Dec 312017
NASA Press Kit for space shuttle mission STS-60 (launched 2/3/94). This mission features the Wake Shield Facility and the first Russian cosmonaut to be launched by the U.S.
File STS60PK.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Science and Education
NASA Press Kit for space shuttle mission STS-60 (launched 2/3/94). This mission features the Wake Shield Facility and the first Russian cosmonaut to be launched by the U.S.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
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STS60PK.TXT 143744 46562 deflated
STS60PK1.TXT 4480 1794 deflated

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Contents of the STS60PK.TXT file






For Information on the Space Shuttle

Ed Campion Policy/Management
Headquarters, Wash., D.C.

James Hartsfield Mission Operations
Johnson Space Center Houston

Bruce Buckingham Launch Processing
Kennedy Space Center, Fla, KSC Landing Information

June Malone External Tank/SRBs/SSMEs
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.

Nancy Lovato DFRC Landing Information
Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif.

For Information on NASA-Sponsored STS-60 Experiments

Charles Redmond Wake Shield Facility
Headquarters, Wash., D.C. Spacehab-2

Debra Rahn
Headquarters, Wash., D.C. NASA-Russian Cooperation

Mike Braukus Microgravity and Life Sciences
Headquarters, Wash., D.C. Experiments aboard STS-60

Terri Sindelar SAREX-II
Headquarters, Wash., D.C.

Tammy Jones Get Away Special (GAS) payloads
Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD


General Releas 4
Media Services Information 6
Quick-Look Facts 7
Shuttle Abort Modes 9
Summary Timeline 10
Payload and Vehicle Weights 12
Orbital Events Summary 13
Crew Responsibilities 15

Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 17
Spacehab-2(SPACEHAB-2) 32
Sample Return Experiment 64
Get Away Special (GAS) Payloads 64
Capillary Pump Loop (CAPL) Experiment 66
Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS)
Project 67
BREMAN Satellite (BREMSAT) 67

Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II) 68
Aurora Photography Experiment-B (APE-B) 70

Charles Bolden, Commander (CDR) 71
Ken Reightler, Pilot (PLT) 71
Franklin Chang-Diaz, Mission Specialist 72
Jan Davis, Mission Specialist 71
Ronald Sega, Mission Specialist 72
Sergei Krikalev, Mission Specialist 73


Release: 94-11

The first flight of the Space Shuttle in 1994, designated
as STS-60, will be highlighted by the participation of a
Russian astronaut serving as a crew member aboard Space Shuttle
Discovery. The mission also will see the deployment and
retrieval of a free-flying disk designed to generate new
semiconductor films for advanced electronics and the second
flight of a commercially developed research facility.

Leading the six-person STS-60 crew will be Mission
Commander Charlie Bolden who will be making his third space
flight. Pilot for the mission is Ken Reightler, making his
second flight. The mission specialists for STS-60 are Jan
Davis, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) making her second flight, Ron
Sega, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) making his first flight,
Franklin Chang-Diaz, the Payload Commander and Mission
Specialist 3 (MS3) making his fourth flight and Sergei
Krikalev, Mission Specialist 4 (MS4) who is a veteran of two
flights in space, both long-duration stays aboard the Russian
MIR space station.

Launch of Discovery on the STS-60 mission is currently
scheduled for no earlier than February 3, 1994 at 7:10 a.m.
EST. The planned mission duration is 8 days, 5 hours and 32
minutes. An on-time launch on February 3 would produce a
landing at 12:42 p.m. EST on February 11 at Kennedy Space
Center's Shuttle Landing Facility.

A new era of human space flight cooperative efforts
between the United States and Russia will begin with the flight
of Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev as a member of the STS-60
crew. His flight aboard the Shuttle is the beginning of a
three-phased program. Phase one will entail up to 10 Space
Shuttle-Mir missions including rendezvous, docking and crew
transfers between 1995 and 1997. Phase two is the joint
development of the core international space station program.
Phase three is the expansion of the space station to include
all of the international partners.

The STS-60 mission will see the first flight of the Wake
Shield Facility (WSF), a 12-foot diameter, stainless steel disk
which will be deployed and retrieved using the Shuttle
mechanical arm. While it flies free of the Space Shuttle, WSF
will generate an "ultra-vacuum" environment in space within
which to grow thin semiconductor films for next-generation
advanced electronics. The commercial applications for these
new semiconductors include digital cellular telephones, high-
speed transistors and processors, fiber optics, opto-
electronics and high-definition television.

The commercially developed SPACEHAB facility will make its
second flight aboard the Space Shuttle during the STS-60
mission. Located in the forward end of the Shuttle cargo bay,
it is accessed from the orbiter middeck through a tunnel and
provides an 1100 cubic feet of working and storage space.
Experiments being carried in SPACEHAB-2 involve materials
processing, biotechnology and hardware and technology
development payloads.

NASA's program affords the average person a chance to
perform small experiments in space through the agency's Get
Away Special (GAS) program. This flight will mark a major
milestone because Discovery will fly the 100th GAS payload
since the program's inception in 1982. GAS experiments on STS-
60 will attempt to create a new kind of ball bearing, measure
the vibration level during normal orbiter and crew operations
and understand the boiling process in microgravity.

Two GAS payloads will involve deploying objects from the
cargo bay. The Orbital Debris Calibration Spheres (ODERACS)
payload will deploy six spheres which will be observed, tracked
and recorded by ground-based radars and optical telescopes.
The German-built BREMAN Satellite (BREMSAT) payload will
conduct scientific activities at various mission phases before
and after satellite deployment.

STS-60 crew members will take on the role of teacher as
they educate students in the United States and Russia about
their mission objectives and what it is like to live and work
in space by using the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II
(SAREX-II). Astronauts Bolden, Sega and Krikalev will operate
SAREX. Operating times for school contacts are planned into
the crew's activities.

STS-60 will be the 18th flight of Space Shuttle Discovery
and the 60th flight of the Space Shuttle system.

- end -


NASA Select Television Transmission

NASA Select television is now available through a new
satellite system. NASA programming can now be accessed on
Spacenet-2, Transponder 5, located at 69 degrees west
longitude; frequency 3880.0 MHz, audio 6.8 MHz.

The schedule for television transmissions from the orbiter
and for mission briefings will be available during the mission
at Kennedy Space Center, Fla; Marshall Space Flight Center,
Huntsville, Ala.; Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards,
Calif.; Johnson Space Center, Houston and NASA Headquarters,
Washington, D.C. The television schedule will be updated to
reflect changes dictated by mission operations.

Television schedules also may be obtained by calling
COMSTOR 713/483-5817. COMSTOR is a computer data base service
requiring the use of a telephone modem. A voice update of the
television schedule is updated daily at noon Eastern time.

Status Reports

Status reports on countdown and mission progress, on-orbit
activities and landing operations will be produced by the
appropriate NASA newscenter.


A mission press briefing schedule will be issued prior to
launch. During the mission, status briefings by a Flight
Director or Mission Operations representative and when
appropriate, representatives from the payload team, will occur
at least once per day. The updated NASA Select television
schedule will indicate when mission briefings are planned.

STS-60 Quick Look

Launch Date/Site: Feb. 3, 1994/Kennedy Space Center - Pad 39A

Launch Time: 7:10 a.m. EST

Orbiter: Discovery (OV-103) - 18th Flight

Orbit/Inclination: 190 nautical miles/57 degrees

Mission Duration: 8 days, 5 hours, 32 minutes

Landing TIme/Date: 12:42 p.m. EST Feb. 11, 1994

Primary Landing Site: Kennedy Space Center, Fla.

