Category : Science and Education
Archive   : TW20.ZIP

Output of file : INSTRUCT.ION contained in archive : TW20.ZIP


This document explains how to use TutorialWriter to write tutorials. It
covers most of TutorialWriter's features and uses a limited number of
Commands to demonstrate them. The Commands which are used are only briefly
explained. For a fuller explanation, refer to the Commands Tutorial listed
at the Main Menu.

Type TWRITER and select Quit on the first screen of the Demo to enter the
Integrated Development Environment. Follow the steps outlined below and when
you've finished you will have created a tutorial with Help, HyperText,
Textscreens, a Menu, a Quiz, a Test and more.

The Story Board

Let's suppose you want to distribute copies of TutorialWriter to experts in
various fields, so that they can write tutorials in their expertise areas.
(TutorialWriter's major objective is to permit experts to write their own
computer based tutorials without having to learn how to program a computer).
These experts may not know much about writing training programs. Knowing a
subject well does not always ensure the ability to teach it.

So one of the first requirements might be a tutorial on Instructional
Technology to provide experts with the skills to produce effective training

This fictitious tutorial will deal with three aspects of Instructional
Technology - Determining the Course Content, Instructional Design and
Display Standards.

The Tutorial Format.

The tutorial will be a Multiple Chapter tutorial. It will start with a Menu
Chapter, which will show the Company Logo and present a Menu. The Menu
will give access to four Subchapters. Chapter 1 will be an Introduction.
Chapter 2 will deal with Determining the Course Content. Chapter 3 will be
the Instructional Design chapter and Chapter 4 will explain Display

We'll start by choosing an overall PROJECT name for the tutorial. TWRITER
automatically assigns different extensions to different file types, so the
same name can be used for the Configuration, Help, Hypertext and Textscreen
files. Since there will be more than one Chapter file, append a number to
the project name. The Project name for this tutorial will be MYTUT so the
Chapters will be MYTUT0, MYTUT1, etc.

Configuring the Tutorial

When the tutorial is completed it will be displayed by TWTEACH. So the
first step is to produce a Configuration file to tell TWTEACH which colors
to use and what file to read first.

Select Configure Tutorial at the Main Menu. You will be asked for a file
name. Type MYTUT

TWRITER will automatically create a file called MYTUT.CNF.

The Configuration Entry Screen will now be on screen. The first two fields
set the Default Normal Colors for the tutorial and the next two set the
Default Highlight Colors. With the cursor on any one of these fields, press
F1 to see the color codes. Set the Default Normal Text Color to Yellow by
entering 14 in the first field. Set the Default Normal Background to Blue
by entering 1 in the second field.

Now set the Default Highlight Colors to White on Blue by entering 15 and 1
in the next two fields.

For the Name of the Starting File enter MYTUT0. TWTEACH will look for a
file called MYTUT0.CHP as the first file to read.

For the HELP, HYPERTEXT and SCREEN files, enter MYTUT. When these files are
created ( a little bit later ) they will be called MYTUT.HLP, MYTUT.HYP AND

Move the cursor off the field you have just entered or the entry will not
be recorded. Now press F10 or Mouse Right Button to save the information
to the file MYTUT.CNF.

Creating the Menu Chapter

Now it's time to create the Menu Chapter. Choose Create/Edit Chapter at

the Main Menu. You will be asked for a file name. Type MYTUT0. The Editor
will automatically append the extension .CHP. You will be asked to confirm
that this is a new file. Type Y and you will be in the Editor.

Press the F1 key. This brings up the Editor Help System which explains all
Editing and TutorialWriter Commands. Consult it if you need to check out a
Command format or an Editor function. Now press Esc to return to the
Editor screen.

In the Menu Chapter we will clear the screen (#EF), put on a title (#T)
and the title is HOW TO WRITE A TUTORIAL. Then we will put on a Logo Box
in Yellow on a Black background containing 5 lines of Text (#AL,5). The
five lines ( including blank lines ) immediately follow the Command. Then
we will hold the screen until a key is pressed (#WN).

