# Category : Science and Education

Archive : XACT.ZIP

Filename : X11SHARE.DOC

Shareware XACT-11C

The Hewlett-Packard Compatible

Scientific Calculator

USER'S MANUAL

CalcTech Incorporated

13629 Bellevue-Redmond Rd., Suite 202

Bellevue, WA. 98005

Sales, 9:00AM-5:00PM Pacific time

206-643-1682

Tech Support,Info Line,24 Hour Voice Mail

206-527-9950

Description

This shareware version of XACT-11C is not a demo program! It is

a complete, full featured Scientific Calculator for MS-DOS

computers, equivalent to the Hewlett-Packard HP-11C handheld

calculator.

Since it is a shareware program, you may make copies and

distribute them to your friends and co-workers, on bulletin board

systems, and so on. However, you may not modify this program or

documentation in any manner, nor may you distribute the program

or documentation for profit (handling fees are OK).

License Agreement

THE SOFTWARE HEREIN ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY

KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,

THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A

PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND

PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAMS IS WITH YOU.

IN NO EVENT SHALL CALCTECH OR ANY OF IT'S OFFICERS, DIRECTORS,

SHAREHOLDERS, EMPLOYEES, AFFILIATES, OWNERS, OR OTHER RELATED

PARTIES BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY OTHER THIRD PARTY FOR DAMAGES

INCLUDING ANY LOST PROFITS, LOST SAVINGS, OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR

CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR THE INABILITY

TO USE THIS PRODUCT OR AS TO THE PERFORMANCE OF THIS PRODUCT EVEN

IF WE HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES IN

ADVANCE.

SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY

FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION

OR EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

THIS AGREEMENT IS GOVERNED BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF

WASHINGTON.

Trademarks/Copyrights

HP-11C, HP-12C, and HP-16C are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard

PC-DOS, IBM-PC, PC-XT, PC-AT and PS/2 are trademarks of IBM.

MS-DOS, Microsoft, and Word are trademarks of Microsoft Corp.

Tornado Notes is a trademark of Micro Logic Corp.

Hotline is a trademark of General Information, Inc.

(C)Copyright 1986-1989, 1990 by CalcTech Inc. Specifications

herein are subject to change without notice.

- 2 -

Registration & Commercial Version Upgrade

When you register XACT-11C for only $28.00 + $4.00 shipping,

we'll mail you the COMMERCIAL VERSION UPGRADE to the program. It

contains a number of features not available in this shareware

version including:

o TSR RAM-Resident (Pop-Up) capability

o Mouse Support

o Import/Export data from an application

o Full programming. Programs may be saved as disk files.

o Simulated tape which may be viewed, printed, stamped

with messages, and saved to disk.

o Typeset printed user's manual

o Discounts on future upgrades and notice of new products

Or, you may wish to register all three XACT calculators: the

XACT-11C SCIENTIFIC, XACT-12C FINANCIAL, and XACT-16C PROGRAMMER,

for only $48.00 + $4.00 shipping, and receive COMMERCIAL VERSION

UPGRADES for all three calculators.

Why not register today?

- 3 -

XACT SERIES CALCULATORS - REGISTRATION ORDER FORM

+------+----------------------------------------+----------+----------+

| Quan | Description | Price | Total |

+======+========================================+==========+==========+

| | | | |

| | XACT-11C Scientific Calculator | $28.00 | |

+======+========================================+==========+==========+

| | | | |

| | XACT-12C Financial Calculator | $28.00 | |

+======+========================================+==========+==========+

| | | | |

| | XACT-16C Programmer's Calculator | $28.00 | |

+======+========================================+==========+==========+

| | SPECIAL OFFER! | | |

| | All 3 (XACT-11C, XACT-12C, XACT-16C) | $48.00 | |

+======+========================================+==========+==========+

| | |

| WA. state residents add 8.1% sales tax | |

+========================================+==========+

| | |

Mail this form to: | Shipping/Handling | $4.00 |

+===================+==========+

CalcTech, Inc. Total | |

13629 Bellevue-Redmond Rd. Suite 202 Amount | |

Bellevue, WA. 98005 Enclosed +==========+

(206) 643-1682

Your Name: ______________________________ Phone: _____________________

Company (if applicable)________________________________________________

Address: ______________________________________________________________

City: ________________________________ State __________ Zip __________

[ ] Check Enclosed [ ] VISA [ ] Mastercard

Credit card #:____________________________________ Exp. Date: ____/____

Signature: ____________________________________________________________

Cardholder's name: ____________________________________________________

- 4 -

! ! ! ! P L E A S E R E A D T H I S ! ! ! !

This user's manual contains complete documentation for the

COMMERCIAL VERSION of XACT-11C. As such, several of the features

described within this manual will not be available with the

SHAREWARE VERSION of the program included on this disk.

We have included documentation for the COMMERCIAL VERSION UPGRADE

so that should you find benefit from the use of these programs

and decide to register (and we hope you will), you would have a

good idea of what to expect from the COMMERCIAL VERSION UPGRADE.

Please note that this is not the actual commercial version

documentation but rather a disk based "reprint". Should you

decide to register, you will receive a complete typeset printed

manual of the product(s).

XACT SERIES CALCULATORS are shareware, not freeware. Payment is

voluntary and on the "honor system". We ask that you register

the product(s) if after a short period of use, you find them

useful in your work. We hope that you appreciate the "try before

you buy" concept and that you will register.

Anyone who has ever purchased expensive (or even inexpensive)

software can attest to the frustration of being "burned" by a

lousy product. We think XACT SERIES CALCULATORS are excellent

products but we're giving you the opportunity to judge for

yourself. If you agree, please take a moment to register.

- 5 -

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section Title Page

1 Getting Started .......................................... 8

1.1 Introduction ......................................... 8

1.2 Other Guides ......................................... 8

1.3 System Requirements .................................. 9

1.4 Installing XACT-11C and Making Backups ............... 9

1.5 Command Line Options & Changing Hot Keys ............. 9

2 Loading XACT-11C .......................................... 10

2.1 XACT-11C Shareware Version ........................... 10

2.2 XACT-11C as a RAM Resident Program ................... 10

2.3 XACT-11C as a Removable RAM Resident Program ......... 10

2.4 XACT-11C as a Standalone DOS Program ................. 11

2.5 Keyboard Conventions ................................. 11

2.6 Function Keys ........................................ 11

2.7 Prefix Keys .......................................... 12

2.8 Entering Numbers ..................................... 12

2.9 Short Cut Keys ....................................... 12

3 Basic Operations .......................................... 13

3.1 Setting the Display Format ........................... 13

3.2 Arithmetic Calculations and RPN ...................... 13

3.3 Clearing Numbers ..................................... 14

3.4 Negative Numbers ..................................... 15

3.5 Mathematical Operations .............................. 15

3.6 Percentage Operations ................................ 15

3.7 Exponential Notation ................................. 16

3.8 Memory Storage Registers ............................. 17

3.9 Stack Operations ..................................... 17

3.10 The LastX Register ................................... 17

3.11 The Index Register and Using Memories Indirectly ..... 18

4 Scientific Functions ...................................... 19

4.1 Trigonometric Functions .............................. 19

4.2 Angle Conversions .................................... 19

4.3 Polar/Rectangular Conversions ........................ 20

4.4 Permutations and Combinations ........................ 20

4.5 Random Numbers ....................................... 20

- 6 -

Section Title Page

5 Features (Commercial Version) ............................. 21

5.1 Getting Help ......................................... 21

5.2 Viewing the Tape ..................................... 21

5.3 Feeding a Result ..................................... 21

5.4 Stamping the Tape .................................... 21

5.5 Printing the Tape .................................... 22

5.6 Storing the Tape ..................................... 22

5.7 Loading a Program .................................... 22

5.8 Storing a Program .................................... 22

5.9 Importing Data from an Application ................... 23

6 Programming ............................................... 24

6.1 Entering a Program into XACT-11C ..................... 24

6.2 Labels in Programs ................................... 25

6.3 Using Subroutines .................................... 25

6.4 Returning from a Program or Subroutine ............... 26

6.5 Entering Data and the Run/Stop Key ................... 26

6.6 The [GoTo] Instruction ............................... 26

6.7 Branching Using the Index Register ................... 27

6.8 Program Loops Using the Index Register ............... 27

6.9 Program Loops and Branches Using the X and Y Registers 28

6.10 Branching on Flags Set/Clear ......................... 29

6.11 The Single Step Instruction .......................... 29

6.12 Moving to a Program Line Number ...................... 30

6.13 Inserting and Deleting Program Lines ................. 30

7 Statistical Calculations .................................. 31

7.1 Entering and Removing Numbers ........................ 31

7.2 Statistical Mean ..................................... 31

7.3 Standard Deviation ................................... 32

7.4 Linear Estimate ...................................... 32

7.5 Linear Regression .................................... 33

Appendix / Error Conditions ................................... 34

- 7 -

1 Getting Started

1.1 Introduction

XACT-11C is a software emulation of the famous Hewlett-Packard

HP-11C. If you are familiar with the HP-11C, you will find that

you already know how to use XACT-11C. If not, you'll find

XACT-11C easy to learn and use. It will become an invaluable

tool in your work.

XACT-11C is a RAM resident program (Commercial Version). It

remains loaded in your computer's memory ready to "pop-up" at the

activation of a "hot key", even if you're running another program

at the time. XACT-11C can also be run as a stand-alone DOS

program, if desired.

If you are already familiar with DOS and with the HP-11C, you may

only need to read Chapters 2 and 3. This will provide enough

information to get you started.

If you are new to DOS and/or the HP-11C, you may wish to read, or

at least skim, Chapters 1 through 6.

NOTE:

A number of the function keys on the XACT-11C use graphics

characters to represent them. Because this disk-based shareware

documentation is printed in ASCII text mode, some function keys

cannot be accurately shown in this file. We've tried our best to

emulate the look of the graphics symbols and to make it easy to

infer which functions are intended from the context of the

Documentation.

1.2 Other Guides

There are a number of guides and references available for the

HP-11C that can be used with XACT-11C as well. These are

generally available in bookstores and other places where Hewlett-

Packard calculators are sold. Some of these publications are

listed below.

"HP-11C Owner's Handbook and Problem Solving Guide" Covers

general operations, functions, applications, and programming of

the HP-11C. Published by the Hewlett-Packard Company.

Grapevine Publishing, Inc. P.O. Box 118, Corvallis, OR, 97339,

also has a number of publications about the HP-11C.

- 8 -

1.3 System Requirements

To operate the XACT-11C calculator, you will need an IBM PC, PC-

XT, PC-AT, PS/2, or close compatible equipped with at least the

following:

256K RAM

One floppy disk drive

PC-DOS or MS-DOS version 2.00 or later

1.4 Installing XACT-11C and Making Backups

You should make a copy of the programs contained on the XACT-11C

diskette for backup purposes. Use the DOS "copy" command to copy

all the files to another diskette or to your hard disk. There may

be a file named README.DOC on your disk. If so, you should

examine it using your word processor or the DOS "type" command.

1.5 Command Line Options/Changing Hot-Keys (Commercial Version)

A command line option is an additional command typed when you

first load XACT-11C. There are several of these options

available. For example, if you wish to save memory space by

running XACT-11C in non RAM-Resident mode, you would use the

nopop command line option, i.e.:

x11 /nopop [ENTER]

([ENTER] means press the ENTER key). You can also change the

invocation "hot-key" using a command line option. Valid hot-key

definitions are Alt-Shift-S (default), Alt-S, and Alt-Ctrl-S.

For example, to change the invocation "hot-key" from it's default

setting of Alt-Shift-S to Alt-S, and also change the tapefile

name to test.txt in the \bin directory:

x11 /alt-s /tapefile=\bin\test.txt

The following is a list of available command line options:

(Commercial Version only)

/nopop Run XACT-11C in non RAM Resident mode.

/mono Force XACT-11C into monochrome mode.

/tapefile= Name of file used to save the tape.

/alt-s Change the invocation key to Alt-S.

/alt-ctrl-s Change the invocation key to Alt-Ctrl-S.

/sci Start up XACT-11C in scientific notation.

/nomouse Disable mouse operation.

- 9 -

2 Loading XACT-11C

2.1 XACT-11C shareware version

To load the Shareware XACT-11C, at the DOS prompt type:

x11share [ENTER]

2.2 XACT-11C as a RAM Resident program (Commercial Version)

To load XACT-11C, at the DOS prompt type:

x11 [ENTER]

You will see the copyright message appear on the screen. The

computer will then return to the DOS prompt and appear as if

nothing had happened. However, the XACT-11C calculator has now

been loaded into your computer's memory and is ready to pop-up at

the activation of the hot key. To activate XACT-11C, press:

Alt-Shift-S

XACT-11C will now appear on your screen, ready to perform

calculations. To exit from XACT-11C, press the Esc key.

2.3 XACT-11C as a Removable RAM-Resident Program (Commercial

Version)

When XACT-11C is loaded as a RAM Resident program as in section

2.1 above, it remains loaded in your computer's memory until your

computer is rebooted or powered off. There is another way to

install XACT-11C in such a way that it may be removed memory

without rebooting. To do so, you must use the TSRADD.COM and

TSRDROP.COM utilities provided. Using this method, to install

XACT-11C, you would type at the DOS prompt:

tsradd x11 [ENTER]

x11 [ENTER]

In fact, you may load RAM-Resident programs from other vendors as

well using the TSRADD.COM utility. For example, to load other

vendor's TSR's such as Tornado Notes and Hotline, you would type:

tsradd tn [ENTER]

tn [ENTER]

tsradd hotline [ENTER]

hotline [ENTER]

- 10 -

If you aren't running these programs from your current directory,

be sure to provide a complete pathname, or use the PATH command

provided with DOS.

To remove your memory resident programs, use the TSRDROP.COM

utility. It is necessary to drop your TSR's in the reverse order

that they were added. When you run TSRDROP.COM, the utility will

prompt you with the next TSR to be removed from memory. Press

ENTER to confirm the drop or Esc to exit the utility.

2.4 XACT-11C as a Stand Alone Program (Commercial Version)

XACT-11C defaults to being a RAM Resident program, but can also

be run as a stand-alone DOS program. To run XACT-11C as a stand-

alone program, type:

x11 /nopop

2.5 Keyboard Conventions

Throughout this manual, XACT-11C function keys are denoted within

a box. For example, the function key for the sine function is

shown as [SIN]. In the case of function keys which require a

prefix key (discussed in the next section), the prefix key is not

given in this manual since it can easily be determined.

Keys on the PC keyboard are listed in this manual using single

quotes such as 'a'. Numbers to be entered into XACT-11C are

shown in normal type.

2.6 Function Keys

XACT-11C has approximately 70 different function keys arranged in

the same ordering as on the HP-11C. Function keys are arranged

in groups of up to 3 functions per key; an upper, a lower and a

middle function all correspond to one function key. The upper

and lower functions are invoked by first pressing a prefix key

(discussed in the next section) and then the function key. The

middle function does not require the use of a prefix key. The PC

keystroke corresponding to function key is shown immediately to

the left of the function box.

The first row of function keys use the PC keys F1 through F10.

The second through fourth rows use the alphabetic characters as

arranged left to right on your PC keyboard.

For example, the [SIN] function on XACT-11C is invoked by

pressing the letter 'e' on the PC keyboard. Likewise, the [RCL]

- 11 -

function is invoked by pressing the letter 'b'. The [e^x]

function is invoke by pressing F2.

2.7 Prefix Keys

The left shift key and the right shift key on the PC keyboard

operate as prefix keys. They are equivalent to the gold [ f ]

key and the blue [ g ] key on the HP-11C. Prefix keys allow you

to activate the upper and lower functions assigned to a PC

function key. For example, to invoke the [HYP] function, you

would press and release the left shift key, and then press the

letter 'w'. Likewise, to invoke the [HYP-1] function, you would

press and release the right shift key and then press the letter

'w'. To invoke the [LOG] function, press and release the right

shift key, and then press F3.

2.8 Entering Numbers

To enter numbers into XACT-11C, use the numeric keypad on the

right side of your keyboard or the numbers on the typewriter

portion of the keyboard.

2.9 Short Cut Keys

You can use the Enter key on the PC, (also known as the Return

key) as the XACT-11C [ENTER] key as a short cut. Also, the '+',

'-', '*', and '/' keys adjacent to the numeric keypad function as

you would expect.

- 12 -

3. BASIC OPERATIONS

3.1 Setting the Display Format

When you first start it up, XACT-11C defaults to displaying 4

digits to the right of the decimal point. To change this

setting, you can use the [Fix], the [Sci] or the [Eng] function

keys followed by a number from 0 to 9 (enter numbers using the

numeric keypad). This number represents the number of digits

displayed to the right of the decimal point. The [Fix] function

is used to display numbers in fixed (non-exponential notation)

format. A number will not be displayed in exponential notation

unless it is too large to be displayed. The [Sci] function is

used to display numbers in scientific notation. The [Eng]

(Engineering) display function is much like the scientific

format except that the exponent displayed will always be a

multiple of 3 (kilo).

Note that the display format does not affect the number of

digits used to perform calculations, only the way in which they

are displayed. If you were using a 2 digit display format, the

number 12.006 would be shown on the display as 12.01. In this

example, the display has been rounded to 2 digits past the

decimal point. However, the internal representation of the

number is still kept as 12.006, and this value would be used in

subsequent calculations.

To round the number internally to match the number in the display

use the [Rnd] key. In the above example, if the [Rnd] key were

pressed, the internal value 12.006 would be converted to 12.01.

To set the display format for scientific notation, use the [Sci]

function key, again followed by a number between 0 and 9. For

engineering notation (the exponent is a multiple of 3), use the

[Eng] function key followed by a number between 0 and 9.

3.2 Arithmetic Calculations and RPN

You may already be familiar with Reverse Polish Notation (RPN).

RPN is a type of calculator logic that eliminates the need for

the equals key and the use of parenthesis in computations.

Instead, multiple operands are entered into the calculator

separated by the [ENTER] key. For example, to add the numbers 3

and 4:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

3 [ENTER] 3.00

4 [ + ] 7.00 Add 3 + 4

- 13 -

The result, 7.00 is now displayed. To multiply this result by 5:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

5 [ * ] 35.00 7.00*5.00

The way that XACT-11C performs these calculations with RPN is by

using a stack. The stack consists of 4 registers: X, Y, Z, and

T.

Any number displayed is said to be in the X register. When the

[ENTER] key is pressed, a number in the X Register is pushed

into the Y Register and the previous number in the Y Register is

pushed into the Z Register. The previous number in the Z

register is pushed into the T Register. T stands for "Top" and

represents the top of the stack of numbers. The previous value

of the T register is lost. When a function key such as the [+]

key is pressed, the value held in the Y register is added to the

X register and this result is now stored in the X register.

Pressing [ENTER] does one other thing, it leaves the stack

disabled. This means that a number entered after the [ENTER] key

has been pressed is not pushed on the stack, it remains in the X

register. When a calculator function key is pressed, it utilizes

numbers on the stack to perform the function. Depending upon the

function, it may alter the X and/or Y registers, and also leave

the stack enabled or disabled.

Most operations leave the stack "enabled" so that the next number

entered will first push the stack. The [ENTER] and the [CLx]

functions are the most notable exceptions to this rule.

3.3 Clearing Numbers

You can clear a number in the display by pressing the [CLx]

function key. The calculator is now ready to accept another

entry. Unlike other calculators, XACT-11C does not require a key

for clearing a number and a different key for clearing the last

entry. Whether you have made a mistake in adding a series of

numbers, or simply wish to start a new calculation, use the [CLx]

function key. The [Bksp] key will clear a number in two

different manners. If you are in the process on entering a

number, but have not pressed a function key yet, the [Bksp] key

will clear the last numeric digit entered. On the other hand, if

the most recent key pressed was a function key (for example, the

[e^x] key), pressing [Bksp] works just like the [CLx] key, it

clears the number in the x register.

- 14 -

XACT-11C also contains other function keys to clear the

following:

[S] Clear Sum. Used to clear the statistical registers

when perform statistics calculations.

[Prgm] Clear Program. Used to clear the program memory when

programming XACT-11C.

[Reg] Clear Registers. Used to clear all registers;

[Prfx] Clear the [ f ] or [ g ] prefix keys.

3.4 Negative Numbers

To change the sign of a number in the display, press the [ChS]

(Change Sign) function key. The [ChS] function will toggle the

sign of the value in the display. The [ChS] key is also used to

change the sign of an exponent if you are using exponential

notation.

3.5 Mathematical Operations

XACT-11C contains a large number of commonly used mathematical

functions.

[x^2] Square of a number.

[ x ] Square root of a number.

[Ln] Natural log of a number.

[Log] Base 10 log of a number.

[10^x] Raise 10 to the value in the x register

[e^x] Exponential of a number.

[1/X] Reciprocal of a number.

[Intg] Return the integer portion of a number.

[Frac] Return the fractional portion of a number.

[y^x] Raise a number to a power of another number.

3.6 Percentage Operations

Use the [ % ] key to calculate the percent amount of a number and

the [D%] to calculate the difference in percent one number is

from another.

Determine the total amount you would pay for a $39.95 radio if

the sales tax is 8.1%.

- 15 -

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

39.95 [ENTER] 39.9500

8.1 [ % ] 3.2360 Sales tax

[ + ] 43.1860 Total paid.

You would pay $43.19 including sales tax.

What is 20% of $3500.00?

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

3500 [ENTER] 3500.00

20 [ % ] 700.00

Example: Gasoline prices fell last month from an average of $1.09

to $.98. What percent difference does this represent?

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

1.09 [ENTER] 1.0900

.98 [D%] -10.0917

Gasoline prices have fallen 10.09%.

3.7 Exponential Notation

Use exponential notation to enter very large or very small

numbers into XACT-11C. The [EEx] function key is used to enter

an exponent. For example, to enter the number 12 E09

(12,000,000,000) type:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

12 [EEx] 9 12.0000 +09

Likewise, to enter the number 12-09, type:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[CLx] 0.0000

12 [EEx] 9 12.0000 +09

[ChS] 12.0000 -09

- 16 -

3.8 Memory Storage Registers

XACT-11C contains 20 different memory storage registers, used to

perform storage and memory arithmetic calculations. These

memories will retain their values until your computer is powered

off or re-booted. Memory registers in XACT-11C are referred to

as R0-R9 (for register 0 through 9), and R.0 through R.9. For

example, to store the value 20.3 in memory register 2, type:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

20.3 [Sto] 2 20.3000

To add the number 9.6 to the contents of register 2, type:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

9.6 [Sto] [ + ] 2 9.6000

Now, if you wish to view the contents of memory register 2, type:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[Rcl] 2 29.9000

Memory register 2 contains the value 29.90.

3.9 Stack Operations

The [x<>y] function exchanges the contents of the X and Y

registers. The [R|] function rolls down the stack. The T

register is copied into the Z register. The Z register is copied

into the Y register, and the Y register is copied into the X

register. The X register is "rolled around" into the T register.

3.10 The LastX Register

The [LSTx] function key is not technically a part of the stack.

It is used to recover numbers entered just before a mathematical

operation was performed on the stack. The number recovered is

held in a register referred to as the LastX register. For

example, assume you meant to add the numbers 12 and 5 but

accidentally pressed 6 instead of 5.

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

12 [ENTER] 12.00

6 [ + ] 18.00 Wrong value

[Lstx] 6.00

[ - ] 12.00 Subtract

5 [ + ] 17.00 Correct result

- 17 -

3.11 The Index Register and Using Memories Indirectly

Memories can also be accessed indirectly using the Index

register. The index register is accessed with the [I] function

key. A number may be stored in the index register using [Sto]

[I] and recalled from the index register using [Rcl] [I]. Also,

the [x<>I] function key is used to exchange the X register with

the Index register in the same fashion as the [x<>y] function key

is used to exchange the X and Y registers. For example:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

5 [Sto] [ I ] 5.0000 Register I= 5

20 [Sto] [(i)] 20.0000 Register 5 = 20

[CLx] 0.0000 Clear X reg

[Rcl] 5 20.0000 Reg 5 = 20

In the above example, the Indirect Index Register [(i)] was used

to store a number indirectly. The memory register accessed was

determined by the contents of the [I] register. Memories can

also be recalled indirectly using the operation [Rcl] [(i)], and

exchanged with the X register indirectly using the [x(i)]

function.

- 18 -

4. SCIENTIFIC FUNCTIONS

XACT-11C provides a rich set of scientific and trigonometric

functions to choose from. Each of these will be described below.

4.1 Trigonometric Functions

XACT-11C contains a complete set of trigonometric functions,

including hyperbolics. Trig functions can be displayed in either

Degrees by pressing the [Deg] function key; Radians by pressing

the [Rad] function key, or Grads by pressing the [Grd] function

key. The available trig functions are as follows:

[Sin] Sine function

[Cos] Cosine function

[Tan] Tangent function

[Sin-1] Arc Sine function

[Cos-1] Arc Cosine function

[Tan-1] Arc Tangent function

In addition, the [Hyp] or the [Hyp-1] functions can be pressed

prior to pressing [Sin], [Cos], or [Tan] functions to compute the

hyperbolic or inverse hyperbolics of these functions.

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[Deg] Degree mode

30 [Sin] 0.5000 Sine of 30 degrees

[Rad] 0.5000 Use radian mode.

[Pi] 3.1416

[Cos] -1.0000 Cosine of Pi radians

[Deg] -1.0000 Use degree mode.

1 [Tan-1] 45.0000 Arc Tangent of 1

4.2 Angle Conversions

Use XACT-11C to convert from Degrees to Radians and from Radians

to Degrees with the [->Rad] and [->Deg] functions respectively.

You can also convert from fractional degrees (or fractional

hours) to minutes and seconds with the [->H.ms] key and from

minutes and seconds to fractional degrees with the [->H]

function key

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

60 [Rad] 1.0472 Convert to radians

1.333 [H.ms] 1.1959 1 hr 19 min 59 sec

- 19 -

4.3 Polar/Rectangular Conversions

XACT-11C can convert between polar and rectangular coordinates

with the [->P] and [->R] functions respectively. For polar

coordinates, the magnitude "r" is placed/returned in the y

register, and the angle theta is placed in the x register. Theta

may be in degrees, radians, or grads depending upon the trig mode

set. For rectangular coordinates, the y coordinate is placed in

the y register and the x coordinate in the x register.

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

1 [ENTER]

1.3 1.3000 x = 1.3, y = 1.0

[->P] 1.6401 magnitude "r" = 1.6401

[x<>y] 37.5686 theta = 37.5686 degrees

4.4 Permutations and Combinations

XACT-11C can calculate the two most common probability functions.

Combinations are the number groups of y items, taken in groups of

x, without regard to their order. Permutations are the number of

different changes in position possible within a group of y where

the group size is x.

For example, the number of different permutations and

combinations of the group 1 through 7 inclusive, taken 3 at a

time are:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

7 [ENTER] 7.0000

3 [Cy,x] 35.0000 combinations

7 [ENTER] 7.0000

3 [Py,x] 210.0000 permutations

4.5 Random Numbers

XACT-11C will generate a different random number each time the

[Ran#] function key is pressed. The generated number will be in

the range 0 < n < 1. In addition, a random number "seed" may be

planted by storing an arbitrary number between 0 and 1 in the

Random number generator register.

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[Ran#] 0.4100 Random number

[Ran#] 0.1847 Random number

.123 [Sto] [Ran#] 0.1230 An arbitrary seed.

[Ran#] 0.6334 Random number with seed

- 20 -

5. Features (Commercial Version only)

5.1 Getting Help

A Help menu is available when you are working with XACT-11C. To

obtain help press:

Alt-F1

An information screen will appear in a window. The help menu can

be removed by pressing F1 again.

5.2 Viewing the Tape

XACT-11C provides a simulated tape display which keeps a record

of your calculations as you perform them. To view the tape

press:

Alt-F2

The tape will appear in a window. To remove the tape, press F2

again.

5.3 Feeding a Result

To feed the result of a calculation into the program you're

running press:

Alt-F3

The calculator will disappear and the number in the display will

be fed to your application.

5.4 Stamping the Tape

To stamp a message on the simulated tape press:

Alt-F4

The message will appear on the tape as well as the printer or

tape disk file if either of these options are being used.

- 21 -

5.5 Printing the Tape

To print the tape as you make calculations press:

Alt-F5

To turn off printing, press F5 again.

5.6 Storing the Tape

The simulated tape may be saved to a disk file as you make

calculations. Each time you use XACT-11C, calculations are

appended to the tape file. To store the tape, press

Alt-F6

The tape will be saved under the name X11.TAP in the current

directory. If you change directories, a different tape file

with the same name will be used. If you wish to use a

different name for your tape file, use the command line option

/tapefile=filename where filename is any valid DOS filename

which can include a path. (see section 1.6).

5.7 Loading a Program

To load a program previously saved press:

Alt-F7

A window will appear requesting a file name. Enter the DOS

filename of the program you wish to retrieve.

5.8 Storing a Program

XACT-11C allows you to save programs as disk files. To save a

program on disk, press:

Alt-F8

A window will appear prompting you for comments. You can enter

up to 3 lines of comments, associated with the program you are

saving. Press the Esc key after you have entered any comments.

Another window will appear prompting you for a filename. Enter

any valid DOS filename.

- 22 -

5.9 Importing Data from an Application

You can "import" data from the screen of the previous program you

were running before popping-up XACT-11C. For instance, you may

be working with a spreadsheet or word-processing program and wish

to add a series of numbers from the display screen. To import

data, press:

Alt-F9

You will see the screen you were working with before popping-up

XACT-11C. However, you have not returned to your previous

program. Use the up, down, left, or right arrow keys to move the

cursor to a number on the screen you wish to import. Then, press

F9 again to import the number into XACT-11C. It will appear

just as if you had typed it in by hand. If you now press F9

again, you'll see the cursor will have moved down a row. This is

to help facilitate the importing of a "column" of numbers. If

you wish to accept the data where the cursor rests, again press

F9. If not, use the arrow keys to move to the desired location.

It isn't possible to import data from a screen if the screen is

in graphics mode. In this case, XACT-11C will sound a beep

indicating that it can't import a number. One commonly used

program which utilizes graphics mode is Microsoft Word. If you

use Word, you should use text mode. Pressing Alt-F9 in Word

allows you to switch between graphics and text modes.

- 23 -

6. PROGRAMMING

Programming XACT-11C is a process whereby you "teach" the

calculator a series of keystrokes, similar to the way you would

normally enter the keystrokes if you were computing a problem

manually. In addition, you can have a program take different

actions in a program based upon values contained in registers.

For example, the program could take a different course of action

if the value contained in the X register is less-than-or-equal-to

the value in the Y register. This is known as "conditional

branching". Programming also allows you to repeat given

keystroke sequences a certain number of times. This is known as

"looping".

If you are interested in advanced programming features of

XACT-11C, we suggest you obtain a copy of the "HP-11C Owner's

Handbook and Problem Solving Guide"

6.1 Entering a Program into XACT-11C

To begin entering a new program into XACT-11C, the calculator

must be placed in Program mode by pressing the [P/R] function

key. When in program mode, subsequent keystrokes are simply

stored in the calculator's internal memory. The [P/R] key

toggles between program and run modes.

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[P/R] 000- Program mode

[P/R] (as before) Run mode.

When first entering program mode, the display shows the value

000. This represents the current program line number of the

program you are entering. Line 000- is special in that it

always represents the beginning of program memory. Let's enter

a very simple program:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[P/R] 000- Program mode

[Prgm] 000- Clear program memory

[Lbl] [ A ] 001- 42 21 11 Label begins program

1 002- 1

0 003- 0

[ENTER] 004- 36

4 005- 4

[ + ] 006- 10

[Rtn] 007- 43 32 Return from program

[P/R] Run mode

The program simply adds the numbers 10+4 and finishes. When

XACT-11C is in program mode, the numbers to the right of the

- 24 -

program line are a code which represents which key was pressed.

The first digit of the number indicates the row and the second

indicates the column of where the key is positioned on the

XACT-11C screen. If you think of all the keystrokes on the

calculator face as being in a table with 4 rows and 10 columns,

each key can be identified as being in a certain row and column.

For example the [ENTER] key is located in Row 3, Column 6. Thus

in instruction line 03- the display contains the value 36.

Likewise the [ + ] key is in row 1, column 10, so the display

shows 10.]

To run the program:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[ A ] 14.0000 Program result.

Be sure to use the [ A ] function key mapped to the number '1' on

the PC keyboard, not the letter 'A' on the PC keyboard.

6.2 Labels In Programs

There are 15 labels available in programming, 0-9 and A-E. The

previous example used the label [ A ] to identify the beginning

of the program. An alphabetic label is always used to begin a

program. Both alphabetic and numeric labels can be used as

labels within a program. Labels are also used as targets of

[Gto] (go to) and [Gsb] (go to subroutine) instructions. Labels

can also be used to separate programs in XACT-11C's memory; as a

way of keeping multiple programs in memory at the same time,

although this is generally not necessary since programs may be

saved as disk files.

6.3 Using Subroutines

A program can call a subroutine from within the program when the

[Gsb] instruction is used within the program. For instance, the

instruction [Gsb] 5 will transfer control to the program

instruction immediately following the instruction [Lbl] 5

contained elsewhere within the program. Control will transfer to

the label that identifies the subroutine. Subroutines can

"nest", that is one subroutine may call another which may call

another, and so on. The maximum level of subroutine nesting is

4.

- 25 -

6.4 Returning from a Program or Subroutine

The last instruction in a program must always be a [Rtn]. This

tells the program to reset it's program line number to 000 (go

back to the beginning) and stop executing. The [Rtn] instruction

is also the last instruction in a subroutine. In this case,

after the execution of the [Rtn] instruction, control is

transferred back to the instruction following the subroutine

call.

6.5 Entering Data and the Run/Stop Key

There are generally 2 ways to get data into a program. The

easiest is to use the [Sto] instruction to store data in

registers prior to running the program. Then the program can

contain [Rcl] instructions to fetch the data from the register.

The second method is required when there is more data to be input

than available storage registers. It involves using the [R/S]

(run/stop) function key. When this key is encountered during

program execution, the program stops. At this point, you can

enter new data and then press the [R/S] key. The program will

begin running again.

Let's write a program to solve the equation z= 1/(x+y) using the

[R/S] key to allow us to enter both the x and y variables.

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[P/R]

[Prgm] Clear program memory

[Lbl] [ A ] 001- 42 21 11 Beginning of program

[ENTER] 002- 36 x value

[R/S] 003- 31 Stop to accept y value

[ + ] 004- 10 Add x + y

[1/x] 005- 15 Invert

[Rtn] 006- 43 32 End of program

[P/R] Return to run mode.

Now, to execute the program where x= 3 and y= 4:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

3 [ A ] 3.0000 Waiting for y input.

4 [R/S] 0.1429 Result

6.6 The [Goto] Instruction

The [Gto] instruction can be used to unconditionally jump to a

location in the program identified with a [Lbl] instruction.

- 26 -

For example, let's write a program that will keep track of the

sum of the squares of a group of numbers we wish to enter.

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[P/R]

[Prgm] Clear program memory

[Lbl] [ A ] 001- 42 21 11 Beginning of program

0 002- 0

[ENTER] 003- 36 Clear x register

[Lbl] 2 004- 42 21 2 Label used for looping

[R/S] 005- 31 Stop to accept input

[x^2] 006- 43 11 Square the input value

[ + ] 007- 10 Add to sum of squares

[Gto] 2 008- 22 2 Branch to label

[P/R]

To calculate the sum of the squares of 3, 7, 11, and 15:

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[ A ] 0.0000 Waiting for 1st value

3 [R/S] 9.0000

7 [R/S] 58.0000

11 [R/S] 179.0000

15 [R/S] 404.0000

6.7 Branching Using the Index Register

In the previous example, we used a [Gto] instruction to branch to

a label, in this case, label 2. As previously mentioned, there

are 15 available labels, 0-9 and A-E. You can also use the

index register [I] to indirectly branch to a label, or indirectly

call a subroutine. If the [I] register contains a number

representing a label, the instructions [Gto] [I] and [Gsb] [I]

will indirectly branch to a label or indirectly call a

subroutine.

6.8 Program Loops Using the Index Register

XACT-11C contains 2 instructions that first increment or

decrement a special value contained in the index register and

either execute or skip the next program line depending upon the

condition met. These instructions are [Isg] (increment and skip

if greater), and [Dse] (decrement and skip less than or equal).

They can be used to control loops where the number of times to

execute the loop is contained in the index register.

Looping with the index register requires placing a special "coded

value" in the index register. This value is of the form:

- 27 -

aaaaa.bbbcc

In the encoding, aaaaa represents a starting value of a loop

counter and will default to 0 if it is not included. This

value is incremented or decremented each time the flow of

execution of the program encounters an [Isg] or [Dse] instruction

respectively. The value contained in aaaaa is then compared

against the value in bbb. In the case of the [Isg] instruction,

if the value aaaaa is greater than bbb, the instruction in the

program code which follows the [Isg] instruction will be skipped,

and program execution will begin immediately following the

skipped instruction. Likewise in the case of the [Dse]

instruction, if the value aaaa is less than or equal to the value

bbb, the same skipping over event will occur.

In the encoding, the value cc represents the count to increment

or decrement by each time the loop is executed.

For example, if we wanted to execute a group of instructions

within a loop 10 times where the loop counter begins at 10, and

decrements by steps of 1 until it reaches 0, we would place the

value 10.00001 in the index register. Notice that in the

encoding, aaaaa= 10, bbb= 000, and cc= 01. A program fragment

using this loop is shown below:

10.00001

[Sto] [ I ]

[Lbl] [ A ]

(Instructions within loop)

[Dse]

[Gto] [ A ]

(Instructions after loop)

6.9 Program Loops and Branches Using the X and Y Registers

XACT-11C can also make "conditional tests" based upon values

contained in the X and Y registers. There are 8 different

possible conditions in all. These functions each execute the

next instruction in the program if the condition is true, and

skip over it if the condition is false. The instructions are

defined as:

[x<=y] true if x less than or equal to y

[x<0] true if x less than 0

[x>y] true if x greater than y

[x>0] true if x greater than 0

[x<>y] true if x not equal to y

[x<>0] true if x not equal to 0

[x=y] true if x equal to y

[x=0] true if x equal to 0

- 28 -

6.10 Branching On Flags Set/Clear

XACT-11C contains two flags which can be set (1) or cleared (0)

and then may be later tested and a conditional jump may occur

depending on the state of the flags. The flags are Flag 0 and

Flag 1. The flags are set or cleared with the [SF] or the [CF]

function keys respectively. To set flag 1, for example, you

would press [SF] 1. You may test the status of a flag with the

[F?] function key within a program. Again, follow this key with

either 0 or 1 depending on which flag you wish to test. If the

flag was set, the instruction in memory immediately following the

[F?] will be executed. If not, the program will skip over this

instruction line number and proceed with execution at the next

line number.

The example below illustrates a program fragment utilizing flags

testing:

(Program instructions)

[Lbl] 3

[SF] 0

[Gto] B

(Program instructions)

[Lbl] 4

[CF] 0

[Gto] B

(Program instructions)

[Lbl] B

[F?] 0 (test to see if flag 0 is set)

[Gto] C (transfer control to label C if flag 0 set)

[Gto] D (transfer control to label D if flag 0 clear)

If the program executes at label 3, flag 0 is set and control is

transferred to label B. At this point, since flag 0 was set,

control will transfer to label C. Similarly, if the program

executes at label 4, flag 0 is cleared, and thus, when control is

transferred to label B, the flag test will fail. This will cause

the [Gto] D instruction to be executed.

6.11 The Single-Step Instruction

The [SST] (single-step) instruction can be used in either program

mode or run mode. In program mode, pressing [SST] will display

the next program line number in a program. In run mode, the

[SST] function can be used to execute a program one step at a

time. This is useful for program debugging. The [BST] (back-

step) instruction works like the [SST] instruction in program

- 29 -

mode except that it displays the previous program line number in

a program. The [BST] instruction does not operate in run mode,

that is, it won't back-step execution of a program, only display

the previous program line number.

6.12 Moving to a Program Line Number

You can move to a specific line number in either program mode or

run mode. Press [Gto] [.] nnn where nnn is a 3 digit number

between 0 and 203. In run mode, pressing [R/S] will begin

execution at that line number.

6.13 Inserting and Deleting Program Lines

XACT-11C can edit an existing program by inserting or deleting

lines within the program. To do this, you must be in program

mode and move to the line number where you wish to make the

insertion/deletion using the [Gto] [.] nnn instruction where nnn

is the line number (described ] in section 6.12 above). To

insert a line, simply enter the instruction for the line you wish

to insert. The insertion will happen immediately following the

line and all other line numbers will be pushed ahead in memory.

To delete a line, move to the line you wish to delete and press

the [<-] function key.

- 30 -

7. STATISTICAL CALCULATIONS

XACT-11C can perform common statistical calculations including

mean and standard deviation using it's built-in capabilities. In

addition, programs can be written to perform complex statistical

analysis.

7.1 Entering and Removing Numbers.

The [S+] function key is used to enter a new number into the

statistical registers. XACT-11C can be used to perform

statistical operations using both one and two variables. When

using one variable, that variable is referred to as the X

variable. With two variable analysis, the second variable is

referred to as the Y variable.

When entering single variable numbers, enter the number and then

press the [S+] function key. Continue this process until all

numbers have been entered.

With two variables, first key in the Y variable and press the

[ENTER] key, then enter the X variable and press the [S+] key.

When the [S+] function key is used, memory registers 1 through 6

will hold intermediate values. You can use the [Rcl] function

key to view these values, or to use them within a program. The

values contained in registers 1 through 6 are summarized below:

R0 contains the value N, the number of data values

(or data pairs) entered thus far.

R1 contains the sum of all the X variable values.

R2 contains the sum of the squares of all the X variable values.

R3 contains the sum of all the Y variable values.

R4 contains the sum of the squares of all the Y variable values.

R5 contains the sum of the products of the X variable values

and the Y variable values.

To remove an incorrectly entered value, you can use the [S-]

function key. Simply re-enter the incorrect value and then press

the [S-] function key.

7.2 Statistical Mean

Example: Suppose you are a teacher with 5 students. Student's

scores on their last test were 80, 63, 77, 94, and 79. Find the

mean of the test results.

- 31 -

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[S] Clear statistics

80 [S+] 1.0000 1st score

63 [S+] 2.0000 2nd score

77 [S+] 3.0000 3rd score

94 [S+] 4.0000 4th score

79 [S+] 5.0000 5th score

[xbar] 78.6000 Mean

The mean of the test scores is 78.6.

7.3 Standard Deviation

XACT-11C can be used to calculate the standard deviation of both

x and y variables using the [S] function key.

Example: Assume a set of students test scores for math and

English tests are as follows:

Student Math English

=================================

1 59 64

2 66 69

3 88 82

4 70 51

Calculate the standard deviation for the students results.

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[S] Clear registers

59 [ENTER] 64 [S+] 1.0000 1st student

66 [ENTER] 69 [S+] 2.0000 2nd student

88 [ENTER] 82 [S+] 3.0000 3rd student

70 [ENTER] 51 [S+] 4.0000 4th student

[S] 12.8193 Math standard deviation

[x<>y] 12.3659 English std. deviation

The standard deviation for the student's math scores was 12.82

and for the English scores was 12.37.

7.4 Linear Estimate

Using values entered for x and y variables, you can compute a

"best guess" for either variable, given a sample value for the

other one.

Example: Using the above data for student test scores, compute

an estimate for a student's English score given that the student

- 32 -

has a math score of 80. Compute the correlation coefficient for

this value.

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

80 [y,r] 78.8692 Math score estimate

[x<>y] 0.6235 correlation coefficient

7.5 Linear Regression

Linear regression is a method used for determining the "best fit"

straight line equation for a set of paired statistical data.

XACT-11C can determine the factors for the equation Y= MX + B

where M is the slope of the line and B is the Y intercept. The

[L.R.] function key returns the slope M in the Y register and

the intercept B in the X register.

Keystroke Display Comment

================================================================

[L.R.] 30.7556 Y intercept

[R|] 0.6014 Slope

- 33 -

APPENDIX

Error Conditions

When an error is encountered during operation, XACT-11C will

display the word "Error" in the calculator's display, followed by

a 1 digit error code. These error codes are defined below:

Error 0 - Invalid math operation. This error is encountered

when an operation attempted division by 0, the square root of a

negative number, or other invalid operation.

Error 1 - Out-of-Bounds Storage register operation. This

happens if a storage register operation overflows the range of

the calculator.

Error 2 - Invalid Statistical operation. This happens if a

statistical operation cannot be performed or is out of range, for

instance taking the mean of 0 numbers.

Error 3 - Invalid Register. An attempt was made to access a

label or line number that is out of range.

Error 4 - Invalid label or line number. An attempt was made to

access a label or line number that is out of range.

Error 5 - Invalid subroutine nesting. A subroutine was nested

more than 4 levels deep.

Error 6 - Invalid flag accessed. An invalid flag was accessed,

valid flags are 0 and 1.

- 34 -

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