Dec 222017
Development Of Mental Energy V2.5: This ESP testing program explores the subject of psychic development. Successive trials of four colored squares are presented, one of which holds the correct color to be guessed.

Full Description of File

Development Of Mental Energy V2.5
This ESP testing program explores the subject
of psychic development. Successive trials of
four colored squares are presented, one of
which holds the correct color to be guessed.
Correct guesses ("hits") are counted & saved
for comparison against chance. Higher scores
are more likely to indicate psychic ability.
Also has info about paranormal events such as
hauntings, poltergeists, and alien entities.

File DOME25.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Games and Entertainment
Development Of Mental Energy V2.5: This ESP testing program explores the subject of psychic development. Successive trials of four colored squares are presented, one of which holds the correct color to be guessed.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
DOME.DAT 10970 5018 deflated
DOME.EXE 88513 48107 deflated
DOME.TXT 94128 25722 deflated
FILE_ID.DIZ 470 310 deflated

Download File DOME25.ZIP Here

Contents of the DOME.TXT file

DOME - Development of Mental Energy (tm)


DOME requires DOS 2.1 or greater to run. A color monitor is
recommended. The following files comprise the program, and are
required in the directory or on the diskette where the program is
run: DOME.EXE, DOME.DAT, and DOME.TXT. To install on a hard drive,
copy the files to an existing directory: COPY A:DOME.* C:\

Please read the information in this guide to learn how to
operate the program to your best advantage. Included are theories
behind its design and strategies to obtain the best possible
scores. This text file may be printed by typing TYPE DOME.TXT>LPT1
in DOS. Do not in any way edit the file, or program operation may
be adversely affected.

Program text (C) 1991-95 by TBX Software. All rights are reserved.

Table of Contents

Section ViewPage

I Introduction 3

II The Menu Functions 9

III Running the Exercise 17

IV Strategies for Using DOME 20

V Everyday Aspects of Psi 24


Psi testing has traditionally been performed in a laboratory
setting where subjects have been selected to participate in an
experiment designed to allow for the demonstration of a subject's
presumed clairvoyance, telepathy, psychokinesis, etc. Over the
last few decades, large numbers of test results which are claimed
to undeniably prove the existence of psi phenomena now comprise a
great deal of the published literature on the subject. Although
some of the test results seem to suggest, due to their extreme
chance improbability, the workings of paranormal interaction, it
has been later found that many of the experiments yielding these
impressive results did not hold up to careful scientific
scrutiny. Critics of the field have found most of the experiments
to be seriously methodologically flawed, lacking adequate
controls in many cases and thereby introducing the possibility of
results obtained by trickery on the part of the subject. Because
researcher bias can often also be an issue, other results were
suspect in that they might have been faked. In essence, when
deliberate researcher fraud or subject trickery could not be
directly attributed to the reported results, neither could
otherwise be totally ruled out.

Furthermore, when subjects producing extraordinary results in
a number of cases were subject to testing repeated by critical
investigators using necessary, more stringent controls, the
results were seemingly and oddly never repeatable. While
parapsychologists have felt that some of the better-designed
experiments have more than demonstrated actual psi abilities,
critics of the field remain steadfast to this day in saying that
better techniques and proof are required before science will be
ready to open itself up to the acceptance of psi.

The more traditional of the psi testing techniques has been
with a widely used pack of 25 ESP cards. One of five symbols
(circle, square, cross, star, or three wavy lines) appears on the
faces of each of the cards and there are 5 cards bearing each
symbol. A subject undergoing testing would exercise his/her
presumed clairvoyance by guessing the symbol (i.e., target)
appearing face down on each card. So, there would be 25 guesses
(or trials) in each pass (or run) through the ESP deck. In one
run of the deck, 5 cards guessed correctly (hits) would
correspond exactly to chance. The more cards guessed correctly
over 5, the more likely to be due to something other than chance,
presumably ESP. Not unexpectedly, skeptics have condemned tests
of this type as being fraught with error, a major one dealing
with the result of manufacturing inconsistencies in the design
quality of the cards themselves. This may reportedly allow cards
to be identified by visual cues, registering subconsciously or
otherwise, which may exert a scoring bias after several runs of
the ESP deck.

Over the years, one of the more promising concepts in the area
of psi testing has been the creation of automatic recording
mechanisms to eliminate the possibility of recording errors,
especially those arising out of an inherent bias on the part of
the experimenter. These mechanisms, when used in conjunction with
an automated (self-sustained, random, and controlled) testing
procedure, not subject to flaws and therefore biases inherent in
a human-administered system, may perhaps be the only chance
parapsychology has to prove itself as far as psi testing is

The workings of the DOME program are based on the
aforementioned concept. DOME is a completely automated system in
which the user guesses the nature of the target (one color out of
a possible four, in this case) as pre-determined by the computer.
Scores are saved automatically if you choose to save them before
you begin the user run, not after. This way there can be no
recording bias by choosing not to save the scores of lesser
significance (closer to chance). Once a user run is started, the
resulting score will be saved whether significant or not. The
length of the run is user selectable (20, 30, 40 trials). Hence,
exactly chance scoring varies with the trials selected (5 hits/20
trials, 7.5/30, 10/40, on average).

DOME brings the practice of psi testing home to you. Anyone
can participate in using the exercise. Whether or not you
believe in the existence of psychic abilities, DOME is positively
worth trying to see if your beliefs have an effect on your
ability to achieve significant scores. Parapsychologists
generally feel that it helps to believe in order to score
significantly above chance on an ESP exercise.

Some researchers, using automated testing systems enhanced by
feedback signaling to the user, have reported positive results
with their continued use on subjects. Feedback lets the user know
right away whether a trial has been guessed correctly. DOME
employs an audio-visual feedback system, thereby providing the
user with immediate knowledge of the correctness of each guess and
therefore of each impression as it is received on a psychic (or
intuitive) level. Here, if psi is in fact responsible for any
extra-chance scoring, the possibility arises that such a system
might be used to help an individual learn to recognize immediately
which feelings were associated with the correct impressions, hits
resulting. If, through this recognition enhancement aspect, these
abilities can be developed to the point where they can be relied
upon, they may prove invaluable for countless situations in
everyday life.