Next we will call up a menu (#Mmytut) from the file MYTUT.MNU and finally
mark the end of the Chapter (#X). Type in the following lines (shown between
asterisks). Make sure you follow the exact format and that the # sign is in
the first column of a row.




Now we'll change the color of HOW TO WRITE A TUTORIAL in the Logo Box. Put
the cursor on the letter H and type ~W~I This means change the color to
Intense White. It should now look like this :


Press F10 to save the file MYTUT0.CHP. Before we can see what these lines
of code have achieved, we must create the Menu File MYTUT.MNU. So now
choose Create Menu at the Main Menu.

Again you will be asked for a file name. Type MYTUT. The Menu Utility will
automatically assign the extension .MNU.

You will now see the Menu Entry Screen. As you move around the fields,
press F1 for Help. This time we will keep the default settings but you can
change the look of the Menu by changing these values.

In the Screen Title field enter HOW TO WRITE A TUTORIAL
In Menu title field enter How to Write a Tutorial
In the menu subtitle field enter Main Menu

Now we need four Chapter names and their associated filenames. The Chapter
names will appear in the Menu. The associated filename is the file that
TWTEACH will read when that chapter is selected.

Enter these Chapters and Filenames:


Move the cursor off the last entry ( or it will not be recorded ) and press
F10 or the Mouse Right Button to save the information to the file MYTUT.MNU
Now we can see what has been created. Choose View Chapter at the Main
Menu. When you are asked for a file name, press the ENTER key. All the
CONFIGURATION files in the directory will be displayed. Choose MYTUT and
press the ENTER key.

When the tutorial runs it will present the Logo then the Menu you have
created. If you choose a pick from the menu other than QUIT, you will get
an error message because none of the Chapters has yet been created.

Creating Subchapter 1

Select Create/Edit Chapter at the Main Menu, enter the filename MYTUT1 and
confirm that it is a new file.

This is the INTRODUCTION Subchapter, and it will have PageBack enabled. So
start the Chapter with the % Marker to mark the start of the page. Then
clear the screen (#EF) and put the title INTRODUCTION in a title box
(#TINTRODUCTION ). Here's what you type :


Now position the cursor at Column 2 on Row 5 (#C2,R5) and type in the text.

This Tutorial will provide you, the Expert, with important information

on how to create Tutorials which conform to the high educational standards

set by MY COMPANY.
It will provide a detailed explanation of the recommended methods to be used

to :

Now set the cursor at Column 20 on Row 16, and make COURSE CONTENT a
HyperText button by using the symbol | before and after it. Do the same for
setting stays as previously defined, so only the Row Command (#R) is used.
Then hold the screen with #WH, which activates the HELP System as well as
automatically activating the HyperText.

determine the |COURSE CONTENT|

To make the text more interesting, let's highlight the words Tutorial,
Tutorials and MY COMPANY. Move the cursor to the first letter and type ~H
Now that the color has been set to Highlight, it will have to be reset or
everything will be highlighted. Type ~N at the end of the word to change
back to Normal. The word should look like this: ~HTutorial~N Do the same
with Tutorials and MY COMPANY.

Now change the color of the word Expert to Intense Red. Put the cursor on
the E and type ~R~I Then, of course, you have to reset it with ~N The
word will look like this: ~R~IExpert~N

The reason for adding the colors AFTER the text has been typed is to
position it correctly on screen. You will notice that after you insert the
Inline Commands, the text is pushed off the screen. When it is displayed
with TWTEACH, the Commands are removed and the text will be positioned on
screen as it was before the Commands were added.

Now for the next screen. Since we are using PageBack, mark the top of
the screen with % , then clear it and put on the title. The title
INTRODUCTION has already been declared, so there is no need to repeat it.
The Command #T will automatically use the last declared title.


