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W O R D S

A Vocabulary Building Program



V e r s i o n 1 . 2















Conceived and Created by

Tony Martin

of

The BAD SOFTWARE Company
1611 Harvest Green Ct.
Reston, VA 22094

April 1, 1990












Software and Documentation (C) Copyright 1990
by
Tony Martin





T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S
-------------------------------------------------------------

Welcome to BAD SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

This is BAD SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . 1

The World of Shareware . . . . . . . . . 1

The Cost of WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . 2

What is WORDS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

What WORDS Can Do For You . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Capabilities Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Improving Your Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . 4

Specialized Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Files Included with WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Installing WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Using WORDS - A Task-Oriented Approach . . . . . 10

Random WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

In Your AUTOEXEC.BAT . . . . . . 11

Before Starting Any Program . . 12

Continuous Random Words . . . . 13

Searching the WORDS Database . . . . . . 15

Finding Words If You Know the Meaning . 18

Creating a Test . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Changing a WORDS Database . . . . . . . 27

Adding Words . . . . . . . . . . 28

Deleting Words . . . . . . . . . 33

Editing Definitions . . . . . . 37

Finding Out What's in the Database . . . 41



page i





T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S ( c o n t i n u e d )
-------------------------------------------------------------

Viewing the Wordlist . . . . . . 42

Printing the Database . . . . . 45

Making Your Own WORDS Databases . . . . 47

Database Creation . . . . . . . 47

Database Use . . . . . . . . . . 52

Packing the Definitions . . . . . . . . 54

Reminder HELP Screen . . . . . . . . . . 57

Changing the Colors WORDS Uses . . . . . 58

Using WORDS - Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

WORDS Filename Conventions . . . . . . . 63

Starting WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

The Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

The Function Keys . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Adding Words to the Database . . . . . . 67

Deleting Words from the Database . . . . 69

Editing Definitions . . . . . . . . . . 70

Searching the Database . . . . . . . . . 72

Searching for Words . . . . . . 72

Searching the Definitions . . . 73

Creating a Test . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Viewing the Wordlist . . . . . . . . . . 75

Printing the Database . . . . . . . . . 76

Packing the Definitions . . . . . . . . 77





page ii





T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S ( c o n t i n u e d )
-------------------------------------------------------------

Appendices and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Appendix A - A Short Note on
BAD SOFTWARE . . . . . . . 78

Appendix B - Disclaimers and Notices . . 79

Appendix C - Order Form . . . . . . . . 80










































page iii





Welcome to BAD SOFTWARE
-------------------------------------------------------------


This is BAD SOFTWARE
---------------------------------------------------

If this is your first BAD SOFTWARE product, I'd
like to say Welcome. BAD SOFTWARE, though a
fictitious company, stands for some very real
issues in the world of software.

The first item of importance to me as a software
developer is that software and its documentation be
usable and functional. It must satisfy your needs
as a user and must do it easily. Otherwise why
would you bother with it? It's for you that the
software is written.

Secondly, I'm a firm believer that software should
be fun to use. If we are forced to use computers
to accomplish what must be done, why not make it
more interesting? Even if you already like to use
computers, as I do, tasks can at least be
entertaining. Computing doesn't have to be dry and
dull.

It is with these two tasks in mind that we set off
to see what WORDS can do for you.


The World of Shareware
---------------------------------------------------

WORDS is being distributed as shareware. This
simply means you are free to try it out for a while
and decide if you are pleased with it before you
purchase. If you decide to keep and use it, you
send in a registration fee to the author. This
marketing method has its ups and downs, however.

The shareware concept benefits the end user by
making programs available for use before any money
has left their pocket. They can "try before they
buy." Shareware registration fees are also
typically much lower than the inflated prices of
commercial software. The author of the software
can also easily and widely distribute their
creations using the vast number of electronic
bulletin boards around the country. Not only is it
easy, it's free.


page 1





Despite these apparent niceties, shareware is an
endangered species. Less than five percent of all
people using shareware regularly bother to send in
the registration fees. Shareware authors are
understandably discouraged at this low turnout, and
often stop distributing using this method or turn
commercial.

Since this author has not the inclination to
distribute his software commercially, he has opted
for the shareware approach. Knowing the problems
shareware has, WORDS is not only inexpensive, it
also comes with two enticements to register: a free
database and a free program.


The Cost of WORDS
---------------------------------------------------

The registration cost of WORDS is $15.00. If you
register by sending this amount to me, I will do
a service for you, in addition to having already
provided you with WORDS and a 100 word database.
Firstly, I will send you an official diskette with
the latest version of WORDS on it and a brochure
that details all of the other BAD SOFTWARE
products. Secondly, I will send you a replacement
database for WORDS, containing 400 new words for a
total of 500 vocabulary words.

The registration fee of $15.00 will probably not
pauperize you, nor will it make me a software
publishing magnate. It will, however, provide you
with the above listed extras, and will serve to
encourage me to continue my efforts. It will also
help pay for the costs of being a compulsive
shareware programmer: expenses such as distribution
diskettes, mailing costs, other supplies, compiler
upgrades, and support software.

Please remember however, that the primary reason I
do this is for fun. I do not expect to get rich
writing shareware, just to support the habit. If
you are enjoying anything from the BAD SOFTWARE
Company (that means me; the company is ficticious),
then I'll be happy. If you have any comments, good
or bad, please drop me a letter at the address on
the title page of this manual.





page 2





What Is WORDS?
-------------------------------------------------------------


WORDS is billed as a Vocabulary Enhancement
Utility. What it is actually is a program that can
keep track of any data that share a two-part
relationship. As it is distributed, it can be used
as a vocabulary builder for anyone who feels they
need it; students, executives, technical writers,
or anyone who wants to be more expressive.

The program is flexible enough, however to perform
similar tasks for a wide variety of users.



What WORDS Can Do For You
-------------------------------------------------------------


Capabilities Summary
---------------------------------------------------

WORDS can maintain databases of information that
share a two-part relationship, such as a word and
its definition. Listed below are the features
WORDS includes that makes this task easy and
painless.

- WORDS can display a random word from the
database and then display its definition
after a key is hit. In this way, you can
quiz yourself constantly as you perform
tasks at your computer, or just when you
start it up.

- WORDS will perform a very fast search of the
database for any word you enter. Once
found, it will display the word and its
definition.

- WORDS can search the entire database of
definitions for any text you might want to
locate. This would allow you, for example,
to find all words whose definitions relate
to TALK.

- WORDS comes with a full complement of data-
base maintenance capabilities, including the



page 3





ability to add new words and definitions,
remove the ones you don't want, or edit the
definitions of existing words.

- You can create your own databases of words
and definitions to suit your particular
needs.

- WORDS will create a test for you to print
out and take, or give to someone else. Show
words and ask for definitions, or show
definitions and ask for words.

- You can see what's in your database at any
time. Either look at the list of words on
the screen, or print out the entire database
of words and definitions.

- In keeping form with making software fun to
use, WORDS comes with a separate program
that allows you to fully configure the
colors WORDS will use if you have a color
monitor.

- WORDS comes with a supplementary program
called QUIZ. QUIZ is an interactive
multiple choice test that helps you learn
very quickly.


Improving Your Vocabulary
---------------------------------------------------

Whatever your reason for wanting to improve your
vocabulary, WORDS can do it for you. Add the words
that you need to know and test yourself regularly.

If you are a writer, WORDS can, through vocabulary
building, make your writing much more expressive.

If you read often, WORDS can improve your ability
to understand more fully what it is you read.

Since the database that accompanies WORDS tries to
focus on words that are heard often but little
understood, WORDS can help you understand the
meanings of "nebulous" words, or those which you've
heard before, but aren't sure what they mean.





page 4





Specialized Uses
---------------------------------------------------

Depending on your needs, WORDS can fill many
interesting gaps in the software world. Take a
look at the few selected below.

ABOUT TO TAKE SAT's? - WORDS can help you prepare
for the SAT verbal test. Create your own database
of vocabulary words that SAT's are likely to use.
There are many SAT guides at libraries or
bookstores to serve as a reference. Also, many of
the words in the free database you receive for
registering WORDS have appeared on SAT's. Have
WORDS quiz you.

TECHNICAL WRITER - You may be writing a book that
deals with a technical subject. You could use
words to keep track of all your book's terms.

TEACHER - As a teacher of most any discipline, you
are sure to have vocabulary terms which your
students must master. WORDS can not only maintain
databases of your terms by unit, semester or
subject, it will generate tests for you to give
directly to your students.

STUDENT - A student of any discipline may benefit
from WORDS. If your subject has vocabulary or
terminology, WORDS can track it and quiz you on it.

DoD EMPLOYEE or CONTRACTOR - If you work for the
Department of Defense (or the Government in
general), you have hundreds if not thousands of
acronyms to deal with (I can relate personally).
WORDS can maintain a database of them all. Need to
know one? Ask WORDS what it means.
















page 5





Files Included with WORDS
-------------------------------------------------------------


The following is a list of files included with
WORDS and a description of the purpose of each one.

File name Purpose
---------------------------------------------------
WORDS.EXE . . . . . . . . . . . The actual program

WORDS.DAT . . . . . . . Color information for WORDS

WORDS.WRD . . . The database file containing words

WORDS.DEF The database file containing definitions

WORDS.DOC . . . . . . . . . This documentation file

WORDS.CLR . . . . . . Color version of intro screen

WORDS.MON . . . . . . Mono version of intro screen

COLORS.EXE . . . . . . . The color changer program

QUIZ.EXE . . . . . . The interactive Quiz program

QUIZ.DOC . . . . . Separate documentation for QUIZ

If any of these files are missing, you can get a
new evaluation copy of the program by sending me
$5.00 to cover materials and postage.





















page 6





Installing WORDS
-------------------------------------------------------------


Installing WORDS is as easy as copying a few files
to another disk. This section will take you step
by step through the procedure. Note that there are
two different sections for floppy disk and hard
disk users.

A couple of general notes are appropriate. First,
if you are using a shareware release of WORDS, one
that you have not obtained directly from BAD
SOFTWARE, and you just received a copy from BAD
SOFTWARE, then make sure you replace all your
existing files with the new ones. The releases you
get direct from us are always the latest and
greatest. Secondly, when installing WORDS, always
keep your original disks in a safe place and work
from copies. In this way, you will be protected in
case natural disaster strikes your working copy.

