Contents of the AMCIV.DOC file
CIVILWAR BATTLE SET
American Civil War
1-Player War Game
W. R. Hutsell
2021 Hutchinson Dr.
Kingsport, TN 37660
CIVILWAR BATTLE SET is offered without charge as BANNERWARE.
It is a tactical level war game based on battles from the
American Civil War. CIVILWAR BATTLE SET is an IBM adaptation
of a program I wrote a few years ago for the Atari
computer. It allows you to create, customize, and re-create
Civil War battles. This should run on any IBM or clone
which can display ASCII graphics (CIVILWAR uses character
graphics only), but does require a color monitor to
distinguish armies. The program is written in Quickbasic 4.0
(trademark of Microsoft), and requires DOS 2.1 or higher.
The program is provided in complied form, so you do not have
to have Quickbasic.
There are 2 main program files, 2 utility files, and several
data files (identified by .CIV extenders).
CIVILWAR.EXE - the main war game program
CIVILSET.EXE - the scenario editor
CIVILCAT.BAT - used by CIVILSET to update the catalog
of .CIV files
CIVILWAR.CAT - the catalog of .CIV files, used by
xxx.CIV - battle data files, each representing a
FILES - complete list of files
These programs and files are made available at no
cost for entertainment - without claims or guarantees.
The programs may be copied and distributed in
unmodified form. Users are encouraged to modify
the xxx.CIV data files and create their own.
2. CIVILWAR.EXE - main game program
2.1 Main Menu
The main menu provides you with the following options:
a. Select player (show the current side selected and
allows you to toggle between Union or Confederate
b. Load file (load battle xxx.CIV file on current
directory). A menu window will appear with a
listing of all the battle scenario files available.
A maximum of 15 files can be displayed.
c. Save file (save in progress battle) Most scenarios
will play quickly enough that you will not need
this option. You will need to use F10 to return to
the options menu to save a game once it has started.
NOTE: Program will use filename '$AVEGAME.CIV'. If
there is another saved game, it will be over-
d. Fight (run a loaded battle file). Selecting this
option will produce the main battle screen. Once
the battle is begun, you may return to the main
menu by pressing the F10 key when it is your
turn to move.
e. Adjust various game parameters.
f. Quit option (allows you to exit the program).
NOTE: All menus may be used by selecting desired option
with arrow keys (up/down, 'Home' for top, 'End'
for bottom) and pressing 'Enter'. A short cut is
to enter the first letter of the desired
command. 'Escape' cancels the menu.
2.1.1 Game Parameters
There are several game parameters that you may adjust to
"customize" your battles. If you select the game parameter
option, a menu will appear which allows you to select and
adjust the parameters desired. These are set only for the
duration of the game. Unless they are adjusted, they will be
at a "normal" setting.
Difficulty level makes your opponent either easier or harder
to fight. If difficulty is low, the enemy takes
proportionately more losses, and is more likely to retreat.
If difficulty level is high, the enemy takes proportionately
fewer losses, and is more likely to hold his ground.
Visibility affects the range at which units can see other
units and fire on them with artillery. This is normally set
at 18 spaces (a hex is 2 spaces). (See Section 2.4)
In order to provide some variation in set scenarios, you may
wish to vary the initial positions of units slightly.
Adjusting the start position will randomly shift unit
locations slightly (both yours and the enemy's). This has no
effect on game file; only the game currently being played is
The enemy is preset with an 'aggression level', which
controls his likelihood of moving to engage and attack, and
the intensity of his attacks. This can be adjusted to make
the enemy either more or less aggressive. A more aggressive
enemy will shift to the offensive and launch more and
stronger attacks. A timid enemy will seek cover, launch
weaker attacks, and play a more defensive-minded battle.
Increased aggressiveness does not necessarily make the enemy
harder to defeat, nor does more timidity mean he will be
easier to defeat. Good defensive terrain, coupled with a
less aggressive strategy, can be very effective.
