East Front, 1914 v1.0 strategy wargame.
Boardgame style, operational level, DOS
game covering the first 3 months of WWI
on the eastern front. Needs 286, 1Meg
expanded memory, 590k free RAM, VGA.
386 recommended. Shareware ($28)
Forgotten Fronts Simulations.
E A S T F R O N T , 1 9 1 4
A boardgame style, operational level DOS computer
game of the first three months of combat on the
Eastern Front during World War I.
Copyright 1994 Forgotten Fronts Simulations
Table of Contents
I. Program Shareware License 1
II. Game Introduction 2
III. Computer Operations 2
IV. General Game Information 5
V. Game Elements 12
VI. Victory Conditions 18
VII. Computer Opponent Play 19
VIII. Program Registration 20
I. PROGRAM SHAREWARE LICENSE AND DISCLAIMER
This package is a "shareware program" and is provided at no
charge to the user for evaluation. Feel free to share it with
others, but you may not give it away altered or without all of
the files. The purpose of "user-supported" software is to provide
personal computer users with quality software without high prices,
and yet to provide incentive for programmers to continue to develop
new products. If you continue to use this program after a trial
period of 30 days, you must make a registration payment to
Forgotten Fronts Simulation (see, Section VIII).
Users of this package must accept this disclaimer of warranty:
These programs are supplied as is. Forgotten Fronts Simulations
disclaims all warranties expressed or implied, including, without
limitation, the warranties of merchantability and of fitness for
any purpose. Forgotten Fronts Simulations assumes no liability for
damages, direct or consequential, which may result from the use of
these software programs.
You are encouraged to pass a copy of this package along to
other computer wargamers. Please encourage them to register their
copy if they continue to use it past the evaluation period.
II. GAME INTRODUCTION
East Front, 1914 is a simulation of military operations on the
Eastern Front at the start of World War I. In this shareware
version, you command the Eastern Front land forces of the Russian
empire while the computer "commands" the Eastern Front land forces
of two of the Central Powers states (the German and Austro-
Hungarian empires). The game covers the period of August 15th
through December 4th, 1914. During this time period occurred the
1914 Gallician Battles, the Battle of Tannenberg, the First Battle
of the Masurian Lakes, and the Battle of Lodz.
The objective of each player is to occupy key positions in
enemy territory, while holding key positions in friendly territory.
A player "wins" the game by outperforming his or her historical
counterpart (the commanders of the Central Powers forces or the
The registered version of East Front, 1914 allows you to
play either side against the computer, and allows for two people to
play against each other (either in person or by exchange of
electronic files). For the purpose of play balance the rules for
the computer opponent games (such as this shareware version) are
somewhat different than those for the two-player game.
These instructions are for the shareware version of East
Front, 1914. In the shareware version you may only play the
Russian side against the computer; the 2-player option, Central
Powers option, and play by E-Mail option are not available.
Instructions for obtaining the registered version of the game are
in Section VIII.
III. COMPUTER OPERATION
A. Game Files
The shareware version of East Front, 1914 consists of several
files. The program files are not copy-protected and you may make
as many backup copies as you feel necessary. The program files are
brt70efr.exe Runtime module necessary for the running of the
executable program files (*.exe).
eastblu2.exe Executable game program files for playing the
eastblu3.exe Russian side against the computer opponent.
Requires data from either eastblue.fil, or a saved
game file (*.sav).
eastblue.fil ASCII data file for starting a new game when you
play the Russian side against the computer.
rails.fil ASCII data file for the transportation network.
1914east.pcx Graphics files which contain the gameboard map
info.pcx and other display data.
east.bat Batch file used to start the game.
You should copy all of the above program files to their own
subdirectory on the hard disk. These files are necessary to the
running of the game. The subdirectory to which you copy the
files may be given any name.
Other files included in the shareware distribution package are
readme.fil Description of the program, system requirements, and
general game instructions.
manual.doc File containing this material (the instruction
order.fil Order form for registration.
rebate.fil Cash rebate offer to registered users for
uploading this shareware package to other BBSs.
vendor.doc Information for shareware distributors.
file_id.diz Program description in BBS format.
see.exe Freeware file reader from Pinnacle Software.
amaze.doc Advertisement from Pinnacle Software. (Not
affiliated with Forgotten Fronts Simulations.)
amaze.txt Order form for Pinnacle Software offer.
manual.bat Batch file for using the "see" program to read and
print the manual.doc file.
B. System Requirements
The game requires an IBM compatible computer with a 286 or
faster CPU and VGA color display. The game runs under DOS
version 4.0 or later and requires 590k of free RAM and 1,000k of
free expanded memory.
C. Program Operation
Using DOS commands, log the computer to the subdirectory which
contains the program files. To start the game type east then press
the key. In response, the program file eastblu3.exe and
the runtime module will be copied into memory, program execution
will begin, and the opening menu will be displayed.