Abort Landing Sites: Return to Launch Site - KSC, Fla.
TransAtlantic Abort landing - Zaragoza,
Ben Guerir, Morocco
Moron, Spain
Abort Once Around - Edwards AFB,

Crew: Charlie Bolden, Commander (CDR)
Ken Reightler, Pilot (PLT)
Jan Davis, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1)
Ron Sega, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2)
Franklin Chang-Diaz, Payload Commander
Sergei Krikalev (RSA), Mission
Specialist 4 (MS4)

Cargo Bay Payloads:

WSF-1 (Wake Shield Facility-1)
Spacehab-2 (Space Habitation Module-2)
CAPL/GAS Bridge experiments (Capillary Pumped Loop
Special canisters)

Spacehab Experiments:

3-DMA (Three-Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer)
ASC-3 (Astroculture Experiment)
BPL (Bioserve Pilot Lab)
CGBA (Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus)
CPCG (Commercial Protein Crystal Growth)
ECLiPSE-Hab (Equipment for Controlled Liquid Phase Sintering)
IMMUNE-01 (Immune Response Studies)
ORSEP (Organic Separations Experiment)
SEF (Space Experiment Facility)
PSB (Penn State Biomodule)
SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System)
SOR/F (Spacehab Orbiter Refrigerator/Freezer)

Get Away Special (GAS) Experiments:

ODERACS (Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres)
BREMSAT (University of Bremen Satellite)
G-071 (Ball Bearing Experiment)
G-514(Orbiter Stability Experiment and Medicines in
G-536 (Heat Flux)
G-557 (Capillary Pumped Loop Experiment)

In-Cabin Payloads:

SAREX-II (Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II)
APE-B (Auroral Photography Experiment)

Joint U.S.-Russian Investigations:

DSO 200: Radiological Effects
DSO 201: Sensory Motor Investigation
DSO 202: Metabolic
DSO 204: Visual Observations From Space

Other DTOs/DSOs:

DTO 623: Cabin Air Monitoring
DTO 656: PGSC Single Event Upset Monitoring
DTO 664: Cabin Temperature Survey
DTO 670: Passive Cycle Isolation System
DTO 700-2: Laser Range and Range Rate Device
DSO 700-7: Payload Bay Rendezvous Laser Data
DSO 325: Dried Blood Method for Inflight Storage
DSO 326: Orbiter Window Inspection
DSO 901: Documentary Television
DSO 902: Documentary Motion Picture
DSO 903: Documentary Still Photography


Space Shuttle launch abort philosophy aims toward safe and
intact recovery of the flight crew, Orbiter and its payload.
Abort modes include:

* Abort-To-Orbit (ATO) -- Partial loss of main engine
thrust late enough to permit reaching a minimal 105-nautical
mile orbit with orbital maneuvering system engines.

* Abort-Once-Around (AOA) -- Earlier main engine shutdown
with the capability to allow one orbit around before landing at
Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.

* TransAtlantic Abort Landing (TAL) -- Loss of one or
more main engines midway through powered flight would force a
landing at either Zaragoza, Spain; Ben Guerir, Morocco; or
Moron, Spain.

* Return-To-Launch-Site (RTLS) -- Early shutdown of one
or more engines, and without enough energy to reach Zaragoza,
would result in a pitch around and thrust back toward KSC until
within gliding distance of the Shuttle Landing Facility.

STS-60 contingency landing sites are the Kennedy Space
Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Zaragoza, Ben Guerir, or Moron.

STS-60 Summary Timeline

Flight Day One

OMS-2 burn (190 n.m. x 190 n.m.)
Spacehab activation
Joint Science Operations
CAPL activation
Group B powerdown
CPCG setup
Spacehab operations

Flight Day Two

Metabolic investigations
Remote Manipulator System checkout
Spacehab vestibular operations
SAREX setup

Flight Day Three

Wake Shield Facility grapple
Wake Shield Facility unberth
Group B powerup
Wake Shield Facility release (191 n.m. x 189 n.m.)
NC-1 burn (190 n.m. x 189 n.m.)
Group B powerdown
Spacehab operations

Flight Day Four

SAREX operations
Spacehab vestibular operations

Flight Day Five

Group B powerup
NC-4 burn (195 n.m. x 191 n.m.)
TI burn (191 n.m. x 188 n.m.)
Wake Shield Facility Plume Impingement Test
Wake Shield Facility grapple (191 n.m. x 189 n.m.)
Group B powerdown

Flight Day Six

Spacehab vestibular operations
Wake Shield Facility operations
Wake Shield Facility berth
Spacehab vestibular operations
Orbit Adjust burn (If required: 191 n.m. x 183 n.m.)

Flight Day Seven

SAREX operations
Spacehab vestibular operations
Group B powerup
ODERACS deploy
BREMSAT deploy
Crew press conference
Spacehab vestibular operations
Group B powerdown

Flight Day Eight

Reaction Control System hot fire
Flight Control Systems checkout
Spacehab vestibular operations
Spacehab stow
Cabin stow

Flight Day Nine

Group B powerup
Spacehab final deactivation
Deorbit preparation
Deorbit burn

STS-60 Vehicle and Payload Weights

Vehicle/Payload Pounds

Orbiter (Discovery) empty and 3 SSMEs 173,117

Wake Shield Facility (deployable) 3,710

Wake Shield Facility (cargo bay support equipment) 3,770

Capillary Pumped Loop Exp./Gas Bridge Assembly 5,136

Spacehab-2 9,452


DSOs/DTOs 437

Total Vehicle at SRB Ignition 4,507,961

Orbiter Landing Weight 214,832

STS-60 Orbital Events Summary

(dd/hh:mm:ss) (feet per second) (n.m.)

OMS-2 00/00:45:00 267 fps 191 x 189

WSF release 02/03:50:00 n/a 191 x 189

WSF thrust 02/03:51:00 1.5 fps 190 x 189
(WSF's thrusters fire to provide separation from
Discovery's vicinity)

NC-1 02/08:27:00 0.6 fps 190 x 189
(fired when Discovery is about 10 n.m. behind WSF, begins
slow drift over next 12 orbits to a point about 40 n.m.
behind WSF)

NC-2 03/01:14:00 TBD 190 x 189
(if required, maintains Discovery at about 40 n.m.
behind WSF)

NPC 03/07:00:00 TBD 190 x 189
(if required, aligns Discovery's groundtrack with
WSF's groundtrack)

NC-3 03/08:00:00 TBD 190 x 189
(if required, maintains Discovery at about 40 n.m.
behind WSF)

NC-4 03/23:06:00 9 fps 195 x 189
(fired at 40 n.m. behind WSF, begins closing in on WSF,
initiates closing rate of about 16 n.m. per orbit to
arrive at a point 8 n.m. behind WSF after two orbits)

NH-1 03/23:52:00 TBD 190 x 189
(if required, adjusts Discovery's altitude as it closes
on WSF)

NCC 04/01:12:00 TBD 195 x 191
(first burn calculated by onboard computers using onboard
navigation derived from orbiter star tracker sightings of
WSF; fine-tunes course while orbiter is closing in on a
point 8 n.m. behind WSF)

TI 04/02:09:00 12 fps 191 x 188
(fired upon arrival at a point 8 n.m. behind WSF; begins
terminal interception of WSF)

(mid-course corrections, if required; calculated by onboard
computers, double-checked by ground; designed to fine-tune
final course toward WSF, may or may not be required)

MANUAL 04/03:20:00 TBD TBD
(Begins about 4 hours, 40 minutes prior to WSF grapple,
less than 1 nautical mile from WSF, passing below it.
Commander takes manual control of orbiter flight, fires
braking maneuvers to align and slow final approach to
WSF and begins an almost four-hour long series of proximity
operations designed to study the characteristics of
Discovery's thruster exhaust during rendezvous)

PLUME MNVRS 04/03:43:00 n/a n/a
(Commander fires a series of thrusters at differing angles
to WSF while flying in front of and behind WSF at ranges of
400, 300 and 200 feet The thruster firings will gather
information on how to avoid contaminating rendezvous
targets with thruster exhaust during close operations.)