We'll put a Remember Box on screen with centered text (#AR,1). We'll put in
three lines of text (#AR,1,3) and the text follows immediately below the
Command. The default colors used by the Remember Box are Intense White on
Black. The color of MY COMPANY has been changed to Yellow (~Y~I) then
reset to Intense White (~W~I). The same with STANDARD but this time the
Background has been set to Red (~r) so it must be reset to Black at the end

Finally, the screen is held with the Command #WH,P which activates the HELP
System and allows PageBack.

a good Tutorial
is a ~Y~I~rSTANDARD~W~I~z Tutorial.

This time when a key is pressed, we do not want the screen to clear.
Instead we want a Quick Question Box to appear over the screen. The Quick
Question Box has three lines for the question (#QQ,B,3). The three text
lines are placed immediately below the Command. The line below the third
text line contains the Answer you want to present to the student after the
question has been attempted. And the next line contains the matches. If
TWTEACH finds any of these in the student's response, the question will
have been answered correctly.

Hold the screen again with #WH,P and finally end the Chapter with #X.

When a Tutorial is written to the standards
desired by MY COMPANY, it meets the required
DISPLAY --------. What is the missing word?

Now press F10 to save the file to MYTUT1.CHP. Since we have created HyperText
Buttons and activated the HELP System, these will have to be defined before we
can view this chapter. So select Utility Programs at the Main Menu.

Then select Help System at the Utility Menu. Enter MYTUT as the file name.
TWRITER will add the extension .HLP. Now choose Add an Item from the HELP

The first field holds the word or phrase that will appear in the Help Menu
when the Help System is activated. In this field type

Using a Mouse

Move to the first field in the block and enter the text which will appear
when Using a Mouse is selected. The text will be automatically formatted
to fit in a box wide enough to accommodate the longest line of text. Type

To use a Mouse, please load the Mouse
Driver before running the Tutorial.

Move the cursor off the last line of entered text, and press F10 or the
Mouse Right Button. When asked if you want to add another, type Y
Now type

Using Hypertext

in the first field and this text in the block

HyperText Buttons show up on the screen in
Inverse Video (Black on Grey). To activate
them move the highlight (White on Red) to the
Button using the SPACE BAR, Mouse or Arrow keys.
Then press the ENTER key or Mouse Left Button.
Press Esc or Mouse Button to remove message.

Move the cursor off the last line of entered text, and press F10 or the
Mouse Right Button. When asked if you want to add another, type N. Select
View at the Menu to preview how the Help System will look to the student.
Select Return to exit the Help System Utility.

Select HyperText at the Utility Menu. Enter MYTUT as the filename.
TWRITER will add the extension .HYP. Now choose Add an Item from the HELP

This Utility is similar to the Help System Utility. Enter


as the Button Word. Note that this must be spelled identically to the word
in the text, including the case used. Now type

This is the educational material to be presented
in the Tutorial.

It is determined by establishing Learning Goals
then identifying the knowledge and information
which a learner must have to be able to achieve
these Goals.

Move off the last line entered and press F10 or Mouse Right Button. Answer
Y to Add Another and type the Button Word


then the text

These are the Learning Principles which lead to
effective assimilation of the material by the

Move off the last line entered and press F10 or Mouse Right Button. Answer
Y to Add Another and type the Button Word


then the text

These ensure that all Tutorials distributed
within MY COMPANY have similar interfaces
and style. The students become familiar with
the interface and do not have to relearn it
for different Tutorials.

Move off the last line entered and press F10 or Mouse Right Button. Answer
N to Add Another. Select View at the Menu to preview the HyperText as the
student will see it. Select Return to go back to the Utility Menu and then
Quit to return to Main Menu.

Now you have created a Chapter with a Help System, HyperText and Paging
Back. To try it out, select View Chapter at the Main Menu and choose MYTUT
as the Configuration File. When your menu is presented, select
INTRODUCTION. Be sure to try out all the features!!