DOME's menuing system makes it easy to get around and use the
program's features. Menu items may be selected in a couple of
different ways. You may use the left/right and up/down arrow keys
or press the key corresponding to the first letter of an item on
the menu bar to move the menu highlight to the desired choice.
Then to execute, either press when at the highlighted
selection or just simply press the displayed function key of your

| DOME |
The psi exercise is initiated via this menu selection. The
computer will run the exercise according to the settings you have
chosen from the other menus. Demo Start and User Start function
in exactly the same manner except for one important difference:
Demo Start will not permit the saving of scores, whereas User
Start will save them automatically at the end of a run.

IMPORTANT: Since scores will automatically be saved, select User
when you are genuinely attempting the exercise. Yet, good reasons
exist why you might choose the Demo over the User function.

Select Demo Start when:

>> You are new at using the program and would first like
to familiarize yourself with the feel and layout of the exercise

>> You are demonstrating to others how the program works

>> You are not really serious about trying to do your best
or you are not in the necessary frame of mind to interact properly

In addition, please keep in mind that should you choose User
Start, be prepared to complete the entire exercise, as there is
no way to cancel a User run. And since every score is destined to
be saved at the outset of the User run, you should be somewhat
prepared to try your best at the exercise. The section on
strategies will provide some guidelines on how to do this.

| Mode |
The manner in which the computer generates the target colors
for the trials of each run is decided by which mode has been set
beforehand. In ESP mode, the computer has randomly chosen a
target color which it holds in memory until a trial is guessed,
immediately after which point the true target color is displayed.
ESP, namely that of clairvoyance, would then presumably be
responsible if significantly scoring runs were attained in this

In PK mode, the computer randomly and very rapidly cycles the
four target colors in memory while it awaits your choice. When
you interrupt the cycle by making your choice, the target color
held in memory at the interruption point is displayed. PK
(specifically micro-PK, or small-scale psychokinesis) would be
responsible if the user (agent) was in some way exerting a mental
influence as to cause minor shifts in the processing speed of the
computer and therefore in the speed at which the computer cycles
the target colors. The net result would presumably be a
coinciding of the color chosen by the user with the target color
held in memory at the exact moment in time.

Then there is a problem of multiple interpretation. In PK mode
the possibility exists that ESP is really responsible and not PK,
or a combination of both. ESP could be at cause if the user is
clairvoyantly or, better yet, precognitively picking up the
target color in computer memory (or the target that will be in
memory, in the case of precognition) at the exact moment a color
is chosen and thus the cycle is interrupted. You may find that
you receive psychic impressions of the correct color (due
exclusively to ESP, by definition) in either mode.

In PK mode, whether you are successful at willing your choice
of the correct color (due to micro-PK) or whether you receive
impressions in a similar manner to that of the ESP mode (due to
precognition or clairvoyance), neither is the important issue.
What is important is to utilize any method whatsoever which works
best for you. In fact, you may want to stick with whichever mode
produces your highest scoring, as the emphasis is on psi
utilization in general. It may be best to think of the mode (PK
or ESP) as referring more to the method of target color
generation than to the actual underlying psi process which allows
you to score a hit.

Please note that a definitive test of effects due to micro-PK
can only be accomplished through a system which utilizes a method
of true random target generation, where the user tries to affect
the outcome of the randomized process by "causing" certain
targets to be generated over others. In computer systems (like
the one you are using) the random process is algorithmically
generated (i.e., according to a formula), which is to say the
process is not truly random, but rather simulated, or pseudo-
random. In other words, no way exists to mentally influence a
change in the generation of targets since their outcome is
predetermined for any point in the cycle.
| Trials |
The number of guess attempts in one run, i.e., the length, of
the exercise is set by selecting this item on the menu. You are
encouraged to stay with the Trials setting(s) of your preference.
If you feel that 30 or 40 trials is too lengthy, stick with 20
trials per run, especially if you feel that your scoring rate has
exhibited a tendency to decline over the course of a lengthy run.

| Options |
Color 1 and Color 2 set the screen environment inside the
target area and outside, respectively. Scroll through the
available colors by using the up/down arrow keys, then set by
pressing or cancel by pressing . You may find that
certain screen colors, when suited to your tastes, appear to
enhance your performance at the exercise. Incidentally, they will
probably be the colors that make you the most comfortable and
allow you to focus by putting your mind at ease. The sound
feedback setting (on/off) may be also chosen under Options.

| Scores |
Choosing View on the menu will display the highest scores,
categorized by trials, that have been achieved throughout your
use of the program. The window is divided into an upper portion,
which shows the top ten highest individual runs on record, and a
lower part, displaying the top nine high score frequencies (number
of times each score has been achieved) and run total (T) for the
currently set mode (PK or ESP). Only record high scores are
displayed, as these are the ones you want to surpass.

In order to know whether you have demonstrated actual psi
abilities, you need to evaluate your complete sample of scores.
There is no effective limit on the number of scores that can be
saved and subsequently evaluated by the program. As a general
rule, the more times you have used the exercise (and
therefore the more scores you have saved), the more accurate the
evaluation becomes. Lesser numbers of scores can still be
evaluated, but may not give as good a picture of your true
performance. For any one set number of trials in one mode, 20-30
runs can be considered a reasonable minimum for the sake of

A printed record of the report screen can be made by pressing
the keyboard-designated Print Screen key, . This is
especially useful if you want to keep a record of significant
scores, just before you decide to save a new set. When a new set
is started, all current scores that have been saved are
permanently erased. At any time, this procedure can be executed by
selecting Reset on the Scores menu.

| Info |
Info permits the viewing of the entire User Guide and Psi
Reference from within DOME.


Once the exercise has been initiated via the selection of
either Demo Start or User Start on the program menu, you may
begin to use the key controls to select the target color of your
choice. The target colors, and their associated key controls, are
as follows: red, up arrow; yellow, down arrow; blue, left arrow;
green, right arrow. The Num Lock may be in either setting. For
ease of use, you can simulate the arrow key configuration of the
AT-style, 101 keyboard with the Num Lock in the on setting and
the center numeric key (number 5) doubling as the down arrow key
(yellow). This configuration permits the resting of three fingers
in a row on the controls, with the middle one controlling up and

For each trial, you will notice that the color box
corresponding to your key press becomes highlighted. At the same
moment, the true target color is displayed in the appropriate
box, remaining on screen for a predetermined amount of time
(between one and two seconds) before it clears. Through this
visual feedback, you will know instantly if your choice for the
trial is correct (hit) or incorrect (miss). It is not necessary
to wait for the screen to clear to move on to the next trial;
choose targets at your own pace. The computer has already
generated the next successive target while revealing the current
target on screen, in ESP mode. In PK mode, the rapid, cyclic
generation of targets is ongoing at all times during the run. This
process can be viewed in Demo mode only by pressing
(Peek) at any time during a run. Auditory feedback, if enabled, is
indicated by a tone having a high pitch (hit) or low pitch (miss).

You may view your status during a run by pressing
when in between trials, i.e., when boxes are empty. The status
will inform you of the number of trials remaining, as well as how
many hits have been achieved and the current settings. When a run
ends, the proportion of hits in comparison to the outcome for each
color is displayed by way of a hit scale. With the hit scale,
you can visually tell which color targets you may have been
inclined to guess correctly over any others. The upper graphic
depicts (approx.) the actual number of correct guesses for each
color (bar) over the actual outcome of each color (line), with the
highest outcome number (the measure) displayed on the axis of the
scale. These hits can also be viewed, in the lower graphic, as a
percentage of outcome for each color (approx.).

In terms of significant scoring, you should try to achieve
high scores as far from chance as possible. Exactly chance scoring
is as follows: for 20 trials, 5 hits; for 30 trials, 7 or 8 hits;
for 40 trials, 10 hits. In order to determine actual significance
due to psi (as opposed to chance) a complete set of user scores
must be statistically analyzed.


Before you begin an exercise, you should be in a mentally
relaxed state, while remaining both alert and receptive at the
same time. You should also be comfortably situated with no one
around to disturb you, without distraction, and under no time
restrictions. Clear your mind completely. Remove all worry and
doubt, otherwise you might restrain or completely suppress your
mental powers. For honest skeptics, at least for the duration of
the exercise, you must be willing to believe that you can rely on
your psi faculties in order to score significantly. Faith in your
abilities is fundamental to scoring well.

Once this proper frame of mind is attained, begin the exercise
by focusing your attention on the color boxes in the target area.
You may now confidently await impressions of the correct target
color. Do this with eyes either open or closed, whichever works
best for you. Impressions will register as transient mental
images and sudden feelings which impart a distinct, positive
sensation about the correctness of the target. For example, you
may perceive the target color as a mental flash and then score a
hit by pressing the associated key for that target. An impression
may also be felt in terms of the direction of the target, if not
by color alone. Oftentimes, the first impression received
intuitively is the correct one. In PK mode, when trying to
influence target outcome, along with maintaining a firm
conviction, your visualization of your selected target is helpful
just before pressing the proper key.

Psychically derived information registers at a specific level
within the subconscious in a mentally unprocessed or elemental
form. This registering occurs independently of the conscious mind
and its associated use of the five senses. When receiving psi
impressions, you must take precaution against conscious
interference (reasoning, imagination) which can lead you to
incorrectly second-guess your true intuitive impression of the
correct color. Any guesses you make on the basis of conscious
reasoning will generally not produce significant scoring. An
example of this occurs when you try to figure out, on any
successive trial, which target is most likely the correct one
based on previous trial outcomes. Searching for a pattern or
method by which to deduce your choices will not work as the
target generation is effectively random anyway. To aid you in
suppressing conscious interference, keep your attention focused on
the target area.

It is not necessary to rush through the trials of a run; you
determine your own pace. Take as long as you need to guess each
trial. If you fail to perceive a target, avoid forcing your
selection. Rather, while maintaining a relaxed and focused state
of mind, try directing to your subconscious, for example, the
following suggestion: "Reveal to me what is the true color of the
target." With confidence, anticipate an impression of the correct
color to then arise.

Practice is essential in order to become skilled at using your
psi ability. However, it may be helpful not to attempt too many
runs in one sitting, especially if you notice a decline in your
scoring. Take breaks, as many and as often as required to restore
your ability to achieve. Concern yourself with the trial at hand
only; to consciously dwell on past scores may interfere with your
psi abilities in the current run. Stay motivated and keep a
positive outlook, even if your scoring is falling short of
expectation. It is expected that you will achieve chance and even
below-chance scores occasionally. In fact, psi significance is
determined by analyzing the achieved frequencies of all scores.
Even if despite your best efforts you feel that you have failed to
produce desirable scores, do not be discouraged. Psi effects are
often subtle, and will perhaps show up only after your complete
set of scores has been evaluated.


People who attune themselves to their psi abilities have
reported advantages which enable them to live more secure, well-
informed lives. The intuitive level of the subconscious is
believed to protect the self by constantly monitoring the
environment (through psi) for knowledge of events or
circumstances of essential importance to the individual.
Conscious awareness of this psi-derived information can be of
assistance by guiding the individual to make the correct
decisions in life.

By relaxing and inwardly focusing the attention of the
conscious mind, clairvoyant or precognitive information may be
obtained in the form of impressions, i.e., images or feelings,
which register abruptly and then quickly vanish. Impressions,
when accepted at face value, should provide an individual with
the required knowledge to take the proper course of action when
faced with many decisions. However, imagination and reasoning may
interfere and incorrectly modify the impression, thereby reducing
its effectiveness in decision-making, so you must be careful when
interpreting your impressions.

In telepathy, another reported psi function, thought messages
are communicated by one individual, the sender, into the mind of
another individual, the receiver. Telepathically received
impressions register in a similar manner as clairvoyance above.
In experiments of this type, the receiver also concentrates on
both the sender and the impending thought impression. When sending
thoughts to someone else, visualization of what you want to
communicate is important. Reinforced by strong feelings, images or
thoughts should be projected into the mind of the individual on
whom you are concentrating (the receiver). As a general rule,
always remember, whenever using psi abilities, the importance of
faith and conviction cannot be overstressed. The importance of
practice should not be forgotten either.

The aforementioned summary is provided mainly as a preface to
psi's everyday uses. Much has been written about the potential
applications of psi and how to make full use of such abilities to
work to one's advantage in everyday living. A few such works are
listed at the end of the Psi Reference. These, and other available
titles, will offer much more detail on the subject and can be used
to enhance your study and to further your psi development.

DOME - Development of Mental Energy (tm)


Some of the ideas presented in DOME are part of a larger field
of study known collectively as parapsychology, or psiology, the
study of psi. Though only some types of phenomena in this field
are directly relevant to the DOME program, others can be of added
interest from a standpoint of apparent human experience as
reported by individuals on occasion. What follows is a summary,
by no means complete, of some of the major phenomena reported, as
well as a mention of some of the surrounding issues of the field.
Please be aware that many ideas have been advanced to explain such
events, with often as much disagreement exhibited by those within
the field as by critics of the field. In what follows, there is no
intent to endorse any one viewpoint over another.

Program text (C) 1991-95 by TBX Software. All rights are reserved.

Table of Contents

Section ViewPage

I Introduction 3

II Types of Psi ESP 8

PK 12

"Survival" Phenomena 15

III Problems In Parapsychology 22

IV Ufology and "Alien" Encounters 26


Those involved in the field of parapsychology concern
themselves with the understanding and explanation of certain,
occasionally reported occurrences which appear to lie outside the
realm of normal experience. Specifically, these phenomena, labeled
as "psi" (pronounced "sigh"), usually deal with an individual's
interaction with the external environment through a process as
yet undetermined by conventional science. Such interactions can be
divided into two basic types: that of informational psi, or
extrasensory perception, known also as ESP, and that of
influential psi, or psychokinesis, known also as PK. A third area
of interest deals with the question of whether living beings
possess a spirit which can survive the death of the physical body
and subsequently interact with the living. This is referred to as
the "survival hypothesis".

Occurrences claimed to be due to psi fall into individual
categories based on their characteristics, as explained in the
following section, "Types of Psi". Oftentimes these categories
are not well-defined, especially when trying to classify a
reported psi happening. Multiple interpretations due to psi exist
for many of the types of reported occurrences, even well in
addition to the "normal" interpretations claimed by those who are
doubtful regarding psi's existence. Regardless as to explanation,
people react differently from one another to reports of psi
occurrences, especially to their own personal experiences which
may be attributable to psi. Some may express doubt or disbelief,
while others may become downright fearful, while others still may
ignore such occurrences entirely or without even consciously
knowing. The best reaction, though, is perhaps one of curiosity,
for it is through this that some insight, and thus understanding,
may be gained into the true nature of the experience.

Psi events fall into two general categories: those happening
seemingly on their own without any provocation, and those which
are caused intentionally. As such, the psi expressed under the
former is known as "spontaneous psi", while the latter is known
as "induced psi". Many tests have been designed for the induced
demonstration of psi (both ESP and PK) and have usually been
carried out in a lab equipped for this purpose. Results of such
tests vary widely and have been the subject of much controversy
from both within and outside the field. The Introduction to the
DOME User Guide contains more information about psi testing in
general. Most of the reported psi events are those which happen
to individuals rather unexpectedly, oftentimes surprising someone
in the home, office, or just about anywhere the experience takes
place. As such, these "spontaneous" occurrences are the ones
usually responsible for feelings of awe, shock, or bewilderment.
Examples include out-of-body experiences, precognitive visions,
apparitional encounters, hauntings, and poltergeist events.

The organized study of psychic occurrences is roughly one
hundred-ten years old. Since its beginnings, many obstacles have
stood in the way of progress. (See the section entitled "Problems
In Parapsychology".) Today, mainstream science is still reluctant
to take the psi issue seriously. Not only has the war between
critic and proponent of parapsychology been waged for over a
century now, but seemingly little progress has been made in the
direction of uncovering the truth about the nature of such
phenomena. To this end, many parapsychologists still claim that
psi exists with very little question, and skeptics say that it is
just about all nonsense. Parapsychology has been described as a
legitimate area of scientific inquiry by those within the field,
and as an area of scientific heresy by those outside. Yet,
interestingly, otherwise traditional scientists can be found
to populate both sides of the issue.

Moreover, parapsychology is often confused and improperly
lumped together with other subject areas of questionable
scientific validity, labeled as the "unknown", the "unexplained",
or the occult, such as astrology, numerology, demonology,
satanism, vampires, Bigfoot, New Age, Atlantis, and UFO's.
Parapsychology may have as little to do with these "mysterious"
subjects as they have to do with each other. The grouping itself
is odd, for some are considered art forms; others are
metaphysical ideas; others hinge on existence of the
"supernatural"; others are preserved in legends and folklore,
while others may be deserving of scientific attention still (like
UFO's). Regarding this last point, some information on UFO's and
the "alien" abduction phenomenon will be included, not as part of
parapsychology, but incidental to it. It is nonetheless
interesting to note that much psi phenomena has been described to
occur during such reported encounters.


The term "ESP" encompasses those specific instances of psi
occurrence which enable an individual to receive information
external to the mind without any use of the senses or reasoning
whatsoever. The first type of ESP, clairvoyance, pertains to the
perceiving of objects or conditions in current time. Although the
information is not acquired via the sense organs, these
perceptions are usually in the form of, but not limited to,
visions, and they may also be in the apparent form of sound,
feelings, and even smell. If the information is channeled over a
distance, as opposed to being received from the immediate locale,
this process is often known as "remote perception". On occasion,
one may get the additional feeling of actually visiting a distant
scene, and the term "traveling clairvoyance" may apply. As the
mind may be fooled into thinking that part of oneself has left
the body in order to perceive the surroundings of a distant
location, it has been proposed as an possible explanation for the
out-of-body experience, or OBE, later discussed under "Survival".

Dowsing, or radiesthesia, involves the use of a held object
(e.g., a rod or branch) to locate, in a process known as
"divination", underground substances like water or oil, whereby
the held object may be serving as a focus for clairvoyant ability.
Psychometry, which is also thought to involve clairvoyance, is the
"reading" of an object or location for facts about the object or
its owner, or persons associated with some location, often in
connection with the past. In order for this to be possible, it is
presumed that an object or location has the ability, through some
kind of "recording mechanism", to retain some aspect or quality of
of its past surroundings or associated events. Psychometry would
then in effect be accomplished by somehow sensing or viewing what
has been recorded.

The term "haunting", especially in reference to its recurrent
and locality-specific aspects, has a basis in ESP. A haunting can
presently be interpreted as the psychometric replaying of the
recorded events of a location's past in the mind of an observer.
A major characteristic of a haunting is often that of an
apparition which appears to enact the same motions over again
when certain conditions exist, like a specific time of day,
time of year, or season, and which may be sensed by only certain
individuals present (who may be unconsciously using psychometry to
"see" the event). Another interpretation for hauntings, and
psychometry in general, has to do with the concept of
retrocognition, another type of ESP. This refers to an ability to
sense, while mentally focusing on the object or location, actual
events occurring in the past, as opposed to using clairvoyance to
view a recording of the past in the present time.

Precognition, another form of ESP, deals with information
supposedly received from the future. The existence of this form,
of course, is dependant on whether it is possible for the future
to be fully established and, if so, whether this future
information can cross backwards in time. One psi explanation for a
precognitive feeling may be the mind's demonstrative way of
informing or warning of a highly probably outcome based on
current conditions obtained clairvoyantly. This might also
explain why, through avoidance or otherwise, not all negative
premonitions come true.

The last major form of ESP, telepathy, relates to an
individual's awareness of thoughts and feelings which are present
in the mind of another. This apparent thought transference has
been found to be independent of distance, as has been
demonstrated in various experiments conducted over distances of
up to thousands of miles. Sometimes telepathy can occur quite
spontaneously, as has been reported, for example, in a few cases
where danger is involved. During these times, a person in trouble
might send out sort of a telepathic call for help, which is
"heard" by someone familiar to that person. Or, an individual may
try to warn someone of a potentially dangerous situation they are
aware of by trying to inform them or get their attention
telepathically, by mentally calling the person's name, etc.


The concept of psychokinesis, or PK, deals with the
hypothetical influence of the human mind on objects or processes
external to it. Often referred to as "mind over matter", any
means by which the human mind can alter or affect a physical
system without direct or indirect motor contact must be done
through PK. Any individual who uses PK is known as an "agent". PK
can be divided in four areas of study, and two of them, macro-PK
and micro-PK, are often studied in the laboratory.

Micro-PK refers to PK effects which are to a slight degree or
on a microscopic level, the detection of which is determined by
the outcomes of several attempted applications, then analyzed in
comparison to a control. For example, in the PK mode of DOME, the
agent attempts to influence the random outcome of a particular
color. After many attempts, the score results can be
statistically compared to a control (chance) model to see if
micro-PK was responsible, as presumably would be the case if the
scores, as a whole, differed significantly from chance. Macro-PK,
on the other hand, deals with larger-scale, visually observable
effects, primarily concerning the gauged movement or alteration
of objects, the disappearance and reappearance of objects in
different locations, and even levitations.

Another area related to macro-PK because of its visible
effects is the concept of the poltergeist occurrence. Contrary to
the popular presentation of this phenomenon by the media to
involve "evil" supernatural entities, parapsychologists now view
this experience as originating by and occurring around the
living. In any particular case, the occurrences generally involve
the strange movement, breaking, or rearrangement of objects, or
the unusual origination of sounds, and these happenings are
attributed to a specific individual around whom the events seem
to revolve. It is assumed that the events themselves are the
result of stressful situations involving the individual, who
unknowingly may serve as agent to utilize unconscious PK as an
outlet for the stress, as a means to alleviate it.
Psychic healing, the final PK-related area, involves an
individual's ability to heal injuries or illnesses of oneself or
of others through a technique of concentration and possibly hand
contact. This supposedly enables the healer to focus attention
and somehow impart a healing influence to the required target
area, usually some specific bodily tissue or organ. Oftentimes the
healing is both complete and unexpected, and often rather
astounding as far as what should normally be expected in terms of
traditional medicine. However, it has been suggested that such
healing is done, not through the use of PK, but through the
normal (psychosomatic) effects of psychology on the physiology of
the body, via some intricate, though poorly understood, connection
between the two. According to this idea, a person attempting to
heal another might really be instilling a suggestion to the
subconscious of the other person, which acts to initiate a self-
healing process.


The third division of study in parapsychology has been a
subject of debate within the field for quite some time now. It
involves the issue of whether some part of consciousness - be it
a soul, spirit, life force, or whatever - can continue to exist
after the death of the body, or even just separate from the
living body. A few varied types of phenomena have been grouped
together as providing little more than suggestive evidence for
this so-called "survival hypothesis". The debate itself centers
around whether such events can be adequately explained by means
other than "survival", such as through psi, in what is known as
the "super-ESP (or super-psi) hypothesis" (cases implying direct
spirit communication), or through traditional psychological
thinking. Some types of phenomena in this area include
apparitions, out-of-body experiences (OBE's), near-death
experiences (NDE's), reported "possession" by spirits or demons,
mediumship, and the concept of reincarnation.

Reported genuine apparitions, or ghosts, appear to behave in a
purposeful and intelligent manner, unlike that of a haunting,
where through the presumed unconscious use of psychometry on the
location by a living person, the "recorded" image of a deceased
person may be seen to go through the same, recurring motions. The
seeming arrival of apparitions is often related to some crisis,
like dying, which suggests the serving of a need, possibly that
of communication with the observer. Apparitions have been reported
at times to look like solid, living individuals, yet may either be
that of a living, dying, or a dead person. Sometimes, apparitions
may look less solid, or less sharply defined, or may even appear
or disappear from view suddenly or unexpectedly. At other times
still, an apparition may be "sensed" non-visually, as by feeling,
hearing, or through a combination of such means.

The existence of the OBE implies that some aspect of the mind
or consciousness can leave the body and travel. Although it has
been interpreted as a form of traveling clairvoyance, oftentimes
the individual having the OBE is detected or even "seen" at the
location being "visited", suggesting that indeed some part of the
mind has traveled there, which may be effectively resolved, by
ESP, into an apparition in the mind of an observer. This
"apparition of the living" or "doppelganger" (meaning "double
walker") reportedly looks like, acts like, and may even be
mistaken for the actual person. Interestingly, even though away
having the OBE, the person usually has the additional feeling of
being at such a location and interacting with those present. An
observer may even serve to confirm the details of the "visit".

Apparitions, both of the living and dead, can be explained in
terms of the super-psi hypothesis. In the case of the traditional
apparition of the dead, it can be said that a living person is
utilizing clairvoyance or retrocognition to obtain the necessary
information on the deceased person to enable himself to "see" it,
give it personality and intelligence, and meanwhile possibly even
utilize PK for any physical interactions. Apparitions of the
living (or dying) may be similarly produced by utilizing a
combination of telepathic communication (with the person at the
original location) to recreate the person's image and enable one
to interact with it (using telepathy and PK).

A fairly commonly reported phenomenon which is strongly
suggestive of the "survival" idea is the near-death experience
(NDE). This is often reported by individuals who may have in fact
been determined clinically dead for a time, the period during
which a few characteristic things, some of which suggest the
operation of ESP, are said to happen. Such would include the
viewing of oneself and one's location from a point outside the
body (like an OBE), an awareness of actual activity or
conversation in this location, the sense of being drawn towards
some bright light and through some tunnel, and the apparent
presence of deceased persons or a religious figure recognized by
the individual. An alternative explanation for a NDE associates
it with a physiological (or neuro-psychological) reaction to the
process of dying, possibly during which time, bits of memory are
activated and perceptual errors are experienced. As such, it is
assumed, that the experience dissipates when the brain fully
ceases to function.

Reincarnation, the ancient idea that souls or spirits of the
dead are reborn in other bodies, relies on for its evidence a
technique referred to as "past lives therapy", used presumably to
regress a hypnotized person to a "previous life". However, it has
been found that the mind can often unconsciously fabricate such
information, perhaps as a result of suggestion prompted by the
the hypnotist, rendering the technique ineffective as a means of
providing proof of reincarnation. Even if the information derived
from the subject is subsequently verified as factual and could not
have possibly been known because of its relative obscurity, it is
still once more possible to explain the acquiring of such
info through ESP, as either by clairvoyance or retrocognition.

The issue of mediumship involves the presumed contact or
communication with a spirit by some sort of telepathic means. A
medium, acting as a connection or channel for communication to
occur between the living and the dead, typically relays, to those
seated nearby, information in the form of messages from or
regarding an individual spirit who is "contacted". Oftentimes the
dead may appear to speak directly through the medium, and since a
medium may be in a trance state and unaware of what is going on,
this may be considered a case of what is called "automatic

The voice of a medium may change when information is being
channeled, and other information may be given through automatic
writing, whereby the medium writes information without conscious
awareness of what the hand is seemingly doing on its own. These
and other such unconscious physical acts are not greatly unlike
that of reported "possession", where an individual's usual
behavior and personality are often suppressed or changed
drastically in accordance with the control supposedly imposed by
an "evil entity". Utterances of abusive language or gibberish and
the origination of unusual strength are often noted in such
cases, and an exorcism may be considered to "rid" the body of the
presumed spirit influence.
The super-psi hypothesis can be used to explain any apparent
spirit communication, in terms of a medium's unknowing use of ESP
to obtain information from the living (telepathy) or from
existing records (clairvoyance) about a deceased individual.
Regardless of this, psychological explanations have been advanced
to explain other odd events that suggest the influence of a
discarnate entity or spirit on an individual. These explanations
apply to all situations where those involved (mediums or those
"possessed") believe what happens to them is true and is in no way
intentionally produced, such as by staging or faking. (Trickery
is a recognized problem in the area of mediumship, especially when
involving physical occurrences and apparent direct speaking.) When
believed to be authentic, any odd behaviors may be the result of
certain mental disturbances or autosuggestions which can result
in dissociation, a mental state where normally conscious
activities come under subconscious control, and a secondary
personality may emerge, all seemingly without the individual's


The field of parapsychology suffers from a number of problems
which serve to lessen its image both in the eyes of the public and
to the scientific community at large. Criticisms brought on by
skeptics have had an added impact, positive perhaps, by making it
more imperative that parapsychologists work harder and more
carefully to provide the "proof" which is needed for acceptance
as a legitimate area of scientific inquiry.

One big problem area deals with the negative and inaccurate
portrayal of psi occurrences and related parapsychological issues
in the media or on film. Almost anything one views on television
or learns through the news regarding reports of psi, or the field
in general, is in some way usually either exaggerated, misleading,
or even flat-out wrong. Often, such is the result of the media's
high priority for ratings, which unfortunately proceeds at the
expense of the truth. As such, it is virtually impossible to
derive factual information from such sensational depictions,
which should more properly be viewed as entertainment, if nothing
else. As far as psi-oriented movies are concerned, practically
nothing ever shown comes anywhere close to what actually occurs
in normal, everyday life, so that movies, in their often extreme
and overblown depictions of psi, are even less dependable for
providing accurate information to the public. (After all, they
are just movies.)

Another big problem revolves around the widespread fraud that
has occurred in the past and even still turns up today in
connection with the field of parapsychology. Fraud has shown
itself in a number of ways. The false assurances and fabricated
information given by phony psychics and mediums have enabled them
to profit off the credulous public, during which time they
steadfastly proclaim themselves genuine. Psychic surgeons and
faith healers have preyed off the vulnerability of the sick
and dying by offering cures which are promised in exchange for
large sums of money. Individuals have lied or used trickery to
substantiate and promote their own paranormal events, hoping for a
chance to profit in some way, such as might be gained through
media attention. Researchers sometimes have resorted to faking lab
results in order to support their own views, while at other
times, test subjects have cheated during experiments, often using
techniques borrowed from magic to fool observers, including the
researchers themselves. For this reason, having a magician around
to view any claimed paranormal events can be a good idea, except
when, of course, the magician gets fooled, which has been known to
happen on occasion.

Nonbelievers in psi feel that paranormal phenomena can, in
general, be explained by normal means. Aside from the occasional
debunking of a phony psychic or fraudulent report of psi, the
skeptics feel that the remainder of the reports each have their
explanation in the normal workings of human psychology. Based on
what is known, the human mind can and often does make mistakes.
Perceptual errors result because normal sensory information, in
the form of neural impulses, is resolved and modified by the
subconscious, with its fears, beliefs, expectations, and the
like, so that the end result of what is perceived by the brain
may be very different from what exists objectively, or external
to the individual. People are fooled by magic because of this
fact. In addition, it is easy at times to put together logical
connections regarding events which are in fact not linked, such
as when a coincidence occurs. Where a normal event may not have
been misperceived or its cause misunderstood, skeptics feel that
any one of imagination, dreaming, or of mental impairment,
disorder, or illness may be responsible for what is labeled as
"psi". Today, careful parapsychologists are especially aware that
many apparent psi reports have normal explanations, as they are
often the first to discover them.


Although the subject of UFO's (ufology) is a distinct and
separate field from parapsychology, a couple of reasons exist for
its inclusion here. First, reports of UFO's and their
"occupants", not unlike reports of psi, seem to indicate a type
of unusual human experience which occurs sporadically and usually
without warning, often leaving those involved in a state of great
curiosity, bewilderment, or emotional upset. Second, many reported
UFO and "alien" encounters also include details of psi
functioning. Psi events often reported in connection with UFO-
related activity may include one or more of the following:
telepathic communication with alleged occupants of UFO's,
clairvoyant and precognitive images and dreams, out-of-body
experiences, apparent psychokinetic levitations, poltergeist
manifestations, and apparitional encounters. These various types
of occurrences have been reported to precede, coincide with, or
follow in relative proximity to the time of the UFO event.

Independent UFO-related reports, which may include stories of
"alien" visitation, often have many details in common. Aside from
the usual characteristic of seeing unidentified lights or objects
in the sky, those experiencing more involved "contact" may report,
in addition to the above psi happenings, one or more such events
as the viewing of a UFO at close range, localized, temporary power
outages and electrical interference (both in homes and
automobiles), strange light phenomena, periods of time which
cannot be accounted for, and even the sudden appearance of strange
bodily scars or markings. Under hypnosis, oftentimes so-called
"buried" (i.e., repressed) memories are elicited, occasionally
revealing details involving bizarre medical examinations
administered by apparently intelligent, humanoid beings, and which
take place in a circular "room", presumably on the UFO. Four or
more different being "types" have been described in reports, with
at least one appearing human, the others less so.

There are still other defining characteristics of the encounter
experience, but it is perhaps more important to note that only a
small percentage of UFO witnesses have had a greater "involvement"
in an event than was first apparent to them. Such a realization
usually happens some time after the occurrence and can appear with
or without the aid of hypnosis, often resulting in shock and
puzzlement to the witness. The sudden awareness of such involved
contact may lead to revelations of additional UFO encounters from
a witness's past, with such memories having been long forgotten or
never consciously realized.

As is the case in parapsychology, reports of UFO's and their
presumed occupants are subject to the same types of criticisms.
Although clearly the experiences exist from a subjective
standpoint, no hard "evidence" has been accepted as such to
indicate any sort of objective reality. Skeptics have pointed to
various influences for the types of experiences reported, among
them, misperception, misinterpreted normal events, imagination,
auto-suggestion, both conscious and unconscious fraud, and even
psychological trauma or illness. The utilization of hypnosis has
been generally deemed unreliable by skeptics, due in part to the
"suggestability factor" which may result in fabricated stories
originating from the UFO "victim". There is no doubt that in the
past, many reports and photographs have been faked, and as with
parapsychology, this only complicates matters, making it that much
more difficult for science to take the issue seriously.

Since the 1940's, when UFO's first became widely reported the
world over, it has been the typical response of many national
governments to immediately downplay their importance by dismissing
such reports as either fakes or misunderstood natural events, and
today this still remains the subject of much controversy. In many
UFO reports, apparent military craft and helicopters have been
described. In addition, mysterious individuals known as MIB's
("Men In Black"), who are said to drive all black, unregistered
automobiles, and who appear following a UFO event to question or
harrass a witness have been noted on occasion. Their appearance
and demeanor might suggest, to some, undercover intelligence

UFO groups worldwide contend that the large volume coupled
with the consistency of reports seem to indicate that something
real is indeed happening to this effect, or at least much more
than governments are willing to admit. In the United States, some
claim to have witnessed the military retrieval of crash-debris
and the dead or dying occupants of a UFO, while the government
steadfastly denies that such an event has taken place. Allegations
of a world-wide cover-up have resulted, yet at the same time,
people today continue to report their encounters with UFO's at an
increasing rate.

Another mysterious event presumed to be UFO-related by some are
the the strange appearances of crop designs in agricultural fields
around the world, with most activity known from the areas
surrounding Stonehenge, in Great Britain. Crop patterns, or
"pictograms", consist of flattened patches of crop wherein the
stems are not broken, but merely bent horizontally to the ground
and interwoven with the stems of adjacent plants. Best viewed from
above, crop designs usually reveal a rotational symmetry about the
center of the flattened patch. Theories to explain the crop
patterns have been advanced, among them, animals, whirlwinds,
plasma vortices, and, of course, hoaxing. Despite these ideas,
known hoaxes, and a major debunking campaign or two, the mystery
of the pictograms has, so far, managed to withstand the test of
time. Because UFO's have been seen in the vicinity of a pictogram
either before or after one appears, they have been assigned as a
possible or probable cause by some.

The last phenomenon that some feel may involve UFO's is that of
reported animal mutilations. Since the late 1960's to the present,
many animals have been found which have been apparently killed
by an, as yet, undetermined means, and usually involve, but are
not limited to, animals found on ranches, such as horses, sheep,
goats, pigs, and especially cattle. Certain organs appear to have
been removed with surgical precision, resulting in neat incisions
and limited blood loss, which has suggested the use of laser-type
instruments to some. These same animals, however, are often found
almost completely drained of blood. As with crop patterns, UFO
activity is often noted wherever there is a high incidence of
animal mutilations found.

Regardless of whatever scientific consensus is eventually
reached regarding parapsychology, UFO's, and possible related
effects, the very fact that such observable, modern-day enigmas
can and do exist should strongly reinforce the genuine need for
systematic, in-depth inquiry into these subjects, so that true
causes may be someday assigned, replacing the seemingly endless
speculation. Then just maybe, perhaps, the denial, dismissal, and
ignorance will become a thing of the past.

Selected Books About Psi And Related Areas

OGIST'S HANDBOOK. New York: Warner Books, 1986.

Prometheus Books, 1991.

AWARE IN YOUR DREAMS. New York: Ballantine Books, 1985.

Sherman, Harold. HOW TO MAKE ESP WORK FOR YOU. New York: Fawcett
Crest, 1964, 1988.

Sherman, Harold. YOUR MYSTERIOUS POWERS OF ESP. New York: Signet,
1969, 1988.

Selected Books About UFO's And Related Areas

William Morrow, 1989.

ABDUCTIONS. New York: Bantam Books, 1990.

York: William Morrow, 1988.

Gateway Books, 1990.

William Morrow/Beech Tree Books, 1988.
Critical Books Of Psi, UFO's, And Other Phenomena

PARAPSYCHOLOGY. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1989.

Frazier, Kendrick, ed. SCIENCE CONFRONTS THE PARANORMAL. Buffalo,
NY: Prometheus Books, 1986.

Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1980.

Prometheus Books, 1989.

GY, AND OTHER DELUSIONS. New York: Lippincott & Crowell, 1980.










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1. Have you ever seemingly used clairvoyance to obtain information
about something? If so, how was this information perceived?

2. Have you ever felt that some part of you left your body, or you
felt to be at two places at the same time?

3. Have you ever had a near-death experience? If so, what was

4. Have you ever had a dream or sudden feeling/image about something
that later turned out to be true, and seemed more than just

5. While fully awake, have you ever seen an apparition (or ghost)? If
so, describe its appearance. Were there any witnesses?

6. Have you ever received thoughts from (or sent to) someone with whom
you were not physically present?

7. Have you ever observed the independent movement or other physical
behavior of objects which could not be logically explained?

8. Have you ever witnesses an actual unidentified flying object, or
UFO? What were the circumstances, and did others observe this? Were
any ordinary possibilities considered for the sighting? (For example,
aircraft, meteor, debris, atmospheric (weather) device, reflection,
planet, etc.)

9. Do you feel that you have experienced a more involved "contact"
with the "occupants" of UFO's at some time? If true, how so?

10. In connection with possible UFO activity, have you experienced
other bizarre or odd happenings, such as electrical disturbances, the
appearance of strange bodily scars or other markings, periods of time
for which you have a confused or little recollection, or anything as
requested in 1 through 7 above?

11. Have you ever witnessed unusual spheres of light (inches to few
feet in diameter) at relatively close range and where no source was
apparent? What were the circumstances, and how did the lights appear
and behave?

12. Have you ever told others about any of the experiences which you
may have related here? If so, how did they react?

13. What, if anything, interests you the most regarding any of the
subject matter referred to in the program documentation or in this

14. Do you generally believe in the existence of psi (psychic)

15. Do you believe that UFO's and the "alien visitation" phenomenon
are objectively real?

16. Do you feel that governments, like that of the U.S., have covered
up information regarding UFO's in the past? Do you feel that incidents
are still being handled in this manner today?

17. If you are generally skeptical about parapsychology and UFO's, how
do you feel reports dealing with such issues can be explained?

18. Regarding the enigmatic "crop circles" and other designs which
have appeared in the agricultural fields of Great Britain and
elsewhere, what do you suppose could be responsible for their
formation? (Providing this one hasn't been solved when you read this.)

19. If you are familiar with the puzzling animal (primarily cattle)
mutilation phenomenon that has been reported worldwide, do you have an
opinion as to what could be causing this?

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