The menu presents two sets of choices. You must select
between starting a new game or loading and continuing a saved game,
and using limited intelligence or full intelligence. The default
selections are new game and limited intelligence. Use the and
keys to toggle between (N)ew and (S)aved game, the and
keys to toggle between (F)ull Intelligence and (L)imited
intelligence. The asterisks indicate the selected option. Press
the key when you're ready to start the game.
Under the full intelligence option all units, including
opposing player units, are always displayed. Under the limited
intelligence option the computer displays only those enemy units
which are adjacent to the moving player's units or fortresses.
Saved Game Option
If you select the saved game option the program will search
the logged subdirectory for files having the extension of "sav".
All such files will then be displayed. If there are no "sav" files
the program will continue the opening menu display.
The saved game file naming convention is as follows. The
first character of the file name indicates the player who saved the
game ("b" for blue or Russian). The next two characters (both
digits) indicate the game turn which was saved. For example, a
file named "b12.sav" contains the game data saved by the blue
player during move 12.
Select the file by typing its name. The program is not case-
sensitive, so you may enter upper-case or lower-case letters. You
need not type the extension name. Use the key then
retype to correct any mistakes. Press the key to continue.
If you type a name for a file which does not exist the program will
not continue. Type a new file name over the displayed erroneous
name. Use the space bar to erase extraneous characters.
You may return to the opening menu from the saved game
selection menu by pressing the key when no file is
selected. Use the key or spacebar to clear a file name
from the file selection field.
Difficulty Option (computer opponent)
When playing against the computer you may set a "difficulty"
level to improve play balance. The standard setting is 1. Setting
0 makes the game easier by reducing the computer side's per turn
replacement steps. Settings 2 and 3 make the game more difficult
by increasing the computer side's per turn replacement steps.
IV. GENERAL GAME INFORMATION
The gameboard is a map consisting of 1,681 offset squares
representing the eastern part of the German empire, the
northeastern part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, the western
part of the Russian empire, and the northwestern part of Romania as
of August, 1914. Each square represents an area of approximately
13 by 13 miles (which is about 20 square kilometers). The squares
are offset so that each borders on six other squares. The squares
are identified with "x" and "y" axis numbers. The x-axis
represents columns which are numbered left to right from 2 to 42.
The y-axis represents rows which are numbered top to bottom from 2
to 42. Column 1 and row 1 contain map edge squares which are not
Please keep in mind that the map square lines do not appear on
the computer display. Map squares are distinguished by terrain
icons and in the case of clear terrain, a small black dot. The x,y
coordinates for the cursor map square position are displayed in the
lower-left area of the screen.
Terrain features are identified by symbols. Off-white map
squares with no symbols, only a small black dot, contain clear
terrain (plains, crop land, and fields). Brown bordered, aqua
lines along square edges represent rivers. Terrain affects
movement and combat. Terrain types in East Front, 1914 are
woods, hills/rough, bog/marsh, major city, minor city, mountain,
and hills/woods (combined hills and woods).
WOODS. Woods terrain affects both combat and movement.
Units in woods squares are not forced to retreat if
they incur a combat loss. Also, units in clear squares
may not retreat into woods squares. Units must expend
more movement factors to traverse woods squares than
clear squares. You may not have more than one unit in
a woods square.
HILLS/ROUGH. Hills/Rough terrain affects both combat and
movement. Units attacking from clear squares into
hills/rough squares have their attack factors reduced
by one third. Units in hills/rough squares are not
forced to retreat if they incur a combat loss. Also,
units in clear squares may not retreat into hills/rough
squares. Units must expend more movement factors to
traverse hills/rough squares than clear squares. You may
not have more than one unit in a hills/rough
MOUNTAINS. Mountain terrain affects both combat and
movement. Units attacking into mountain squares have
their attack factors halved. Units in mountain squares
are not force to retreat if they incur a combat loss.
Also, units in clear squares may not retreat into
mountain squares. Units must expend all of their
movement factors to enter a mountain square. You may not
have more than one unit in a mountain square. Also, all
units in mountain squares are unsupplied unless there is
an operational transportation line running through those
BOG/MARSH. Bog/Marsh terrain affects both combat and
movement. Units in bog/marsh squares are not forced to
retreat if they incur a combat loss. Also, units in
clear squares may not retreat into bog/marsh squares.
Units must expend more movement factors to traverse
bog/marsh squares than clear squares. You may not have
more than one unit in a bog/marsh square.
MAJOR CITY. Units attacking major city squares have
their attack factors halved. Major cities do not
MINOR CITY. Minor city squares are the same as clear
terrain squares for combat and movement purposes.
HILLS/WOODS. Hills/Woods squares are the same as
hills/rough squares for combat and movement purposes.