Creating Subchapter 2

In this Chapter we will give some information then present a Quiz for the
student to answer.

PageBack will be enabled and the Help System, which is global to the
tutorial, will also be available. Begin in the usual way by selecting
Create/Edit Chapter. Enter MYTUT2 as the file name and confirm that it is
a new Chapter. Then mark the page, clear the screen and put the title on.


Now we'll put the Huge Robot on screen with centered text (#AH,1). There
will be six lines of text in the box so the full Command will be #AR,1,6
As always, the text is immediately below the Command. Then hold the screen
with #WH which activates the Help System.



Now the next screen. Same again, really, but with five lines of text. The
screen is held with #WH,P which enables PageBack.


The third screen will be a Quiz. It will be created by the Quiz Utility and
stored in a file called MYTUT1 (just in case there will be more, the 1 has
been added). The QuizTest Command #QT,Q,MYTUT1 says it is a Quiz (Q) and
that tells TWTEACH that the file name MYTUT1 will have a .QIZ extension.
#WH,P follows the Quiz Command to allow PageBack after the Quiz has been
taken. And, of course, the Chapter must end with #X.


Save the file and select Utility Programs at the Main Menu. Now select Quiz
at the Utility Menu and choose the Create option.

The Quiz Entry Screen will be presented. Press F1 on any entry field for an
explanation of what should be entered. Type


as the Quiz Title. Then type


as the file name and the file MYTUT1.QIZ will be created.

Text entered for the Quiz Question will be centered on screen according to
the longest text line. Type

Match the Questions and Answers.

Enter 4 as the Number of Questions and 3 as the Difficulty Level. Press F1
while on this field to see what Difficulty Level means. Now type in these
Questions and Answers:

What ensures standard Tutorials? Using the Display Specifications
How is Tutorial Content determined? By analyzing Learning Goals
What is the design starting point? Determining Learning Goals
What is the purpose of Tutorials? To transfer knowledge and skills

Move off the last entry line and press F10 to leave the Entry Screen. The
next screen shows the Default Comments which will appear after the Quiz is
taken. Press F10 to accept these.

Select View and choose MYTUT1 to see how the Quiz will appear to the student.
Then select Return to exit the Quiz Utility. Select Quit at the Utility Menu
to return to the Main Menu, and view this new Chapter by selecting View
Chapter. Choose MYTUT as the Configuration file and select DETERMINING THE
CONTENT from your Menu. Use PageBack after you have taken the Quiz and
take it again. The Answers will be in a different order!

Creating Subchapter 3

In this chapter we will create a Branching Test. In a Branching Test, when
the wrong answer is selected, the student is given remedial instruction and
returned to the question to try again.

We will also use some highlighting tricks to make the text more interesting
and introduce the pop-up window.

Start as usual by selecting Create/Edit Chapter, entering MYTUT3 as the
file name and confirming that it is a new Chapter. Then mark the page,
clear the screen and put the title on. Now position the Cursor and type in
the text.

MY COMPANY believes that learning can be enhanced by the proper use of

Instructional Design techniques.

Now use the Command #D1 to delay the printing for 1 second. Re-position the
cursor and type in the text, but precede it by ~K. This will make it print
with a clicking sound. Cancel it by typing ~k at the end of the line. Notice
that the #D1 Command cannot be used to space the lines. When TWTEACH reads a
Command, it does not increase the row number. So leave an empty line to create
the spacing. Then hold the screen with #WH, which activates the Help System.

~KEach Tutorial should consist of one or more Topics.~k

~KEach Topic should have a Chapter to itself.~k

~KThe Topic should be sub-divided into Sections within the Chapter.~k

~KEach Section should consist of Instructional Material followed by a Quiz or

Test of the material presented.~k

~KThe student should be actively involved in the learning process through the

use of Questions.~k

We'll drive the message home on the next screen by putting it into a
Pointer Box. First mark the page then clear the screen and put on the
Title ( you don't have to supply the title - TWTEACH will use the one from
the last screen ). Now call up the Pointer Box with centered text and three
lines of text with the Command #AP,1,3. The text lines, including a blank
line, follow immediately below the Command. Then hold the screen and enable
the Help System and PageBack with #WH,P.