2.2 Main Battle Screen
The battle screen is divided into 4 zones as shown:
2 - Armies
1 - Battle Map
3 - Active
4 - Message Window
2.2.1 Battle Map
The battle map is based on a hexagonal layout, 27 hexes
wide by 20 hexes high, with terrain features shown by
character graphics :
Graphic ASCII DESCRIPTION MOVEMENT EFFECT
------- ----- --------------------- ---------------
. 046 clear or open terrain normal
* 042 forest/wooded terrain reduced
= 061 swamp/small stream greatly reduced
^ 094 hill/elevation reduced
176 river/lake/water prohibited
239 mountain greatly reduced
# 035 fortification normal
233 objective normal
254 village/house normal
2.2.2 Armies Summary Data
The number of turns remaining in the battle is shown in the
top section of this zone. A summary is given of the total
losses incurred by each army and the number of turns each
has occupied the objective.
2.2.3 Active Unit Data
A summary is given for the player-controlled unit that is
active, showing unit number, unit name, unit type, current
strength, terrain, leadership, and morale. In addition, the
time the unit will next be available for movement is shown.
If the unit is under 'orders', an exclamation mark is shown
next to the unit number. The unit displayed is available for
moving, is attacking, is being attacked, or is being
'scanned' by the cursor.
2.2.4. Message Window
The message window provides comments on battle maneuvers
and outcomes as they occur. It also shows when the enemy
(computer) is taking its turn. At the very beginning of the
game, the enemy will take a longer turn as he sets his
overall strategy. Afterwards, enemy turns will be quicker.
2.3.1 Unit Types
There are 4 unit types. They are shown on the display by
the first letter of each type, shown in gray for Confederate
units and blue for Union units.
Type Movement Combat Special Features
-------- -------- ------- ------------------------
Infantry average average may 'charge' on open
ground if morale is 60 or
Cavalry fast good very good ATTACK on open
(attack) terrain; movement very
slow if not on open or
Artillery slow poor may fire on units at a
General average poor increased combat effect
on adjacent friendly
units; can cancel orders
of individual unit leaders
2.3.2 Unit Attributes
Each unit has a number (simply used for reference by the
program, and of no other significance), a name, strength
(number of men in unit), leadership (10-110), and morale
(10-110). Units which have leadership lower than about 50-60
are poorly led, and will have difficulty in movement and
combat. Likewise, units with morale less than about 50-60
will not be very effective, and should be rested if
possible. Units with morale lower than 60 cannot use the
'charge' option. During the heat of battle, morale and
leadership may go outside the normal bounds.
All your friendly units are visible, but enemy units are not
always visible. Enemy units do not become visible until they
are within a certain "visibility range" from friendly units.
The visibility range is calculated from a base visibility
range (set in the battle data file), and adjusted based on
the terrain occupied by both the friendly unit and the enemy
unit. If your unit occupies a mountain or hill it has
increased ability to see enemy units; while occupying a
forest or swamp, it has decreased ability to see enemy
units. If the enemy is in a forest, he is much more
difficult to see, and your unit must be closer. Enemies that
move into forests may "disappear" from view. The base
visibility range may be altered from the initial menu
When one of your units is ready to move, it will be
highlighted and a short tone will sound. At that point, you
have several options:
2.5.1 Single Hex Movement
You may move the unit to an adjacent unoccupied hex by
using the appropriate arrow key (numeric key pad). Since
the unit may not move directly up or down, the 'up' or
'down' keys are reinterpreted as diagonal 'up' or 'down'
moves. You cannot control whether these reinterpreted
diagonal moves are right or left (done randomly), so you
should generally avoid using the 'up' and 'down' keys for
single hex movement.
If you attempt to move into a prohibited hex (occupied or
water), a tone will sound and the unit will forfeit its turn.
After the unit moves, it may reveal enemy units that were
2.5.2 Movement Orders
Single hex movement may be tedious. You may wish to give
your units orders to move to a particular destination
instead. To do this, press 'M' (for 'move') and a cross cursor
will appear on top of the unit. Move this cursor with the arrow
keys to the desired destination, and press 'Enter'. Your unit
will then attempt to move to the selected destination,
following the most direct path. (It will not necessarily
follow the same path you used in moving the cursor to the
destination). If it is blocked by a friendly unit or by
prohibited terrain (water or edge of map screen), the
movement order will be cancelled, and the unit will wait for
For destinations that are far away, moving the cursor may be
speeded by holding down 'Shift' before pressing the desired
arrow key. The cursor will then move to the indicated map
edge. Pressing the '5' key at the center of the keypad will
center the cursor on the screen.
Once a unit has reached its assigned destination, it will
flash and a tone will sound, along with a message that it
has arrived at its destination. At that point its orders are
cancelled, and it will await further instructions.
While units are 'under orders' you will not normally be able
to access them, even if you change your mind about what they
should do. The only way you can overcome this is having one
of your General units cancel the unit orders using the 'X'
command. (See section 2.7.2). This is not 100% effective
(due to communication breakdowns and stubborn subordinate
officers). Even if the orders are actually cancelled, morale
and leadership may be reduced in units affected due to the
conflicts between unit commanders and General unit. Thus,
the 'cancel orders' option should be used only as needed to
free units that have become locked in combat.
Since the General units are your only means to cancel
orders, you should usually not give them movement orders.
That way, you will be able to access them more frequently.
Though your units will normally wait for your commands, on
occasion they will decide to move on their own initiative
(generally in an attempt to engage an enemy unit which they
have sighted). Such units issue their own orders to move to
the chosen destination.
2.5.3 Battle Intelligence
Press 'I' (for 'intelligence') and a '?' cursor will appear
on your unit. You may move this cursor to get intelligence
on units that are currently visible. Press 'esc' when done.
Placing the cursor over a friendly unit will display that
unit's current status in the 'active unit data' window
(Section 2.2.3). This is useful to identify units that are
'under orders' which may need to be cancelled, or are bogged
down by terrain or combat and not likely to move very soon.
Placing the cursor over an enemy unit will reveal the unit name,
estimated strength, and the terrain it occupies (displayed in the
'message window'). This command requires 1 time unit.
Pressing 'Esc' will cancel the cursor, so the inquiring unit
can execute whatever order is desired. There is no time or
movement penalty for using this feature.
2.5.4 Wait (Rest)
You may not wish to move the unit on its turn. Simply press
the space bar, and the unit will rest for a few turns. If
morale is low, it will improve slightly.
Infantry units ONLY may double their speed for short
distances on OPEN TERRAIN only with a 'C' (CHARGE) command.
Units in 'charge' mode will be shown with a distinctive icon
(ASCII 232). While in 'charge' mode they will move roughly
twice as fast as normal units. If they become involved in
combat, or are attacked by artillery, or move into any other
than open terrain, they will switch out of 'charge' mode. In
addition, each time a unit in 'charge' mode is moved, there
is a chance that the unit will simply become too tired to
continue to charge. Units that are moved until they are too
tired will be delayed in their action for a time while they
rest. The 'charge' option affects both movement and combat
(increases 'shock' effect of attacks). Units with too low
morale will not be able to charge at all until their morale
Note that switching to 'charge' mode does require one
2.6.1 Normal Combat
Units can attack enemy units in an adjacent hex. To do so,
attempt to move the selected unit on top of the enemy. A
menu will appear in the 'Armies Summary Data' zone of the
screen showing the attack options. Four different
intensities of attack are permitted:
Option Relative Intensity
Light Skirmish 1
Medium Battle 2
Heavy Attack 3
All-Out Assault 8
Note the 'All-Out Assault' is just that, and that it should
be used relatively sparingly, since it will result in
heavy casualties for both sides. You may abort the attack by
pressing the 'escape' key; however, that will forfeit the
unit's turn for the current round (the price paid for
Normally your units will wait for you to issue an attack
order. However, they may occasionally attack on their own
initiative. When this happens, you will receive a message
in the 'Message Window' zone, and the attack intensity menu
will appear for you to select the intensity, as described
above in this section. Pressing 'Esc' will abort the attack
for now, but the unit will miss its turn.
The Artillery units may bombard visible enemy units some
distance away, rather than fight adjacent units (which they
do very poorly anyway). To fire the cannons, press 'F' (for
'FIRE') when the artillery unit is given its turn to move.
The '' (cent) sign will appear as a cursor. Also, the range /
of the cannon and the current distance to target is
displayed in the 'Message Window'. You may move the cursor
using the arrow keys (as described earlier for unit
movement) to the selected target, then press 'Enter'. The
results of the cannonade will be displayed in the 'Message
Window' and in the 'Armies Summary'.
Range of the artillery depends on the same factors as
visibility (elevation and cover).
2.7 Other Commands
There are four additional commands which can be accessed
by first pressing the '/' (slash) key to display a menu
listing the options. There are short cut keys for two of
these commands as well, which allows them to be invoked
without having to use the menu. One additional command is
available through the short cut key only ('Q")
2.7.1 Order of Battle ('O')
This option can be accessed from the menu described above
or by simply pressing the 'O' (for ORDER of BATTLE) key. This
option gives a detailed listing of all your units and their
status, as well as listings of known (visible) enemy units.
While the information for your own units is accurate, it is
only approximately correct for enemy units. This option can
also be used to end games where the enemy has been
annihilated. (Section 2.11.1)
This option also gives the current score for the game in
2.7.2 Quiet ('Q')
Sound effects can be toggled on and off by pressing the 'Q'
2.7.3 Reconnaissance (Recon)
This option can be accessed through the menu; there is no
short cut key (the idea is to discourage use of this
option). The word 'RECON' will appear in the 'Unit Summary'
zone, and all enemy units will become visible. Selecting
this option again will toggle out of the 'Recon' mode and
enemy units that would not be visible to your units will
2.7.4 Screen Redraw ('S')
This option can be accessed through the menu, or by simply
pressing the 'S' key. This option was included during
program development and has been retained if the screen
needs cleaning up.
This option provides a short summary of the commands on line
so you don't have to refer to this documentation for a
reminder of commands.
2.8 The General Unit
The General Unit has some special abilities that are best
described in a separate section.
2.8.1 Combat Effect
A General unit greatly improves the fighting abilities of
adjacent units. However, you must be careful in actually
engaging General unit itself, since it is usually relatively
weak (which reduces combat effectiveness).
2.8.2 Cancel Order ('X')
Sometimes in the thick of battle you will have units engaged
in combat (and not moving) or with movement orders which you
need to redirect. To cancel existing orders for all friendly
units, type 'X' when a General unit has its turn. A message
will confirm that orders are being cancelled. Once cancelled,
you will be given the chance to issue new orders to each unit
that complied. As described earlier, this is not 100% effective
(some units will ignore it) and may cause morale and
leadership to suffer in units that do comply.
2.9 Passage of Time
You will notice that you will not get to give orders to
every unit on every turn as the game progresses. That is
because some of the units have different movement factors
(e.g., cannons are slow and cumbersome), are moving through
different terrain (such as swamps versus roads), and are
moving different distances (single hex versus multiple hexes
to a destination). In addition, some units are under fire
and other are not. Finally, some units have better
leadership and morale, which allows them to respond more
rapidly. All these factors are considered in determining if
the unit has completed its old orders and is ready for new
Liberties have been taken with time, distance, movement, and
unit attributes in the scenarios provided, in the interest
of simplicity. In the included scenarios, a time unit may
be considered about a 1-2 minutes. Hexes are considered to be
about 150 yards each, making game map about 2 miles (high)
by 5 miles (wide). An infantry unit can travel at a normal
pace 10 hexes (1 mile) in about 40 turns (20 minutes). In
"Charge" mode an infantry unit can travel at twice the
normal pace (for short distances only) as described in
Section 2.5.5. Civil war artillery pieces were quite
varied, but a range of about a mile (20 spaces or 10
hexes) is not unreasonable (with most of actual firing
actually done at targets that are closer). Unit strengths
are intended to be relative approximations only.
All these factors can be modified as desired, either in the
design of the scenario, or through the game parameters.
2.10 Battle Results
2.10.1 Normal Battles - Time and Local Initiative
When units become engaged in combat, they are somewhat
'locked in place', and their ability to respond to orders is
reduced. They also are more likely to act on their own
initiative, to renew the battle without any orders to do so.
(See also Section 2.5.2)
2.10.2 Factors Affecting Battle Outcome
The primary factors affecting the outcome of battles are
Factor Relative Effect
Unit Strength Major
Unit Leadership Moderate (major if very low)
Unit Morale Moderate (major if very low)
Terrain * Moderate (major for some
conditions, such as
cavalry in swamps)
Unit Type Moderate (major if Artillery
or General units
Adjacent General Unit Moderate
Adjacent Friendly Unit Slight
* NOTE: The terrain occupied by each unit is considered in
adjusting battle outcome. A unit is at a disadvantage in
swamps, but is at an advantage in forest or hill hexes. A
unit is at a considerable advantage on mountains or in fort
hexes. Cavalry and Artillery units are particularly
disadvantaged in swamps, and somewhat disadvantaged in
2.10.3 Resolving the Battle
In resolving the battle, the attacker goes first, then the
defender. When the attacker is attacking, the defender's
terrain is used in determining defender casualties. When the
defender returns fire, the attacker's terrain is used in
determining attacker casualties.
Attacking is risky business, since the attacker must expose
himself, while the defender can take advantage of whatever
cover is available. Thus, attackers will generally take
proportionally more casualties. The results will be
displayed as the battle progresses in the 'Armies Summary'
area and in the 'Message Window'. Morale of armies under
fire will decrease.
2.10.4 Pull Back (Retreat)
If a unit takes particularly heavy casualties, and
leadership and morale are appropriately low, it will decide
to pull back. When this happens, the unit attempts to retire
to one of the 3 hexes furthest from the attacker. The
selected hex must be an unoccupied hex. When a unit
attempts to pull back, a message will appear and the unit
will appear in purple. Morale suffers when armies retreat.
Sometimes the enemy unit will have to retreat as well, as a
result of the heavy losses it has taken. In some instances, one
unit in a battle will have to retreat while the other does
not take particularly heavy losses. In these cases, the
victorious unit may advance to pursue the fleeing
unit. Morale increases for the pursuing units when units are
able to pursue an enemy in this manner. Leadership may also
improve, as the commander hones his skills.
Since pulling back means exposure to enemy fire, units will
take additional casualties when they decide to retreat.
Units that are cut off and unable to retreat will take
particularly heavy additional losses in the confusion.
Botched retreats will also reduce effectiveness of unit
2.10.5 Artillery Cannonade
Attacks by artillery (cannonades) are a special type of
combat. The outcome depends on the strength of the attacking
unit, the strength of the defending unit, the terrain, and
luck. Given the more uncertain nature of this form of
combat, the outcomes are more variable. However, in the long
run it will cause considerable damage. Cannonades against
units immediately next to the artillery unit will cause
twice the normal damage, as the defenders receive cannon
fire at pointblank range.
2.10.6 Killed Leaders
Occasionally, the unit commander himself will be killed in
the battle. When this happens, a message to that effect will
appear in the 'Message Window'. The leadership ability of
the new leader will be displayed. Unfortunately, it will
usually (but not always) be lower than the deceased
2.10.7 Annihilated Units
Occasionally units will be eliminated from the battle. This
is announced in the message window, and the opponent is
awarded 5 additional victory points annihilating the unit.
2.11 End of Game
The duration of the game is set in the scenario, and may be
altered by using the CIVILSET program (Section 3). The game
will continue until the preset time limit has expired. There
is no provision for regularly checking the status to
determine if one side is completely annihilated (not likely
for battles with any semblance of reality). However, you may
force this check by selecting the 'Order of Battle' option
described in Section 2.7.1. In running this report, if it is
determined that one side is wiped out, the game will end.
At the end of the game, the final summary statistics are
shown along with a 'Score', 'Outcome', and 'Evaluation'.
The score results from several factors:
Factors That Increase Your Score
Each turn you hold objective (victory
Bonus for holding objective at end of game
Eliminating enemy units
Factors That Decrease Your Score
Each turn enemy holds objective
Enemy eliminating your units
The bonus is 50 points. Scores are usually in the 0-100
range, with scores around 50 reflecting a good (average)
performance. A score of 100 or more would mean a SMASHING
victory while a score of 0 is an absolutely TOTAL defeat.
The battle outcome is evaluated on the basis of the score.
Your individual performance is rated on the basis of battle
outcome and difficulty level; it should be considered a
rough rating only.
3. CIVILSET.EXE - scenario editor
3.1 Editing Scenarios
CIVILSET allows you to create, modify, and save battle
scenarios. A scenario is a combination of battle map (with
terrain features and objective) and armies. Scenarios
(xxx.CIV) files are saved as "flat" ASCII files and with
practice you may choose to use a word processor or text
editor to directly modify the files. Likewise, the catalog
file (CIVILWAR.CAT) can be edited directly.
3.2. Scenarios - Battle Data Files
The main menu gives you options to create, load, save, or
modify battle scenario files.
This option zeros all army units and provides a blank game
map (all 'clear' hexes).
3.2.2 Load Battle File
This option provides you with a list (up to 15) of the
xxx.CIV battle data files that are on the current
directory, to allow you to select one to load. File
selection is done via menu, as described in CIVILWAR Section
3.2.3 Save Battle File
Before saving the file, you will be prompted to provide the
battle name and time limit (Section 3.5) if you have not
already done so. You do not need to provide the .CIV
extender. The file catalog is updated when the file is
saved. Messages will advise you of the status as the file
save and catalog update take place.
3.3 Map Edit
This option allows you to move the cursor across the battle
map (see CIVILWAR Section 2.2) to place the terrain features
described in CIVILWAR Section 2.2.1. To select a feature,
you type the letter (lower case) of the one desired. Then,
move the cursor (arrow keys) to the desired position and
press 'Enter'. If you press 'R' (for 'Repeat') while a given
feature is selected, you may continue to place the same
feature by simply moving the cursor. This 'Repeat' mode
allows you to quickly draw large repetitive map features.
Pressing 'R' again will toggle out of the map mode. Water
(river/lake) hexes do not permit the 'Repeat' mode.
Cursor movement is described in CIVILWAR Section 2.5.2.
Except for water, map features take up only one space on the
screen. Water hexes actually occupy 3 spaces; these are
automatically provided when you place water hexes. However,
if you wish to remove a water hex, you must use the space
bar to clear, since it removes 3 hexes (the 'clear' terrain
option will remove only the central 'water' hex).
NOTE: The scenario will not work properly unless it has
exactly 1 objective.
You must use the 'Esc' key to escape from the map to the
initial menu when you have finished editing your map.
3.4 Army Edit
Use the initial menu to access the army edit option.
Previously placed army units (if any) will be displayed. You
will then have the option to add new units, edit existing
units, or remove existing units.
3.4.1 Add New Unit
Move the cursor to the desired location for the unit and
press 'Enter'. A menu will pop up indicating you are about
to place an army. To place the army, select the army type
with the cursor, and press 'Enter'. You will be prompted to
enter the name of the unit. After you enter the desired
name, press 'Enter' and the unit will be displayed. Unit
attributes are set at default values. If you wish to modify
them, you must edit the unit (see 3.4.2 below).
If you wish to place an army in the location shown, but for
the side (Union or Confederate) other than one displayed,
move the cursor to the portion of the menu showing the
current side and press 'Enter' to toggle to the other side.
You may then place the army type as before.
Each side has a maximum of 20 units available for
positioning. There is no restriction on number of units of
a given type. The current number of units of each type and
total strength of all units is shown for each side as units
are placed or edited.
Occasionally the screen will need to be redrawn to replace
units that have erased during the edit process. A redraw
feature is provided for that purpose.
3.4.2. Edit Existing Unit
To edit a unit, move the cursor to the unit and press
'Enter'. You will be given the option to edit the unit.
When you elect to edit, a window will be displayed with the
side and number: Rebels numbered 1-20
Yankees numbered 21-40
strength - defaults:
750 for infantry
500 for cavalry
300 for artillery
200 for general
morale (default is 80)
leadership (default is 80)
time delay before first action (default is 0)
To change an attribute, select the desired characteristic
from the menu. Strength, morale, and leadership are
increased by pressing the + key (following instructions on
screen); they are decreased by pressing the - key. Unit name
may be changed by typing in a new name at the prompt. You
cannot change the unit side - if unit placed is for wrong
side, delete it and place a new unit for the correct side.
3.4.3 Delete Unit
Selecting the 'DELETE UNIT' option from the edit window will
remove the unit. This is useful to reposition units or
remove incorrect units.
3.4.4 Cancel Edit (Selected Unit)
You may cancel the edit of the unit selected by choosing the
'Cancel' option on the menu. (Alternatively, you may use
'Esc' to cancel).
3.4.5 Return to Main Menu
Press 'Esc' to return from 'Edit Armies' to the editor
main menu to save the scenario or modify the map.
3.5 Battle Name and Time Limit
Choose a name for the battle to be displayed at the top of
the map. This is simply a title line, and is not the file
name. Do not use commas. A suggestion is to use the battle
name and date.
You must also select a time limit (number of turns) for the
4. THE SCENARIOS
Four scenarios are included with this package. I have
had the opportunity to visit all the battle sites
represented by these scenarios, to get a "feel" of the
terrain and the problems faced. Several of the references used
are listed in the bibliography. I welcome your comments and
This is the first day of Gettysburg, situated north of the
town. The Confederates will be on the offensive, trying to
drive the Union forces back to Cemetery Hill and capture
the objective there. To the northeast, Early will cause
problems for Barlow's forces, and poses a real threat to
Cemetery Hill. In the north, Ewell has considerable
forces, but leadership and terrain will make it difficult
to follow up on victories. There will be bitter fighting
in the west, as tenacious Federals try to hold out against
Heth's "Iron Brigade" and Pender's crack division.
The second day of Gettysburg finds Longstreets units
trying to circle the Union left flank to reach the
objective on Little Round Top. Union forces are over-
extended in the center of the screen (peach orchard and
wheat field), and will have difficulty fighting their
way back to safety. Artillery on both sides causes heavy
losses, but Federal artillery is especially effective
from Cemetery Ridge. Fighting will be intense in the
Devil's Den, as Law and others try to dislodge Chamberlain
Pittsburg's Landing on the Tennessee River is the objective
and key to the scenario. Confederate units will drive
through the rough terrain to face Prentiss and his artillery
in the Hornet's Nest. Union forces will take some time to get
organized, and will welcome the supporting artillery fire of
the gunboats Lexington and Tyler. Lew Wallace's 'lost
division' will arrive late in the battle to add
strength to the Union defense.
The first day of the Stone's River battle found both the
Union general Rosecrans and the Confederate general Bragg
planning to strike at the other's right flank. Bragg struck
first. Hardee's troops in the lower left of the screen have
momentum, and Wharton's cavalry unit can move quickly over
the rolling countryside. The objective is on the Nashville
Pike / N&C Railroad line (near Rosecrans HQ). Union forces
must regroup and use the superior firepower of Mendenhall's
artillery (some 57 guns in all) to stop the Rebel press.
Confederates must move quickly to the objective, for the
scenario is a brief one.
Angle, Paul M. A Pictorial History of the Civil War Years.
Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1967.
Churchill, Winston S. The American Civil War.
New York: Fairfax Press, 1958.
Clark, Champ. Gettysburg : The Confederate High Tide.
Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1985.
Davis, William C. Gettysburg, The Story Behind the Scenery.
Las Vegas, Nevada: K.C. Publications, 1983.
Dunnigan, James F. How to Make War.
New York: Quill, 1983.
Flato, Charles. The Golden Book of the Civil War.
New York: Western Publishing Company, 1961.
Horn, Stanley F. The Battle of Stones River.
Harrisburg, PA: Historical Times, 1972.
Jordan, Robert Paul. The Civil War
Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1969.
Sword, Wiley. The Battle of Shiloh.
Harrisburg, PA: Historical Times (National Parks
Active Unit Data 4
Add New Unit 15
Annihilated Units 12
Armies Summary Data 3
Army Edit 14
Artillery 8, 12
Battle Map 3
Battle Name 16
Battle Outcome, Factors Affecting 10
Battle Results 10
Battle Survey 6
Battle, Resolving 11
Cancel Order ('X') 9
Cannonade 8, 12
Catalog of Scenarios 14
Charge ('C') 7
Charge (Infantry) 4, 5, 10
Civilwar Battle Set 1
Combat Intensity 7
Combat, Artillery 8
Combat, Normal 7
Combat, Unit Initiative 8
Delete Unit 15
Description of Game 1
Edit Existing Unit 15
Editing Scenarios 13
End of Game 12
F10 Key (Access Options Menu) 2
Game Parameters 2
Game, Duration 12
Game, End of 12
General Unit 9
Killed Leaders 12
Leadership 4, 6, 10, 11
Leaders, Killed 12
Leadership, Setting 15
Main Battle Screen 3
Main Game Program (Civilwar.exe) 1
Main Menu- Game 1
Main Menu- Editor 13
Map Edit 14
Map, Initialize 13
Menus, how to use 2
Message Window 4
Morale 4, 6, 7, 10
Morale, Improving 7
Morale, Setting 15
Movement Orders 5
Movement, Blocked 6
Order of Battle ('O') 8
Orders, Movement 5
Pull Back 11
Quiet ('Q') 8
Reconnaissance (Recon) 9
Repeat Mode (Editing Scenarios) 14
Saving Game in Progress 2
Scenario Editor (Civilset.exe) 13
Screen Redraw ('S') 9
Single Hex Movement 5
Start Position 2
System Requirements 1
Terrain Graphics 3
Terrain, Movement Effect 3
Time Limit 16
Unit Attributes 4
Unit Attributes, Defaults 15
Unit Types 4
Units, Annihilated 12
Victory Points 12, 13
Visibility, Adjusting 2
Wait (Rest) 7