GRAPPLE 04/08:00:00 TBD 191 x 189
(WSF is captured using Discovery's mechanical arm)

OA 05/07:45:00 TBD TBD
(If required, burn to adjust Discovery's orbit for landing
opportunities and deploy of ODERACS and BREMSAT)

ODERACS 06/02:45:00 n/a 191 x 189
(ODERACS spheres are deployed)

BREMSAT 06/07:39:00 n/a 191 x189
(University of Bremen satellite is deployed)

DEORBIT 08/04:28:00 335 fps n/a

LANDING 08/05:32:00 n/a n/a

NOTE: All planned burns are recalculated in real time once the
flight is under way and will likely change slightly. Depending
on the accuracy of the orbiter's navigation and course at
certain times, some smaller burns listed above may not be
required. However, the times for major burns and events are
unlikely to change by more than a few minutes.



Wake Shield Facility Sega Krikalev, Chang-Diaz
Remote Manipulator Sys. Davis Krikalev, Sega,
ODERACS Bolden Reightler
BREMSAT Bolden Chang-Diaz

Get-Away Special (GAS) Bridge experiments:

CAPL/GBA Krikalev Sega
GAS 514 Davis Chang-Diaz
GAS 071 Davis Chang-Diaz
GAS 536 Davis Chang-Diaz
GAS 557 Davis Chang-Diaz

Spacehab experiments:

Spacehab systems Chang-Diaz Davis, Sega, Krikalev
SAMS Krikalev Sega
3-DMA Krikalev Chang-Diaz
ORSEP Bolden Davis
CPCG Davis Chang-Diaz
BPL Krikalev Chang-Diaz
CGBA Davis Reightler
SEF Chang-Diaz Davis
ECLIPSE Reightler Sega
IMMUNE Krikalev Reightler
ASC-3 Chang-Diaz Krikalev
PSB Davis Bolden

Middeck experiments:

SAREX-II Krikalev Bolden
APE-B Chang-Diaz Krikalev

Joint U.S.-Russian medical investigations:

DSO 200 (radiological) Krikalev Chang-Diaz
DSO 201 (sensory) Sega Davis, Krikalev,
DSO 202 (metabolic) Chang-Diaz Bolden, Reightler
DSO 204 (visual obs) Krikalev Chang-Diaz

Detailed Test Objectives (DTOs):

DTO 623 (cabin air) Sega Bolden
DTO 656 (PGSC upset) Sega Reightler
DTO 664 (cabin temp) Sega Davis
DTO 670 (passive cycle) Sega Reightler
DTO 700-2 (laser range) Reightler Sega, Chang-Diaz
DTO 700-7 (plb laser) Reightler Sega, Chang-Diaz

Other Responsibilities:

Photography/TV Chang-Diaz Davis
Earth observations Chang-Diaz Krikalev
In-flight maintenance Krikalev Bolden
Medic Bolden Davis
EVA (not planned) Chang-Diaz (EV1), Davis (EV2),
Reightler (EV3)

Wake Shield Facility (WSF)

The Wake Shield Facility (WSF) is a 12-foot diameter,
stainless steel disk designed to generate an "ultra-vacuum"
environment in space within which to grow thin semiconductor
films for next-generation advanced electronics. This mission
represents the first time, internationally, in which the vacuum
of space will be used to process thin film materials. The STS-
60 astronaut crew will deploy and retrieve the WSF during the
9-day mission. The NASA Office of Advanced Concepts and
Technology (OACT) is the sponsor of the WSF-1 flight on this
mission of Space Shuttle Discovery.

The WSF is designed, built and managed by the Space Vacuum
Epitaxy Center (SVEC) -- a NASA Center for the Commercial
Development of Space (CCDS) based at the University of Houston,
Houston, Texas -- with its principal industry partner, Space
Industries, Inc. (SII), League City, Texas. Six additional
corporate partners support the WSF program, including:
American X-tal Technology, Dublin, Calif.; AT&T Bell Labs,
Murray Hill, N.J.; Instruments, S.A., Inc., Edison, N.J.;
Ionwerks, Houston, Texas; Quantum Controls, Houston, Texas; and
Schmidt Instruments, Inc., Houston, Texas. In addition, the
University of Toronto, NASA Johnson Space Center, the U.S. Air
Force Phillips Laboratories and the U.S. Army Construction
Engineering Research Laboratory are members of the SVEC

The principle objectives of the WSF-1 mission include:

o The characterization of the "ultra-vacuum" environment
generated by the WSF in low Earth orbit (LEO) space, and the
flow field around the WSF, and

o Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) - growth of a thin film of
the compound Gallium Arsenide (GaAs).

These objectives may have a significant impact on the
microelectronics industry because the use of improved GaAs thin
film material in electronic components holds a very promising
economic advantage. The commercial applications for high
quality GaAs devices are most critical in the consumer
technology areas of digital cellular telephones, high-speed
transistors and processors, high-definition television (HDTV),
fiber optic communications and opto-electronics.

The majority of electronic components used today are made
of the semiconductor silicon, but there are many other
semiconductors of higher predicted performance
than silicon. A current example of this prediction is the
material Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). Devices made from GaAs could
be about 8 times faster than silicon devices and take 1/10 the
power. However, GaAs of high enough quality to reach this
predicted performance level does not exist. If high quality
GaAs could be produced, the devices made from it would
represent nothing less than a technological revolution.

If improved GaAs material were available, it could
significantly impact the global semiconductor market. The 1990
worldwide semiconductor consumption was $56.8 billion. Of this
amount, about 40% went for computers, 18% for
telecommunications and 15% for military applications. The
projected market for 1994 is $109 billion. Within this giant
market, GaAs currently holds only a 0.5% niche. It is
predicted that the niche for GaAs should grow to 2% (or about
$2.2 billion) by 1995, which could significantly increase with
the availability of improved GaAs material.