Now we'll put a pop-up window on screen. This will appear on top of the
Pointer Box, so we will not clear the screen. Nor will we use a Page
Marker. Since the pop-up window is used in conjunction with the previous
screen, we do not want to PageBack to the pop-up window itself but to the
previous screen. And it has already been marked.

The Command looks horrendous. It is the most complicated Command in
TutorialWriter, but if you break it into pieces, it is really quite simple.

#BO, says This is an Overlay Box
50,4, says Start at Column 50 on Row 4
75,6, says End at Column 75 on Row 6
7, says Use a double border with a dropped shadow
1, says Center the Text ( 0 is leftjustify )
1, says Explode on Screen ( 0 is appear fully drawn )
1, says Read one line of Text
14, says Use yellow for Text color
4 says Use red for Background color

And, of course, the line of text follows immediately below the Command.

This Command and all the others are explained in detail in the Commands
Tutorial at the Main Menu.

Now hold the Screen and activate the Help System and PageBack with #WH,P


Next we want to create a Branching Multiple Choice Test. This involves a
number of Commands and Markers, but if we take it bit at a time, it will be

The first step is to set up the screen with the Question we are asking. We
start by marking the start of the Branching Test with @Q0. The @ marker
must be in the first column of a row. The 0 identifies which Branching Test
this is. There can be up to 10 Branching Tests in any Chapter, identified
with 0-9. Do not use a a Page Marker at the start of a Branching Test
otherwise when you finish the test and PageBack, you will return to the
test and be caught in a loop.

Clear the screen, put on the test title, position the Cursor and ask the

How should the student be kept actively involved in the learning process?

Now tell TWTEACH to set up a Branching Test Answer format (#QM,A) and that
this is Question 0 with 4 Answers (#QM,A,0,4). Each answer is one line long
and must follow immediately below the Command.

By using pop-up windows
By using fancy screen formatting
By sending progress reports to the supervisor
By asking relevant Questions

That takes care of the Question and the Answer display. Now we have to
prepare the screens which will be made active depending on the answer
selected. To mark an Answer screen, use the @ marker with the Answer
number. Here is the screen which will be displayed when Answer 1 is
selected. @1 marks the start, then the screen is cleared and the title of
the test is repeated. Position the Cursor and type the message.
This time use the #WH,N Command to hold the screen. This activates the Help
System and suppresses the QUIT option.

Finally, use the Loop Command #QM,L,0 to tell TWTEACH to return to the @Q0
marker and start again from that point.

Pop-up windows can make the learning material more interesting, but there

is a surer way of maintaining involvement. Try again.

Answers 2 and 3 are handled the same way. Of course, an Answer can be as
many screens long as you want. The screens will be presented one after the
other until the Loop Command is encountered (#QM,L, )

Fancy formatting can make the learning material more interesting, but there

is a surer way of maintaining involvement. Try again.
Do you really think that would work? Think about it then try again. One

more wrong answer and it will go in my progress report to your supervisor.

Now for the correct answer. It is similar to the others but the student is
given a little reward with #NE Command. This plays a few random notes of
'Encouraging Music'. And the final Command is different. #QM,C,0 tells
TWTEACH to continue the tutorial at the Marker @C0. The @ must be in the
first column of a row and the 0 says that this is the continuation point
for Branching Test @Q0. @Qn and @Cn must always be used as a pair ( like
parentheses ) or TWTEACH will not perform correctly.

The answers can be in any order. The correct answer does not have to be the
last answer. TWTEACH will ignore everything between the #QM,C,0 Command and
the marker @C0.

Yes, that's right!! You have obviously been paying attention.