FLOPPY DISK INSTALLATION: Right off I'll tell you
that since the tasks WORDS performs are disk
activity intensive, its going to be slow on a
floppy system. I strongly recommend using WORDS
from a hard disk. WORDS also needs lots of working
disk space. The larger your databases grow, the
larger the amount of space it needs.

WORDS will, however, operate normally from a floppy
disk. Presented here are instructions for making a
working WORDS disk for a floppy system. A summary
of the steps involved are listed below.

1. Obtain a blank, formatted diskette.

2. Copy the appropriate files from the
original diskette to the blank one.

3. Store your originals in a safe place.

Step 1: Obtain a blank, formatted diskette
------------------------------------------
If you are working from a 360K disk system, one
diskette will not hold all the WORDS files. It
will, however, hold enough of them to make it work.
To format a diskette, place the new blank into the
second drive of your machine and from the DOS
drive, enter the command

FORMAT B:

page 7





assuming your second drive is B:. When the format
is done, you are ready to go.

Step 2: Copy files
------------------
Place your original WORDS disk 1 into your first
drive (in this example, drive A:) and your new
formatted diskette in your second drive (in this
example, drive B:), and enter the following
command:

COPY A:WORDS.* B:

This will place all of the files necessary to
operate WORDS on the new diskette. You may now
start WORDS from drive B:. You also have enough
room to copy the files for the QUIZ program, but
placing this on the same disk will take up enough
space to prevent you from packing your definitions.
I suggest making a separate disk for QUIZ, and
copying the files QUIZ.EXE, WORDS.DEF, and
WORDS.WRD to it. This will make a QUIZ disk that
will operate by itself.

Step 3: Store your originals
----------------------------
Once installation onto diskettes is finished, you
should store your original disks (if you received
them from BAD SOFTWARE) in a safe place away from
your computer. In this way, your WORDS disks are
isolated from any disaster that may strike in the
vicinity of your computer.

HARD DISK INSTALLATION: WORDS almost requires a
hard disk to operate in a convenient and complete
fashion. The steps for installing WORDS on a hard
disk are summarized below.

1. Create a subdirectory on your hard disk.

2. Copy all files to the subdirectory.

3. Store your WORDS originals in a safe place.

Step 1: Create a subdirectory
-----------------------------
In order to keep your WORDS files more organized,
it is best to place WORDS in its own subdirectory
on your hard disk. Decide on a name for your
subdirectory (I suggest WORDS) and create it with



page 8





the following DOS command (assuming you are logged
to your hard disk, say drive C:):

MD WORDS

This will make a directory called C:\WORDS on your
hard disk.

Step 2: Copy files
------------------
Change to the subdirectory you just created (in our
example, C:\WORDS) with the following command:

CD\WORDS

Once this is done, place your WORDS disk 1 into
your floppy drive (in our example, drive A:) and
issue the following command:

COPY A:*.*

This will cause DOS to copy all the files on drive
A: to the current drive and subdirectory (C:\WORDS
in our case). When DOS finishes, replace the WORDS
disk 1 with the WORDS disk 2 and perform the same
command.

Step 3: Store your originals
----------------------------
Once installation onto diskettes is finished, you
should store your original disks (if you received
them from BAD SOFTWARE) in a safe place away from
your computer. In this way, your WORDS disks are
isolated from any disaster that may strike in the
vicinity of your computer.


















page 9





Using WORDS - A Task-Oriented Approach
-------------------------------------------------------------


Since most users know what they want to do, but not
how to do it, it makes sense to provide in software
documentation a reference of things a user might
do, and tell the user how to do them.

While this makes frightening sense, you'd be amazed
how few software manuals work this way. We're
taking the approach that you know what you want to
do. We're going to tell you how to go about it.

You will see some information repeat itself several
times in this documentation. This makes a manual
far more usable, since you don't have to flip
around in the documentation so much. It's very
much like writing a program with no GOTO statements
(Gotos are a no-no in the programming world. If
you use them, you are ostracized by your peers).

If you are an advanced computer user, or are
familiar enough with WORDS that you don't need this
task-oriented section, refer to the more concise
reference section toward the back of the manual.

The manual is designed so that it can be read or
used as a reference. Each new topic starts on a
new page, and the Table of Contents is a good tool
to help you find where you need to be.






















page 10





Random Words
-------------------------------------------------------------

If you want to learn your vocabulary casually, at a
pace that is calm, the WORDS Random Words feature
may be your way to go.

When this feature is used, WORDS clears your screen
(to prevent clutter that would distract you from
concentrating), and displays a word from the
database at the top. Once you think you know the
definition, or have given up, you can hit any key
and WORDS will show you the definition.

This can best be utilized in one of two ways:

1) In your AUTOEXEC.BAT file, so that you get
a word every time you start your computer,

2) In other batch files that start your
programs, so that you get a new word every
time you run a particular program.

Of course, you can always do them one at a time as
well.

To get a single random word, issue the following
command at the DOS prompt:

WORDS/R

This will cause WORDS to perform as described
above. To see the definition once the word is
displayed, hit any key.

In Your AUTOEXEC.BAT
--------------------
If you would like to place this command in your
AUTOEXEC.BAT file, so that WORDS displays a random
word for you every time you boot (start) your
computer, you must place the above command as the
last line in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. Perform the
following steps to do so:

1) Using a word processor that saves text in a
purely ASCII format (no formatting codes),
edit the file AUTOEXEC.BAT. If you don't
have the file AUTOEXEC.BAT yet, then create
it by editing it as a new file.




page 11





2) Add a new line to the end of the file that
looks exactly like this:

WORDS/R

3) Save the file as ASCII text (no formatting
codes).

The next time you start your computer, it will
automatically run the batch file AUTOEXEC.BAT, and
WORDS will show you a random word and definition as
described above.

Before Starting Any Program
---------------------------
You can do this as well with any program so that
WORDS displays a random word for you each time you
run the program. To illustrate an example, we will
assume you have a program you run all the time
called EDITOR, a shareware word processor.

To run EDITOR, you normally follow these steps:

1) Change to the \ED subdirectory.

2) Enter EDITOR to start the program.

3) When you are finished, change back to the
root directory.

What we will do is create a batch file that will
cause WORDS to pop up a random word and definition,
and then run EDITOR immediately afterwards. The
effect will be that you get a vocabulary word each
time you use your editor.

Perform the following step to generate a batch file
called ED.BAT that will pop up a random word and
definition, and then run EDITOR:

1) Using a word processor that saves text in a
purely ASCII format (no formatting codes),
edit the file ED.BAT. It will be a new
file.

2) Type in the following text:

WORDS/R
CD\ED
EDITOR
CD\


page 12





3) Save the file ED.BAT.

We have now created the batch file. Every time you
type ED to start your editor, WORDS will give you a
random word and definition before it runs.

You can, of course, perform the same process for
any program. Simply substitute the program's
proper subdirectory name and start-up command
(lines 2 and 3 in our sample batch file) for the
one's in our example.

Continuous Random Words
-----------------------
You can make WORDS show these random words to you
in a continuous fashion. This provides an
excellent way to quiz yourself. To make WORDS
display random words and definitions continuously
on the screen, pausing between each word, follow
these steps:

1) Make sure that the files WORDS.EXE,
WORDS.DAT, WORDS.WRD and WORDS.DEF are all
in the same place, i.e., on the same disk
drive and in the same subdirectory.

2) Start WORDS with the following command:

WORDS/RC

The RC stands for Random Continuous. If
you need to start WORDS in Random
Continuous mode with your own database,
follow the /RC with a colon (:) and the
name of your database. For example, if
your database was called GEOLOGY, you would
issue the following command:

WORDS/RC:GEOLOGY

3) Once the program begins, you will be shown
a random word from the database. When you
have finished pondering its definition, you
can hit any key to see the actual
definition.

4) Once the definition has been displayed, you
may quit the program by hitting the ESC
key, or have WORDS show you another random
word, repeating the cycle, by hitting the
SPACEBAR.


page 13






Using this feature will provide a good review of
all the words in the database.



















































page 14





Searching the Database
-------------------------------------------------------------

WORDS has the capability to search any WORDS
database very quickly. Simply type in the word you
want to look for and before you can hit the ENTER
key, it's found.

The following steps summarize the procedure for
searching the database:

1) Start WORDS

2) Select the Search Database function from
the menu

3) Type in the word to find and hit ENTER

4) Read the definition if found

5) Quit WORDS

Step 1: Start WORDS
-------------------
To start WORDS, make sure the files WORDS.EXE,
WORDS.WRD, WORDS.DEF, and WORDS.DAT are all in the
same place, i.e, all on the same disk drive and in
the same subdirectory. Once this is accomplished,
type in the following command to start WORDS:

WORDS

Complex, huh? Words will load and greet you with a
friendly, easy to use menu.

Step 2: Select the Search Database Function
-------------------------------------------
To select an item from the WORDS menu, you have two
options available to you.

The first is to use the selection bar. You'll
notice that the first entry on the menu is
highlighted. You can move this highlight up and
down to select the function of your choice. The
following table summarizes the movements of this
selection bar and how to perform them. To perform
the movement listed on the left, use the keys
listed on the right:





page 15





Bar Movement... ...Key(s)
-----------------------------------------
Down 1 Entry Down Arrow
Up 1 Entry Up Arrow
Top of List Home or PgUp
Bottom of List End or PgDn

Using these keys, you can move the selection bar so
that the Search Database function is highlighted.
Once your choice is selected, hit the ENTER key to
execute the function.

The second selection method is to type the
highlighted letter associated with the menu entry.
If you look at the menu entries, you will see that
each function has a single letter highlighted
within it. To get "direct access" to that menu
function, simply hit the letter that is
highlighted.

To select the Search Database function in this
manner, hit the S key, and the function will
execute immediately.

Step 3: Type In the Word to Find
--------------------------------
As soon as you select the Search Database function
from the menu, the Search Database Facility screen
will be displayed. On it you will see an entry
field for you to type in the word to find, with the
cursor waiting patiently for you to begin.

At this point, simply type in the word you wish to
find. You can type a portion of the word you wish
to find, and as long as it uniquely defines the
word, WORDS will locate it properly. While you
are typing, there are editing keys active that will
make entry of the word much easier. The following
table describes a list of editing tasks you might
want to perform, and which keys to use to perform
them:












page 16





Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Clear entry and restart . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-R
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER

Once you have entered the word to search for, hit
the ENTER key to begin the search.

