Contents of the BRIDGE.DOC file
HOME DUPLICATE BRIDGE SCORING PROGRAM
The Duplicate Bridge Scoring Program (BRIDGE) is a program
for the IBM PC family of computers and may be used to help set up
and score a duplicate bridge game. It is designed for home use
and hence is limited to 2, 3, 4, or 5 tables (four to ten pairs).
Included in the program are the movements which may be used and
automatic match point or IMP calculations. Partial or final
results may be saved to disk for later recall, and the results
may be sent to a printer.
This program is being made available to bridge players on a
Shareware basis. You pay only if you use and like the program.
You may freely pass copies of this program around to other bridge
players as long as this document file (with this statement) is
included. If you find this program useful you are encouraged to
make a donation to the author. Donors will be placed on a mail-
ing list for updates and bug-corrections. Please send your
donation ($15 suggested) to:
1561 Blackhawk Dr.
Sunnyvale, Ca 94087
The program is started by typing the word 'BRIDGE' at the
DOS prompt while the disk containing the program is in the de-
fault drive. You will then be presented with a Menu of the
program functions, as follows:
1) Initialize new game
3) Teams Names
4) Save data to file
5) Recall saved data
6) Enter scores
7) Show results
Your choice is selected by entering the appropriate number 1
through 8, or the first letter of the function (e.g., 'I' for new
game initialization). Following is an explanation of each func-
INITIALIZE NEW GAME
This selection is required to specify the number of teams
competing (and, hence the number of tables), and the number of
hands (boards) to be played each round. The selection is limited
to 4, 6, 8, or 10 teams (2, 3, 4, or 5 tables), although 3, 5, 7,
or 9 teams can play with a sit-out. If there are 3, 5, 7, or 9
teams, specify the next higher number.
You are then asked for the number of boards to be played
each round. The total number of boards to be played is limited
to 28, so for 10 teams you may not play more than 3 boards per
round (9 rounds), for 8 teams you may not play more than 4 boards
each round (7 rounds), for 6 teams no more than 5 boards each of
the 5 rounds, and for 4 teams no more than 9 boards each of the
Next, if you are playing two tables, the program will ask
whether you prefer IMP (International Match Points) or match
point scoring. IMP scoring is generally preferred when boards
are to be played only twice.
Finally, you will be asked whether you wish to use the
default (built-in) movement for your game. You have the option
of using the default movement or specifying your own. It is
suggested that you use the default movement unless there is a
reason for specifying another one.
If you specify your own movement, you may either enter it
from the keyboard, or read it in from a disk file. If you enter
your own movement from the keyboard, you are given the oppor-
tunity to save it to a disk file for subsequent use.
Keyboard input is by table, starting with table number one.
You enter the ns team, the ew team, and the starting board number
for each round in the highlighted areas. Data entry is the same
as used for entering scores, explained later. Each number is
terminated with an Enter, which will cause the curser to jump to
the next field, or one of the arrow keys, which will cause the
curser to jump in the indicated direction. Data entry for each
table is terminated by jumping off the bottom of the list, or by
hitting the Escape (Esc) key.
After input is completed for table one, the screen will
clear and the input areas for table two will be highlighted, and
so forth. Note that you should check your input carefully, as
there is no internal check for consistency when the movement is
entered in this manner. If the movement is one that you are
going to use again, saving it to disk will facilitate specifica-
tion of it in the future.
This will generate a display of the movement selected in the
above initialization. The screen will show which teams oppose
each other each round, and the boards they will play. The two
table movement requires that the same boards be used at each
table each round. This is accomplished by passing them from one
table to the other during the round. The three table movement
requires that the boards be shared among the three tables during
the last round only. The four table and five table movements do
not require any sharing of boards. Except when boards are shared
among two or three tables, the boards must be placed on the
appropriate table at the beginning of each round.
The names of the partners on each team may be entered using
this option. This is optional and is for print-out purposes
only, as all internal data is kept using the team numbers.
Each input field is hi-lighted in turn for entry of its team
name. Any alpha-numeric information may be typed into the input
field. Names previously entered will appear if available. If no
change is desired from the name shown, merely press the
key for that field. Note that once any change is made in the
field, the whole field must be re-entered.
SAVE DATA TO FILE
Data for a game may be saved to the disk for later recall.
This may be done for a game in progress as well as to archive
completed games. Upon selection of this option, the program will
query you for the name of the output file to use. Unless other-
wise entered, the file will be saved on the default directory.
Striking at this time will result in the default file
name of 'BRIDGE.DAT'. File names may be any set of from one to
eight alpha-numeric characters (the first letter must be al-
phabetic) optionally followed by a period and a one to three
character suffix. If no suffix is supplied, the program will
automatically append '.DAT' to your file name. The name may be
preceded with the desired drive and directory, using standard DOS
notation (e.g., C:\BRDGPRG\BRIDGE if you wish to save the file
'BRIDGE.DAT' in a directory named BRDGPRG on your C drive). If
the name you specify already exists, the program will warn you of
that fact and ask whether you wish to change the output file
name. If the response is NO, the existing file will be over-
RECALL SAVED DATA
Previously saved data is recalled using this option. The
program will query you for the name of the file you wish to
recall. A response of will result in an attempt to read
the default file name of 'BRIDGE.DAT' in the default directory as
the input file. If the specified input name does not contain a
suffix, the program will append '.DAT' before searching for the
file. The file name may be preceded with the drive and directory
using standard DOS notation. If the input file name cannot be
found, the program will print a message to that effect and will
ask whether you wish to abort the input attempt. If you do not
abort, the program will again ask for the input file name.
This option is for entering the scores for each board
played. The screen will contain the team numbers across the top
of the screen with the running total for each team for the boards
scored so far. Across the bottom will be a list of all boards,
with those already scored indicated by inverse lettering.
The program will first ask for the number of the board to be
scored. It will then provide a box for the score results which
is similar to the data on the duplicate traveling score sheets.
Columns one and two will be filled in by the program with the NS
and EW team numbers who should have played that board. Column
three is an input field for special scoring considerations (dis-
cussed below). Columns four and five will be filled in by the
user with the appropriate NS or EW scores (only one of these
columns can be filled on each line). Finally, the calculated
match points (or IMPs, if selected) will be written in the last
two columns by the computer after the scores have been entered.
The input area will be indicated by an inverse field, start-
ing with the NS score for the first pair (the NS team with the
lowest number). If NS got a plus on that board, fill in the
score received (e.g., 420 for a non-vulnerable major game with no
overtricks). If EW got a plus, move to the EW field by pressing
the forward arrow, the Tab key, or the key, then enter
the EW score. Continue until all scores are entered. There
should be one score on each line of the box (unless the board was
passed out, in which case both fields would be left zero or
Values are entered into each field by typing in the numeri-
cal score attained. Movement between input areas is accomplished
with the following keys:
Enter Move to next field
Right arrow Move to next field
Up arrow Move to field above
Down arrow Move to field below
Left arrow Move to field to left
Escape Terminate data input
Delete Erase previous input value
Tab Move to next field
Shift-Tab Move to field to left
Data input is also terminated if the cursor is moved off the
bottom of the input box. Note that the key, the Tab key,
and the Right arrow key have the same effect, as do the Left
arrow and Shift-Tab keys.
Pressing the left arrow or Shift-Tab key while the cursor is
in the NS column will put the cursor in the third column, labeled
SP. This is for special scoring considerations which may occur.
The following letters may be entered into the SP column:
R Reverse the NS and EW teams
A Award both teams an "Average" score
B Award NS a Bottom (and EW a Top)
T Award NS a Top (and EW a bottom)
O Not played because of a sit-Out
The first action above ('R' for reversed) takes into con-
sideration one of the most common playing errors which may occur,
the NS and EW teams playing EW and NS instead. If this occurs,
enter the score which the team playing NS actually earned in the
NS column (or the team playing EW earned in the EW column) and
put an 'R' in the SP column. The team listed as EW (which should
have played EW but actually played NS) will then obtain the
benefit of the NS score.
The next three possible inputs ('A' for average, 'B' for
bottom, and 'T' for top) cover cases where the director may wish
to award the NS team a particular result not indicated by the
score. This may occur because of an irregularity in bidding or
play which results in the director awarding the specified result.
For example, if the board cannot be played because of the inad-
vertent exposure of one or more cards before play, the director
may decide to give both teams an average for the hand (since it
no longer can be played fairly). Tops or bottoms are awarded if
one of the teams is to be penalized because of some rule infrac-
Note that most home games will not have a director, and the
rules are generally not so strictly enforced that teams are
penalized. In such cases Tops and Bottoms will probably not be
awarded. However, use of Average for boards which cannot be
played is a likely occurrence. Note that Average will result in
an "average" score, which may not necessarily be reflected by an
average number of match points for the board.
Sit-Outs will occur if there are an odd number of teams, in
which case every round (and each board) will have a sit-out. If
there are an odd number of teams (i.e., 5, 7, or 9), the game
should be started as if there were 6, 8, or 10. The team playing
the highest numbered team would then have a sit-out each round,
and each board would indicate the sit-out by an 'O' (the letter
O) in the SP column for the team sitting out. For example, if
there were 7 teams playing, the game would be set up as if there
were 8 teams. Since there would be no team number 8, team 1
would not play the first round (since the schedule calls for team
1 to play team 8 on the first round), team 2 would not play the
second round, and so on.
After input for a board is terminated, either by striking
the Escape key or by moving the cursor off the bottom of the
input box, the program will calculate and display the match
points and ask if the input is OK. If any errors are detected, a
response of 'N' will again put the cursor in the first NS field
to allow any input values to be changed.
Input values may be changed by input of a different score
when the cursor is in the appropriate block. The previous value
will be replaced by the new value. Pressing Delete has the same
effect as input of zero. Letters in the SP column may be erased
by pressing the space bar while the cursor is in that column.
Once the score for a board is accepted (by answering 'Y' to
the OK prompt, or just striking ), the running score at
the top of the page and the list of boards across the bottom will
be updated with the completed board. The program will then ask
for the next board number to be scored. Boards previously scored
may again be selected to review or change the earlier entered
This section of the program is terminated by striking
when requested for the board number.
This option will summarize the team scores on the screen.
The scores shown will be the sum for all boards scored so far.
The percent game is the percentage scored against a "perfect"
game. That is, 100% is all top boards.
The bottom of the screen will ask whether the user would
like to PRINT RESULTS? A response of YES (or 'Y') will cause the
summary output to be sent to the printer. The printed output
will contain the individual team scores, in a format similar to
that shown on the screen, as well as the result of each board
played. The board results are arranged with the team numbers
across the top and the board numbers going down the left side of
the page. The bottom of the columns are the totals, which are
the team scores shown in the summary.
SUMMARY OF DUPLICATE SCORING RULES
Following is a summary of duplicate scoring rules. This
section is provided for those who may not have played duplicate
In order to play duplicate bridge, some means of maintaining
the four sets of cards for each hand must be provided. This is
usually done by means of 'boards', which may be purchased at game
stores, from mail order bridge supply companies, or from the
American Contract Bridge League (ACBL). Each board indicates the
dealer and the vulnerability for that hand. The deck is shuffled
and the hands dealt the first time each board is played. Each
deal is played without mixing the hands together. This is accom-
plished by each player exposing the card to be played on each
trick in turn, then putting that card face down in front of him,
with the long end aligned with the team taking the trick. In
that way it is easy to see how many tricks each side has taken so
far. After play, the cards for each hand are gathered together
and placed in appropriately marked pockets in the boards for play
during subsequent rounds.
Boards are usually sold in sets of four. The number of
boards required depends upon the number of hands to be played and
the number of tables. For two table games, one only needs suffi-
cient boards for each round, as they may be re-used for the
second and third rounds. For a three table game, one needs
enough boards for the first five rounds; the last round can
re-use some of the boards from earlier rounds. A four or five
table game requires a unique set of boards for the entire game.
For an average evening, a two table game would have seven or
eight boards each round; a three table game would have four or
five boards each round; a four table game would have three or
four boards each round; and a five table game would have two or
three boards each round. One can usually assume eight minutes
per board for average playing time.
Duplicate scoring for each hand is similar to rubber bridge
except that the vulnerability for each hand is determined by the
board number, and bonuses are awarded for games or partials made.
The bonus for games is 300 for non-vulnerable and 500 for vulner-
able games, and 50 for partials. There is no carry-over from
hand to hand. Slam bonuses and over and under trick scores are
the same as for rubber bridge. There is no bonus for honors.
In duplicate bridge the score for each hand is written on a
sheet which travels with the board, hence the name 'travelers'.
Pre-printed travelers may be purchased from the same sources as
bridge boards. They generally are in the form of a table with
the NS team numbers printed in column 1, a place for the EW team
number in column 2, the contract in column 3, the results in the
next several columns, followed by columns for the resulting NS or
EW scores. The last two columns are for the resulting match
points. The score at the end of each hand is written on the
traveler by the North player, and the traveler is then folded up
and inserted into one of the pockets in the board. It is illegal
for players to look at the traveler until after they have played
Two table games do not require travelers. The score for
each hand can be kept by the North player at each table and the
results can be determined at the end of the round by comparing
the scores from each table.
MATCH POINT SCORING
The primary attraction of duplicate bridge is that (in
theory, anyway) it does not matter whether you get good cards or
not in order to win. Your score depends on how well you did
compared to everyone else who played the same hand. In match
point scoring, you get one point for everyone you beat (i.e.,
those who played your hand and got a poorer score than you), and
one-half point for everyone that got the same score as you.
It does not matter whether you beat the other team by just a
few points (by scoring an overtrick, for example), or by a bundle
(such as by bidding and making a slam not made by the other
team). Of course, the higher your score the more likely it is
that you will beat the other teams playing your hand on that
The top (maximum) score for each board depends on how many
times it has been played. For a two table game, each board will
be played twice and top (the best possible score) is one. For a
three table game, each board will be played three times and top
is two; for a four table game top will be three, and for a five
table game top will be four. The average score in each case is
half the top.
In the special case of a two-table game, an alternate scor-
ing method is the use of International Match Points (IMPs). This
scoring method provides a better means of measuring the total
score difference between the two teams playing each board. IMP
scoring awards points are based on the score difference, using a
non-linear scale so that one big score does not determine the
match. Following is the table used for calculating IMPs:
SCORE DIFFERENCE IMPS
0- 10 0
20- 40 1
50- 80 2
90- 120 3
130- 160 4
170- 210 5
220- 260 6
270- 310 7
320- 360 8
370- 420 9
430- 490 10
500- 590 11
600- 740 12
750- 890 13
4000- up 24