Dec 082017
 
BIBTEX package.
File BIBTEX.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category EmTeX (TeX/LaTeX) tools
BIBTEX package.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
EMTEX 0 0 stored
BIBINPUT 0 0 stored
BTXDOC.BIB 2382 1111 deflated
XAMPL.BIB 10215 2260 deflated
BIBTEX.EXE 93853 47688 deflated
REMOVE 0 0 stored
BIBTEX.REM 495 153 deflated
TEXINPUT 0 0 stored
ABBRV.BST 20066 3911 deflated
ALPHA.BST 23440 4466 deflated
BTXBST.DOC 69547 17871 deflated
BTXDOC.TEX 42685 13186 deflated
BTXHAK.TEX 25964 8246 deflated
PLAIN.BST 20350 3983 deflated
UNSRT.BST 17887 3570 deflated

Download File BIBTEX.ZIP Here

Contents of the BTXBST.DOC file


% BibTeX `plain' family
% version 0.99a for BibTeX versions 0.99a or later, LaTeX version 2.09.
% Copyright (C) 1985, all rights reserved.
% Copying of this file is authorized only if either
% (1) you make absolutely no changes to your copy, including name, or
% (2) if you do make changes, you name it something other than
% btxbst.doc, plain.bst, unsrt.bst, alpha.bst, and abbrv.bst.
% This restriction helps ensure that all standard styles are identical.
% The file btxbst.doc has the documentation for this style.
% Please notify Oren Patashnik ([email protected]) of any bugs in
% these standard styles or in this documentation file.
%
% This is file btxbxt.doc; it helps document bibliography styles,
% and is also a template file that you can use to make
% several different style files, if you have access to a C preprocessor.
% For example, the standard styles were made by doing something like
%cpp -P -DPLAIN btxbst.doc plain.txt
%cpp -P -DUNSRT btxbst.doc unsrt.txt
%cpp -P -DALPHA btxbst.doc alpha.txt
%cpp -P -DABBRV btxbst.doc abbrv.txt
% and then renaming after removing unwanted comments and blank lines.
% If you don't have access,
% you can edit this file by hand to imitate the preprocessor,
% with the following explanation of the C preprocessor constructs used here.
%
% The output of the preprocessor is the same as the input, except that certain
% lines will be excluded (and some blank lines will be added). The sequence
%#if VAR
% lines to be included when VAR is not zero
%#else
% lines to be included when VAR is zero
%#endif
% (with the #-signs appearing in column 1) means that one set or the other of
% the lines are to be included depending on the value of VAR.
% The #else part is optional. Comments can be added after #else and #endif.
% Variables can be set by
%#define VAR value
% and one can also use #ifdef VAR to see if VAR has any value, and #ifndef
% to see if it has none.
% Another #if form used in this file is #if !VAR, which includes the lines
% after the #if only if VAR is zero.
%
% Convention: Use all uppercase identifiers for these preprocessor variables
% so you can spot them easily
%
% The command line to the preprocessor should define one of PLAIN, UNSRT, ALPHA
% or ABBRV (though PLAIN will be used by default if none is given),
% and the following lines will set various boolean variables to control the
% various lines that are chosen from the rest of the file.
% Each boolean variable should be set true (1) or false (0) in each style.
% Here are the current variables, and their meanings:
%LAB_ALPH:an alphabetic label is used (if false then a numeric
% label is used)
%SORTED:the entries should be sorted by label (if nonnumeric)
% and other info, like authors (if false, then
% entries remain in order of occurrence)
%NAME_FULL:the authors, editors, etc., get the full names as
% given in the bibliography file (if false, the first
% names become initials)
%ATIT_LOWER:titles of non-"books" (e.g., articles) should be
% converted to lower-case, except the first letter or
% first letter after a colon
% (if false then they appear as in the database)
%MONTH_FULL:months are spelled out in full (if false, then
% they're abbreviated)
%JOUR_FULL:macro journal names are spelled out in full
% (if false then they are abbreviated, currently
% as they appear in ACM publications)
#ifndef UNSRT
# ifndef ALPHA
#ifndef ABBRV
# define PLAIN 1
#endif
# endif
#endif
#ifdef PLAIN
% plain style (sorted numbers)
# define LAB_ALPH 0
# define SORTED 1
# define NAME_FULL 1
# define ATIT_LOWER 1
# define MONTH_FULL 1
# define JOUR_FULL 1
#endif
#ifdef UNSRT
% unsrt style (unsorted numbers)
# define LAB_ALPH 0
# define SORTED 0
# define NAME_FULL 1
# define ATIT_LOWER 1
# define MONTH_FULL 1
# define JOUR_FULL 1
#endif
#ifdef ALPHA
% alpha style (sorted short alphabetics)
# define LAB_ALPH 1
# define SORTED 1
# define NAME_FULL 1
# define ATIT_LOWER 1
# define MONTH_FULL 1
# define JOUR_FULL 1
#endif
#ifdef ABBRV
% abbrv style (sorted numbers, with abbreviations)
# define LAB_ALPH 0
# define SORTED 1
# define NAME_FULL 0
# define ATIT_LOWER 1
# define MONTH_FULL 0
# define JOUR_FULL 0
#endif
%
% Entry formatting: Similar to that recommended by Mary-Claire van Leunen
%in "A Handbook for Scholars". Book-like titles are italicized
%(emphasized) and non-book titles are converted to sentence
%capitilization (and not enclosed in quotes).
%This file outputs a \newblock between major blocks of an entry
%(the name \newblock is analogous to the names \newline and \newpage)
%so that the user can obtain an "open" format, which has a line break
%before each block and lines after the first are indented within blocks,
%by giving the optional \documentstyle argument `openbib';
%The default is the "closed" format---blocks runs together.
%
% Citation alphabetic label format:
%[Knu73] for single author (or editor or key)
%[AHU83] (first letters of last names) for multiple authors
%
% Citation label numberic format:
%[number]
%
% Reference list ordering for sorted, alphabetic lables:
%alphabetical by citation label, then by author(s) or whatever
%passes for author in the absence of one, then by year,
%then title
%
% Reference list ordering for sorted, numeric lables:
%alphabetical by author(s) or whatever passes
%for author in the absence of one, then by year, then title
%
% Reference list ordering for unsorted:
%by the order cited in the text
%
% History
% 12/16/84(HWT)Original `plain' version, by Howard Trickey.
% 12/23/84(LL)Some comments made by Leslie Lamport.
% 2/16/85(OP)Changes based on LL's comments, Oren Patashnik.
% 2/17/85(HWT)Template file and other standard styles made.
% 3/28/85(OP)First release, version 0.98b for BibTeX 0.98f.
% 5/ 9/85(OP)Version 0.98c for BibTeX 0.98i:
%fixed Theoretical Computer Science macro name;
%fixed the format.vol.num.pages function.
% 1/24/88(OP)Version 0.99a for BibTeX 0.99a, main changes:
%assignment operator (:=) arguments reversed;
%the preamble$ function outputs the database PREAMBLE;
%entry.max$ and global.max$ (built-in) variables replace
%entry.string.max and global.string.max functions;
%alphabetizing by year then title, not just title;
%many unnecessary ties removed; \it ==> \em;
%the `alpha' style uses a superscripted `+' instead of a
%`*' for unnamed names in constructing the label;
%the `abbrv' style now uses "Mar." and "Sept.";
%the functions calc.label and presort now look at just
%the fields they're supposed to;
%BOOKLET, MASTERSTHESIS, TECHREPORT use nonbook titles;
%INBOOK and INCOLLECTION take an optional type (e.g.
%type = "Section"), overriding the default "chapter";
%BOOK, INBOOK, INCOLLECTION, and PROCEEDINGS now allow
%either volume or number, not just volume;
%INCOLLECTION now allows an edition and series field;
%PROCEEDINGS and INPROCEEDINGS now use the address field
%to tell where a conference was held;
%INPROCEEDINGS and PROCEEDINGS now allow either volume
%or number, and also a series field;
%MASTERSTHESIS and PHDTHESIS accept types other than
%"Master's thesis" and "PhD thesis";
%UNPUBLISHED now outputs, in one block, note then date;
%MANUAL now prints out the organization in
%the first block if the author field is empty;
%MISC can't be empty---it requires some optional field.
%
% The ENTRY declaration
% Like Scribe's (according to pages 231-2 of the April '84 edition),
% but no fullauthor or editors fields because BibTeX does name handling.
% The annote field is commented out here because this family doesn't
% include an annotated bibliography style. And in addition to the fields
% listed here, BibTeX has a built-in crossref field, explained later.