Step 4: Read the Definition if Found
------------------------------------
Once the ENTER key has been hit, WORDS will begin a
very fast search of the database. If it does not
find the word you are looking for, it will display
a small message stating "Not in database!" After a
short delay, you will be able to enter another word
to search for. If you do not want to wait through
this delay, you can hit any key to interrupt it and
move on.

If WORDS does find the word, it will clear the
screen and display the word. As soon as you hit a
key, it will display the definition. One more key
will get you back to the Search Database screen,
where you may enter another word for which to
search.

Step 5: Quit WORDS
------------------
Quitting WORDS is a one- or two-step process,
depending on where you are.

The first step is to return from where you are in
WORDS to the menu. At any of the WORDS function
screens, you can return top the menu by hitting
either F10 or ESC.

Step two, once you are at the menu, is to highlight
the Quit option, located at the bottom of the menu.
You can do this by moving the highlight using the
arrow keys and hitting ENTER, or by hitting the
letter Q. Either method will immediately return
you to DOS.

page 17





Finding Words If You Know the General Meaning
-------------------------------------------------------------

Occasions may arise when you know the general
meaning of a word, but not the word itself. It
goes something like this:

"...shoot, I know the words means something like
sad, or sorrowful, but I can't quite put my finger
on it..."

With the Definition Search feature, WORDS can help
you out here. WORDS will search for the occurrence
of any text you specify in the definitions of all
the words in the database.

The search is not case sensitive. That is, it will
find all instances of sad in a definition, whether
they look like SAD, sad, or Sad.

The search will also find occurrences of the text
even if it is part of another word. The down side
of this is that it will also find words whose
definitions contain words like saddle, or
ambassador, since sad is part of those words. The
up side is that it will also find sadness, saddest,
and sadly.

Once you enter the text you want to find, WORDS
will go off and search the definitions for it. If
it finds your text, the search will stop and WORDS
will display the words and its definition for you.
After looking at the word, you will be able to
terminate the search, or continue looking where you
left off.

With all this in mind, lets see exactly how to do
it. The following steps summarize the procedure
for searching the definitions for text:

1) Start WORDS

2) Select the Definition Search function from
the WORDS menu

3) Enter the text for which you want words
found

4) Watch WORDS hunt through the database. If
it finds your text, examine the word and
its definition when WORDS dislpays it.


page 18





5) Continue searching the database for the
text until you are finished.

6) Repeat steps 3 through 5 until you are
finished searching the definitions for
text.

7) Quit WORDS

Step 1: Start WORDS
-------------------
To start WORDS, make sure the files WORDS.EXE,
WORDS.WRD, WORDS.DEF, and WORDS.DAT are all in the
same place, i.e, all on the same disk drive and in
the same subdirectory. Once this is accomplished,
type in the following command to start WORDS:

WORDS

Tough, huh? Words will load and greet you with a
friendly, easy to use menu.

Step 2: Select the Definition Search Function
---------------------------------------------
To select an item from the WORDS menu, you have two
options available to you.

The first is to use the selection bar. You'll
notice that the first entry on the menu is
highlighted. You can move this highlight up and
down to select the function of your choice. The
following table summarizes the movements of this
selection bar and how to perform them. To perform
the movement listed on the left, use the keys
listed on the right:


Bar Movement... ...Key(s)
-----------------------------------------
Down 1 Entry Down Arrow
Up 1 Entry Up Arrow
Top of List Home or PgUp
Bottom of List End or PgDn

Using these keys, you can move the selection bar so
that the Search Database function is highlighted.
Once your choice is selected, hit the ENTER key to
execute the function.

The second selection method is to type the
highlighted letter associated with the menu entry.


page 19





If you look at the menu entries, you will see that
each function has a single letter highlighted
within it. To get "direct access" to that menu
function, simply hit the letter that is
highlighted.

To select the Definition Search function in this
manner, hit the F key, and the function will
execute immediately.

Step 3: Enter text to find
--------------------------
The next item on your searching agenda is to enter
the text to search for in the definitions. There
is a space in which you will enter the text, and is
limited to about 53 characters. Type in your text
and hit ENTER. The following editing keys are
available while entering the text:

Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Clear entry and restart . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-R
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER

Again, when you have finished entering your text,
hit the ENTER key. This will tell WORDS to accept
your text and begin the search.

Step 4: Watch WORDS hunt
------------------------
In the bottom half of the Definition Search window,
you will see that WORDS displays for you which
definition by number it is searching. If WORDS
encounters your text in a definition, it will clear
the screen and display the word and its definition.
You may ponder it as long as you like. Once you
are finished looking, hit any key and you will
return to the Definition Search screen.





page 20





Step 5: Continue searching
--------------------------
Notice that there is a flashing message in the
bottom half of the window. WORDS wants to know if
you would like to continue searching the database
for the same text. If you do, then hit Y for yes.
WORDS will then continue searching where it left
off, and the whole process for this step will
repeat. If you do not want to continue searching
for the same text, hit N for no (or any key other
than Y). WORDS will then return to the text entry
space, where you can type in more text for which to
search.

Step 6: Search for something else
---------------------------------
If you wish to search for some other text, you may
do so now. Simply repeat steps 3 through 5.

Step 7: Quit WORDS
------------------
If you choose not to search for any more text, you
may return to the WORDS menu, and from there Quit
the program and return to DOS.

Quitting WORDS is a one- or two-step process,
depending on where you are.

The first step is to return from where you are in
WORDS to the menu. At any of the WORDS function
screens, you can return to the menu by hitting
either F10 or ESC.

Step two, once you are at the menu, is to highlight
the Quit option, located at the bottom of the menu.
You can do this by moving the highlight using the
arrow keys and hitting ENTER, or by hitting the
letter Q. Either method will immediately return
you to DOS.














page 21





Creating a Test
-------------------------------------------------------------

WORDS can quickly create a text file that contains
a test for you or someone else to take. It will
randomly select a number of words you define from
the database, and generate both a test and an
answer sheet for the test.

The following steps summarize the procedure for
creating a test:

1) Start WORDS

2) Select the Create Test function from the
menu

3) Select the type of test to generate

4) Enter the number of questions to create

5) Enter the name of the file to save the test
in

6) Watch WORDS create your test

7) Quit WORDS

Step 1: Start WORDS
-------------------
To start WORDS, make sure the files WORDS.EXE,
WORDS.WRD, WORDS.DEF, and WORDS.DAT are all in the
same place, i.e, all on the same disk drive and in
the same subdirectory. Once this is accomplished,
type in the following command to start WORDS:

WORDS

Difficult, huh? Words will load and greet you
with a friendly, easy to use menu.

Step 2: Select the Create Test Function
---------------------------------------
To select an item from the WORDS menu, you have two
options available to you.

The first is to use the selection bar. You'll
notice that the first entry on the menu is
highlighted. You can move this highlight up and
down to select the function of your choice. The



page 22





following table summarizes the movements of this
selection bar and how to perform them. To perform
the movement listed on the left, use the keys
listed on the right:

Bar Movement... ...Key(s)
-----------------------------------------
Down 1 Entry Down Arrow
Up 1 Entry Up Arrow
Top of List Home or PgUp
Bottom of List End or PgDn

Using these keys, you can move the selection bar so
that the Create Test function is highlighted. Once
your choice is selected, hit the ENTER key to
execute the function.

The second selection method is to type the
highlighted letter associated with the menu entry.

If you look at the menu entries, you will see that
each function has a single letter highlighted
within it. To get "direct access" to that menu
function, simply hit the letter that is
highlighted.

To select the Create Test function in this manner,
hit the T key, and the function will execute
immediately. You will see the Create Test Facility
screen on your display.

Step 3: Select the Type of Test
-------------------------------
Once you see the Create Test Facility screen, the
fun begins. After reading the introductory
information on the screen, you must select what
type of test WORDS will generate. The two types
are as follows:

1) Words test: Generate a test that lists
words and asks you to fill in the
definitions,

2) Definitions test: Generate a test that
lists definitions and asks you to fill in
the words.

Notice that on the screen, the first letter of the
test type is highlighted; the W for Words test, and
the D for Definitions test. Hit the W if you want
to generate a Words test, or the D to generate a
Definitions test.

page 23





Step 4: Enter the Number of Questions
-------------------------------------
Once you have successfully selected a test type,
you must tell WORDS how many questions to create.

On the screen you will now see a short entry field
with the cursor waiting for you. Here you type in
the number of questions you want in your test. The
prompt on the screen will tell you the maximum
number of questions allowed. The limit is either
the maximum number of words in your database, or
999, whichever is lower.

Type in the number of questions to create. Use the
Backspace or DEL key to fix typing errors. Once
you have entered the number of questions you want,
hit the ENTER key to finish it up.

Step 5: Enter the Name of the Test File
---------------------------------------
Once WORDS knows how many questions to make, you
need only tell it one more piece of information:
the name of the file in which to store the test.

You will see on the screen another entry field.
This is where you enter the filename for the test.
You are allowed eight characters. The filename
must be a valid DOS filename. If you stick pretty
much to normal letters, you'll be alright.

Notice that at the end of the field is the text

.TST

This is the extension your file will have after it
is generated. WORDS automatically fills it in and
will not let you type over it. This is so that you
can always look at a file on your disk and know it
is a test file generated by WORDS. For example, if
you chose to name your test file BIGWORDS, the DOS
filename after it is created will be BIGWORDS.TST.

WORDS also generates an answers file. This file
will have the same name as your test file (in our
example, BIGWORDS), but will always have the
extension .ANS (our example would result in an
answer file called BIGWORDS.ANS).






page 24





While you are typing, there are editing keys active
that will make entry of the filename much easier.
The following table describes a list of editing
tasks you might want to perform, and which keys to
use to perform them:

Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Clear entry and restart . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-R
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER

Once you have entered the filename, hit the ENTER
key to begin the test generation.

Step 6: Watch WORDS Create Your Test
------------------------------------
Now that WORDS has all the information it needs to
create your test, it goes about the task quickly.
As the program generates your test, a small window
at the bottom of the screen will inform you as to
the progress of the test generation.

It first selects the words/definitions from the
database that it will put in your test. Selection
is random and there will be no duplication of
questions. Naturally, the more questions you asked
for, the longer it takes to select questions. On
an 8 MHz PC/XT Clone computer, WORDS took about 3
seconds to select 500 questions.

After it knows all the questions, it writes your
test and answer files to disk. The speed at
which WORDS writes these files is dependent on both
the number of questions selected and the speed of
your disk drive.

Step 7: Quit WORDS
------------------
When WORDS finishes your test and answer files, it
will automatically return you to the menu.



page 25





From the menu, you must select the Quit WORDS
function to leave. You can either move the
selection bar to this menu entry and hit ENTER, or
hit the letter Q. Both operations will cause WORDS
to return you to DOS.
















































page 26





Changing a WORDS Database
-------------------------------------------------------------

WORDS databases, whether provided by BAD SOFTWARE
or created by yourself, are likely to need changing
to suit your particular needs. This may involve
adding new words to your database, deleting old
ones, or editing definitions. All these
capabilities are provided by WORDS, and are
described in detail below.

I would like to mention, however, that if you do
make changes to any of your databases, do so on
copies only. Make frequent backups of your WORDS
databases. This will prevent accidental corruption
of your databases, and save many hours of retyping
if damage is done.




































page 27





Adding Words
-------------------------------------------------------------

Growth is a natural occurrence in any database, but
especially in WORDS databases. You may come across
three or four new words every day that would merit
addition to your vocabulary database. To this end,
WORDS has a very usable Word Addition Facility.

The following steps summarize the procedure for
adding words and definitions to the WORDS database:

1) Know your word and definition

2) Start WORDS

3) Select the Add Words function from the menu

4) Enter the word to add to the database

5) Type in the word's definition

6) Repeat steps 4 and 5 until all words and
definitions desired are entered

7) Watch WORDS sort the database

8) Quit WORDS

Step 1: Know Your Word and Definition
-------------------------------------
Before you can type in a word and definition, you
must obviously know the word and what it means.
Grab your dictionary and look up the word(s) you
want to enter and their definition(s).

Step 2: Start WORDS
-------------------
To start WORDS, make sure the files WORDS.EXE,
WORDS.WRD, WORDS.DEF, and WORDS.DAT are all in the
same place, i.e, all on the same disk drive and in
the same subdirectory. Once this is accomplished,
type in the following command to start WORDS:

WORDS

Complicated, huh? Words will load and greet you
with a friendly, easy to use menu.





page 28





Step 3: Select the Add Words Function
-------------------------------------
To select an item from the WORDS menu, you have two
options available to you.

The first is to use the selection bar. You'll
notice that the first entry on the menu is
highlighted. You can move this highlight up and
down to select the function of your choice. The
following table summarizes the movements of this
selection bar and how to perform them. To perform
the movement listed on the left, use the keys
listed on the right:

Bar Movement... ...Key(s)
-----------------------------------------
Down 1 Entry Down Arrow
Up 1 Entry Up Arrow
Top of List Home or PgUp
Bottom of List End or PgDn

Using these keys, you can move the selection bar so
that the Add Words function is highlighted. Once
your choice is selected, hit the ENTER key to
execute the function.

The second selection method is to type the
highlighted letter associated with the menu entry.

If you look at the menu entries, you will see that
each function has a single letter highlighted
within it. To get "direct access" to that menu
function, simply hit the letter that is
highlighted.

To select the Add Words function in this manner,
hit the A key, and the function will execute
immediately.

Step 4: Enter the Word to Add to the Database
---------------------------------------------
You should now have the Add Word Facility screen in
front of you on your display. Notice that there is
a single-line entry field in the middle. This is
where you enter the word you want to add. It is
limited in length to 20 characters.

The cursor will be sitting at the beginning of the
field. Simply type in the word you want to add to
the database. While you are typing, there are



page 29





editing keys active that will make entry of the
word much easier. The following table describes a
list of editing tasks you might want to perform,
and which keys to use to perform them:

Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Clear entry and restart . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-R
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER

Once you have entered the word, hit the ENTER key
to have WORDS accept it. WORDS will then check the
database to see if the word already exists. If it
does, WORDS will show you a small message at the
bottom of the screen. You can hit any key to clear
the message. If the word does not yet exist in the
database, then you will be able to type in its
definition.

Step 5: Type in the Word's Definition
-------------------------------------
After WORDS accepts your new word, you must enter
it's definition. The screen will provide you with
a three-line editing window in which to type.

Inside the editing window, type in your word's
definition. The editing window will perform such
tasks as automatic word wrap, insert/overtype, and
supports most features one would expect from an
editor. While you are entering the definition,
there are editing keys active that will make entry
of the definition much easier. On the next page is
a table which describes a list of editing tasks you
might want to perform, and which keys to use to
perform them.








page 30





Editing function... ...key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor down 1 line . . . . . . . . Down Arrow
Move cursor up 1 line . . . . . . . . . . Up Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Delete line at cursor . . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-Y
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER


Step 6: Repeat 4 and 5 Until Finished
-------------------------------------
After you finish entry of your definition, you will
be returned to the word entry field, to begin
entering another word and definition.

You may repeat steps 4 and 5 until all the words
and definitions you want to enter into the database
are entered.

Step 7: Watch WORDS Sort the Database
-------------------------------------
If you are finished entering words and definitions,
and are ready to quit, then WORDS must sort the
database to put the words you just entered in to
proper alphabetical order. WORDS will do this
automatically when you leave the Add Words
Facility.

To leave the Add Words facility, and cause WORDS to
sort the database, you can either

1) Hit the ENTER key by itself, without any
text in the word entry field, or

2) Hit the F10 key to return to the menu,

3) Hit another function key to take you
elsewhere in WORDS.






page 31






The idea is that, if you leave the Add Words
Facility, and have added one or more words to the
database, WORDS will automatically sort the
database before leaving.

The database sort is the most time-consuming of all
WORDS tasks. When the sort begins, a small status
window will appear at the bottom of the screen, and
inform you of the status of the sort. For a
database of 100 words, on an 8 MHz XT Clone, using
a Seagate 225 21-megabyte hard disk (access time 65
ms), the sort takes about 35 seconds. Using the
same equipment, a sort on a 2500 word database took
about 9 and a half minutes. For this reason, I
recommend you limit your databases to about 1000
words. WORDS can easily handle as many as 32,000
words in a single database, but sort times would be
prohibitively slow.

When the sort is finished, you will exit from the
Add Words Facility and be taken to either DOS, the
menu, or some other place in WORDS, depending on
the key you hit to exit the Add Words Facility.

Step 8: Quit WORDS
------------------
As mentioned above, you can return to the menu
using the F10 key or the ESC key and select the
Quit WORDS function.























page 32





Deleting Words
-------------------------------------------------------------

The capability to delete words and respective
definitions from the WORDS database is indeed
useful. If errors in the word itself are detected
after entry, or you decide later to simply remove
words and definitions, then you will find this
function invaluable.

The following steps summarize the procedure for
deleting words from the WORDS database:

1) Start WORDS

2) Select the Delete Words function from the
menu

3) Type in the word to delete from the WORDS
database

4) Watch WORDS delete the word

5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 for all words you want
deleted

6) Quit WORDS

Step 1: Start WORDS
-------------------
To start WORDS, make sure the files WORDS.EXE,
WORDS.WRD, WORDS.DEF, and WORDS.DAT are all in the
same place, i.e, all on the same disk drive and in
the same subdirectory. Once this is accomplished,
type in the following command to start WORDS:

WORDS

Tough, huh? Words will load and greet you with a
friendly, easy to use menu.

Step 2: Select the Delete Words Function
-------------------------------------------
To select an item from the WORDS menu, you have two
options available to you.

The first is to use the selection bar. You'll
notice that the first entry on the menu is
highlighted. You can move this highlight up and




page 33





down to select the function of your choice. The
following table summarizes the movements of this
selection bar and how to perform them. To perform
the movement listed on the left, use the keys
listed on the right:

Bar Movement... ...Key(s)
-----------------------------------------
Down 1 Entry Down Arrow
Up 1 Entry Up Arrow
Top of List Home or PgUp
Bottom of List End or PgDn

Using these keys, you can move the selection bar so
that the Delete Words function is highlighted.
Once your choice is selected, hit the ENTER key to
execute the function.

The second selection method is to type the
highlighted letter associated with the menu entry.

If you look at the menu entries, you will see that
each function has a single letter highlighted
within it. To get "direct access" to that menu
function, simply hit the letter that is
highlighted.

To select the Delete Words function in this manner,
hit the D key, and the function will execute
immediately.

Step 3: Type in the Word to Delete
----------------------------------
When the Delete Words Facility appears on your
display, you will see a blank entry field in the
middle of the window. This is where you type in
the word to delete.

While you are typing the word you wish to delete,
there are editing keys active that will make entry
of the word much easier. The following table
describes a list of editing tasks you might want to
perform, and which keys to use to perform them:










page 34





Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Clear entry and restart . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-R
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER

Once you have entered the word, hit the ENTER key
to have WORDS accept it. WORDS will then check the
database to see if the word already exists. If it
does, WORDS will delete the word and definition
from the database. If the word does not yet exist
in the database, WORDS will inform you that it does
not exist. If it does not exist, it cannot be
deleted.

Step 4: Watch WORDS Delete the Word
-----------------------------------
Once WORDS accepts the word to delete as valid, it
will proceed to delete it. This involves several
internal steps (all done automatically, of course):

1) The word's location must be found. Very
fast operation.

2) The word is deleted (set to blank).

3) The rest of the words in the database are
moved up to fill in the blank space.

4) The word database is rewritten to disk.

WORDS will show you the status of the delete
operation in a small status box at the bottom of
the screen.










page 35





-- NOTE -------------------------------------------
When a word is deleted from the database, its
definition is not actually deleted from the
database. The definition is MARKED for deletion at
a later time. This is done to save time while
deleting words. To clear out the definitions that
have been marked for deletion, use the Pack
Definitions function of WORDS, described in the
reference section of this manual.
---------------------------------------------------

Step 5: Repeat 3 and 4 for All Words to be Deleted
--------------------------------------------------
When WORDS has completed the delete operation for
your word, it will return to the entry field. Here
you may enter another word for deletion if you so
desire.

Step 6: Quit WORDS
------------------
If you are finished deleting words and their
definitions, you may quit WORDS by hitting the F10
key, which returns you to the menu. Once at the
menu, you can select the Quit WORDS function using
the selection bar or hitting the Q key.




























page 36





Editing Definitions
-------------------------------------------------------------

If at any time you find errors in your definitions,
or simply find a better definition for a given word
than the one you originally entered, you can use
the Edit Definitions Facility of WORDS to change
it. This function operates very much like the Add
Words Facility, except there is no sorting involved
in the Edit function.

The following steps summarize the procedure for
editing definitions:

1) Start WORDS

2) Select the Edit Definitions function from
the menu

3) Enter the word whose definition you wish to
edit

4) Edit the definition when it is displayed

5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 until all definitions
you need to edit are completed

6) Quit WORDS

Step 1: Start WORDS
-------------------
To start WORDS, make sure the files WORDS.EXE,
WORDS.WRD, WORDS.DEF, and WORDS.DAT are all in the
same place, i.e, all on the same disk drive and in
the same subdirectory. Once this is accomplished,
type in the following command to start WORDS:

WORDS

Rough, huh? Words will load and greet you with a
friendly, easy to use menu.

Step 2: Select the Edit Definitions Function
--------------------------------------------
To select an item from the WORDS menu, you have two
options available to you.

The first is to use the selection bar. You'll
notice that the first entry on the menu is
highlighted. You can move this highlight up and



page 37





down to select the function of your choice. The
following table summarizes the movements of this
selection bar and how to perform them. To perform
the movement listed on the left, use the keys
listed on the right:

Bar Movement... ...Key(s)
-----------------------------------------
Down 1 Entry Down Arrow
Up 1 Entry Up Arrow
Top of List Home or PgUp
Bottom of List End or PgDn

Using these keys, you can move the selection bar so
that the Edit Definitions function is highlighted.
Once your choice is selected, hit the ENTER key to
execute the function.

The second selection method is to type the
highlighted letter associated with the menu entry.

If you look at the menu entries, you will see that
each function has a single letter highlighted
within it. To get "direct access" to that menu
function, simply hit the letter that is
highlighted.

To select the Edit Definitions function in this
manner, hit the E key, and the function will
execute immediately.

Step 3: Enter the Word Whose Definition You Will
Edit
------------------------------------------------
When the Edit Definitions Facility appears on your
display, you will see a blank entry field in the
middle of the window. This is where you type in
the word whose definition you wish to edit.

While you are typing the word whose definition you
want to edit, there are editing keys active that
will make entry of the word much easier. On the
next page is a table that describes a list of
editing tasks you might want to perform, and which
keys to use to perform them.








page 38





Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Clear entry and restart . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-R
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER

Once you have entered the word, hit the ENTER key
to have WORDS accept it. WORDS will then check the
database to see if the word already exists. If it
does, WORDS will display its definition for you to
edit. If the word does not yet exist in the
database, WORDS will inform you that it does not
exist. If it does not exist, its definition cannot
be edited.

Step 4: Edit the Definition
---------------------------
The definition, if found, will be displayed in a
three-line editing window. Once WORDS displays the
definition, you may edit it until it suits your
needs.

The editing window will perform such tasks as
automatic word wrap, insert/overtype, and supports
most features one would expect from an editor.
While you are editing the definition, there are
keys active that will make editing of the
definition much easier. The following table
describes a list of editing tasks you might want to
perform, and which keys to use to perform them:

Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor down 1 line . . . . . . . . Down Arrow
Move cursor up 1 line . . . . . . . . . . Up Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End



page 39





Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Delete line at cursor . . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-Y
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER


Step 5: Repeat 3 and 4 Until All Edits Complete
-----------------------------------------------
Once you have finished editing the definition and
saved it by hitting the ESC key, WORDS will place
you back at the word entry field. Here you may
enter another word whose definition you wish to
edit. If you are finished, then you may quit.

Step 6: Quit WORDS
------------------
If you are finished editing definitions, you may
quit WORDS by hitting the F10 key or the ESC key,
which returns you to the menu. Once at the menu,
you can select the Quit WORDS function using the
selection bar or hitting the Q key.






























page 40





Finding Out What's In The Database
-------------------------------------------------------------

In WORDS, there are two ways to find out what your
database contains. You can view the wordlist or
print out your entire database.

Viewing the wordlist will place on the screen a
scrolling, column-organized list of all the words
in the database (but not the definitions). It can
be an excellent reference while you are working in
WORDS.

For a more permanent reference, WORDS will print
out a list of all words AND their definitions to
any printer connected to LPT1 on your computer.





































page 41





Viewing the Wordlist
-------------------------------------------------------------

At any time while you are working in WORDS, a list
of all words in the database can be very handy.
This function will display the words from the
database on the screen, and allow you to page
through them. There is also a highlight bar that
allows you to select any word on the current
screen and view its definition.

The following steps summarize the procedure for
viewing the wordlist:

1) Start WORDS

2) Select Show Wordlist from the menu

3) View the Wordlist

4) View any definitions

5) Quit WORDS

Step 1: Start WORDS
-------------------
To start WORDS, make sure the files WORDS.EXE,
WORDS.WRD, WORDS.DEF, and WORDS.DAT are all in the
same place, i.e, all on the same disk drive and in
the same subdirectory. Once this is accomplished,
type in the following command to start WORDS:

WORDS

Rough, huh? Words will load and greet you with a
friendly, easy to use menu.

Step 2: Select the Show Wordlist Function
-----------------------------------------
To select an item from the WORDS menu, you have two
options available to you.

The first is to use the selection bar. You'll
notice that the first entry on the menu is
highlighted. You can move this highlight up and
down to select the function of your choice. On the
next page is a table that summarizes the movements
of this selection bar and how to perform them. To
perform the movement listed on the left, use the
keys listed on the right:



page 42





Bar Movement... ...Key(s)
-----------------------------------------
Down 1 Entry Down Arrow
Up 1 Entry Up Arrow
Top of List Home or PgUp
Bottom of List End or PgDn

Using these keys, you can move the selection bar so
that the Show Wordlist function is highlighted.
Once your choice is selected, hit the ENTER key to
execute the function.

The second selection method is to type the
highlighted letter associated with the menu entry.

If you look at the menu entries, you will see that
each function has a single letter highlighted
within it. To get "direct access" to that menu
function, simply hit the letter that is
highlighted.

To select the Show Wordlist function in this
manner, hit the W key, and the function will
execute immediately.

Step 3: View the Wordlist
-------------------------
Once WORDS has displayed the Wordlist on your
screen, you can page through it however you wish.
Note that at the top of the screen there is a
status bar that shows you:

1) The number of words through the list

2) The total number of words in the database

3) The movement keys

While you are in the Show Wordlist Facility, you
can move around in the following ways, by using the
following keys:

To move like this... ...Use these keys
---------------------------------------------------
Up one screen of words . . . . . . . . . . . . PgUp
Down one screen of words . . . . . . . . . . . PgDn
Top of the list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Home
Bottom of the list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End





page 43






When you hit a key to move the list, you will see a
small status window appear briefly in the center of
the screen, which says "Reading." This indicates
that WORDS is pulling more words from the database
to display for you. It should never take more than
1 second or so to read a screen's worth of words.
By operating in this fashion, WORDS can display
words from a database of up to 32,000 words, and
not be limited by computer memory problems.

Step 4: View Any Definitions
----------------------------
Notice that while you are viewing the word list,
one of the words is highlighted. You can hit the
ENTER key to view the definition of the highlighted
word. You can, of course move this highlight
around to select any word on the current screen
who's definition you might might want to see.
Move the highlight around the screen using the
following keys:

To move the highlight like this.. ..Use these keys
---------------------------------------------------
Highlight up one row . . . . . . . . . . . Up Arrow
Highlight down on row . . . . . . . . . Down Arrow
Highlight left one word . . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Highlight right one word . . . . . . . Right Arrow
View definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER

Note that the highlight wraps on the current screen
full of words, from top to bottom to top, from left
to right to left (moving up or down a row as it
wraps), and from corner to corner. Moving the
highlight will not move to a new screen full of
words -- use the PgUp and PgDn keys for that.

Once you hit ENTER, WORDS will display the
definition of the word that is currently
highlighted. Once you have finished reading the
definition, hit any key to return to the word list.

Step 5: Quit WORDS
------------------
Once you have finished paging through the wordlist,
you may quit by hitting the F10 key or the ESC key,
which returns you to the menu. Once at the menu,
you can select the Quit WORDS function using the
selection bar or hitting the Q key.




page 44






Printing The Database
-------------------------------------------------------------

WORDS provides you with the capability to print out
the entire database, words and definitions, to any
text printer connected to the LPT1 port on your
computer.

The following steps summarize the procedure for
printing out your database:

1) Start WORDS

2) Select the Print Database function from the
menu

3) Watch WORDS print your database

4) Quit WORDS

Step 1: Start WORDS
-------------------
To start WORDS, make sure the files WORDS.EXE,
WORDS.WRD, WORDS.DEF, and WORDS.DAT are all in the
same place, i.e, all on the same disk drive and in
the same subdirectory. Once this is accomplished,
type in the following command to start WORDS:

WORDS

Tedious, huh? Words will load and greet you with a
friendly, easy to use menu.

Step 2: Select the Print Database Function
------------------------------------------
To select an item from the WORDS menu, you have two
options available to you.

The first is to use the selection bar. You'll
notice that the first entry on the menu is
highlighted. You can move this highlight up and
down to select the function of your choice. The
following table summarizes the movements of this
selection bar and how to perform them. To perform
the movement listed on the left, use the keys
listed on the right:







page 45





Bar Movement... ...Key(s)
-----------------------------------------
Down 1 Entry Down Arrow
Up 1 Entry Up Arrow
Top of List Home or PgUp
Bottom of List End or PgDn

Using these keys, you can move the selection bar so
that the Print Database function is highlighted.
Once your choice is selected, hit the ENTER key to
execute the function.

The second selection method is to type the
highlighted letter associated with the menu entry.

If you look at the menu entries, you will see that
each function has a single letter highlighted
within it. To get "direct access" to that menu
function, simply hit the letter that is
highlighted.

To select the Print Database function in this
manner, hit the P key, and the function will
execute immediately.

Step 3: Watch WORDS Print Your Database
---------------------------------------
Once you see the Print Database screen, you have
two options.

The first is to abort the print job, in case you
got in here by accident. To do this, hit the ESC
key.

Your second option is to go ahead with the print
job. To begin printing, hit the SPACEBAR. At any
time during the print job, you may hit the ESC key
to abort the printing of the database.

Step 4: Quit WORDS
------------------
After the database finishes printing, you will
automatically be returned to the menu. Once at the
menu, you can select the Quit WORDS function using
the selection bar or hitting the Q key. Either
method will return you to DOS.







page 46





Making Your Own WORDS Databases
-------------------------------------------------------------

Whether you have your own application you need a
database for, or the one that came with WORDS is
getting too big, you'll probably need to create
your own database at some point.

Your database may contain any data that share a two
part relationship, like a word and its definition,
an acronym and what it stands for, or whatever you
might come up with.

Creating a database is as easy as adding words with
the WORDS Add Words Facility. The following steps
summarize the procedure for creating your own
database:

1) Determine the name of your new database

2) Start WORDS with your database name

3) Add words to your new database

4) Enter the Definition of Your New Word

5) Repeat 3 and 4 Until Finished

6) Watch WORDS Sort the New Database

7) Quit WORDS

Step 1: Determine the Name of Your Database
-------------------------------------------
When choosing a name for your database, it's a good
idea to select a name that is representative of the
data stored in it. For instance, if you were
creating a database for your first semester
chemistry class, you might call your database
CHEM1. If your database was intended to store
acronyms and their meanings, you might call the
database ACRONYMS.

When you make a new database, WORDS creates two
files with the name of your database. The first
has a .WRD extension, and contains the actual words
you enter. The second file has an extension of
.DEF and contains the definition portion.





page 47






Step 2: Start WORDS
-------------------
Armed with your new database name, start WORDS up
with the following command:

WORDS/D:filename

You would replace the filename above with the
actual name of the database you were creating. For
example, if you want to create a database called
BIOTERMS, the command to start WORDS would be

WORDS/D:BIOTERMS

Once you issue this command, WORDS will attempt to
find the database on disk. Since the database is
new, it will not find it, and will display a
message.

This message will inform you that WORDS could not
find the database. Since you intend to create a
new database, hit the SPACEBAR to proceed.

Once WORDS knows you are creating a new database,
it automatically places you into the Add Words
Facility. Here you begin entering the words and
their definitions.

Step 3: Add Word to Your New Database
-------------------------------------
You should now have the Add Word Facility screen in
front of you on your display. Notice that there is
a single-line entry field in the middle. This is
where you enter the word you want to add. It is
limited in length to 20 characters.

The cursor will be sitting at the beginning of the
field. Simply type in the word you want to add to
the database. While you are typing, there are
editing keys active that will make entry of the
word much easier. The following table describes a
list of editing tasks you might want to perform,
and which keys to use to perform them:










page 48





Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Clear entry and restart . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-R
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER

Once you have entered the word, hit the ENTER key
to have WORDS accept it. WORDS will then check the
database to see if the word already exists. If it
does, WORDS will show you a small message at the
bottom of the screen. If the word does not yet
exist in the database, then you will be able to
type in its definition.

Step 4: Enter the Definition of Your New Word
---------------------------------------------
After WORDS accepts your new word, you must enter
it's definition. The screen will provide you with
a three-line editing window in which to type.

Inside the editing window, type in your word's
definition. The editing window will perform such
tasks as automatic word wrap, insert/overtype, and
supports most features one would expect from an
editor. While you are entering the definition,
there are editing keys active that will make entry
of the definition much easier. On the next page is
a table that describes a list of editing tasks you
might want to perform, and which keys to use to
perform them.














page 49





Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor down 1 line . . . . . . . . Down Arrow
Move cursor up 1 line . . . . . . . . . . Up Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Delete line at cursor . . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-Y
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER

Step 5: Repeat 3 and 4 Until Finished
-------------------------------------
After you finish entry of your definition, you will
be returned to the word entry field, to begin
entering another word and definition.

You may repeat steps 3 and 4 until all the words
and definitions you want to enter into the database
are entered.

Step 6: Watch WORDS Sort the Database
-------------------------------------
If you are finished entering words and definitions,
and are ready to quit, then WORDS must sort the
database to put the words you just entered into
proper alphabetical order. WORDS will do this
automatically when you leave the Add Words
Facility.

To leave the Add Words facility, and cause WORDS to
sort the database, you can either

1) Hit the ENTER key by itself, without any
text in the word entry field, or

2) Hit the F10 key to return to the menu, or

3) Hit another function key to take you
elsewhere in WORDS.



page 50





The idea is that, if you leave the Add Words
Facility, and have added one or more words to the
database, WORDS will automatically sort the
database before leaving.

The database sort is the most time-consuming of all
WORDS tasks. When the sort begins, a small status
window will appear at the bottom of the screen, and
inform you of the status of the sort. For a
database of 100 words, on an 8 MHz XT Clone, using
a Seagate 225 21-megabyte hard disk (access time 65
ms), the sort takes about 35 seconds. Using the
same equipment, a sort on a 2500 word database took
about 9 and a half minutes. For this reason, I
recommend you limit your databases to about 1000
words. WORDS can easily handle as many as 32,000
words in a single database, but sort times would be
prohibitively slow.

When the sort is finished, you will exit from the
Add Words Facility and be taken to either DOS, the
menu, or some other place in WORDS, depending on
the key you hit to exit the Add Words Facility.

Step 7: Quit WORDS
------------------
As mentioned above, you can return to the menu
using the F10 key or the ESC key, and select the
Quit WORDS function.
























page 51





Database Use
-------------------------------------------------------------

Assuming you have just created a new database and
wish to use it with WORDS, how do you do it? This
section will endeavor to explain.

When WORDS is invoked in its simplest fashion,
using the command

WORDS

it assumes there will be a database out there
called WORDS. It will give you an error message if
it can't find it. What we need to do is tell WORDS
to use a database other than this default of WORDS.

To do this, we start words with a parameter after
the WORDS command that tells it what database to
use. There three ways to do this, depending on the
function you want WORDS to perform with the
database.

Method 1: Starting the WORDS Program
------------------------------------
To start WORDS with a different database so that
the menu comes up, and we have access to all of
WORDS' utility functions, use the following
command:

WORDS/D:filename

You would replace the filename with the actual name
of your alternate database. This will cause WORDS
to come up as if you had simply typed

WORDS

to start it, but it will use the new database
specified after the /D:. You may then perform any
of the normal WORDS operations on your alternate
database.

Method 2: Random Words with an Alternate Database
-------------------------------------------------
WORDS has the useful capability to select a random
word from our database and display it on the screen
so that you may quiz yourself on a regular basis.
To start WORDS with an alternate database, so that
it displays a random word from it, use the
following command:


page 52





WORDS/R:filename

You would replace the filename with the actual name
of the database you wanted WORDS to select words
from. This will cause WORDS to operate the same as
if you had started it with the command

WORDS/R

but will select words only from the alternate
database specified after the /R:.

Method 3: Continuous Random Words with an Alternate
Database
---------------------------------------------------
You can use WORDS to continuously show random
words. It works very much the same way that the
random word function listed above does, excpet that
instead of returning to DOS after one word, it
continues to show more random words.

To start WORDS in this mode using and alternate
database, user the /RC: parameter, like this:

WORDS/RC:filename

You would replace filename with the actual name of
your alternate database. Words will operate
exactly as if you had issued the

WORDS/RC

command, except it will be using your alternate
database.

To see the next random word, hit the SPACEBAR. To
quit WORDS and return to DOS, hit ESC.
















page 53





Packing the Definitions
-------------------------------------------------------------

What the heck is "Packing the Definitions?" And
why would I want to do it anyway?

Both valid questions. I shall endeavor to explain.
When you use the WORDS Delete Words Facility, you
would assume that both the word and definition are
deleted. Not so. At the time of word deletion,
WORDS only physically deletes the word, not the
definition. The reason is to save time. If the
definition is also deleted, not only do the
definitions also have to be physically deleted, but
all the word pointers have to be updated as well.
If that doesn't make sense, it isn't really
important. What is important is to understand that
if the definitions were deleted at the same time,
you might be there much longer waiting on WORDS.

You don't have to rush and pack the definitions
every time you delete a word, however. WORDS will
work just fine with a bunch of unused definitions
floating around in the database.

But if it works fine without removing the
definition, you might ask, why should you bother to
ever remove them? The answer would be to improve
database performance and save disk space. The fewer
definitions WORDS has to deal with, the faster it
will be in general. Since each definition uses up
160 bytes of disk space, 100 unused definitions are
wasting 16,000 bytes of space! That's why we pack
the definitions.

When you pack the definitions database, all unused
definitions are removed. The following steps
summarize the Packing procedure:

1) Start WORDS

2) Select the Pack Definitions function from
the menu

3) Begin the pack operation

4) Watch WORDS pack the definitions database

5) Quit WORDS




page 54





Step 1: Start WORDS
-------------------
To start WORDS, make sure the files WORDS.EXE,
WORDS.WRD, WORDS.DEF, and WORDS.DAT are all in the
same place, i.e, all on the same disk drive and in
the same subdirectory. Once this is accomplished,
type in the following command to start WORDS:

WORDS

Rough, huh? Words will load and greet you with a
friendly, easy to use menu.

Step 2: Select the Pack Definitions Function
--------------------------------------------
To select an item from the WORDS menu, you have two
options available to you.

The first is to use the selection bar. You'll
notice that the first entry on the menu is
highlighted. You can move this highlight up and
down to select the function of your choice. The
following table summarizes the movements of this
selection bar and how to perform them. To perform
the movement listed on the left, use the keys
listed on the right:

Bar Movement... ...Key(s)
-----------------------------------------
Down 1 Entry Down Arrow
Up 1 Entry Up Arrow
Top of List Home or PgUp
Bottom of List End or PgDn

Using these keys, you can move the selection bar so
that the Pack Definitions function is highlighted.
Once your choice is selected, hit the ENTER key to
execute the function.

The second selection method is to type the
highlighted letter associated with the menu entry.

If you look at the menu entries, you will see that
each function has a single letter highlighted
within it. To get "direct access" to that menu
function, simply hit the letter that is
highlighted.

To select the Pack Definitions function in this
manner, hit the K key, and the function will
execute immediately.


page 55





Step 3: Begin the Pack Operation
--------------------------------
Once the Pack Facility screen comes up, you will
have two choices available to you. The first is to
abort the pack operation, in case you got in by
accident. To abort the pack operation, hit the ESC
key and you will be returned to the menu.

The second option is to begin the pack operation.
To do this, hit the SPACEBAR, and things will start
happening.

Step 4: Watch WORDS Pack the Definitions Database
-------------------------------------------------
As the definitions are being packed, WORDS will
keep you informed as to how many definitions are
being retained, and how many are being removed.

When a definition is removed, you will see at the
bottom of the window a message stating that the
WORDS.WRD (or current database name) is being
updated. What's going on is the program is
changing all the pointers of the words, so they now
point to the right definitions. Doesn't take long,
though, so you might miss it.

Step 5: Quit WORDS
------------------
Once WORDS has finished packing your definitions,
it will return you to the menu. From there you may
use the selection bar to highlight the Quit WORDS
function and hit ENTER, or you can hit the Q key.
Either operation will take you out of WORDS.




















page 56





Reminder Help Screen
-------------------------------------------------------------

If you would like to start WORDS, but can't quite
remember the command you need to use, you can cause
WORDS to display a screen of helpful reminders on
just how to do it.

When you are at the DOS prompt, simply type the
following command:

WORDS/?

WORDS will display a brief screen of helpful
information and return to DOS. You may then read
the screen, discover how to start WORDS to suit
your needs, and then proceed.




































page 57





Changing the Colors WORDS Uses
-------------------------------------------------------------

NOTE: This section applies only to users who have
color displays.

When WORDS was designed, care was taken to choose
colors that would be easy to look at. Good
comments have come in regarding the chosen colors.

However, I realize that half the fun of using a
program can be customizing the colors to suit your
preferences. Not all people are alike.

To this end, WORDS has been packaged with a
separate utility that will allow you to change the
colors WORDS uses in its display screens. The
program is called COLORS.

The following steps summarize the procedure of
changing the colors WORDS uses:

1) Start the COLORS program

2) Change the colors to your preference

3) Save colors and quit the program

Step 1: Start the COLORS Program
--------------------------------
To start the COLORS program, the files COLORS.EXE
and WORDS.DAT must be located in the same place,
i.e., the same disk drive and subdirectory. To
start up the program, issue the following command:

COLORS

One of three things may happen at this point. If
you are running COLORS and you have only a
monochrome system, COLORS will abort and tell you
that you need a color system to run the program.

The second, and preferred result, will be the
COLORS program displaying to you its operating
screen. But if COLORS cannot find the file
WORDS.DAT, it will display a message and ask for a
response.

The message will tell you that it could not find
the WORDS color information file (WORDS.DAT). You
have the option of


page 58





1) Creating a new WORDS.DAT file (hit the
SPACEBAR to do this)

2) Quit the COLORS program (hit the ESC key)

Option 1, Create a new WORDS.DAT color information
file, will cause a new file to be created with the
default colors, and then the COLORS program to be
brought up. You may then manipulate the colors as
much as you like. Option 2, Quit the COLORS
program, will return you immediately to DOS.

Step 2: Change the Colors
-------------------------
Once the COLORS screen has come up, you may be a
bit overwhelmed by it. It contains a lot of
information on one screen. Lets go over the parts
of it quickly.

Note that if at any time you need help, you can hit
the F1 key. This will cause COLORS to show you
about 5 windows with help information that
describes the various parts of the screen.

In the upper-left hand corner of the screen you
will see a bit of text that says

Now changing the FOREGROUND of

This is the Foreground/Background indicator. The
word FOREGROUND indicates that you are changing the
color of the text or window frames themselves. If
the indicator says BACKGROUND, you will be changing
the color of the background the actual text or
window frames are displayed on.

To change from FOREGROUND to BACKGROUND and back
again, use the + key. The indicator in the upper
left of the screen will change to show which you
are currently changing.

In the middle of the left side of the screen is the
ITEM list. There is also a red pointer that points
to the current item you are changing. To change
the color of a particular item, the pointer must be
pointing to it.

To move the pointer to a different item, use the up
and down arrow keys. To move the pointer to the
first item in the list, use the Home key. To move
the pointer to the last item in the list, use the
End key.

page 59





At the bottom of the left side of the screen is the
color bar. You will also see a small white arrow
that points to one of the colors on the bar. The
color that the pointer points to is the color of
the current item, be it foreground or background.
To change the pointer to a different color, use the
left and right arrow keys.

The rest of the screen, with the exception of a
small reminder that Help can be obtained with the
F1 key, is devoted to models of the WORDS screens.
There are four small models that represent all the
elements of the screens WORDS uses. They show you
the colors that are current. As you change the
colors of items, these models are updated on the
display to show the new colors.

Now that you are probably overwhelmed, lets go
through an example. Suppose you wanted to change
the colors of the Entry Fields in WORDS. The
default is a bright white foreground and a black
background. You want them to be yellow on red. You
would follow these steps:

1) Make sure the FOREGROUND/BACKGROUND
indicator reads FOREGROUND. If it does
not, then hit the + key once.

2) Move the pointer on the ITEM LIST to the
item ENTRY FIELDS.

3) Move the pointer on the COLOR BAR to the
YELLOW color by using the left and right
arrow keys. This takes care of changing
the FOREGROUND.

4) Change the FOREGROUND/BACKGROUND indicator
so that it reads BACKGROUND. Do this by
hitting the + key.

5) Move the pointer on the COLOR BAR to the
RED color using the left and right arrow
keys. Note that if you are changing
BACKGROUND, only the top row of colors on
the COLOR BAR are available.

And that does it. You can repeat the process for
any of the items in the list. As you change colors
you can see the screen models updated with your new
colors. In this way, you can try many combinations
and see them before deciding.


page 60






Step 3: Save Colors and Quit the Program
----------------------------------------
When you have the colors just the way you want
them, you can save them by hitting the F2 key. This
will write all your changes to the WORDS.DAT file
and return you to DOS. When you next start WORDS,
it will be with your new rainbow of colors.

If you decide you would rather abandon what you
have done to the colors, and leave without changing
anything, you can hit the ESC key. You will be
returned to DOS, and the colors will be as they
were when you began.







































page 61





Using WORDS - A Reference
-------------------------------------------------------------


For those of you who are more advanced computer
users, or who have already mastered the basics of
WORDS, this reference section is provided. It is
intended to be a lookup section you can use to
remind you of how to do something.

This section will reference all capabilities of
WORDS, and some other information not necessarily
found in the Task-Oriented Approach section.








































page 62





WORDS Filename Conventions
-------------------------------------------------------------

WORDS makes some assumptions about several files it
uses.

All databases are stored in two parts. Part one
contains the actual words, plus an index pointer to
the proper definition. Part two contains the
actual definitions.

The file that contains the words must have a .WRD
extension. The file that contains the definitions
must have a .DEF extension.

Your own database may have any name you like as
long as these extensions are maintained. WORDS
handles this for you automatically, so do not
specify any extensions when naming a WORDS
database.

WORDS also assumes it will be able to find the file
WORDS.DAT on disk in the same subdirectory that
contains the WORDS program. WORDS.DAT contains
color information for the program.




























page 63





Starting WORDS
-------------------------------------------------------------

To start WORDS, issue the following command at the
DOS prompt:

WORDS

To do the same thing with your own database, issue
the following command:

WORDS/D:filename

where filename is the name of your own database,
without an extension.

To start WORDS so that it displays a random word
and definition on the screen for you, issue the
following command at the DOS prompt:

WORDS/R

To do the same thing with your own database, issue
the following command:

WORDS/R:filename

where filename is the name of your own database,
without an extension.

You can use WORDS to continuously show random
words. It works very much the same way that the
random word function listed above does, excpet that
instead of returning to DOS after one word, it
continues to show more random words.

To start WORDS in this mode using and alternate
database, user the /RC: parameter, like this:

WORDS/RC:filename

You would replace filename with the actual name of
your alternate database. Words will operate
exactly as if you had issued the

WORDS/RC

command, except it will be using your alternate
database.

To see the next random word, hit the SPACEBAR. To
quit WORDS and return to DOS, hit ESC.

page 64





The Menu
-------------------------------------------------------------

When WORDS is first brought up, a menu of choices
will face you. On the menu are the various
functions WORDS can perform.

There are two methods for selecting an item from
the menu. The first involves moving the selection
bar to the item you want, and then pressing ENTER.
In the second method, you press the highlighted key
associated with the menu entry. This will take you
directly into the function without having to use
the selection bar.

If you choose to use the selection bar, the
following bar movements may be accomplished with
the following keys:

Bar Movement... ...Key(s)
-----------------------------------------
Down 1 Entry Down Arrow
Up 1 Entry Up Arrow
Top of List Home or PgUp
Bottom of List End or PgDn




























page 65





Function Keys
-------------------------------------------------------------

While you are working in WORDS, you will see at the
bottom of every screen but the menu, a list of
function keys and a description of what each does.

At any time, with one or two exceptions in the name
of safety, you may press one of these keys to jump
immediately to the WORDS function associated with
it. Below is a list of the WORDS functions and the
function key associated with it.

Function... ...Associated Key
---------------------------------------------------
Add Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F1
Delete Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F2
Edit Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F3
Search Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F4
Definition Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F5
Create Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F6
Show Wordlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F7
Print Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F8
Pack Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F9
Return to Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F10

If you are in any given function, that function's
function key will not be operative. There is no
need to jump from a function into itself.
























page 66





Adding Words to the Database
-------------------------------------------------------------

To add words to the WORDS database, select the Add
Words function from the menu, or jump into it from
another function via the function keys.

Enter the word to add in the entry field on the Add
Words Facility screen. While entering the new
word, the following editing keys will prove useful:

Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Clear entry and restart . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-R
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER

If the word is in the database already, WORDS will
inform you of this and allow you to try again.
Otherwise, WORDS will then ask you to enter the new
word's definition. You will be provided with a
three-line editing window in which to type in the
definition. As you type, use the following editing
functions as necessary:

Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor down 1 line . . . . . . . . Down Arrow
Move cursor up 1 line . . . . . . . . . . Up Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Delete line at cursor . . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-Y
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER



page 67





After the definition has been saved, WORDS will
return to the word entry field. You may enter as
many words/definitions as you like in this manner.

To quit, you can perform one of the following
actions:

1) Hit the ENTER key by itself, without any
text in the word entry field, or

2) Hit the F10 key to return to the menu, or

3) Hit another function key to take you
elsewhere in WORDS.