A method to generate such advanced material is by thin
film growth of the material in a vacuum environment. This
technique, known as epitaxy, is limited by the vacuum
conditions in vacuum chambers on Earth. To improve the
material, the vacuum environment where it is grown must be

Low-Earth orbit (LEO) space can be used to grow GaAs (and
other materials) epitaxially, by creating a unique vacuum
environment or "wake" behind an object moving in orbit. There
is a moderate vacuum in LEO space with very few atoms present.
A vehicle in orbit, such as the WSF, pushes even those few
atoms out of the way, leaving fewer atoms, if any, in its wake.
This unique "ultra-vacuum" produced in space by the WSF will be
1,000-10,000 times better than the best vacuum environments in
laboratory vacuum chambers. Using this unique "ultra-vacuum"
property of space, the WSF holds the promise of spawning
orbiting factories to produce the next generation of
semiconductor materials and the devices they will make

Program Overview

The space "ultra-vacuum" concept was first described
within NASA more than twenty years ago, but there was no need
identified at that time for the use of an "ultra-vacuum."
Recent interest by scientists and corporate researchers in
epitaxial thin-film growth has motivated the use of space to
create the "ultra-vacuum" in which to grow better thin films.

Recognizing this scientific opportunity as a new economic
opportunity, in 1987 SVEC formed a consortium of interested
industries, academic institutions and government laboratories
to utilize the LEO vacuum environment in thin film growth. In
1989, SVEC partnered with its industry members led by Space
Industries, Inc., and with NASA Johnson Space Center to build
the WSF using a timely and cost-effective manner required of a
commercially-oriented endeavor.

Prior to 1989, preliminary studies indicated that the WSF
would be a disk or shield about 12-14 feet in diameter, and
would be deployed from the Shuttle payload bay on the Shuttle
"arm." The WSF hardware development program was soon projected
to be complex, time intensive and quite costly, and it was
mutually decided by NASA and SVEC that a more cost-effective
and timely approach must be identified. The result was the
effort by SVEC, Space Industries, Inc., and the rest of the
SVEC industrial partners to create a non-traditional,
commercial approach to space hardware development, and hence
space infrastructure development. Through this mode of
operation, the WSF will fly in nearly 1/2 the time required
under a traditional approach, and at less than 1/6 the cost for
a traditional aerospace hardware development program.

The primary objectives for the WSF-1 mission (listed
above) remain as outlined by SVEC in March 1989. It should be
noted that both of these primary objectives will be major
"firsts" in space science and technology. The generation and
characterization of the "ultra-vacuum" in LEO and its
utilization for thin-film growth have never been attempted
before, and as a result, represent additional risk for the
SVEC-developed space thin film science and technology. These
objectives, however, form the foundation of the SVEC principle
of taking a basic science concept, identifying an application
of it, developing a technology from the application, and
identifying and producing a product from that technology.

A major contributor to the success of the WSF program will
be Discovery's crew, especially Dr. Ronald Sega. Dr. Sega is a
Co-Principal Investigator on the WSF program, with Dr. Alex
Ignatiev, SVEC Director. The close SVEC interaction with the
crew, pre-flight, has proven extremely beneficial for
optimizing the complex WSF operation of unberthing, cleaning,
deployment, rendezvous and capture. The crew also has
contributed to the tuning of the WSF's science and technology
operations for maximized data return from this first mission of
the WSF and will play a major role in assuring its success.

Hardware Description

The WSF consists of the Shuttle Cross Bay Carrier (SCBC)
and the Free Flyer. The SCBC remains in the Shuttle and has a
latch system which holds the Free Flyer to the Carrier. The
Shuttle "arm" or Remote Manipulator System (RMS) is attached to
the Free Flyer for deployment and free flight in space. The
SCBC has an extended-range, stand-alone RF communications
system that lets the WSF seem like an attached payload to the
Shuttle's systems, even when the Free Flyer is following behind
the Shuttle at its stationkeeping distance of 40 nautical

The Free Flyer is a fully-equipped spacecraft on its own,
with cold gas propulsion for separation from the Shuttle and a
momentum bias attitude control system (ACS). Forty-five
kilowatt-hours of energy, stored in silver-zinc batteries, are
available to power the thin film growth cells, substrate
heaters, process controllers, and a sophisticated array of
characterization devices. Weighing approximately 9,000 lbs.
(the Free Flyer alone is 4,000 lbs.), the WSF occupies one
quarter of the Shuttle payload bay. Controlling electronics,
attitude control system, batteries and solar panels, and MBE
process control equipment are on the back (wake side) of the
WSF, while the avionics and support equipment are located on
the front (ram side).

The commercial approach used to create the WSF has
facilitated the development of several critical pieces of
supporting hardware which have proven to be extremely useful
and valuable in their own right. The development of an
inexpensive carrier (the SCBC), a versatile ground link, and an
innovative communications link between the Shuttle and the WSF
have each been valuable spin-offs from the WSF program.

WSF Physical Characteristics

Free-Flyer Vacuum welded 304L SS structure, UHV
finish on wake side, 12 ft.
dia. x 6 ft.

Carrier 7075-T73 aluminum alloy, dual
trunnion, doubly redundant stand
alone latch system

Weight 8,000 lbs. total, 3,800 lbs
. deployable

Power Ag-Zn batteries, 45 Kwatt-hr. @ 28 Vdc

Attitude Control System Momentum bias (10 ft.-lb.-sec.),
horizon scanner, 2-axis
magnetometer, 3-axis magnetic torquer

WSF Characterization Equipment

Total Pressure Gauges (TPG) 2 10-5torr-10-8torr;3 10-7torr-10-

Mass Spectrometers (TOF-MS) 2 1-150 amu, 2 10-14torr time-of-
flight, programmable data integration time

Retarding Potential Analyzers 3 ram flux plasma diagnostics, 2
wake side Langmuir probe

3-axis Accelerometers 3 1g-10-6g

Wake side video camera Compressed video interleaved
with telemetry stream

The WSF as a Versatile Space Platform

As a free-flying platform, the WSF's wake side -- the
ultra-clean side -- is used exclusively for ultra-pure thin
film growth. The ram side -- the relatively dirty side -- of
the 12 ft.-diameter WSF, however, can be used to accommodate
other experiments and space technology applications. The ram
side has a significant area of high quality "real estate" in
the form of the outer shield -- more than 65 sq. ft. -- which
can be applied to the support of other space payloads. The ram
side contains four payload attach points, each capable of
accommodating 200 pounds of experiment hardware.

In addition, since the WSF is mounted horizontally in the
Shuttle payload bay, it was obvious early-on that the open
volume of the Shuttle payload bay below the WSF could be used
effectively by mounting additional payload canisters on the
SCBC. The SCBC has power and data capabilities which were
extended to the payload canisters, thus prompting their name --
"Smart Cans." The "Smart Cans," based on the NASA Goddard
Space Flight Center Get Away Special Canisters (GAS cans), also
provide the opportunity for other payloads to fly with the WSF
(however, staying inside the Shuttle payload bay during the

What is Epitaxial Thin Film Growth?

Epitaxial thin film growth is an approach to reducing the
defects in semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, through the
growth of new material on a substrate in a vacuum. In
epitaxial growth, atomic or molecular beams of a material, such
as arsenic (As) and gallium (Ga), formed in a vacuum are
exposed to a prepared surface -- or substrate. The substrate
is an atomic template, or pattern, upon which the atoms form
thin films. The atoms grow in layers which follow the crystal
structure pattern of the substrate. A thin film of new
materials then grows on top of the substrate in an atom-by-atom
layer, atomic layer-by-atomic layer manner to form a "wafer"
with an ultra-high purity top region. This growth technique is
defined as Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), and has been used as a
laboratory technique for studies in new thin film electronic
materials for the past 20 years. It has been shown during this
time that the vacuum environment within which the materials are
grown is critical to the quality of the thin film grown.