ENTRY
% Fields:
{ address
% Usually the address of a publisher or other type of organization.
% Put information in this field only if it helps the reader find the
% thing---for example you should omit the address of a major
% publisher entirely. For a PROCEEDINGS or an INPROCEEDINGS,
% however, it's the address of the conference; for those two entry
% types, include the publisher's or organization's address, if
% necessary, in the publisher or organization field.
% annote
% Long annotation---for annotated bibliographies (begins sentence).
author
% Name(s) of author(s), in BibTeX name format.
booktitle
% Book title when the thing being referenced isn't the whole book.
% For book entries, the title field should be used instead.
chapter
% Chapter (or section or whatever) number.
edition
% Edition of a book---should be an ordinal (e.g., "Second").
editor
% Name(s) of editor(s), in BibTeX name format.
% If there is also an author field, then the editor field should be
% for the book or collection that the work appears in.
howpublished
% How something strange has been published (begins sentence).
institution
% Sponsoring institution of a technical report.
journal
% Journal name (macros are provided for many).
key
% Alphabetizing, labeling, and cross-referencing key
% (needed when an entry has no author or editor).
month
% Month (macros are provided).
note
% To help the reader find a reference (begins sentence).
number
% Number of a journal or technical report, or of a work in a series.
organization
% Organization sponsoring a conference (or publishing a manual); if
% the editor (or author) is empty, and if the organization produces
% an awkward label or cross reference, you should put appropriately
% condensed organization information in the key field as well.
pages
% Page number or numbers (use `--' to separate a range, use `+'
% to indicate pages following that don't form a simple range).
publisher
% Publisher name.
school
% School name (for theses).
series
% The name of a series or set of books.
% An individual book will will also have it's own title.
title
% The title of the thing you're referred to.
type
% Type of a Techreport (e.g., "Research Note") to be used instead of
% the default "Technical Report"; or, similarly, the type of a
% thesis; or of a part of a book.
volume
% The volume number of a journal or multivolume work.
year
% The year should contain only numerals (technically, it should end
% with four numerals, after purification; doesn't a begin sentence).
}
% There are no integer entry variables
{}
% These string entry variables are used to form the citation label.
% In a storage pinch, sort.label can be easily computed on the fly.
#if LAB_ALPH
#if SORTED
{ label extra.label sort.label }
#else !SORTED
% It doesn't seem like a good idea to use an order-of-citation
% reference list when using alphabetic labels, but when this happens
% we do things a little differently
{ label }
#endif SORTED
#else !LAB_ALPH
{ label }
#endif LAB_ALPH

% Each entry function starts by calling output.bibitem, to write the
% \bibitem and its arguments to the .BBL file. Then the various fields
% are formatted and printed by output or output.check. Those functions
% handle the writing of separators (commas, periods, \newblock's),
% taking care not to do so when they are passed a null string.
% Finally, fin.entry is called to add the final period and finish the
% entry.
%
% A bibliographic reference is formatted into a number of `blocks':
% in the open format, a block begins on a new line and subsequent
% lines of the block are indented. A block may contain more than
% one sentence (well, not a grammatical sentence, but something to
% be ended with a sentence ending period). The entry functions should
% call new.block whenever a block other than the first is about to be
% started. They should call new.sentence whenever a new sentence is
% to be started. The output functions will ensure that if two
% new.sentence's occur without any non-null string being output between
% them then there won't be two periods output. Similarly for two
% successive new.block's.
%
% The output routines don't write their argument immediately.
% Instead, by convention, that argument is saved on the stack to be
% output next time (when we'll know what separator needs to come
% after it). Meanwhile, the output routine has to pop the pending
% output off the stack, append any needed separator, and write it.
%
% To tell which separator is needed, we maintain an output.state.
% It will be one of these values:
%before.alljust after the \bibitem
%mid.sentencein the middle of a sentence: comma needed
%if more sentence is output
%after.sentencejust after a sentence: period needed
%after.blockjust after a block (and sentence):
%period and \newblock needed.
% Note: These styles don't use after.sentence
%
% VAR: output.state : INTEGER-- state variable for output
%
% The output.nonnull function saves its argument (assumed to be nonnull)
% on the stack, and writes the old saved value followed by any needed
% separator. The ordering of the tests is decreasing frequency of
% occurrence.
%
% output.nonnull(s) ==
% BEGIN
%s := argument on stack
%if output.state = mid.sentence then
% write$(pop() * ", ")
% -- "pop" isn't a function: just use stack top
%else
% if output.state = after.block then
%write$(add.period$(pop()))
%newline$
%write$("\newblock ")
% else
%if output.state = before.all then
% write$(pop())
%else -- output.state should be after.sentence
% write$(add.period$(pop()) * " ")
%fi
% fi
% output.state := mid.sentence
%fi
%push s on stack
% END
%
% The output function calls output.nonnull if its argument is non-empty;
% its argument may be a missing field (thus, not necessarily a string)
%
% output(s) ==
% BEGIN
%if not empty$(s) then output.nonnull(s)
%fi
% END
%
% The output.check function is the same as the output function except that, if
% necessary, output.check warns the user that the t field shouldn't be empty
% (this is because it probably won't be a good reference without the field;
% the entry functions try to make the formatting look reasonable even when
% such fields are empty).
%
% output.check(s,t) ==
% BEGIN
%if empty$(s) then
% warning$("empty " * t * " in " * cite$)
%else output.nonnull(s)
%fi
% END
%
% The output.bibitem function writes the \bibitem for the current entry
% (the label should already have been set up), and sets up the separator
% state for the output functions. And, it leaves a string on the stack
% as per the output convention.
%
% output.bibitem ==
% BEGIN
%newline$
%write$("\bibitem[")% for alphabetic labels,
%write$(label)% these three lines
%write$("]{")% are used
%write$("\bibitem{")% this line for numeric labels
%write$(cite$)
%write$("}")
%push "" on stack
%output.state := before.all
% END
%
% The fin.entry function finishes off an entry by adding a period to the
% string remaining on the stack. If the state is still before.all
% then nothing was produced for this entry, so the result will look bad,
% but the user deserves it. (We don't omit the whole entry because the
% entry was cited, and a bibitem is needed to define the citation label.)
%
% fin.entry ==
% BEGIN
%write$(add.period$(pop()))
%newline$
% END
%
% The new.block function prepares for a new block to be output, and
% new.sentence prepares for a new sentence.
%
% new.block ==
% BEGIN
%if output.state <> before.all then
% output.state := after.block
%fi
% END
%
% new.sentence ==
% BEGIN
%if output.state <> after.block then
% if output.state <> before.all then
%output.state := after.sentence
% fi
%fi
% END
%

INTEGERS { output.state before.all mid.sentence after.sentence after.block }

FUNCTION {init.state.consts}
{ #0 'before.all :=
#1 'mid.sentence :=
#2 'after.sentence :=
#3 'after.block :=
}

% the variables s and t are temporary string holders

STRINGS { s t }

FUNCTION {output.nonnull}
{ 's :=
output.state mid.sentence =
{ ", " * write$ }
{ output.state after.block =
{ add.period$ write$
newline$
"\newblock " write$
}
{ output.state before.all =
'write$
{ add.period$ " " * write$ }
if$
}
if$
mid.sentence 'output.state :=
}
if$
s
}

FUNCTION {output}
{ duplicate$ empty$
'pop$
'output.nonnull
if$
}

FUNCTION {output.check}
{ 't :=
duplicate$ empty$
{ pop$ "empty " t * " in " * cite$ * warning$ }
'output.nonnull
if$
}

FUNCTION {output.bibitem}
{ newline$
#if LAB_ALPH
"\bibitem[" write$
label write$
"]{" write$
#else
"\bibitem{" write$
#endif LAB_ALPH
cite$ write$
"}" write$
newline$
""
before.all 'output.state :=
}

% This function finishes all entries.

FUNCTION {fin.entry}
{ add.period$
write$
newline$
}

FUNCTION {new.block}
{ output.state before.all =
'skip$
{ after.block 'output.state := }
if$
}

FUNCTION {new.sentence}
{ output.state after.block =
'skip$
{ output.state before.all =
'skip$
{ after.sentence 'output.state := }
if$
}
if$
}

% These three functions pop one or two (integer) arguments from the stack
% and push a single one, either 0 or 1.
% The 'skip$ in the `and' and `or' functions are used because
% the corresponding if$ would be idempotent

FUNCTION {not}
{ { #0 }
{ #1 }
if$
}

FUNCTION {and}
{ 'skip$
{ pop$ #0 }
if$
}

FUNCTION {or}
{ { pop$ #1 }
'skip$
if$
}

% Sometimes we begin a new block only if the block will be big enough. The
% new.block.checka function issues a new.block if its argument is nonempty;
% new.block.checkb does the same if either of its TWO arguments is nonempty.

FUNCTION {new.block.checka}
{ empty$
'skip$
'new.block
if$
}

FUNCTION {new.block.checkb}
{ empty$
swap$ empty$
and
'skip$
'new.block
if$
}

% The new.sentence.check functions are analogous.

FUNCTION {new.sentence.checka}
{ empty$
'skip$
'new.sentence
if$
}

FUNCTION {new.sentence.checkb}
{ empty$
swap$ empty$
and
'skip$
'new.sentence
if$
}

% Here are some functions for formatting chunks of an entry.
% By convention they either produce a string that can be followed by
% a comma or period (using add.period$, so it is OK to end in a period),
% or they produce the null string.
%
% A useful utility is the field.or.null function, which checks if the
% argument is the result of pushing a `missing' field (one for which no
% assignment was made when the current entry was read in from the database)
% or the result of pushing a string having no non-white-space characters.
% It returns the null string if so, otherwise it returns the field string.
% Its main (but not only) purpose is to guarantee that what's left on the
% stack is a string rather than a missing field.
%
% field.or.null(s) ==
% BEGIN
%if empty$(s) then return ""
%else return s
% END
%
% Another helper function is emphasize, which returns the argument emphazised,
% if that is non-empty, otherwise it returns the null string. Italic
% corrections aren't used, so this function should be used when punctation
% will follow the result.
%
% emphasize(s) ==
% BEGIN
%if empty$(s) then return ""
%else return "{\em " * s * "}"
%
% The format.names function formats the argument (which should be in
% BibTeX name format) into "First Von Last, Junior", separated by commas
% and with an "and" before the last (but ending with "et~al." if the last
% of multiple authors is "others"). This function's argument should always
% contain at least one name.
%
% VAR: nameptr, namesleft, numnames: INTEGER
% pseudoVAR: nameresult: STRING(it's what's accumulated on the stack)
%
% format.names(s) ==
% BEGIN
%nameptr := 1
%numnames := num.names$(s)
%namesleft := numnames
%while namesleft > 0
% do
%% for full names:
% t := format.name$(s, nameptr, "{ff~}{vv~}{ll}{, jj}")
%% for abbreviated first names:
% t := format.name$(s, nameptr, "{f.~}{vv~}{ll}{, jj}")
% if nameptr > 1 then
%if namesleft > 1 then nameresult := nameresult * ", " * t
%else if numnames > 2
% then nameresult := nameresult * ","
% fi
% if t = "others"
% then nameresult := nameresult * " et~al."
% else nameresult := nameresult * " and " * t
% fi
%fi
% else nameresult := t
% fi
% nameptr := nameptr + 1
% namesleft := namesleft - 1
% od
%return nameresult
% END
%
% The format.authors function returns the result of format.names(author)
% if the author is present, or else it returns the null string
%
% format.authors ==
% BEGIN
%if empty$(author) then return ""
%else return format.names(author)
%fi
% END
%
% Format.editors is like format.authors, but it uses the editor field,
% and appends ", editor" or ", editors"
%
% format.editors ==
% BEGIN
%if empty$(editor) then return ""
%else
% if num.names$(editor) > 1 then
%return format.names(editor) * ", editors"
% else
%return format.names(editor) * ", editor"
% fi
%fi
% END
%
% Other formatting functions are similar, so no "comment version" will be
% given for them.
%
% The `pop$' in this function gets rid of the duplicate `empty' value and
% the `skip$' returns the duplicate field value

FUNCTION {field.or.null}
{ duplicate$ empty$
{ pop$ "" }
'skip$
if$
}

FUNCTION {emphasize}
{ duplicate$ empty$
{ pop$ "" }
{ "{\em " swap$ * "}" * }
if$
}

INTEGERS { nameptr namesleft numnames }

FUNCTION {format.names}
{ 's :=
#1 'nameptr :=
s num.names$ 'numnames :=

numnames 'namesleft :=
{ namesleft #0 > }
#if NAME_FULL
{ s nameptr "{ff~}{vv~}{ll}{, jj}" format.name$ 't :=
#else
{ s nameptr "{f.~}{vv~}{ll}{, jj}" format.name$ 't :=
#endif NAME_FULL
nameptr #1 >
{ namesleft #1 >
{ ", " * t * }
{ numnames #2 >
{ "," * }
'skip$
if$
t "others" =
{ " et~al." * }
{ " and " * t * }
if$
}
if$
}
't
if$
nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
}
while$
}

FUNCTION {format.authors}
{ author empty$
{ "" }
{ author format.names }
if$
}

FUNCTION {format.editors}
{ editor empty$
{ "" }
{ editor format.names
editor num.names$ #1 >
{ ", editors" * }
{ ", editor" * }
if$
}
if$
}

% The format.title function is used for non-book-like titles.
% For most styles we convert to lowercase (except for the very first letter,
% and except for the first one after a colon (followed by whitespace)),
% and hope the user has brace-surrounded words that need to stay capitilized;
% for some styles, however, we leave it as it is in the database.

FUNCTION {format.title}
{ title empty$
{ "" }
#if ATIT_LOWER
{ title "t" change.case$ }
#else
'title
#endif ATIT_LOWER
if$
}

% By default, BibTeX sets the global integer variable global.max$ to the BibTeX
% constant glob_str_size, the maximum length of a global string variable.
% Analogously, BibTeX sets the global integer variable entry.max$ to
% ent_str_size, the maximum length of an entry string variable.
% The style designer may change these if necessary (but this is unlikely)

% The n.dashify function makes each single `-' in a string a double `--'
% if it's not already
%
% pseudoVAR: pageresult: STRING(it's what's accumulated on the stack)
%
% n.dashify(s) ==
% BEGIN
%t := s
%pageresult := ""
%while (not empty$(t))
% do
% if (first character of t = "-")
% then
%if (next character isn't)
% then
% pageresult := pageresult * "--"
% t := t with the "-" removed
% else
% while (first character of t = "-")
% do
%pageresult := pageresult * "-"
%t := t with the "-" removed
% od
%fi
% else
%pageresult := pageresult * the first character
%t := t with the first character removed
% fi
% od
%return pageresult
% END

FUNCTION {n.dashify}
{ 't :=
""
{ t empty$ not }
{ t #1 #1 substring$ "-" =
{ t #1 #2 substring$ "--" = not
{ "--" *
t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
}
{ { t #1 #1 substring$ "-" = }
{ "-" *
t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
}
while$
}
if$
}
{ t #1 #1 substring$ *
t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
}
if$
}
while$
}

% The format.date function is for the month and year, but we give a warning if
% there's an empty year but the month is there, and we return the empty string
% if they're both empty.

FUNCTION {format.date}
{ year empty$
{ month empty$
{ "" }
{ "there's a month but no year in " cite$ * warning$
month
}
if$
}
{ month empty$
'year
{ month " " * year * }
if$
}
if$
}

% The format.btitle is for formatting the title field when it is a book-like
% entry---the style used here keeps it in uppers-and-lowers and emphasizes it.

FUNCTION {format.btitle}
{ title emphasize
}

% For several functions we'll need to connect two strings with a
% tie (~) if the second one isn't very long (fewer than 3 characters).
% The tie.or.space.connect function does that. It concatenates the two
% strings on top of the stack, along with either a tie or space between
% them, and puts this concatenation back onto the stack:
%
% tie.or.space.connect(str1,str2) ==
% BEGIN
%if text.length$(str2) < 3
% then return the concatenation of str1, "~", and str2
% else return the concatenation of str1, " ", and str2
% END

FUNCTION {tie.or.space.connect}
{ duplicate$ text.length$ #3 <
{ "~" }
{ " " }
if$
swap$ * *
}

% The either.or.check function complains if both fields or an either-or pair
% are nonempty.
%
% either.or.check(t,s) ==
% BEGIN
%if empty$(s) then
% warning$(can't use both " * t * " fields in " * cite$)
%fi
% END

FUNCTION {either.or.check}
{ empty$
'pop$
{ "can't use both " swap$ * " fields in " * cite$ * warning$ }
if$
}

% The format.bvolume function is for formatting the volume and perhaps
% series name of a multivolume work. If both a volume and a series field
% are there, we assume the series field is the title of the whole multivolume
% work (the title field should be the title of the thing being referred to),
% and we add an "of ". This function is called in mid-sentence.

FUNCTION {format.bvolume}
{ volume empty$
{ "" }
{ "volume" volume tie.or.space.connect
series empty$
'skip$
{ " of " * series emphasize * }
if$
"volume and number" number either.or.check
}
if$
}

% The format.number.series function is for formatting the series name
% and perhaps number of a work in a series. This function is similar to
% format.bvolume, although for this one the series must exist (and the
% volume must not exist). If the number field is empty we output either
% the series field unchanged if it exists or else the null string.
% If both the number and series fields are there we assume the series field
% gives the name of the whole series (the title field should be the title
% of the work being one referred to), and we add an "in ".
% We capitilize Number when this function is used at the beginning of a block.

FUNCTION {format.number.series}
{ volume empty$
{ number empty$
{ series field.or.null }
{ output.state mid.sentence =
{ "number" }
{ "Number" }
if$
number tie.or.space.connect
series empty$
{ "there's a number but no series in " cite$ * warning$ }
{ " in " * series * }
if$
}
if$
}
{ "" }
if$
}

% The format.edition function appends " edition" to the edition, if present.
% We lowercase the edition (it should be something like "Third"), because
% this doesn't start a sentence.

FUNCTION {format.edition}
{ edition empty$
{ "" }
{ output.state mid.sentence =
{ edition "l" change.case$ " edition" * }
{ edition "t" change.case$ " edition" * }
if$
}
if$
}

% The format.pages function is used for formatting a page range in a book
% (and in rare circumstances, an article).
%
% The multi.page.check function examines the page field for a "-" or "," or "+"
% so that format.pages can use "page" instead of "pages" if none exists.
% Note: global.max$ here means "take the rest of the string"
%
% VAR: multiresult: INTEGER(actually, a boolean)
%
% multi.page.check(s) ==
% BEGIN
%t := s
%multiresult := false
%while ((not multiresult) and (not empty$(t)))
% do
% if (first character of t = "-" or "," or "+")
% then multiresult := true
% else t := t with the first character removed
% fi
% od
%return multiresult
% END

INTEGERS { multiresult }

FUNCTION {multi.page.check}
{ 't :=
#0 'multiresult :=
{ multiresult not
t empty$ not
and
}
{ t #1 #1 substring$
duplicate$ "-" =
swap$ duplicate$ "," =
swap$ "+" =
or or
{ #1 'multiresult := }
{ t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't := }
if$
}
while$
multiresult
}

% This function doesn't begin a sentence so "pages" isn't capitalized.
% Other functions that use this should keep that in mind.

FUNCTION {format.pages}
{ pages empty$
{ "" }
{ pages multi.page.check
{ "pages" pages n.dashify tie.or.space.connect }
{ "page" pages tie.or.space.connect }
if$
}
if$
}

% The format.vol.num.pages function is for the volume, number, and page range
% of a journal article. We use the format: vol(number):pages, with some
% variations for empty fields. This doesn't begin a sentence.

FUNCTION {format.vol.num.pages}
{ volume field.or.null
number empty$
'skip$
{ "(" number * ")" * *
volume empty$
{ "there's a number but no volume in " cite$ * warning$ }
'skip$
if$
}
if$
pages empty$
'skip$
{ duplicate$ empty$
{ pop$ format.pages }
{ ":" * pages n.dashify * }
if$
}
if$
}


% The format.chapter.pages, if the chapter is present, puts whatever is in the
% type field (or else "chapter" if type is empty) in front of a chapter number.
% It then appends the pages, if present. This doesn't begin a sentence.

FUNCTION {format.chapter.pages}
{ chapter empty$
'format.pages
{ type empty$
{ "chapter" }
{ type "l" change.case$ }
if$
chapter tie.or.space.connect
pages empty$
'skip$
{ ", " * format.pages * }
if$
}
if$
}

% The format.in.ed.booktitle function is used for starting out a sentence
% that begins "In ", putting an editor before the title if one
% exists.

FUNCTION {format.in.ed.booktitle}
{ booktitle empty$
{ "" }
{ editor empty$
{ "In " booktitle emphasize * }
{ "In " format.editors * ", " * booktitle emphasize * }
if$
}
if$
}

% The function empty.misc.check complains if all six fields are empty, and
% if there's been no sorting or alphabetic-label complaint.

FUNCTION {empty.misc.check}
{ author empty$ title empty$ howpublished empty$
month empty$ year empty$ note empty$
and and and and and
#if SORTED
key empty$ not and
#else !SORTED
#if LAB_ALPH
key empty$ not and
#endif LAB_ALPH
#endif SORTED
{ "all relevant fields are empty in " cite$ * warning$ }
'skip$
if$
}

% The function format.thesis.type returns either the (case-changed) type field,
% if it is defined, or else the default string already on the stack
% (like "Master's thesis" or "PhD thesis").

FUNCTION {format.thesis.type}
{ type empty$
'skip$
{ pop$
type "t" change.case$
}
if$
}

% The function format.tr.number makes a string starting with "Technical Report"
% (or type, if that field is defined), followed by the number if there is one;
% it returns the starting part (with a case change) even if there is no number.
% This is used at the beginning of a sentence.

FUNCTION {format.tr.number}
{ type empty$
{ "Technical Report" }
'type
if$
number empty$
{ "t" change.case$ }
{ number tie.or.space.connect }
if$
}

% Now come the cross-referencing functions (these are invoked because
% one entry in the database file(s) cross-references another, by giving
% the other entry's database key in a `crossref' field). This feature
% allows one or more titled things that are part of a larger titled
% thing to cross-reference the larger thing. These styles allow for
% five posibilities: (1) an ARTICLE may cross-reference an ARTICLE;
% (2) a BOOK, (3) INBOOK, or (4) INCOLLECTION may cross-reference a BOOK;
% or (5) an INPROCEEDINGS may cross-reference a PROCEEDINGS.
% Each of these is explained in more detail later.
%
% An ARTICLE entry type may cross reference another ARTICLE (this is
% intended for when an entire journal is devoted to a single topic---
% but since there is no JOURNAL entry type, the journal, too, should be
% classified as an ARTICLE but without the author and title fields).
% This will result in two warning messages for the journal's entry
% if it's included in the reference list, but such is life.
%
% format.article.crossref ==
% BEGIN
%if empty$(key) then
% if empty$(journal) then
%warning$("need key or journal for " * cite$ *
%" to crossref " * crossref)
%return(" \cite{" * crossref * "}")
% else
%return("In " * emphazise.correct (journal) *
%" \cite{" * crossref * "}")
%fi
%else
% return("In " * key * " \cite{" * crossref * "}")
%fi
% END
%
% The other cross-referencing functions are similar, so no "comment version"
% will be given for them.

FUNCTION {format.article.crossref}
{ key empty$
{ journal empty$
{ "need key or journal for " cite$ * " to crossref " * crossref *
warning$
""
}
{ "In {\em " journal * "\/}" * }
if$
}
{ "In " key * }
if$
" \cite{" * crossref * "}" *
}

% We use just the last names of editors for a cross reference: either
% "editor", or "editor1 and editor2", or "editor1 et~al." depending on
% whether there are one, or two, or more than two editors.

FUNCTION {format.crossref.editor}
{ editor #1 "{vv~}{ll}" format.name$
editor num.names$ duplicate$
#2 >
{ pop$ " et~al." * }
{ #2 <
'skip$
{ editor #2 "{ff }{vv }{ll}{ jj}" format.name$ "others" =
{ " et~al." * }
{ " and " * editor #2 "{vv~}{ll}" format.name$ * }
if$
}
if$
}
if$
}

% A BOOK (or INBOOK) entry type (assumed to be for a single volume in a
% multivolume work) may cross reference another BOOK (the entire multivolume).
% Usually there will be an editor, in which case we use that to construct the
% cross reference; otherwise we use a nonempty key field or else the series
% field (since the series gives the title of the multivolume work).

FUNCTION {format.book.crossref}
{ volume empty$
{ "empty volume in " cite$ * "'s crossref of " * crossref * warning$
"In "
}
{ "Volume" volume tie.or.space.connect
" of " *
}
if$
editor empty$
editor field.or.null author field.or.null =
or
{ key empty$
{ series empty$
{ "need editor, key, or series for " cite$ * " to crossref " *
crossref * warning$
"" *
}
{ "{\em " * series * "\/}" * }
if$
}
{ key * }
if$
}
{ format.crossref.editor * }
if$
" \cite{" * crossref * "}" *
}

% An INCOLLECTION entry type may cross reference a BOOK (assumed to be the
% collection), or an INPROCEEDINGS may cross reference a PROCEEDINGS.
% Often there will be an editor, in which case we use that to construct
% the cross reference; otherwise we use a nonempty key field or else
% the booktitle field (which gives the cross-referenced work's title).

FUNCTION {format.incoll.inproc.crossref}
{ editor empty$
editor field.or.null author field.or.null =
or
{ key empty$
{ booktitle empty$
{ "need editor, key, or booktitle for " cite$ * " to crossref " *
crossref * warning$
""
}
{ "In {\em " booktitle * "\/}" * }
if$
}
{ "In " key * }
if$
}
{ "In " format.crossref.editor * }
if$
" \cite{" * crossref * "}" *
}

% Now we define the type functions for all entry types that may appear
% in the .BIB file---e.g., functions like `article' and `book'. These
% are the routines that actually generate the .BBL-file output for
% the entry. These must all precede the READ command. In addition, the
% style designer should have a function `default.type' for unknown types.
% Note: The fields (within each list) are listed in order of appearance,
% except as described for an `inbook' or a `proceedings'.
%
% The article function is for an article in a journal. An article may
% CROSSREF another article.
%Required fields: author, title, journal, year
%Optional fields: volume, number, pages, month, note
%
% article ==
% BEGIN
%output.bibitem
%output.check(format.authors,"author")
%new.block
%output.check(format.title,"title")
%new.block
%if missing$(crossref) then
% output.check(emphasize(journal),"journal")
% output(format.vol.num.pages)
% output.check(format.date,"year")
% else
% output.nonnull(format.article.crossref)
% output(format.pages)
%fi
%new.block
%output(note)
%fin.entry
% END
%
% The book function is for a whole book. A book may CROSSREF another book.
%Required fields: author or editor, title, publisher, year
%Optional fields: volume or number, series, address, edition, month,
%note
%
% book ==
% BEGIN
%if empty$(author) then output.check(format.editors,"author and editor")
%elseoutput.check(format.authors,"author")
%if missing$(crossref) then
% either.or.check("author and editor",editor)
%fi
%fi
%new.block
%output.check(format.btitle,"title")
%if missing$(crossref) then
% output(format.bvolume)
% new.block
% output(format.number.series)
% new.sentence
% output.check(publisher,"publisher")
% output(address)
% else
% new.block
% output.nonnull(format.book.crossref)
%fi
%output(format.edition)
%output.check(format.date,"year")
%new.block
%output(note)
%fin.entry
% END
%
% The other entry functions are all quite similar, so no "comment version"
% will be given for them.

FUNCTION {article}
{ output.bibitem
format.authors "author" output.check
new.block
format.title "title" output.check
new.block
crossref missing$
{ journal emphasize "journal" output.check
format.vol.num.pages output
format.date "year" output.check
}
{ format.article.crossref output.nonnull
format.pages output
}
if$
new.block
note output
fin.entry
}

FUNCTION {book}
{ output.bibitem
author empty$
{ format.editors "author and editor" output.check }
{ format.authors output.nonnull
crossref missing$
{ "author and editor" editor either.or.check }
'skip$
if$
}
if$
new.block
format.btitle "title" output.check
crossref missing$
{ format.bvolume output
new.block
format.number.series output
new.sentence
publisher "publisher" output.check
address output
}
{ new.block
format.book.crossref output.nonnull
}
if$
format.edition output
format.date "year" output.check
new.block
note output
fin.entry
}

% A booklet is a bound thing without a publisher or sponsoring institution.
%Required: title
%Optional: author, howpublished, address, month, year, note

FUNCTION {booklet}
{ output.bibitem
format.authors output
new.block
format.title "title" output.check
howpublished address new.block.checkb
howpublished output
address output
format.date output
new.block
note output
fin.entry
}

% For the conference entry type, see inproceedings.

% An inbook is a piece of a book: either a chapter and/or a page range.
% It may CROSSREF a book. If there's no volume field, the type field
% will come before number and series.
%Required: author or editor, title, chapter and/or pages, publisher,year
%Optional: volume or number, series, type, address, edition, month, note

FUNCTION {inbook}
{ output.bibitem
author empty$
{ format.editors "author and editor" output.check }
{ format.authors output.nonnull
crossref missing$
{ "author and editor" editor either.or.check }
'skip$
if$
}
if$
new.block
format.btitle "title" output.check
crossref missing$
{ format.bvolume output
format.chapter.pages "chapter and pages" output.check
new.block
format.number.series output
new.sentence
publisher "publisher" output.check
address output
}
{ format.chapter.pages "chapter and pages" output.check
new.block
format.book.crossref output.nonnull
}
if$
format.edition output
format.date "year" output.check
new.block
note output
fin.entry
}

% An incollection is like inbook, but where there is a separate title
% for the referenced thing (and perhaps an editor for the whole).
% An incollection may CROSSREF a book.
%Required: author, title, booktitle, publisher, year
%Optional: editor, volume or number, series, type, chapter, pages,
%address, edition, month, note

FUNCTION {incollection}
{ output.bibitem
format.authors "author" output.check
new.block
format.title "title" output.check
new.block
crossref missing$
{ format.in.ed.booktitle "booktitle" output.check
format.bvolume output
format.number.series output
format.chapter.pages output
new.sentence
publisher "publisher" output.check
address output
format.edition output
format.date "year" output.check
}
{ format.incoll.inproc.crossref output.nonnull
format.chapter.pages output
}
if$
new.block
note output
fin.entry
}

% An inproceedings is an article in a conference proceedings, and it may
% CROSSREF a proceedings. If there's no address field, the month (& year)
% will appear just before note.
%Required: author, title, booktitle, year
%Optional: editor, volume or number, series, pages, address, month,
%organization, publisher, note

FUNCTION {inproceedings}
{ output.bibitem
format.authors "author" output.check
new.block
format.title "title" output.check
new.block
crossref missing$
{ format.in.ed.booktitle "booktitle" output.check
format.bvolume output
format.number.series output
format.pages output
address empty$
{ organization publisher new.sentence.checkb
organization output
publisher output
format.date "year" output.check
}
{ address output.nonnull
format.date "year" output.check
new.sentence
organization output
publisher output
}
if$
}
{ format.incoll.inproc.crossref output.nonnull
format.pages output
}
if$
new.block
note output
fin.entry
}

% The conference function is included for Scribe compatibility.

FUNCTION {conference} { inproceedings }

% A manual is technical documentation.
%Required: title
%Optional: author, organization, address, edition, month, year, note

FUNCTION {manual}
{ output.bibitem
author empty$
{ organization empty$
'skip$
{ organization output.nonnull
address output
}
if$
}
{ format.authors output.nonnull }
if$
new.block
format.btitle "title" output.check
author empty$
{ organization empty$
{ address new.block.checka
address output
}
'skip$
if$
}
{ organization address new.block.checkb
organization output
address output
}
if$
format.edition output
format.date output
new.block
note output
fin.entry
}

% A mastersthesis is a Master's thesis.
%Required: author, title, school, year
%Optional: type, address, month, note

FUNCTION {mastersthesis}
{ output.bibitem
format.authors "author" output.check
new.block
format.title "title" output.check
new.block
"Master's thesis" format.thesis.type output.nonnull
school "school" output.check
address output
format.date "year" output.check
new.block
note output
fin.entry
}

% A misc is something that doesn't fit elsewhere.
%Required: at least one of the `optional' fields
%Optional: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note

FUNCTION {misc}
{ output.bibitem
format.authors output
title howpublished new.block.checkb
format.title output
howpublished new.block.checka
howpublished output
format.date output
new.block
note output
fin.entry
empty.misc.check
}

% A phdthesis is like a mastersthesis.
%Required: author, title, school, year
%Optional: type, address, month, note

FUNCTION {phdthesis}
{ output.bibitem
format.authors "author" output.check
new.block
format.btitle "title" output.check
new.block
"PhD thesis" format.thesis.type output.nonnull
school "school" output.check
address output
format.date "year" output.check
new.block
note output
fin.entry
}

% A proceedings is a conference proceedings.
% If there is an organization but no editor field, the organization will
% appear as the first optional field (we try to make the first block nonempty);
% if there's no address field, the month (& year) will appear just before note.
%Required: title, year
%Optional: editor, volume or number, series, address, month,
%organization, publisher, note

FUNCTION {proceedings}
{ output.bibitem
editor empty$
{ organization output }
{ format.editors output.nonnull }
if$
new.block
format.btitle "title" output.check
format.bvolume output
format.number.series output
address empty$
{ editor empty$
{ publisher new.sentence.checka }
{ organization publisher new.sentence.checkb
organization output
}
if$
publisher output
format.date "year" output.check
}
{ address output.nonnull
format.date "year" output.check
new.sentence
editor empty$
'skip$
{ organization output }
if$
publisher output
}
if$
new.block
note output
fin.entry
}

% A techreport is a technical report.
%Required: author, title, institution, year
%Optional: type, number, address, month, note

FUNCTION {techreport}
{ output.bibitem
format.authors "author" output.check
new.block
format.title "title" output.check
new.block
format.tr.number output.nonnull
institution "institution" output.check
address output
format.date "year" output.check
new.block
note output
fin.entry
}

% An unpublished is something that hasn't been published.
%Required: author, title, note
%Optional: month, year

FUNCTION {unpublished}
{ output.bibitem
format.authors "author" output.check
new.block
format.title "title" output.check
new.block
note "note" output.check
format.date output
fin.entry
}

% We use entry type `misc' for an unknown type; BibTeX gives a warning.

FUNCTION {default.type} { misc }

% Here are macros for common things that may vary from style to style.
% Users are encouraged to use these macros.
%
% Months are either written out in full or abbreviated

#if MONTH_FULL

MACRO {jan} {"January"}

MACRO {feb} {"February"}

MACRO {mar} {"March"}

MACRO {apr} {"April"}

MACRO {may} {"May"}

MACRO {jun} {"June"}

MACRO {jul} {"July"}

MACRO {aug} {"August"}

MACRO {sep} {"September"}

MACRO {oct} {"October"}

MACRO {nov} {"November"}

MACRO {dec} {"December"}

#else !MONTH_FULL

MACRO {jan} {"Jan."}

MACRO {feb} {"Feb."}

MACRO {mar} {"Mar."}

MACRO {apr} {"Apr."}

MACRO {may} {"May"}

MACRO {jun} {"June"}

MACRO {jul} {"July"}

MACRO {aug} {"Aug."}

MACRO {sep} {"Sept."}

MACRO {oct} {"Oct."}

MACRO {nov} {"Nov."}

MACRO {dec} {"Dec."}

#endif MONTH_FULL

% Journals are either written out in full or abbreviated;
% the abbreviations are like those found in ACM publications.
%
% To get a completely different set of abbreviations, it may be best to make
% a separate .bib file with nothing but those abbreviations; users could then
% include that file name as the first argument to the \bibliography command

#if JOUR_FULL

MACRO {acmcs} {"ACM Computing Surveys"}

MACRO {acta} {"Acta Informatica"}

MACRO {cacm} {"Communications of the ACM"}

MACRO {ibmjrd} {"IBM Journal of Research and Development"}

MACRO {ibmsj} {"IBM Systems Journal"}

MACRO {ieeese} {"IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering"}

MACRO {ieeetc} {"IEEE Transactions on Computers"}

MACRO {ieeetcad}
{"IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits"}

MACRO {ipl} {"Information Processing Letters"}

MACRO {jacm} {"Journal of the ACM"}

MACRO {jcss} {"Journal of Computer and System Sciences"}

MACRO {scp} {"Science of Computer Programming"}

MACRO {sicomp} {"SIAM Journal on Computing"}

MACRO {tocs} {"ACM Transactions on Computer Systems"}

MACRO {tods} {"ACM Transactions on Database Systems"}

MACRO {tog} {"ACM Transactions on Graphics"}

MACRO {toms} {"ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software"}

MACRO {toois} {"ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems"}

MACRO {toplas} {"ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems"}

MACRO {tcs} {"Theoretical Computer Science"}

#else !JOUR_FULL

MACRO {acmcs} {"ACM Comput. Surv."}

MACRO {acta} {"Acta Inf."}

MACRO {cacm} {"Commun. ACM"}

MACRO {ibmjrd} {"IBM J. Res. Dev."}

MACRO {ibmsj} {"IBM Syst.~J."}

MACRO {ieeese} {"IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng."}

MACRO {ieeetc} {"IEEE Trans. Comput."}

MACRO {ieeetcad}
{"IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Design Integrated Circuits"}

MACRO {ipl} {"Inf. Process. Lett."}

MACRO {jacm} {"J.~ACM"}

MACRO {jcss} {"J.~Comput. Syst. Sci."}

MACRO {scp} {"Sci. Comput. Programming"}

MACRO {sicomp} {"SIAM J. Comput."}

MACRO {tocs} {"ACM Trans. Comput. Syst."}

MACRO {tods} {"ACM Trans. Database Syst."}

MACRO {tog} {"ACM Trans. Gr."}

MACRO {toms} {"ACM Trans. Math. Softw."}

MACRO {toois} {"ACM Trans. Office Inf. Syst."}

MACRO {toplas} {"ACM Trans. Prog. Lang. Syst."}

MACRO {tcs} {"Theoretical Comput. Sci."}

#endif JOUR_FULL

% Now we read in the .BIB entries.

READ

% The sortify function converts to lower case after purify$ing; it's
% used in sorting and in computing alphabetic labels after sorting
%
% The chop.word(w,len,s) function returns either s or, if the first len
% letters of s equals w (this comparison is done in the third line of the
% function's definition), it returns that part of s after w.

#if SORTED

FUNCTION {sortify}
{ purify$
"l" change.case$
}

INTEGERS { len }

FUNCTION {chop.word}
{ 's :=
'len :=
s #1 len substring$ =
{ s len #1 + global.max$ substring$ }
's
if$
}

#else !SORTED
#if LAB_ALPH

% We need the chop.word stuff for the dubious unsorted-list-with-labels case.

INTEGERS { len }

FUNCTION {chop.word}
{ 's :=
'len :=
s #1 len substring$ =
{ s len #1 + global.max$ substring$ }
's
if$
}

#endif LAB_ALPH
#endif SORTED

% This long comment applies only to alphabetic labels
%
% The format.lab.names function makes a short label by using the initials of
% the von and Last parts of the names (but if there are more than four names,
% (i.e., people) it truncates after three and adds a superscripted "+";
% it also adds such a "+" if the last of multiple authors is "others").
% If there is only one name, and its von and Last parts combined have just
% a single name-token ("Knuth" has a single token, "Brinch Hansen" has two),
% we take the first three letters of the last name. The boolean
% et.al.char.used tells whether we've used a superscripted "+", so that we
% know whether to include a LaTeX macro for it.
%
% format.lab.names(s) ==
% BEGIN
%numnames := num.names$(s)
%if numnames > 1 then
% if numnames > 4 then
%namesleft := 3
% else
%namesleft := numnames
% nameptr := 1
% nameresult := ""
% while namesleft > 0
% do
%if (name_ptr = numnames) and
% format.name$(s, nameptr, "{ff }{vv }{ll}{ jj}") = "others"
% then nameresult := nameresult * "{\etalchar{+}}"
%et.al.char.used := true
% else nameresult := nameresult *
%format.name$(s, nameptr, "{v{}}{l{}}")
%nameptr := nameptr + 1
%namesleft := namesleft - 1
% od
% if numnames > 4 then
%nameresult := nameresult * "{\etalchar{+}}"
%et.al.char.used := true
%else
% t := format.name$(s, 1, "{v{}}{l{}}")
% if text.length$(t) < 2 then% there's just one name-token
%nameresult := text.prefix$(format.name$(s,1,"{ll}"),3)
% else
%nameresult := t
% fi
%fi
%return nameresult
% END
%
% Exactly what fields we look at in constructing the primary part of the label
% depends on the entry type; this selectivity (as opposed to, say, always
% looking at author, then editor, then key) helps ensure that "ignored" fields,
% as described in the LaTeX book, really are ignored. Note that MISC is part
% of the deepest `else' clause in the nested part of calc.label; thus, any
% unrecognized entry type in the database is handled correctly.
%
% There is one auxiliary function for each of the four different sequences of
% fields we use. The first of these functions looks at the author field, and
% then, if necessary, the key field. The other three functions, which might
% look at two fields and the key field, are similar, except that the key field
% takes precedence over the organization field (for labels---not for sorting).
%
% The calc.label function calculates the preliminary label of an entry, which
% is formed by taking three letters of information from the author or editor or
% key or organization field (depending on the entry type and on what's empty,
% but ignoring a leading "The " in the organization), and appending the last
% two characters (digits) of the year. It is an error if the appropriate fields
% among author, editor, organization, and key are missing, and we use
% the first three letters of the cite$ in desperation when this happens.
% The resulting label has the year part, but not the name part, purify$ed
% (purify$ing the year allows some sorting shenanigans by the user).
%
% This function also calculates the version of the label to be used in sorting.
%
% The final label may need a trailing 'a', 'b', etc., to distinguish it from
% otherwise identical labels, but we can't calculated those "extra.label"s
% until after sorting.
%
% calc.label ==
% BEGIN
%if type$ = "book" or "inbook" then
% author.editor.key.label
%else if type$ = "proceedings" then
% editor.key.organization.label
%else if type$ = "manual" then
% author.key.organization.label
%else
% author.key.label
%fi fi fi
%label := label * substring$(purify$(field.or.null(year)), -1, 2)
%% assuming we will also sort, we calculate a sort.label
%sort.label := sortify(label), but use the last four, not two, digits
% END

#if LAB_ALPH

INTEGERS { et.al.char.used }

FUNCTION {initialize.et.al.char.used}
{ #0 'et.al.char.used :=
}

EXECUTE {initialize.et.al.char.used}

FUNCTION {format.lab.names}
{ 's :=
s num.names$ 'numnames :=
numnames #1 >
{ numnames #4 >
{ #3 'namesleft := }
{ numnames 'namesleft := }
if$
#1 'nameptr :=
""
{ namesleft #0 > }
{ nameptr numnames =
{ s nameptr "{ff }{vv }{ll}{ jj}" format.name$ "others" =
{ "{\etalchar{+}}" *
#1 'et.al.char.used :=
}
{ s nameptr "{v{}}{l{}}" format.name$ * }
if$
}
{ s nameptr "{v{}}{l{}}" format.name$ * }
if$
nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
}
while$
numnames #4 >
{ "{\etalchar{+}}" *
#1 'et.al.char.used :=
}
'skip$
if$
}
{ s #1 "{v{}}{l{}}" format.name$
duplicate$ text.length$ #2 <
{ pop$ s #1 "{ll}" format.name$ #3 text.prefix$ }
'skip$
if$
}
if$
}

FUNCTION {author.key.label}
{ author empty$
{ key empty$
#if SORTED
{ cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
#else !SORTED% need warning here because we won't give it later
{ "for label, need author or key in " cite$ * warning$
cite$ #1 #3 substring$
}
#endif SORTED
{ key #3 text.prefix$ }
if$
}
{ author format.lab.names }
if$
}

FUNCTION {author.editor.key.label}
{ author empty$
{ editor empty$
{ key empty$
#if SORTED
{ cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
#else !SORTED% need warning here because we won't give it later
{ "for label, need author, editor, or key in " cite$ * warning$
cite #1 #3 substring$
}
#endif SORTED
{ key #3 text.prefix$ }
if$
}
{ editor format.lab.names }
if$
}
{ author format.lab.names }
if$
}

FUNCTION {author.key.organization.label}
{ author empty$
{ key empty$
{ organization empty$
#if SORTED
{ cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
#else !SORTED% need warning here because we won't give it later
{ "for label, need author, key, or organization in " cite$ *
warning$
cite #1 #3 substring$
}
#endif SORTED
{ "The " #4 organization chop.word #3 text.prefix$ }
if$
}
{ key #3 text.prefix$ }
if$
}
{ author format.lab.names }
if$
}

FUNCTION {editor.key.organization.label}
{ editor empty$
{ key empty$
{ organization empty$
#if SORTED
{ cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
#else !SORTED% need warning here because we won't give it later
{ "for label, need editor, key, or organization in " cite$ *
warning$
cite #1 #3 substring$
}
#endif SORTED
{ "The " #4 organization chop.word #3 text.prefix$ }
if$
}
{ key #3 text.prefix$ }
if$
}
{ editor format.lab.names }
if$
}

FUNCTION {calc.label}
{ type$ "book" =
type$ "inbook" =
or
'author.editor.key.label
{ type$ "proceedings" =
'editor.key.organization.label
{ type$ "manual" =
'author.key.organization.label
'author.key.label
if$
}
if$
}
if$
duplicate$
year field.or.null purify$ #-1 #2 substring$
*
'label :=
year field.or.null purify$ #-1 #4 substring$
*
sortify 'sort.label :=
}

% It doesn't seem like a particularly good idea to use an order-of-citation
% reference list when using alphabetic labels, but we need to have a
% special pass to calculate labels when this happens.

#if !SORTED

ITERATE {calc.label}

#endif !SORTED

#endif LAB_ALPH

% When sorting, we compute the sortkey by executing "presort" on each entry.
% The presort key contains a number of "sortify"ed strings, concatenated
% with multiple blanks between them. This makes things like "brinch per"
% come before "brinch hansen per".
%
% The fields used here are: the sort.label for alphabetic labels (as set by
% calc.label), followed by the author names (or editor names or organization
% (with a leading "The " removed) or key field, depending on entry type and on
% what's empty), followed by year, followed by the first bit of the title
% (chopping off a leading "The ", "A ", or "An ").
% Names are formatted: Von Last First Junior.
% The names within a part will be separated by a single blank
% (such as "brinch hansen"), two will separate the name parts themselves
% (except the von and last), three will separate the names,
% four will separate the names from year (and from label, if alphabetic),
% and four will separate year from title.
%
% The sort.format.names function takes an argument that should be in
% BibTeX name format, and returns a string containing " "-separated
% names in the format described above. The function is almost the same
% as format.names.