Mark the continuation point then set up the final screen. The page marker
is used on this screen in order to activate the last one. Two page markers
have already been used, so TWTEACH has a count of 2. When PageBack is used,
TWTEACH subtracts one from its total and jumps to that point. If we use
PageBack here without marking this screen, TWTEACH will jump back to marker
1 which is the start of the Chapter.

We also have to redeclare the Chapter title because it was changed for the
test. Use #WH,P to hold the screen and to allow PageBack. And finally, end
the Chapter as always with #X.

This is the end of Chapter 3 - Instructional Design

Press F10 to exit the Editor, select View Chapter at the Main Menu and
choose MYTUT as the Configuration File. When your menu is presented,
select INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN and try the test!!

Creating Subchapter 4

In this final Chapter we will use the TWSNAP Utility to take a snap-shot of
a screen, then we'll put HypertText Buttons on that screen.

The first step is to take the snap-shot. We'll use the Logo screen from the
Menu Chapter of our tutorial as the screen to be snapped. Here's how to do
it. Choose Quit at the Main Menu to exit from the TWRITER program. Now
type TWSNAP at the DOS prompt and TWSNAP will load into memory.

Next, call up the tutorial by typing TWTEACH MYTUT. When the MYCOMPANY
logo is on screen, hold down the Alt key and press S ( Alt-S activates
TWSNAP ). TWSNAP will store the screen image in the current directory in a
file called TWSNAP.000. Move to the tutorial Menu and select QUIT to
return to DOS. Now type TWSNAP and the program will remove itself from

Type TWRITER and enter the Integrated Development Environment. Go to the
Utilities Menu and choose TextScreen. Enter MYTUT as the Screen file name.
(TWRITER will automatically add the extension .SCR). Choose Add a Screen,
press F1 to bring up the name of the snap-shot file ( TWSNAP.000 ) and press
ENTER to choose it.

Then give it the Identifier name MYLOGO. This is the name we will use in
the Chapter to call up that screen. Move off the Identifier Name field and
press F10 to save the file. Select View Screen to check it then return to
the Main Menu.

Choose Create/Edit Chapter and enter MYTUT4 as the file name. Mark the
page, clear the screen, put on the title and set the cursor. Then type in
the text.

Using standards in the creation of Tutorials is important. No matter what

Tutorial is being taken, the student should feel familiar with the format

and presentation style. There should be no need to learn how to deal with

a different interface each time a Tutorial is taken.
Each Tutorial should start with the Company Logo and the colors and style

should be constant.

Highlight the words Tutorials and Tutorial by moving to the initial T and
typing ~H. Remember to type ~N at the end of the word! ( ~HTutorial~N ).
Now mark the next page and call the saved screen with #GT,mylogo. Clear
the bottom line of the saved screen ( #EL,25) and write the HyperText
Buttons to the screen, positioning them with the Cursor Control Command.
Hold the screen with #WH,P which allows PageBack and Help in addition to
activating the HyperText Buttons. And finally, of course, end the Chapter
with #X.


Before we can test this Chapter, the HyperText information must be entered.
Select Utility Menu then HyperText. The HyperText file name is MYTUT. Add
the three Buttons to the file. Press F10 after each entry and re-choose
the Add option.


The Logo is presented on

a Black Background.


The Logo border should

be in Yellow.


The Tutorial title should

be in White. 'MY COMPANY'

and 'presents' are in Yellow.

Return to the Main Menu, select View Chapter and choose MYTUT as the
Configuration file name. Now you can test the full tutorial!!

Making the Distribution Diskette

The tutorial is now ready for distribution to your Experts. The
distribution diskette will need the following files :


To run the tutorial, the end user types TWTEACH MYTUT. If you prefer, you
can put this line in a batch file. Then the batch file can be given a more
meaningful name, like GO.BAT or CBT.BAT.

  3 Responses to “Category : Science and Education
Archive   : TW20.ZIP

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: