing on your SCSI drive. This system must have, at minimum, the
Base runtime system (RTS), and the link kit loaded. For more details,
refer to the SCO Xenix "System Administrator's Guide", and refer to
the section describing the "custom" utility.
If you do not have access to a running system, ALWAYS Technology can
perform the build step for you. Please contact ALWAYS Technology to
make arrangements if you require this service.
Two "systems" are involved in the build step. The first system, the
"build" system, will be used for building a bootable installation
diskette. The other system, the "target" system, is the system which
will ultimately contain the IN-2000 and SCSI disk drives. These two
systems may actually be the same system, with the drive/controller
7.4.2 Making the N1 Diskette
On the build system, while logged in as the super-user (root), run the
Xenix "custom" (ADM) utility. If you have built an IN-2000 disk on
this system previously, there will already be an entry for the
IN-2000. Select that option. Otherwise, select the option to add a
You will be asked for the first disk of the installation set. Insert
the IN-2000 driver disk into the drive and press return. The disk
will be read, and an installation script run. The first question
asked is whether you wish to include the original hard disk driver.
Answer no ("n"). This informs the script that you are building a SCSI
The system will be rebuilt to include the IN-2000 driver into a copy
of the kernel. Note that the original kernel of the build system WILL
NOT be modified, and that the link kit will be returned to it's
original state when the build operation is complete.
When the kernel is complete, you will be prompted for your original
SCO Xenix "N1" diskette. In order to protect your diskette, make sure
it is write protected. Insert the "N1" disk into the drive, and
press return. This diskette WILL NOT be modified; it will only be
copied from. After the original diskette has been read, you will be
prompted for a blank "scratch" diskette. Remove the original "N1"
diskette, and insert the blank. The new diskette will then be
formatted, and the copy of the "N1" disk written to it. This copy
will become your new "N1" diskette and is used in the installation
whenever the "N1" diskette is requested.
The modified kernel will now be copied to the new diskette. NOTE: In
some installations, primarily when installing the "GT" version of
Xenix, the new kernel will be too large to fit on the new diskette.
When this happens, you will be prompted for a second scratch diskette,
which will be labeled "N0". The "N0" will be used for booting during
the installation process. When the kernel has been booted off the
"N0" diskette, you will be prompted to switch to the "N1" diskette.
7.4.3 Build the Target System
Install the IN-2000 hardware into the target system if you have not
done so already. Place your newly built "N1" ("N0" if it was built)
diskette into the system, and turn on the power. From this point, the
installation will proceed as with a normal Xenix installation. Be
sure to use your "N1" copy when the "N1" diskette is requested.
Note: When installing the "GT" version of Xenix, you will be prompted
as to what type of disk controller is installed in the system. If you
receive this prompt, use the answer for an ST506 controller.
7.4.4 Final Steps
After you have installed the operating system but before you modify
any of the tunable parameters, or install any other device drivers,
you must install the IN-2000 driver into the systems link kit. On the
target system, run the custom utility as described 7.4.2. Answer the
questions as you did on the build system, and proceed as you did
before, until you get to floppy diskette prompt. When you get to this
prompt, the driver will have been copied onto your system, and the
system files will have been updated. Press the "delete" key to abort
the installation process.
Appendix A. Troubleshooting
This section describes the most common installation problems and their
solutions. A majority of the problems are caused by address conflicts
with other boards in the system.
A.2 Problems and Their Solutions
Following is a list of the most common problems and one or more
Problem: No 'ALWAYS SCSI adapter BIOS .....' sign on message on the
screen when starting up the system.
Solution 1: BIOS address conflict. Another board in the computer has
the same BIOS address selected as the SCSI adapter. Change this
address on the SCSI adapter (see 2.3).
Problem: System hangs after sign-on and will not respond to keyboard
commands. (also see Conflict Isolation, Section A-3).
Solution 1: Adapter I/O address conflict. SCSI adapter uses the same
I/O address as another adapter in the system. Change the I/O address
on the SCSI adapter as described in Section 2.3.
Solution 2: Interrupt channel conflict. The SCSI adapter uses the same
interrupt channel as another board in the system. Change the interrupt
channel on the SCSI adapter as described in Section 2.3.
Solution 3: Two floppy disk controllers enabled at the same time. Read
Section 2.3 on how to disable the SCSI adapter floppy controller. If
more than one floppy controller is enabled the system will not
Solution 4: One SCSI unit on the SCSI bus does not have its power
turned on. Turn on all SCSI devices.
Solution 5: Format problem: Sometimes, if a hard disk has not been low
level formatted or is formatted incorrectly, it may cause the host
adapter to hang. It is possible to get around this by disabling the
host adapter BIOS (SW1-1 and SW1-2= on), then booting from a floppy
disk. Once DOS has been loaded switch the host adapter BIOS back on
(SW 1-1 and SW 1-2= off) and proceed with a low level format as
described in Section 3.5.
Problem: SCSI hard disk not found during boot, but system responds to
keyboard commands and boots from floppy.
Solution 1: Possible SCSI ID conflict. Use the diagnostic routine
described in Section 2.6 to find out which SCSI IDs are used to make
sure that no conflict will occur with the new SCSI unit.
Solution 2: Wrong SCSI ID selected for the SCSI unit. The first SCSI
hard disk must have SCSI ID 0, the second SCSI ID 1, and so on. The
SCSI adapter itself uses SCSI ID 7. Use the diagnostic routine to scan
the SCSI bus for used SCSI ids.
Solution 3: Defective cable. SCSI ribbon cables are easily damaged
by pulling on the ribbon cable to remove the connector. Substitute a
known good cable.
Problem: Floppy controller can not handle 3 1/2 inch floppy disk
Solution: There are no electrical differences between 5 1/4 inch and 3
1/2 inch floppy disk drives. The only thing that differs are the
physical parameters for the drives. Those differences are handled by
the AT system BIOS only. Obtain a BIOS update for the computer from
the computer manufacturer.
Problem: The SCSI adapter floppy controller does not work at all.
Solution 1: Switch SW 1 - 9 not enabled. Put switch to the ON
Solution 2: This problem sometimes occurs in less than 100% compatible
IBM clones. It is caused by BIOS incompatibilities in the computer and
must be solved by updating the BIOS or continuing to use the standard
floppy controller. Systems exhibiting this problem often expect a
Zilog floppy disk controller rather than one supplied by Western
A.3 Conflict Isolation
The most common symptom is that the computer will hang during the boot
sequence. This is often caused by an address conflict or the hard
drive not being low level formatted. (If the hard drive has not been
low level formatted with the IN-2000, See Page A-2, Solution 5)
Many problems can be easily solved if a simple installation sequence
1. Remove the SCSI adapter from the system. Set all Switches to the
off position except for SW1-5. This switch disables the interrupt
logic. Leave the IN-2000 out of the system for now.
2. Substitute a working floppy controller and boot the system from
floppy. Start the DOS routine called DEBUG.EXE. Do a memory dump at
memory location C800H by typing in the following command: D C800:0
The screen will display the memory contents at this address. Make
absolutely sure that this address segment does not contain any PROM
code from another board. All proms start with '55 AA' as the first two
bytes. If this dump contains PROM code do a similar dump at address
D000:0 and D800:0 and select one address that does not have any other
prom code in it. When an address has been selected, change the
corresponding switches on the SCSI adapter (see section 2.3).
3. Turn off the power, install the SCSI adapter in the system and try
to reboot. If the system boots up without any problems proceed to Step
4. If the system does not boot, dump the BIOS address again with the
DEBUG command D:C800:0. If every other byte is "FF" there is probably
a conflict with a 16 bit video card. Switch the video card to 8 bit
BIOS mode and try again. There may also be an I/O address conflict.
Turn off the power on the system again and change I/O address (SW1-3
and SW1-4 (see Section 2.3)). Again try to boot the system. If it
fails, peep on changing the I/O address until the system boots
4. Once the system has been booted and seems to run correctly, start
DEBUG.EXE again and execute the diagnostic routine on the SCSI adapter
as described in Section 2.6 ( G=xxxx:8 xxxx= segm addr). Run the
adapter selftest to see that everything works correctly. Note that the
inperrupt logic has not been selected yet.
5. Enable the interrupt logic (SW1-5 = off) and run the adapter
selftest again and make sure that an interrupt is detected. If not,
change the interrupt channel until the interrupt is detected without
any problems (time out error). Section 2.3 describes how to change
A.4 Common Installation Errors
If you are still having problems, review the following list and see if
any of them apply.
Make sure that the computer CMOS set-up is set to "NONE" or "NOT
INSTALLED" (for SCSI drives).
Is the SCSI hard drive set to ID"0"? Make sure that two drives are
not set to the same ID#.
Is the SCSI cable plugged in backwards or is it bad?
Are terminator resistors installed in both the drive and the IN-2000?
Check disk drive part number and manual to make sure drive is factory
sectored to 512 bytes per sector.
Look for BIOS, I/O address or interrupt address conflicts.
Ensure that computer bus speed is not set to higher than 12 MHz .
(Note that system clock may be as high as 33 MHz)
Make sure that the IN-2000 is in a 16 bit slot and is seated correctly.
Confirm that hard drive has been low level formatted with the IN-2000.
Has the hard drive been "FDISKed" and a bootable partition made
Is the drive high level formatted correctly?
Substitute hard drive to confirm that drive is not defective.
A.5 Most Commonly Asked Questions
Q. Why does my system hang with my 16 bit VGA video card set to 16 bit
A. This is a problem with 16 bit VGA adapters that do not have an
auto-sensing feature. The problem arises when 8 bit and 16 bit BIOS
PROMS reside in the same 128k block of memory. If this happens,
manually switch the VGA card to 8 bit BIOS mode (See PC Magazine
Sept. 25, 1990 "Facing the truth about 16-bit VGA Display Adapters").
Q. Why does my computer say I have 64 heads and a smaller number of
tracks than my hard drive really has when I format?
A. See Section 3.6 of the installation guide.
Q. If I configure my CMOS set-up to "none" for drive type how does my
computer know how many heads, tracks and sectors my hard disk has?
A. This takes place automatically at boot-up by the BIOS PROM on the
IN-2000 reading these parameters from the drive and converting them
to logical block numbers.
Q. I know I do NOT need a loadable driver for my hard drive under DOS
but what about my SCSI tape drive?
A. A loadable driver is needed to run SCSI tape drives. Tape back-up
software and drivers are available from SYTRON Corporation, NovaStor
Corporation (818) 707-9900 and other companies.
Q. My DOS operating system cannot read the Xenix disk that came with
the IN-2000. Why?
A. This disk is written with a format that can only be read by the
Xenix operating system.
Q. How can I run more than 2 hard drives on my system under DOS?
A. See Section 5.4 in the installation guide.
Q. Why won't my Novell ELS software work on the IN-2000?
A. This was Novell's "Entry Level System" software and did not allow
any third party SCSI drivers to be loaded. (Note: ELS software is
no longer available. It has been replaced with NetWare 2.2 that runs
on the IN-2000.)
Q. My hard drive was low level formatted and partitioned with another
host adapter. When I installed the IN-2000, I cannot boot from it or
find all of the partitions. Why?
A. Some host adapters use a different track, head and sector geometry
when converting to SCSI logical blocks. If this conversion is
different then that used by the IN-2000, it will be necessary to
re-low level format and partition the drive.
Q. Why does my performance test software show low data transfer rate
and/or slow seek times?
A. Many performance test software packages are not made to run on
SCSI hard drives. They do not take in account SCSI logical block
geometry and therefore compute transfer rate and seek time based on
Q. Why is my hard drive advertised as having a total capacity of one
size and after I format it, my computer shows a smaller capacity?
A. There are two reasons for this:
1. When a drive is formatted, a certain amount of space is lost in
every sector due to location information such as head, track, and
sector. The computer only reports the total user data area so this
may be several Megabytes less than the unformatted capacity, depending
on the size of the drive.
2. Space may also be lost due to the drives defect mapping scheme.
Q. How do I get my SyQuest SQ-555 to work with the IN-2000?
A. In order to run SyQuest removable cartridge drives you must have
the SyQuest utilities disk version 2.1 or later. This disk is
available directly from SyQuest Corp. Use SyQPREP to partition and
format the drive for use with the IN-2000.
Q. What type of cable do I need to attach external devices to the
A. The IN-2000 uses standard Apple Macintosh "pin-out" SCSI cables for
external devices. This cable goes from the ALWAYS "DB25" connector to
the standard 50 pin Centronics connector found on most external SCSI
devices. Appendix B details the DB25 pin-out.
Q. What types of drivers, if any, are needed for OPTICAL/WORM/CD-ROM
drives? SCSI tape?
A. ALWAYS Technology is constantly developing software drivers for new
peripherals and for new versions of operating systems. A chart
included with the Installation Guide outlines currently available
A.6 If All Else Fails
If you still can not get your system to function correctly after
reading the Installation and Troubleshooting Sections please contact
your dealer for technical assistance. In the event that they can not
help you, contact ALWAYS technical support by phone at (818) 597-1400
or by FAX at (818) 597-1496 and be prepared to supply the following
1. The serial number of your IN-2000.
2. The EPROM and serial ROM revision level of the IN-2000.
3. The make, model and BIOS revision of your computer.
4. The make and model of your SCSI peripheral(s).
5. Information about your operating system
6. When and where you purchased your IN-2000 SCSI adapter.
ALWAYS Technology maintains a technical support B.B.S. at
This bulletin board provides useful support information,
software/firmware updates, and other information.
There is no charge for its use.
EXTERNAL SCSI CONNECTOR PINOUT
/REQ-1 |. .| 14-GND
/MSG-2 |. .| 15-/C/D
/I/O-3 |. .| 16-GND
/RST-4 |. .| 17-/ATN
/ACK-5 |. .| 18-GND
/BSY-6 |. .| 19-/SEL
GND-7 |. .| 20-/DBP
/DB0-8 |. .| 21-/DB1
GND-9 |. .| 22-/DB2
/DB3-10 |. .| 23-/DB4
/DB5-11 |. .| 24-GND
/DB6-12 |. .| 25-TERM PWR
/DB7-13 |. /