If you have added any new words, WORDS will sort
the database of words before leaving the Add Words
Facility.

Since the sort is the most time consuming activity
WORDS performs, it is recommended that you:

1) Keep your databases to 1000 words or less
(even though WORDS will easily handle
databases up to 32,000 words) to keep
sort speeds reasonable

2) Save your words and add them in a large
batch. This will prevent having to sit
through the sort very often.

A sort of 100 words on an 8 MHz XT Clone, using a
Seagate 225 21-meg, 65 ms hard disk, took about 35
seconds. Using the same equipment, a 2500 word
database sort took 9 and a half minutes. Faster
hard disks will provide faster sorts.

















page 68





Deleting Words From the Database
-------------------------------------------------------------

To delete words to the WORDS database, select the
Delete Words function from the menu, or jump into
it from another function via the function keys.

You will see a small window with an entry field.
Type in the word you want to delete in this field.

If the word exists in the database it will be
deleted. Its corresponding definition will be
marked for deletion. Marked definitions can be
removed permanently by using the WORDS Pack
Function.

You may delete as many words as you like while in
the Delete Word Facility.



































page 69





Editing Definitions
-------------------------------------------------------------

To edit any definition in a WORDS database, select
the Edit Words function from the menu, or jump into
from another function via the function keys.

WORDS will ask you to enter the word whose
definition you will be editing. While entering the
word, the following editing functions are
available:

Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Clear entry and restart . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-R
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER

WORDS will check the database to see if the word
exists. If it does exist, the word's definition
will be displayed in a three-line editing window
for you to modify. As you edit the definition, the
following editing features are available:

Editing function... ...Key(s)
---------------------------------------------------
Move cursor left one space . . . . . . . Left Arrow
Move cursor right one space . . . . . Right Arrow
Move cursor down 1 line . . . . . . . . Down Arrow
Move cursor up 1 line . . . . . . . . . . Up Arrow
Move cursor left one word . . . . Ctrl-Left Arrow
Move cursor right one word . . . . Ctrl-Right Arrow
Move cursor to beginning of line . . . . . . . Home
Move cursor to end of line . . . . . . . . . . End
Toggle insert/overtype mode . . . . . . . . . INS
Delete character at cursor . . . . . . . . . . Del
Delete character to left of cursor . . . Backspace
Delete from cursor to end of line . . . . Ctrl-Q Y
Delete line at cursor . . . . . . . . . . . Ctrl-Y
Save/accept entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER




page 70





After the definition has been saved, WORDS will
return to the word entry field. You may edit as
many definitions as you like in this manner.


















































page 71





Searching the Database
-------------------------------------------------------------

There are two ways to search the database. You can
have WORDS hunt for a specific word, or search
throught the definitions for specific text.

Searching for Words
---------------------------------------------------
To search for a particular word and definition in a
WORDS database, select the Search Database function
from the menu, or jump into it from another WORDS
function via the function keys.

In the entry field of the Search Database Facility
screen, type in the word you wish to find. If the
word is in the database, the word and its
definition will be displayed. If it is not, you
will be informed via a small status box at the
bottom of the screen. You may clear the box by
hitting any key.

You may continue to search for words and
definitions in this manner for as long as you like.

-- NOTE -------------------------------------------
For those of you who are programmers (or perhaps
not), it may interest you to know that WORDS uses a
binary search to find words in the database. In a
database of 1000 words, WORDS needs at most 10
comparisons to find any given word. Not bad, when
compared to the linear search, which needs an
average of 500 comparisons to do the same thing.
---------------------------------------------------



















page 72





Searching the Definitions
---------------------------------------------------
To have WORDS search the definitions for text,
select the Definition Search function from the
WORDS menu. You may also jump into the Definition
Search function from another WORDS function via the
function keys.

In the entry field, type in any text you want to
find in the definitions. The text is limited to
about 53 characters. WORDS will then begin
searching the active definitions. If an occurrence
of your search text is found, WORDS will display
the word and definition in which it was located.
After hitting a key, you will have the option to
continue or abort the search. To continue the
search, hit Y. To abort, hit any key other than Y.

You may contine this process until you are finished
searching for text in the definitions. You may
return to the WORDS menu via the ESC key or the F10
key.































page 73





Creating a Test
-------------------------------------------------------------

To have WORDS create a test for you, select the
Create Test function from the menu, or jump into it
from another WORDS function via the function keys.

You must first select the type of test WORDS will
generate. You can have it supply the words and ask
for the definitions, or supply the definitions and
ask for the words. To select a test that shows
words, enter a W. To select a test that shows
definitions, enter a D.

Next tell WORDS how many questions to put on the
test. The maximum number of questions allowed will
be either the maximum number of words in the
database, or 999, whichever is lower. Enter the
number in the entry field.

Lastly, tell words the name of the file in which to
save the test. You are allowed 8 characters, and
the test file will automatically have an extension
of .TST. WORDS will simultaneously create a file
with all the answers to the test. It will have the
same name you gave the test file, but an extension
of .ANS.

WORDS will then select the questions and generate
the test on disk. You will automatically be
returned to the menu when WORDS completes this
task.





















page 74





Viewing the Wordlist
-------------------------------------------------------------

To view a column-organized list of all the words in
the current database, select the Show Wordlist
function from the menu, or jump into it using
function keys from another WORDS function.

Once the wordlist is displayed, you may page

through it. On the next page is a table describing
the actions you may perform, and the keys you use
to perform them.

To move like this... ...Use these keys
---------------------------------------------------
Up one screen of words . . . . . . . . . . . . PgUp
Down one screen of words . . . . . . . . . . . PgDn
Top of the list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Home
Bottom of the list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End

View any definitions of words on the current screen
full by moving the highlight to the word you want
to see. Once the word you want a definition for is
highlighted, hit the ENTER key, and the definition
will be displayed. Hit any key to return to the
word list screen. Note that moving the highlight
will cause it to wrap in all directions. It will
not move to a new screen full of words. Use the
PgUp and PgDn keys to do this.

When you are finished browsing the wordlist, you
can quit by jumping to another function, or hitting
the F10 key or the ESC key to return to the menu.




















page 75





Printing the Database
-------------------------------------------------------------

You can print your entire database, words and
definitions, by selecting the Print Database
function from the WORDS menu, or by jumping into it
directly from another function via function keys.

You will have two options when the Print Facility
screen comes up. You can abort the operation by
pressing ESC, or begin printing by hitting the
SPACEBAR.

The print operation will send all words and their
definitions to the printer attached to LPT1 on your
computer. You can abort the print job at any time
by pressing the ESC key.

Once the print operation has completed, you will be
returned to the WORDS menu.

































page 76





Packing the Definitions
-------------------------------------------------------------

When WORDS deletes a definition via the Delete
Words facility, it does not actually delete the
word's definition. It merely marks it for
deletion by changing the first character of the
definition to an ASCII 251 (the square root
symbol). The Pack Definitions Facility permanently
removes these marked definitions.

To pack the definitions database, select the Pack
Definitions function from the menu, or jump into it
from another WORDS function via the function keys.

When the Pack Definitions screen comes up, you can
hit the ESC key to abort the pack procedure, or hit
the SPACEBAR to begin.

When packing begins, you will see a status of the
packing process as it proceeds. The display
informs you of the number of definitions retained
and the number deleted. When a definition is
removed, you will see a message at the bottom of
the window stating that WORDS.WRD (or the current
WORDS database) is being updated. What's
happening here is all the definition pointers are
being adjusted so they point to the right
definitions. This is necessary, since when a
definition is deleted, the sequence (numerical
positioning) of the definitions changes.

Once the pack operation has finished, you will be
automatically returned to the menu.



















page 77





Appendices
-------------------------------------------------------------


Appendix A - A Short Note on BAD SOFTWARE
---------------------------------------------------

The BAD SOFTWARE Company is the name of a
ficticious company. It is not real and is simply a
bit of fun for me, Tony Martin.

It does stand for two things however; quality and
fun. The first premise of BAD SOFTWARE is to
produce quality software and documentation that is
functional and usable. Many software houses these
days still refuse to take the user into account
when designing systems and documentation for them.
I would like to think that I am not one of that
group.

The second premise of BAD SOFTWARE is that software
should be fun to use. I try my best to make all my
software fun and easy to use. If I wouldn't use
it, there's a good chance that others wouldn't
either.

I hope that I have achieved these goals in WORDS.
If you have any comments on the program that you
think would make it better, or any comments at all,
please feel free to drop me a line at the address
below.

If you would like information on the other products
of BAD SOFTWARE, send me a note requesting such to:

Tony Martin
1611 Harvest Green Ct.
Reston, VA 22094

I'll get our brochure off to you as soon as
possible.












page 78





Appendix B - Disclaimers and Notices
---------------------------------------------------

I generally dislike this portion of manuals, so I
place it here in the back, to fulfill my legal
obligations.

The first is to say that this software is provided
"AS IS" with no warranties of any kind, expressed
or implied. I cannot be held responsible for any
consequences arising from the ability or inability
to use this software. You may not charge any money
for it. If you need to talk to me about this,
write me a letter at the above listed address.

Lastly, I'd like to say thanks for trying a BAD
SOFTWARE product. We're out to make computing
productive and fun.



































page 79






Appendix C - Order Form
---------------------------------------------------

Registration for WORDS 1.1 is $15.00. If you
register, you will receive an official diskette
containing the latest version of WORDS, plus a free
database containing an additional 400 words, for a
total of 500 vocabulary words.

To order, fill out this form and mail it with
payment to:

Tony Martin
1611 Harvest Green Ct.
Reston, VA 22094

Make all checks payable to Tony Martin.


O R D E R F O R M
---------------------------------------------------

Product: WORDS 1.2

Quantity: ________ Registration

________ Evaluation copies


Cost: Registration $15.00 per copy
(includes postage)

Evaluation copy $5.00
(includes postage)

Total: $__________


Your Name: ________________________________________

Address: ________________________________________

________________________________________


As a shareware author whose hopes for a great free
enterprise are declining, I sincerely thank you for
your contribution.





page 80




  3 Responses to “Category : Science and Education
Archive   : WORDS12.ZIP
Filename : WORDS.DOC

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: http://www.os2museum.com/wp/mtswslnk/