Other types of map squares are the aqua colored sea squares, the
two Masurian lake squares (map locations 21,8 and 21,10), and the
dark gray colored Romania squares. Movement into these squares
Rivers, as stated previously, are represented by brown
bordered, aqua lines running along square sides. Rivers affect
both combat and movement. Units attacking across rivers have their
attack factors reduced by one third. Also, units may not retreat
across rivers. Units must expend an additional movement factor to
The "transportation network" available for unit supply is
shown by solid, dark gray, straight lines. These lines represent
all-weather roads and major rail lines.
B. Units and Fortresses
The playing pieces for East Front, 1914 are markers
representing two types of units, infantry and cavalry. German
units are red, Austro-Hungarian units are orange/tan, and Russian
units are blue. German unit designations show whether a unit is
an active unit (A), a reserve unit (R), or a second-line reserve
unit known as Landwehr (LW). Russian and Austro-Hungarian units
are not designated in this manner.
INFANTRY. Infantry units may attack infantry, cavalry,
and fortresses. Infantry units which sustained losses
may receive replacements. Infantry unit markers
represent corps (40,000-45,000 troops), divisions
(15,000-17,000 troops), and brigades (5,000-6,000
CAVALRY. Cavalry units may only attack other cavalry
units, but may defend against attacks by both infantry
and cavalry. Cavalry units may not participate in any
attack on a fortress square, and may not receive
replacements. Cavalry unit markers represent divisions
(about 7,000 troops).
Each unit has a combat factor, a strength factor, and a
movement factor. Combat value is a function of the combat and
strength factors. When the program identifies a friendly unit,
these factors are displayed as a set of three numbers. For
example, a full-strength German active division will be shown
with unit factors of 12-2-3.0. This indicates a combat factor of
12, a strength factor of 2, and a movement factor of 3.0.
Units which incur combat losses, or losses due to lack of
supply, are reduced in strength. Each unit has one or more
strength "steps" through which it may be reduced by combat, or
built up with replacements. The strength factor displayed
represents the number of remaining steps.
For infantry units each step represents the approximate
effectiveness of one brigade. Note that the last step for a unit
has no combat value (strength factor of 0). When a unit is reduced
to its last step all of the subordinate combat elements have lost
effectiveness. All that remains functional in the unit are the
service and support elements. Any further loss destroys the unit.
Once a unit is destroyed it may not be revived.
Fortresses are represented by light purple, diamond shaped
icons. Any type of land square, including city squares, may
contain fortresses. Fortresses hold map squares for the owning
player and offer protection and supply for friendly units.
Fortresses have three strength levels, 1 (weakest) through 3
(strongest). Attacking infantry, if successful, may destroy
fortresses by reducing their strength one level at a time. When
strength level is reduced to 0 the fortress is destroyed. After
a fortress is destroyed the diamond shaped icon is no longer
C. Keyboard Controls
Game operation is controlled by the keyboard and, if
connected, a mouse. Cursor movement, unit movement, and combat
operations are controlled by the numeric keys 7-9, and 1-3 or a
Microsoft compatible mouse and mouse driver. Presence of an active
mouse will be detected by the program. If no active mouse is
detected then the NumLock function key will be activated and
movement will be controlled by the numeric keys. If an active
mouse is detected the NumLock function key will not be enabled
and you will not be able to use the numeric keys for movement and
combat operations. Functions other than unit operations and cursor
movement are controlled by the alphabetic keys. Following is a
description of all key functions.
M MENU. Brings up a menu of play options during the
movement phase, the combat phase, and the replacement
phase. Movement phase options are end move (advance to
combat selection phase), save game, game status
(victory conditions), and quit to the main menu.
O OVERVIEW. Displays the full map showing square
possession. Functions during the movement phase only.
The fortress squares of Konigsberg, Danzig, Lemberg,
Krakow, Przemsyl, Kovno, Lodz, and Warsaw are represented
by black outlined boxes. The city squares of Posen,
Breslau, Budapest, Vienna, Minsk, and Vilna are
represented by solid black squares.
P POSSESSION DISPLAY. Toggles on/off the display of square
possession markers. It is selectable during the movement
phase only. Central possession is shown by a red dot,
Russian possession is shown by a blue dot.
T TRANSPORTATION NETWORK DISPLAY. Toggles on/off the
display of the transportation network. It is
selectable during the movement phase only. Squares
that are part of a player's transportation network are
shown with a circle.
Q W E AREA DISPLAY. These keys change the display by quickly
A S D moving the cursor to a different section of the
Z X C mapboard. For example, the
key moves the cursor to
the upper-left section of the map, the key moves
the cursor to the lower-right section of the map.
Keypad UNIT/CURSOR MOVEMENT. The numeric keys move the cursor
7 8 9 one square at a time. The cursor is usually a black
1 2 3 box which outlines the highlighted square. When a unit
or square is selected with the key the cursor
color changes to yellow. The numeric keys move the
cursor as follows: 7-NW, 8-N, 9-NE, 1-SW, 2-S, 3-SE.
If an active mouse is detected then these keys are
disabled. You may either use mouse unit/cursor
movement or keyboard unit/cursor movement but not both.
See Mouse Control on the next page.
U UNDO. Cancels, or "undoes" the movement of a unit.
The unit is returned to its starting position and its
movement allowance is restored. You must undo a unit's
move before you select another unit for movement. The
undo feature can't be used for units which moved adjacent
to enemy possessed squares.
Alt-Q QUIT TO DOS. During the movement phase when you press
key while holding down the key the
program will terminate returning you to the DOS prompt.
D. Mouse Control
To move the cursor (usually a black square), position the
white mouse pointer over the square to be selected. Press the
button and the cursor will move to the selected
square (the square on which the mouse pointer rests). To examine
or "select" the square on which the cursor now rests, press the
button when the mouse pointer is on that square.
(In effect, the button functions the same as the
keyboard key.) Note: To choose between two friendly units
in a selected square, use the button to select the top
unit, the button to select the bottom unit.
To scroll the map, place the mouse pointer on a fully
displayed map edge square (about 1/2 inch in from the map edge)
then press the button.
E. Play Sequence
Each game turn represents a half week of operations and
consists of a Russian (blue) turn and a Central (red) turn. The
game begins with the Russian player's turn. After completion of
all phases of the Russian player's turn, the Central player's
turn begins. The game advances a full game turn after completion
of all phases of the Central player's turn. The first full game
turn of a new game represents August 15 through August 17, 1914.
The second full game turn represents August 18 through August 21,
1914. The game continues, with alternating blue and red turns,
through December 4, 1914, game turn 33.
Each player turn consists of several stages called "phases."
The phase sequence is as follows: supply, Russian mobilization
(Russian player turns 2 through 5), replacement, movement, combat
selection, enemy defense option selection, and combat resolution.
During the first game turn, August 15-17, there is no replacement
The computer determines which units are in supply and which
units are cut off. A unit is in supply if there is a continuous
line of friendly squares from the unit to a supply base.
Isolated units which are in fortresses are also in supply; however,
they may not receive replacements. Supply bases for the Central
player are the west map edge squares, the south map edge squares,
the coastal city squares (Danzig, Konigsberg, and Memel), and
Krakow (but only so long as Krakow's fortress is intact). Supply
bases for the Russian player are the east edge map squares, Dvinsk,
and Warsaw (but only so long as all three Warsaw square fortresses
are intact). On the second consecutive turn that a unit is out of
supply it loses a step. A step is lost for each subsequent turn
that the unit is cut off. Units may be destroyed through loss of
supply. A supply base square does not function as a supply base
while it is possessed by the opposing side.
In addition to unit supply, there is also map square supply.
Each square has a supply value of from 0 (the lowest value) to 9
(the highest value). A square supply value of 3 is needed for a
Russian corp to receive mobilization augmentation. A square supply
value of at least 5 is needed for a unit to receive replacements.
A square supply value of 3 is needed for a square to be used for
rail movement (available only for German units). Unsupplied
squares have a supply level of 0.
When a square changes possession it is assigned a supply value
of 2 less than the supply value of the square from which the
occupying unit moved. For example, when a German unit moves from a
square with a supply value of 6 to a square possessed by the
Russian player, the Russian square changes to a German square and
is given a temporary supply value of 4. During the supply phase
each square which is cut off from a supply base has its supply
level set to 0. Each square which is in supply has its supply
level increased by 1, up to the maximum of 9. This increase in
supply level represents the clearing of roads and the repair of
bridges and railroad track.
The maximum supply level of a square is determined by its
location in relation to the owning player's transportation network.
Combat operations commenced on the Eastern Front prior to
the completion of Russian mobilization. Accordingly, the game
begins with some incomplete Russian corps. These units are
marked with a "-" in the unit display. These corps receive their
missing forces during the Russian Mobilization phase of game
turns 2 through 5. This augmentation is handled automatically by
the computer program. During each of these four turns, 2 or 3 of
the incomplete Russian corps may receive their mobilization
augmentation. Note, however, that an incomplete corp must be in
a square with a supply value of at least 3 to actually receive
its mobilization augmentation. If during its scheduled
mobilization augmentation turn a corp is not in a square with a
supply level of at least 3, then that corp doesn't receive such
After the first full game turn (starting August 18th) the
Central player may provide replacements for eligible units which
have been reduced in strength. Russian replacements begin on the
sixth game turn (September 1st). A Russian or Austro-Hungarian
unit is eligible for replacements if it is not adjacent to an enemy
unit and is in a square with a supply level of at least 5. A
German unit is eligible for replacements if it is in a square with
a supply level of at least 5. (A German unit adjacent to a Russian
unit may receive replacements.) A unit may not receive more than 1
replacement step each replacement phase. If there are 2 eligible
units in a square, only 1 of those units may receive replacements
during a replacement phase. Replacements for units are controlled
by the appropriate player.
Initially, 3 replacement steps per turn are available for
Austro-Hungarian and Russian units, and 1 replacement step per turn
is available for German units. As the game progresses the number
of replacement steps available each turn changes (increases for the
Germans and Russians, decreases for the Austro-Hungarians).
During this phase players may move some, none, or all of their
units. Russian garrison divisions, however, may not be moved until
they come into contact with Central units or until after game turn
14. Also, only German units may move by rail.
Reinforcements (new units) arrive at the beginning of certain
movement phases. Newly arrived units may be moved. A notice is
displayed at the start of each movement phase for which
reinforcements are scheduled.
After completion of the movement phase, the moving player
selects which if any units will attack enemy units. All attacks
are at the option of the moving player. Cavalry units may attack
other cavalry units but not infantry units. Also, cavalry units
may not participate in attacks on fortress squares.
Enemy Defense Option Selection (2-Player Version Only)
During this phase the opponent of the moving player selects
combat responses for the attacked units. The three defense options
generally available to attacked units are withdrawal, normal
defense, and hold at all costs.
The hold option is available only to units with at least one
strength step remaining and applies only to such units located in
clear and city squares. Russian units may not "hold" in clear
terrain; they may "hold" only in city squares (both major and
minor). If this option is selected and the attack is successful,
the defending unit is not compelled to retreat. Instead, the
defending unit holds its ground and losses 2 strength steps (as
casualties) instead of 1 strength step.
Units in attacked squares may withdraw and thus avoid
combat. The attacking units advance into such vacated squares
during the combat resolution phase. An attacking unit incurs no
casualty loss when it advances into a vacated square. Units may
not be withdrawn into occupied friendly squares in violation of any
1-unit stacking limitation (woods, hills, mountain, and swamp
After completion of the movement phase (completion of the
enemy defense options selection phase for the 2-Player version of
the game) the game advances to the combat resolution phase. The
computer handles the resolution of all combat (losses, retreats,
and advances into vacated squares).
The result of each battle is displayed. The display
includes a basic representation of the attacked square and the
six adjacent squares. Information displayed includes the
designation of the principal combat units (one for each side),
combat odds, combat results, and the new strength values for
units which incur losses. Note that attack odds greater than 4:1
are treated as 4:1. This odds limitation reflects the mismatch
between technology (machine guns and rapid-fire artillery) and
combat doctrine and tactics which existed at the start of World
War I. There is a separate combat display for attacks on
V. GAME ELEMENTS
Supply determination takes place after the resolution of
combat. As previously stated, a unit is "in supply" if there is
a continuous line of friendly squares from that unit to a supply
base, or the unit is in a fortress square. A unit cut off from
supply loses a strength step beginning with the second turn it is
out of supply. Step losses continue until a supply line is re-
established or the unit surrenders (is destroyed). Surrendered
units are reflected in the "captured" count displayed by the game
Supply bases for each side are described in Section III. E.,
Play Sequence. Once a supply base square is occupied by an enemy
unit that square no longer functions as a supply base. The
square will again function as a supply base if it is reoccupied
by a friendly unit. City supply bases and map-edge bases that
are part of the transportation network have a maximum supply
level of 9.
Transportation Network and Maximum Supply
Supplies are moved from depots to units by railroad and
animal-drawn carts. Supplies move through a pipeline-like
network consisting of major railroad lines and all-weather roads.
The closer a unit is to this "pipeline" the faster it can receive
the supplies necessary to conduct operations (munitions, food,
and animal fodder). These logistics aspects of the campaign are
embodied in the transportation network rules.
The transportation network is represented by solid gray
lines. The maximum supply level for squares in this network is
9. Maximum supply is attained when the square is part of a
friendly network reaching back to a supply base square (city or
map-edge). The maximum supply level that a square can have
decreases by 2 for each square it is distant from the
transportation network. For example, a square that is one square
from the transportation network has a maximum supply value of 7. A
square that is two squares from the transportation network has
a maximum supply value of 5. Squares that are four or more squares
from the transportation network have a maximum supply value of 1.
There is an exception to the general transportation network
rule. The exception is for the Russian city of Pinsk (35,18).
If this square is in possession of the Russian player it has a
maximum supply value of 7. Squares adjacent to Pinsk have a
maximum supply value of 5, squares that are two squares from
Pinsk have a maximum supply value of 3.
Beginning with the second Central game turn (sixth game turn
for the Russian player) and prior to each player's movement
phase, each player may designate certain units to receive
replacements. In order for a unit to receive replacements it
must be in a map square with a supply level of at least 5, not
adjacent to an enemy unit (unless the unit to receive replacements
is a German unit), and otherwise eligible to receive replacements.
Cavalry units may not receive replacements. No more than one unit
in a map square may receive replacements during one game turn. A
unit may not receive more than one replacement step during one game
turn. Replacement allocation for Central and Russian units is
controlled by the respective player.
At the start of the game there are 3 replacement steps
available each turn for the Austro-Hungarian and Russian units.
There is 1 replacement step available for the German units.
The number of replacement steps available changes as the
game progresses. Beginning October 1st, the number of German
replacement steps increases to 2 and the number of Russian
replacement steps increases to 4. Beginning November 1st, the
number of German replacement steps increases to 3 and the number of
Austro-Hungarian replacement steps decreases to 2.
To select a unit to receive replacements, place the cursor
over that unit. If the unit is eligible for replacements
"Eligible" will appear in the message area at the bottom of the
screen. Press the key or the button. If the
square is occupied by an eligible unit in the square the cursor
color will turn to yellow. If there is no eligible unit then the
cursor will blink. If there are two eligible units in the selected
square you will be asked to chose either the top unit or bottom
unit. Press the key or button to select the top
unit; press the key or the button to select the
bottom unit. Finally, you will be asked to confirm your
replacement decision. Press the key to answer yes, the key
to answer no.
After a player has allocated all available replacements, the
program advances to the movement phase. If you want to terminate
the replacement phase (because there are not enough eligible
units for the available replacement steps) press the key (for
"menu") and then respond to the question with the key. Note:
Unused replacements are "lost"; they are not carried forward to
other game turns.
During the game each side receives additional units known as
reinforcements. The arrival of reinforcements is controlled by the
game program. Reinforcements arrive and appear on the map at the
beginning of each game turn.
At the start of the August 25-28 game turn the Central
player is asked whether the Germans will receive early
reinforcement from the Western Front. The units affected are the
Guard reserve corp, the 11th active corp, and the 8th cavalry
division. If the Central player selects the early reinforcement
option, then these units will arrive on the September 1-4 game turn
(historical option). Otherwise, these units will arrive on the
October 8-11 and October 26-28 game turns.
Some units arriving as reinforcements have a movement bonus
(movement allowance of between 7.0 and 9.5). This reflects the use
of railroads to bring mobilized units to designated deployment
positions. Newly arrived units with these extra movement factors
may not attack on that turn (their initial combat factor is 0).
All units may be marched (foot and horse movement) and
German units may be moved by railroad in Germany and western
"Poland." Rail movement is so limited because only the Germans had
both the staff capability and the rail resources for the impromptu
rail movement of forces.
Basic Movement (March)
Each unit has a basic movement allowance called a movement
factor. Movement points are expended from the movement factor as a
unit moves across map squares. After the movement factor is
exhausted that unit can no longer move. It costs 1 movement
point to move into clear terrain and city map squares. It costs
1.5 movement points to move into hill, forest, and swamp map
squares. It costs an additional 1.0 movement point to cross a
river. Moving into a mountain square costs all of a unit's
movement factor and the mountain movement must be the only movement
that the unit makes that turn.
Generally, a unit must have a movement factor sufficient to
enter the map square into which the player wants to move that unit.
The exception to this rule is that if a unit has not moved during a
movement phase it may move into any square by expending all of it's
movement points. For example, an infantry unit with a movement
factor of 2.0 may be moved across a river into a woods square
(movement cost of 2.5 points) so long as it is the first move for
that infantry unit during that movement phase.
To select a unit for march movement, move the black cursor
to that unit's map square then press the key or the
button. The cursor color will change to yellow to show
that the map square has been selected. If the map square contains
2 units then select either the top unit or bottom unit for movement
by pressing the key / button or the key /
Unit movement is accomplished by using the numeric keypad keys
(1,2,3 and 7,8,9) or the mouse pointer. To move a unit using the
mouse, place the mouse pointer over an adjacent square then press
the button. If the selected unit is unable to enter
the desired map square, then the cursor color or mouse pointer will
blink and the unit will not be moved.
To de-select a unit from march movement press the
key or the button. In response the cursor color
will change from yellow to black.
German Landwehr Brigades
The German forces begin the game with 6 Landwehr brigades.
During the actual campaign these units were "built up" to 3 corps
using Landsturm units (3rd line reserve forces) and additional
Landwehr units. At the beginning of the Central player's 15th
turn, October 1-4, the 6 Landwehr brigades are replaced by 3
Romania remains neutral throughout the game. Units may not
move into Romania. Central and Russian units may not withdraw or
retreat into Romania.
The combat phase of a game turn follows the movement phase.
To end the movement phase and begin the combat phase, first display
the game menu by pressing the key. Then select the End
Movement option by pressing the key. Confirm the selection by
pressing the key.
During the combat phase, the moving player selects friendly
units to conduct attacks against enemy units and fortresses. The
moving player may select some, all, or none of the friendly units
to participate in attacks. Also, more than one unit may attack a
target; however, a unit may not attack more than one enemy target.
To end combat selection, display the game menu by pressing the
key then press the key in response to the "end selection"
question. The computer will then calculate combat odds and resolve
combat. Combat odds and results are displayed on the screen for
Fortresses can be attacked only by infantry. If a fortress is
destroyed, an enemy unit in the fortress square is unaffected by
the fort's destruction unless additional infantry units
participated in the attack. For example, a German infantry corp
attacks a Russian infantry division located in a fortress. The
fortress may be destroyed but the Russian division will not be
affected by the attack because the German infantry corp was
employed in attacking the fortress and not the Russian division.
If, however, the same Russian square was attacked by two German
corps and the fortress were destroyed, then the Russian division
could by attacked by the second German corp.
German active divisions and corps have a 20% to 65% chance
of reducing a fortress in any given fortress attack. Odds depend
on the fortress strength level. All other infantry units have only
a 20% chance of reducing a fortress during an attack. The
advantage of the German active units is due to the 155mm and
210mm heavy artillery found in such units.
To select a unit for attacking place the cursor over the
chosen unit; then press the key or the
button (in response the cursor color changes to yellow). Next
select the attack direction by using the numeric keys or the
mouse and the button (attack arrow displayed on the
screen). Then press the key or button to
store the combat selection. Infantry units can attack infantry
units and cavalry units; cavalry units can attack cavalry units
To de-select a unit from attacking, place the cursor over
the chosen unit; press the key or the
button; then press the key to select the cancel attack
An attacked square is defended by the units in that square.
If there are two units defending, the program will designate one of
the units as the lead defending unit. The combat value of both
units, however, will be taken into account in the determination of
the combat result.
The computer program resolves each attack taking into
account unit strength, terrain, and the orders received by the
defending unit (defend, hold, withdraw). Results are displayed
separately for each attack.
Fortress Attack: The attacking units are identified in the upper
right portion of the combat resolution display.
If the attacking unit takes casualties its new
combat, strength, and movement factors are
Unit Attack: The lead attacking and defending units are
identified in the combat resolution display.
Though the program accounts for all units
involved in each attack, only one unit for each
side is identified. If the lead attacking or
defending unit takes casualties its new combat,
strength, and movement factors are displayed.
Also displayed is the total combat value for
each side engaged in the attack and the odds of
the attack (attack combat value v. defense
combat value). Odds are rounded down to .2:1,
.3:1, .5:1, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, or 4:1. Due to the
advantage of defense at the time, attack odds
never exceed 4:1. (Though if a unit has a
defense value of 0 the odds will be shown as
9:1.) Combat value is based on a formula in
which roughly the combat factor is multiplied
by the strength factor and the product is
adjusted for terrain. Also, the combat value
of defending units is increased when the lead
defending unit is a German corps or infantry
division. For example, the attack value of a
German active corp is 120; the defense value of
such unit is 164. The attack and defense value
of an 8-3-3.0 Russian corp is 56, while the
attack and defense value of a 6-3-2.5 Russian
corp is 42.
VI. VICTORY CONDITIONS
A. 2-Player Game (included in the registered version)
As stated in the Introduction, each player's goal is to
achieve victory on the Eastern Front through possession of
geographic positions. The objectives for the Central player are
all the German cities, Vienna, Budapest, Krakow, certain Carpathian
Mountain squares (23,37 23,38 27,39 and 27,40), Lodz, and either
Vilna or a Warsaw square. The objectives for the Russian player
are Minsk, Vilna, Kovno, Warsaw, Kholm, Brest-Litovsk, Czernowitz,
Tarnapol, Lemberg, Przemsyl, Gorlice, Tarnow, and any one major
German city, or Katowice and Krakow. The Russian player may also
win a "sudden death" victory by occupying a Vienna or Budapest
square. Except for the Russian sudden death situation, to win you
must control, at the end of the game, all of the objective
positions while denying victory to your opponent. Keep in mind
that at the end of the game all squares (including fortress
squares) which are surrounded by enemy possessed squares "fall" to
the enemy player.
Victory is normally determined at the end of the game (after
33 game turns). The last game turn is December 1-4. After full
completion of the 33rd turn, a final game status report will be
displayed. The display shows which objectives were met as well
as the casualties incurred by each side. Casualties do not
affect victory calculations; casualties are presented for
information only. (During the 1914 Eastern Front campaign
Central Powers casualties totaled approximately 1,100,000,
Russian casualties totaled approximately 1,800,000. Casualty
figures include killed, wounded, captured, and missing.)
During the movement phase a player may apprise each side's
progress in attaining victory by viewing the game status display.
The display is called by pressing the key (for "menu") then the
key. Objectives achieved by the Central player are displayed
in red while objectives achieved by the Russian player are
displayed in blue.
B. Computer Opponent Games
In order to achieve play balance the victory conditions are
somewhat different when you play against the computer. Following
are the victory conditions which apply only to playing the
Russian side against the computer (this shareware version).
The Russian objectives are all the Russian cities except for
Lodz, Czernowitz, Tarnapol, Lemberg, Przemsyl, Gorlice, Tarnow,
Krakow and either Konigsberg, Danzig, a Vienna square or a Budapest
square. The computer player (Central Powers) objectives are all
the major German cities, Vienna, Budapest, Krakow, the Carpathian
Mountain squares of 23,38 and 27,40, Brun and either Vilna or a
Warsaw square. Also, the game will come to an end before
completion of game turn 33 if the computer player possesses Vilna
or a Warsaw square. This early termination is not a sudden death
victory for the computer player. The computer player (Central
Powers) must attain all of its objectives, not just Vilna or a
Warsaw square, in order to achieve victory.
VII. COMPUTER OPPONENT PLAY
Though East Front, 1914 was designed as a 2-player game, you
may play either the Central or the Russian side against the
computer. (The shareware version which you have permits play
only as the Russian side against the computer.) When you play
against the computer you may set the level of play difficulty.
Level 1 is the standard difficulty level. Decreasing the
difficulty level to 0 makes it easier to defeat the computer
opponent; increasing the difficulty level to 2, 3, or 4 makes it
more difficult to defeat the computer opponent. The difficulty
level setting changes the number of unit replacement steps the
computer side receives each turn.
In order to maintain the game's historical framework as well
as play balance, the rules for computer-opponent games differ
somewhat from the rules for 2-player games. Following are the rule
differences which apply to playing the Russian side against the
Computer side units may be supplied across enemy controlled
but unoccupied squares. There is a partial exception to
this rule for isolated, computer controlled units.
The computer program selects defense options for the human
player as well as the computer player.
All computer controlled units may receive replacements even if
they are adjacent to enemy units.
When playing against the computer using full intelligence keep
in mind that computer controlled units not in contact with
your units are not always where they appear to be.
The game will end as soon as a Central unit possesses a Warsaw
square or Vilna. When playing the Central side against the
computer, the game will end as soon as a Russian unit
possesses Konigsberg or Danzig.
You may not move any of the Russian infantry divisions. These
units are employed as immobile garrisons for the cities located
in the western part of the Russian empire.
The fortress assault capability of the computer side units
When playing against the computer, any of your cavalry
which are unsupplied at the start of your turn will be
VIII. PROGRAM REGISTRATION
Though the shareware version of East Front, 1914 is a complete
game, it has been presented for evaluation purposes only. If you
enjoy the game and wish to keep it for more than 30 days, under
the terms of the shareware license you must register.
There are benefits to registration as the registered version is
a full-blown, commercial-style game provided to you at a price far
below that of traditionally marketed, commercial wargames. Features
included in the registered version are described below:
2-Player Game: You play the game against another person on
the same computer. One person plays the
Central Powers side, the other person plays
the Russian side.
E-Mail Play: You play the game against another person at
a different location. After each person
plays a turn, an encrytped binary file is
created. This file is then sent on disk by
mail, or electronically (E-Mail), to the
person playing the opposing side.
Central Game: You play the Central Powers side against the
computer which plays the Russian side.
Variable For the 2-Player Game and E-Mail Play each
Set Up: player may redeploy the available units prior
to the start of the game.
Registered users also receive an instruction booklet and
schematic chart of the gameboard map (suitable for
To register, simply complete the form provided at the end
of this manual and send it along with the registration fee of $28
to Forgotten Fronts Simulations, PO Box 635, Vienna, VA 22183.
(The order form is also in the file "order.fil".) The registration
fee includes sales tax for Virginia residents. There is no extra
charge for "postage and handling." Payment must be in U.S. funds
made by check drawn on a U.S. bank or by money order. Do not send
Prices quoted are in effect through December 31, 1996. If you
wish to register after this date, please write to Forgotten Fronts
Simulations to get the current prices and catalog of available
Also available currently is the game August, 1914. This game
covers the Western Front of World War I during the first three
months of the conflict. It has all the features of East Front, 1914
and plays in a similar manner. The cost of this game is also $28.
You may order both games, East Front, 1914 and August, 1914, for
a total cost of only $48 (a savings of $8).
If you decide to register, please read the file "rebate.fil"
for a description of participation in the file upload, rebate
program. You may receive a rebate of $5 if you are the first to
claim credit for an upload of the shareware version of East Front,
1914 to any free-access electronic bulletin board.
Check the game(s) you are ordering and the disk size.
East Front, 1914 (Full-feature version of the shareware | |
game that covers the first three months of World War I |___|
on the Eastern Front.)
August, 1914 (Full-feature companion game to the above. | |
It covers the first three months of World War I on |___|
the Western Front - Germany, France, Belgium, and
Disk Size: ___ 3.50" High Density ___ 5.25" High Density
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Price: One game for $28.00, both games for $48.00. Payment must
be in U.S. funds made by check drawn on a U.S. bank or by
money order. Do not send currency. Price includes
shipping, handling, and Virginia sales tax. Prices are
effective through December, 1996. Write for current prices.
Send to: Forgotten Fronts Simulations
Post Office Box 635
Vienna, Virginia 22183
ALLOW UP TO 3 WEEKS FOR DELIVERY.