The WSF has the capability of growing epitaxial thin films
on seven different substrate wafers. GaAs will be the
materials system grown on the WSF-1 flight, with each specific
wafer growth tuned for unique thin film parameters. There will
be at least one "thick" GaAs film grown (~9 micrometers) for
the characterization of ultimate defect densities. In
addition, there will be several films grown to exhibit high
electron mobility in GaAs and films grown to support the Earth-
based fabrication of field effect transistors. Finally, there
will be a GaAs film grown by Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE)
through the use of arsenic (As) and an organometallic compound
containing gallium (Ga). The near-infinite vacuum pumping
speed of the WSF ultra-vacuum environment should allow for the
extremely rapid removal of the residual organic species found
during CBE growth, and hence should greatly improve the quality
of the grown GaAs film.

Cooperative Experiments

The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies
(UTIAS) will also be performing exposure experiments aboard
WSF-1 as a follow-up to its Long Duration Exposure Facility
(LDEF) studies.

A NASA CCDS, the Center for Materials for Space Structure
(CMSS), based at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland,
Ohio, is conducting an experiment to test different materials
and coatings in space to determine how they degrade in the
space environment. The experiment is known as MatLab-1, for
Materials Laboratory-1. Industrial contributors to the MatLab-
1 experiment include Westinghouse-Hanford, Martin Marietta,
TRW, Rosemount, 3M, Dow Corning and McDonnell Douglas.
Supporting government organizations include NASA Lewis Research
Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

The MatLab-1 will be on the Materials Flight EXperiment
(MFLEX) carrier mounted on the front of the WSF (ram side).
Each experiment is considered "active," i.e., the material has
an electronic sensor attached to it, which is placed into a
tray connected to the electronics equipment. The MFLEX will
scan the sensors and relay the information back to Earth via
the WSF communications link. Material scientists on Earth can
monitor the experiments in real-time and determine the
performance of each material and coating interaction with the
space environment.

The MatLab-1 experiment will test many materials in the
actual environment in which they would be used to ensure
"expected" performance. The materials will be tested for
thermal cycling, strain, micro-debris, atomic oxygen erosion
and its scattering effects, and the effects of ultra-violet
rays. These materials may then be used in the construction of
products for the space environment.

For example, the materials needed to build a rocket,
satellite or space station must meet stringent requirements in
weight and durability, given the harsh environment of space.
Testing materials onboard the MatLab-1 experiment provides
advance information to government and corporate planners about
how some materials react in space. In order to reduce launch
costs based on a spacecraft's weight, researchers are looking
for lighter-weight materials that have the strength to survive
a launch into space. Also, they are looking for durable, long-
lasting materials that can withstand a lengthy stay in space to
reduce replacement costs of valuable assets -- like a satellite
that could orbit the Earth for 30 years instead of
deteriorating sooner, requiring a new satellite to take its

The Geophysics Directorate at the U.S. Air Force Phillips
Laboratory located at Hanscom Air Force Base (30 miles NW of
Boston, Mass.), working with SVEC, studies the flow fields of
charged particles in the Wake Shield's vicinity. AFGL will fly
the Charging Hazards and Wake Studies (CHAWS) experiment on the
WSF Free Flyer. The general purpose of the experiment is to
increase understanding of the interactions of the space
environment with space systems and the hazards such
interactions pose. The improved understanding of spacecraft
environmental interactions derived from CHAWS results will
enhance both the commercial and military utilization of space.
For instance, CHAWS results may lead to the design and
operation of higher powered satellites in orbit.

The two specific goals of the CHAWS experiment are 1) to
measure the ambient, low-energy population of positively-
charged particles on both the front and back of the WSF, and 2)
to study the magnitude and directionality of the current
collected by a negatively-charged object in the plasma wake as
a function of the ambient-charged particle density and the
orientation of the WSF and the Shuttle. The CHAWS experiment
data are crucial to achieving part of the primary mission goal
of characterizing the neutral and charged particle wake created
by WSF-1.

The CHAWS experiment consists of two sensor units and a
controller. At the heart of each sensor unit are a series of
newly developed, state-of-the-art, compact particle detectors
able to measure a wide range of charged particle densities down
to low densities previously difficult or impossible to measure.
In the spirit of the WSF program, the STS-60 mission will
provide the first flight test of this new technology.

The most intensive portion of the CHAWS experiment will be
conducted after WSF recapture. With the WSF held by the
Shuttle "arm," the Shuttle attitude will be varied with respect
to the direction of orbital motion so that the full wake can be
mapped by varying the sensor's location in the wake region. In
addition, measurement will be made of any optical emissions
produced near the sensor during high voltage activities. These
measurements will be the first ever made in space of the
current collected by a negatively-charged object in the wake of
a space structure in low Earth orbit.

Working with NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) engineers,
SVEC is offering the WSF as a testbed for the development of
highly sensitive accelerometers, called the Microgravity
Measurement Devices (MMD). Accelerometers measure low levels
of acceleration by a vehicle in space. Specifically on WSF-1,
the accelerometers will characterize the microgravity
environment of the WSF Free Flyer. Given the largely passive
thin film growth process, the WSF Free Flyer promises to be a
"true" microgravity platform, ideal for any number of future
materials processing chores. The MMD will be the linchpin for
another joint experiment between SVEC and JSC: an ambitious
Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (PIE) in support of space
station development. A critical concern to space station
planners is the complex interaction between Shuttle attitude
control thruster firings and nearbyspace structures; however,
little information exists in this area. The WSF Free Flyer,
loaded with environmental diagnostic equipment, is the ideal
target for this study, as a cost-effective means to multiply
benefits to differing program goals. A complex and extensive
series of thruster firings have been planned to use the WSF's
response to measure the characteristics of the Shuttle's
thruster plumes.

Two "Smart Cans" will be attached to the WSF's SCBC on
this flight to conduct a Containerless Coating Process (CONCOP-
1) experiment. The United States Army Construction Engineering
Research Laboratory (CERL) in Champaign, Ill., will be using
the "Smart Cans" for an investigation of hot filament thin film
metals deposition on a variety of materials. The results will
give researchers information about applying reflective coatings
to space structures while in space. While the Free Flyer is
behind the Shuttle, the crew will activate the CERL experiment
for follow-on operations controlled through the payload
operations center.

Two student experiments will be a part of WSF-1. "Fast
Plants" will be coordinated by Hartman Middle School, Houston,
Texas, to study the effects of space radiation on plants'
generation. Brassica rapa plants supplied by the University of
Wisconsin will be exposed to the entire spectrum of radiation
from space while velcro-mounted to the SCBC.

Brassica rapa's rapid growth rate of 38 days per
generation will allow numerous generations to be studied during
a single school year following the WSF-1 flight. Six Houston
Independent School District middle schools will be involved in
the experiment.

Students will not only grow plants and gather data, but
will become proficient at controlling variables while learning
how to conduct a long-term experiment. Data will be compiled
for the purpose of writing and submitting a paper to a
scientific publication, rounding out a rich educational

Ninth grade students at the Gregory Jarvis Junior High
School, Mohawk, N.Y., will be determining the orbital variation
of the Earth's magnetic field from electron diffraction data
obtained in the WSF thin film growth experiments. The electron
beam used for in situ diffraction measurement of the atomic
structure of the growing GaAs films is deflected by the Earth's
magnetic field. This deflection can be used to define the
magnitude and direction of the Earth's magnetic field as a
function of orbital position. The junior high school students
will work with SVEC researchers in applying elementary physical
laws to directly extract Earth magnetic field information from
the WSF data.

Mission Scenario

The Wake Shield Facility will be released from Discovery
to fly free for about 48 hours, gathering its experiment
information before it is retrieved by the Shuttle. Once it is
retrieved, the facility will remain captured at the end of
Discovery's remote manipulator system (RMS) mechanical arm
overnight, for a total of about 17 hours, to gather further
data before it is berthed in the cargo bay for the return to


On Flight Day 3, the WSF will be grappled by the Shuttle
"arm" and removed from the SCBC. The WSF will be positioned by
the "arm" to be "cleaned" by the highly reactive atomic oxygen
found in low Earth orbit and by the sun's heat. The "cleaning"
will last 3 hours. Some tests will be run during this
"cleaning," such as radio checks between the SCBC and the Free
Flyer, checks of the Free Flyer batteries, and activation of
the primary video camera on the wake side of the Free Flyer.

Three successive approximately 45-minute long windows
exist for deploying the facility on the third day of STS-60, as
well as backup opportunities later in the mission. During the
release operations, Commander Charlie Bolden will be at the aft
flight deck controls of Discovery, Mission Specialist Jan Davis
will operate the mechanical arm, and Mission Specialist Ron
Sega will oversee the Wake Shield Facility's systems and
experiments. Pilot Ken Reightler will use a hand-held laser
range-finding device as well as a similiar device mounted in
Discovery's cargo bay to provide information on
the distance and separation rate of the facility. The data
supplement information provided by the Shuttle's rendezvous
radar system. Mission Specialist Franklin Chang-Diaz will
document the events with still photography, video and film.

After the "cleaning" is done, the "arm" will move the WSF
to a position that will allow the formation of a vacuum wake
behind the WSF. There will be approximately one hour of vacuum
measurements and checkouts in this position. Then the arm will
move the WSF to the release position, over the starboard
(right) side of the Shuttle payload bay. The Free Flyer will
separate from the arm and move behind the Shuttle to remove it
from Shuttle contamination sources (i.e., water dumps, fuel
cell purges and engine firings). The astronauts will fire a
thruster if necessary to keep the WSF safely behind the Shuttle
while they are sleeping.

The WSF will stay 40 nautical miles behind the Shuttle
while growing the thin films. The WSF will be operated during
this time from the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at
the NASA Johnson Space Center. The SVEC POCC team will
monitor and control all aspects of WSF operations in close
cooperation with the astronaut crew.


On Flight Day 5, the Shuttle will rendezvous with the Free
Flyer. Every member of the STS-60 crew has a vital role to
play during the WSF rendezvous and capture and the integral
plume experiment. Charles Bolden, Commander, and Kenneth
Reightler, Pilot, will pilot Discovery through a complex series
of maneuvers in approaching the WSF.

The retrieval of the Wake Shield Facility will begin with
an engine firing by Discovery that will have the Shuttle leave
its stationkeeping position 40 nautical miles behind to close
in on a point about 8 nautical miles behind the facility. Over
the next three hours, as Discovery closes in on a point 8
nautical miles behind the Wake Shield Facility, the Shuttle's
navigation will be continually refined as will tracking
information on the facility itself. The final engine firing
performed will be calculated by the Shuttle's onboard
navigation systems, rather than by ground controllers. At a
distance of 8 nautical miles behind the facility, Mission
Specialist Sergei Krikalev will power up the mechanical arm and
move it into position for the impending capture, and Discovery
will fire its engines to perform a terminal interception (TI)
burn, a firing that will put the Shuttle on a course directly
for the facility. The Shuttle may perform four small course
correction firings during its final approach before Bolden
takes over manual control of Discovery's flight as the Shuttle
passes less than one nautical mile below the facility.

Shuttle Plume Impingement Tests

Ron Sega and Sergei Krikalev will coordinate the plume
experiment initiation and data acquisition. Franklin Chang-
Diaz will track the WSF position by video and Jan Davis will
prepare the Shuttle "arm" for WSF capture.

Bolden will brake Discovery's approach to the Wake Shield
Facility, eventually flying to about 400 feet directly in front
of the facility. At that point, Bolden will begin an almost
four-hour long series of maneuvers that will have Discovery
perform precise steering jet firings at various angles to the
Wake Shield Facility. The jet firings comprise a plume
impingement test that will help characterize the behaviour of
the exhaust emitted by Discovery's jets. With its
contamination-sensitive experiments already completed at that
time, the Wake Shield's instruments can measure the
makeup of the exhaust plume, accelerations the plumes cause,
and the pressures of the exhaust. During the tests, Bolden will
fly Discovery from in front of the facility to pass above and
behind it. The jet firings will be performed in front of the
Wake Shield at ranges of 400 feet, 300 feet and 200 feet, and
from behind the facility at a range of 200 feet. Information
from these tests will be valuable in planning future retrievals
and dockings by the Shuttle with other spacecraft in a method
that avoids contaminating those spacecraft with the exhaust


The final approach to within capture range of the Wake
Shield Facility will be done from behind it, with Bolden moving
Discovery to within 35 feet of the Free-Flyer. Krikalev will
then capture the Wake Shield using the mechanical arm. Krikalev
will then place the arm in a parked position with the Wake
Shield held above the payload bay during the astronaut sleep
period for extended WSF environmental measurement.

On Flight Day 6, the CHAWS experiment will be performed.
The astronauts will position the WSF to the point above the
overhead windows for maneuvering of the WSF to gather plasma
flow data around the WSF. The Air Force Auroral Photography
Experiment B (APE-B) camera will be used in support of the
plasma flow studies to view the Shuttle glow phenomenon on the
CHAWS plasma probe from the Shuttle's aft flight deck windows.
Plasma flow data will be acquired for two full orbits, after
which the WSF will be re-stowed into the SCBC for return to

Future Plans for the WSF Program

The WSF Program consists of four flights basically flying
at one year intervals. During the four flights, the WSF
program first will provide the "proof-of-concept" demonstration
of thin film growth in space techniques required for industry
to fully embrace the space epitaxial growth technology.
Second, it will demonstrate the ability to grow commercial
quantities of epitaxial thin films in space. To accomplish
these goals, the WSF Program is designed to evolve with the
WSF-2 flight (1995) expected to show increased capability in
number and types of thin films grown, and in command and
control of the growth process through ground operations from a
commercial payload command and control center (POCC). WSF-3
(1996) is expected to see the addition of solar panels,
additional central processing power, and robotic substrate
sample manipulation for extended orbital operations. WSF-4
(1997) is expected to have the capability of processing up to
300 epitaxial thin film wafers.

Beyond the first "proof-of-concept" flights of WSF, full
commercial use of the WSF is projected. The commercial phase
of the program is being termed "Mark II" -- a 5-year orbiting
WSF free flyer. Because the weight of the Free Flyer is 4,000
lb., it would not be economically realistic to launch and
retrieve the complete WSF for every batch of thin film wafers
grown (about 300 wafers per batch). It is clearly more
suitable to launch only the raw materials and bring back only
the finished wafers, leaving the WSF in space. Therefore, the
"Mark II" would be launched into orbit and then be periodically
visited by a dedicated service vehicle that would replenish the
raw materials and bring back the finished wafers.


The accomplishment of the objectives of WSF-1 and the
three subsequent WSF missions is expected to prove the theory
that electronic materials grown in space are of higher quality.
The electronics industry's need for high-speed optical and high
frequency devices will continue to drive electronics material
development and improvement. The ever-increasing use of
electronic materials worldwide and the ability to grow them in
thin film form in space are expected to give commercial
viability to the use of the space "ultra-vacuum" to produce
improved and advanced electronic materials.


Evolution of the SPACEHAB Program

The commercial development of space is a NASA objective as
directed by legislation and national policy. Through the many
facets of its commercial development of space program, NASA has
developed and maintains a high level of commitment to this
objective. To that end, NASA has actively invested in the
continued technological leadership of the United States and its
future economic growth through the direct promotion and support
of private sector space-related activities.

In the late 1980's, NASA's commercial development of space
program identified a significant number of payloads to be flown
to further program objectives. To viably sustain this program,
the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology identified a
level of flight activity necessary to support the various
payload requirements. In September 1989, the office conducted
an analysis which revealed that planned Space Shuttle flight
activity would not meet middeck-class accommodations needs.
Mission experience had already demonstrated the middeck as a
very cost-effective area to conduct "crew-tended" scientific
and commercial microgravity research. However, the size and
number of experiments that can be accommodated in the middeck
is severely limited, has conflicting requirements from Shuttle
operations and other NASA programs, and is being further
constrained by a number of factors such as reduced flight

In order to provide the necessary support for commercial
development of space payloads, the Commercial Middeck
Augmentation Module (CMAM) procurement was initiated in
February 1990, through the Johnson Space Center (JSC).
Subsequently, in November 1990, NASA awarded a 5-year contract
to SPACEHAB, Inc., of Arlington, Va., for the lease of their
pressurized module, the SPACEHAB Space Research Laboratory.
This unit provides additional space for "crew-tended" payloads
as an extension of the Shuttle orbiter middeck into the Shuttle
cargo bay.

This 6-year lease arrangement covers five Shuttle flights
and requires SPACEHAB, Inc., to provide for the physical and
operational integration of the SPACEHAB Space Research
Laboratory into Space Shuttle orbiters, including experiments
and integration services, such as safety documentation and crew

NASA's primary objective for leasing the SPACEHAB Space
Research Laboratory is to support the agency's commercial
development of space program by providing access to space to
test, demonstrate or evaluate techniques or processes in the
environment of space, and thereby reduce operational risks to a
level appropriate for commercial development.

NASA's secondary objective in leasing the SPACEHAB
Laboratory is to foster the development of space infrastructure
which can be marketed by private firms to support commercial
microgravity research payloads. It is expected that commercial
demand will result from successful demonstrations of SPACEHAB.

The first, and very successful, flight of the SPACEHAB
Space Research Laboratory was made on Space Shuttle Mission
STS-57, June 21-27, 1993. All systems operated nominally and
met 100% of mission success criteria. The 21 NASA-sponsored
experiments achieved over 90% of mission success criteria and
detailed analyses are underway.

SPACEHAB Laboratory Accommodations

The SPACEHAB Space Research Laboratory is located in the
forward end of the Shuttle orbiter cargo bay and is accessed
from the orbiter middeck through a tunnel adapter connected to
the airlock. It weighs 10,584 pounds, is 9.2 feet long, 11.2
feet high and 13.5 feet in diameter. It increases pressurized
experiment space in the Shuttle orbiter by 1100 cubic feet,
quadrupling the working and storage volume available.
Environmental control of the laboratory's interior maintains
ambient temperatures between 65 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

The laboratory has a total payload capacity of 3,000
pounds based on operational constraints and, in addition to
facilitating crew access, provides the experiments with
standard services, such as power, temperature control and
command/data functions. Other services, such as late
access/early retrieval and vacuum venting also are available.

The SPACEHAB Space Research Laboratory can provide various
physical accommodations to users based on size, weight and
other user requirements. Experiments are commonly integrated
into the laboratory in Shuttle middeck-type lockers or SPACEHAB
racks. The laboratory can accommodate up to 61 lockers, with
each locker providing a maximum capacity of 60 pounds and 2.0
cubic feet of volume.

The laboratory can also accommodate up to two SPACEHAB
racks, either of which can be a "double-rack" or "single-rack"
configuration. A "double-rack" provides a maximum capacity of
1250 pounds and 45 cubic feet of volume, whereas a
"single-rack" provides half of that capacity. The "double-
rack" is similar in size and design to the racks planned for
use in the space station.

The use of lockers or racks is not essential for
integration into the SPACEHAB Laboratory. Payloads also can be
accommodated by directly mounting them in the Laboratory.

Operations Philosophy of the SPACEHAB Program

In order to help keep development costs within levels
appropriate to entrepreneurial enterprises, the Office of
Advanced Concepts and Technology's (OACT) flight programs
accept a certain level of risk in order to approach the
payloads from the commercial standpoint, including payload
development costs incurred by industry partners. Each of the
investigators is aware of and accepts a self-established level
of risk for mission success. However, crew and orbiter safety
requirements are always fully met.

Some of the payloads associated with this SPACELAB flight
are physically located in the orbiter middeck. The middeck
space that makes this possible is made available by
accommodating in the SPACEHAB module other items such as
supplies that are normally stowed in the middeck. This
operational approach best provides for the late installation
and early retrieval of payloads with time critical requirements
such as perishable samples. These payhloads remain in the
middeck throughout the flight in order to reduce the use of
critical on-orbit crew time in moving materials from one
location to another. The actual relocation of payloads on-
orbit would also introduce undesirable operational risks.

The preparations for the flight of SPACEHAB-2 have
included the development of a number of backup and contingency
operations for each payload appropriate to that payload's
relative design simplicity. These backup procedures include
scenarios which might possibly affect crew or orbiter safety,
and each payload has procedures associated with it that will
deactivate and/or safe the payload. Shuttle crew members are
trained in the use of these procedures.

The SPACEHAB-2 Payload Complement

The second voyage of the SPACEHAB Space Research
Laboratory will contain 12 payloads conducted under the CMAM
contract. Like SPACEHAB-1, SPACEHAB-2 payloads represent a
wide range of space experimentation including 9 commercial
development of space experiments in materials processing and
biotechnology, sponsored by five NASA Centers for the
Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). There are also three
supporting hardware and technology development payloads, one
from a CCDS, one from the Lewis Research Center, and one from
the Johnson Space Center. One non-NASA experiment is also on
this flight. It is attached to the exterior of the module and
will collect cosmic dust and debris.

SPACEHAB-2 will carry seven biotechnology experiments.
These experiments range from improving drugs to feeding plants,
from splitting cells to studying the immune system disorders.
Two materials processing experiments use furnaces to study
sintering of metals and the growth of crystals by vapor
transport. The third concentration of experiments is in
supporting hardware, with two payloads designed to obtain data
on the low-gravity environment of this SPACEHAB flight, to
support data analysis of the other investigations, and to
further characterize SPACEHAB as a carrier for microgravity

The 12th payload will provide a test and demonstration of
technology developed by NASA to support space flight activities
with refrigerator/freezer capability requirements such as life
sciences and biotechnology.