#if SORTED

FUNCTION {sort.format.names}
{ 's :=
#1 'nameptr :=
""
s num.names$ 'numnames :=
numnames 'namesleft :=
{ namesleft #0 > }
{ nameptr #1 >
{ " " * }
'skip$
if$
#if NAME_FULL
s nameptr "{vv{ } }{ll{ }}{ ff{ }}{ jj{ }}" format.name$ 't :=
#else
s nameptr "{vv{ } }{ll{ }}{ f{ }}{ jj{ }}" format.name$ 't :=
#endif NAME_FULL
nameptr numnames = t "others" = and
{ "et al" * }
{ t sortify * }
if$
nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
}
while$
}

% The sort.format.title function returns the argument,
% but first any leading "A "'s, "An "'s, or "The "'s are removed.
% The chop.word function uses s, so we need another string variable, t

FUNCTION {sort.format.title}
{ 't :=
"A " #2
"An " #3
"The " #4 t chop.word
chop.word
chop.word
sortify
#1 global.max$ substring$
}

% The auxiliary functions here, for the presort function, are analogous to
% the ones for calc.label; the same comments apply, except that the
% organization field takes precedence here over the key field. For sorting
% purposes, we still remove a leading "The " from the organization field.

FUNCTION {author.sort}
{ author empty$
{ key empty$
{ "to sort, need author or key in " cite$ * warning$
""
}
{ key sortify }
if$
}
{ author sort.format.names }
if$
}

FUNCTION {author.editor.sort}
{ author empty$
{ editor empty$
{ key empty$
{ "to sort, need author, editor, or key in " cite$ * warning$
""
}
{ key sortify }
if$
}
{ editor sort.format.names }
if$
}
{ author sort.format.names }
if$
}

FUNCTION {author.organization.sort}
{ author empty$
{ organization empty$
{ key empty$
{ "to sort, need author, organization, or key in " cite$ * warning$
""
}
{ key sortify }
if$
}
{ "The " #4 organization chop.word sortify }
if$
}
{ author sort.format.names }
if$
}

FUNCTION {editor.organization.sort}
{ editor empty$
{ organization empty$
{ key empty$
{ "to sort, need editor, organization, or key in " cite$ * warning$
""
}
{ key sortify }
if$
}
{ "The " #4 organization chop.word sortify }
if$
}
{ editor sort.format.names }
if$
}

% There is a limit, entry.max$, on the length of an entry string variable
% (which is what its sort.key$ is), so we take at most that many characters
% of the constructed key, and hope there aren't many references that match
% to that many characters!

FUNCTION {presort}
#if LAB_ALPH
{ calc.label
sort.label
" "
*
type$ "book" =
#else !LAB_ALPH
{ type$ "book" =
#endif LAB_ALPH
type$ "inbook" =
or
'author.editor.sort
{ type$ "proceedings" =
'editor.organization.sort
{ type$ "manual" =
'author.organization.sort
'author.sort
if$
}
if$
}
if$
#if LAB_ALPH
*
#endif LAB_ALPH
" "
*
year field.or.null sortify
*
" "
*
title field.or.null
sort.format.title
*
#1 entry.max$ substring$
'sort.key$ :=
}

ITERATE {presort}

% And now we can sort

SORT

#endif SORTED

% This long comment applies only to alphabetic labels, when sorted
%
% Now comes the final computation for alphabetic labels, putting in the 'a's
% and 'b's and so forth if required. This involves two passes: a forward
% pass to put in the 'b's, 'c's and so on, and a backwards pass
% to put in the 'a's (we don't want to put in 'a's unless we know there
% are 'b's).
% We have to keep track of the longest (in width$ terms) label, for use
% by the "thebibliography" environment.
%
% VAR: longest.label, last.sort.label, next.extra: string
% longest.label.width, last.extra.num: integer
%
% initialize.longest.label ==
% BEGIN
%longest.label := ""
%last.sort.label := int.to.chr$(0)
%next.extra := ""
%longest.label.width := 0
%last.extra.num := 0
% END
%
% forward.pass ==
% BEGIN
%if last.sort.label = sort.label then
% last.extra.num := last.extra.num + 1
% extra.label := int.to.chr$(last.extra.num)
%else
% last.extra.num := chr.to.int$("a")
% extra.label := ""
% last.sort.label := sort.label
%fi
% END
%
% reverse.pass ==
% BEGIN
%if next.extra = "b" then
% extra.label := "a"
%fi
%label := label * extra.label
%if width$(label) > longest.label.width then
% longest.label := label
% longest.label.width := width$(label)
%fi
%next.extra := extra.label
% END

#if LAB_ALPH

#if SORTED

STRINGS { longest.label last.sort.label next.extra }

INTEGERS { longest.label.width last.extra.num }

FUNCTION {initialize.longest.label}
{ "" 'longest.label :=
#0 int.to.chr$ 'last.sort.label :=
"" 'next.extra :=
#0 'longest.label.width :=
#0 'last.extra.num :=
}

FUNCTION {forward.pass}
{ last.sort.label sort.label =
{ last.extra.num #1 + 'last.extra.num :=
last.extra.num int.to.chr$ 'extra.label :=
}
{ "a" chr.to.int$ 'last.extra.num :=
"" 'extra.label :=
sort.label 'last.sort.label :=
}
if$
}

FUNCTION {reverse.pass}
{ next.extra "b" =
{ "a" 'extra.label := }
'skip$
if$
label extra.label * 'label :=
label width$ longest.label.width >
{ label 'longest.label :=
label width$ 'longest.label.width :=
}
'skip$
if$
extra.label 'next.extra :=
}

EXECUTE {initialize.longest.label}

ITERATE {forward.pass}

REVERSE {reverse.pass}

#else !SORTED

% It still doesn't seem like a good idea to use an order-of-citation
% reference list when using alphabetic labels, but when this happens we
% must compute the longest label

STRINGS { longest.label }

INTEGERS { longest.label.width }

FUNCTION {initialize.longest.label}
{ "" 'longest.label :=
#0 'longest.label.width :=
}

FUNCTION {longest.label.pass}
{ label width$ longest.label.width >
{ label 'longest.label :=
label width$ 'longest.label.width :=
}
'skip$
if$
}

EXECUTE {initialize.longest.label}

ITERATE {longest.label.pass}

#endif SORTED

#else !LAB_ALPH

% Now comes the computation for numeric labels.
% We use either the sorted order or original order.
% We still have to keep track of the longest (in width$ terms) label, for use
% by the "thebibliography" environment.

STRINGS { longest.label }

INTEGERS { number.label longest.label.width }

FUNCTION {initialize.longest.label}
{ "" 'longest.label :=
#1 'number.label :=
#0 'longest.label.width :=
}

FUNCTION {longest.label.pass}
{ number.label int.to.str$ 'label :=
number.label #1 + 'number.label :=
label width$ longest.label.width >
{ label 'longest.label :=
label width$ 'longest.label.width :=
}
'skip$
if$
}

EXECUTE {initialize.longest.label}

ITERATE {longest.label.pass}

#endif LAB_ALPH

% Now we're ready to start writing the .BBL file.
% We begin, if necessary, with a LaTeX macro for unnamed names in an alphabetic
% label; next comes stuff from the `preamble' command in the database files.
% Then we give an incantation containing the command
% \begin{thebibliography}{...}
% where the `...' is the longest label.
%
% We also call init.state.consts, for use by the output routines.

FUNCTION {begin.bib}
#if LAB_ALPH
{ et.al.char.used
{ "\newcommand{\etalchar}[1]{$^{#1}$}" write$ newline$ }
'skip$
if$
preamble$ empty$
#else !LAB_ALPH
{ preamble$ empty$
#endif LAB_ALPH
'skip$
{ preamble$ write$ newline$ }
if$
"\begin{thebibliography}{" longest.label * "}" * write$ newline$
}

EXECUTE {begin.bib}

EXECUTE {init.state.consts}

% Now we produce the output for all the entries

ITERATE {call.type$}

% Finally, we finish up by writing the `\end{thebibliography}' command.

FUNCTION {end.bib}
{ newline$
"\end{thebibliography}" write$ newline$
}

EXECUTE {end.bib}


 December 8, 2017  Add comments

Leave a Reply