Each of the commercial development of space payloads has
been screened by the NASA Office of Advanced Concepts and
Technology (OACT) to review the viability of the commercial
aspects of the proposed activity as well as the technical
soundness. Most of the SPACEHAB-2 payloads have flown on the
Shuttle before, with this flight representing the continuation
of industry-driven research toward a new or improved commercial
end product or process. Some of the CCDS payloads, including
the CCDS-sponsored accelerometer, have participated in the NASA
OACT Consort series of suborbital sounding rocket flights to
test hardware operation and gain flight worthiness.

NASA Centers for the Commercial Development of Space

The Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS)
program is the cornerstone of NASA's commercial development of
space activities, generating 10 of the total of 12 flight
hardware packages for which NASA is leasing services on the
flight of SPACEHAB-2. NASA's nationwide CCDS network
represents a unique example of how government, industry and
academic institutions can create partnerships that combine
resources and talents to strengthen America's industrial
competitiveness. The CCDS's are designed to increase private
sector participation and investment in commercial space-related
activities, while encouraging U.S. economic leadership and
stimulating advances in promising areas of research and
development. The CCDS's are based at universities and research
institutions across the country and benefit from links with
their industrial partners, each other and with NASA field

The CCDS's foster industry-driven, space-based, high-
technology research in areas such as: materials processing,
biotechnology, remote sensing, communications, automation and
robotics, and space power.

NASA OACT provides annual funding of up to $1 million to
each center, with additional funding to those centers to cover
specific programs or flight activities, as appropriate. NASA
offers the CCDS's its scientific and technical expertise
through NASA field centers, opportunities for cooperative
activities and other forms of continuing assistance. A key
facet of the CCDSs is the additional financial and in-kind
contributions and capabilities from industry affiliates, state
and other government agencies, which, on the average, exceed
the NASA funding level.

Through creative and enterprising partnerships with
industry, the CCDS program helps move emerging technologies
from the laboratory to the marketplace with speed and
efficiency. The accomplishments of CCDS participants include
significant advances in a number of scientific fields and
hundreds of Earth- and space-based applications. As an
incubator for future commercial space industries, the CCDS
program, since its inception, has facilitated a number of new
commercial space ventures and supported a wide range of ongoing

The CCDS program continues to be the key facilitator for
U.S. industry involvement in commercial development of space
activities, encouraging and supporting new and ongoing space-
related ventures, as well as spawning research and development
advancements that promise enormous social and economic benefits
for all.

Equipment for Controlled Liquid Phase Sintering Experiments

The Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS)
based at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) has
developed the Equipment for Controlled Liquid Phase Sintering
Experiments (ECLiPSE). Wyle Laboratories supported the
development of ECLiPSE which flew successfully on STS-57
SPACEHAB-01. This furnace was developed in a very rapid and
cost-effective manner. ECLiPSE is now available as space-
qualified hardware and is a key part of this nation's
commercial space infrastructure.

On STS-60, the SPACEHAB-2 ECLiPSE experiment investigates
the Liquid Phase Sintering (LPS) of metallic systems.
Sintering is a well-characterized process by which metallic
powders are consolidated into a metal at temperatures only 50%
of that required to melt all of the constituent phases. In
LPS, a liquid coexists with the solid, which can produce
sedimentation, thus producing materials that lack homogeneity
and dimensional stability. To control sedimentation effects,
manufacturers limit the volume of the liquid. The ECLiPSE
experiment examines metallic composites at or above the liquid
volume limit to more fully understand the processes taking
place and to produce materials that are dimensionally stable
and homogeneous in the absence of gravity.

The ECLiPSE project is focused on composites of hard
metals in a tough metal matrix. This composite will have the
excellent wearing properties of the hard material and the
strength of the tough material. Applications of such a
composite include stronger, lighter, more durable metals for
bearings, cutting tools, electrical brushes, contact points and
irregularly shaped mechanical parts for high stress
environments. Kennametal, Inc., is an industry partner of the
UAH CMDS participating in the ECLiPSE experiment and has
immediate applications for material improvements in the ceramic
composites tested. Kennametal, one of the nation's largest
cutting tool manufacturers, is developing stronger, more
durable tool bits and cutting edges. Other industry partners on
the ECLiPSE project are Wyle Laboratories, Automatic Switch
Company, Parker Hannifin Corporation, and Machined Ceramics.

Preparation of the ECLiPSE payload begins with the
compaction of two or more metal powders under high pressure
(11.2 tons/sq. in.) to form a composite. Once compacted, the
composites are cleaned and installed into the ECLiPSE high
temperature furnace for flight. A Wyle Laboratories-designed
Universal Small Experiment Container (USEC) will house the
furnace assembly within the SPACEHAB Space Research Laboratory
rack. In operation, the ECLiPSE payload is first evacuated,
pressurized with argon gas and switched on by the crew. The
furnace then autonomously heats to a temperature in excess of
2000{F, which is above the melting point of one of the metals
in the composite samples. The samples then undergo the
rearrangement and solution re-precipitation stages of LPS. The
hardware performs purge, heat-up, processing, quench and cool
down cycles. The total time for all operations is slightly
more than 10 hours.

ECLiPSE is mounted in a SPACEHAB single rack. During on-
orbit operations, a crew member monitors the indicators on the
front of the payload to show the health of the hardware and
progress of the experiment through the operating cycles. Once
the unit has completed all cycles, a crew member connects a
Payload General Support Computer (PGSC) to the ECLiPSE,
downloads the data stored inside the ECLiPSE process control
computer and then shuts down the experiment.
The Shuttle flight of the ECLiPSE payload is building on the
experience of other ECLiPSE flights on suborbital rockets.
Suborbital flights have provided 1-3 minutes of sample
processing time and now the longer flight durations possible on
the Shuttle are required. Because the hardware was originally
designed to fly in suborbital rockets, it is very automated,
requiring little crew interaction.

Principal Investigator for ECLiPSE is Dr. James E. Smith,
Jr., Associate Professor and Chairman, Department of Chemical
and Materials Engineering, The University of Alabama in

Space Experiment Furnace

The Space Experiment Furnace (SEF) is a space flight
furnace system managed by the Consortium for Materials
Development in Space (CMDS) based at the University of Alabama

in Huntsville (UAH). The SEF was manufactured by Boeing
Commercial Space Development Company, Seattle, WA, and is
similar to Boeing's Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment
(CVTE) furnace which flew in October 1992 on STS-52.

The initial objective of the SEF project was to provide a
vapor transport crystal growth furnace for use by the CCDS's.
The SEF system has the capability to carry one, two or three
separate furnaces at one time and has room for two samples in
each furnace, for a total of up to six samples. The CVTE was
designed as a middeck facility while the SEF has been adapted
for flight in the SPACEHAB Space Research Laboratory and is
mounted in a SPACEHAB single rack. This is the first flight of
the SEF.

The SEF has two transparent furnaces available for
operations at various temperatures up to approximately 900but only one of these will be flown and used aboard SPACEHAB-2.
The third furnace has an opaque core design that allows it to
reach temperatures up to 1080requirements.

The SEF differs from UAH's other furnace, ECLiPSE, in
several ways. First, the SEF can process different types of
crystals, notably crystals grown from vapor. Second, the
furnace will process the samples in transparent ampoules that
can be monitored by the crew and adjusted to optimize crystal
growth. Third, the sample ampoules can be translated within
the furnace to control the applied temperature gradients. And,
fourth, while the opaque furnace can be used for metal and
alloy processes, such as liquid metal sintering, it can provide
temperature gradients as compared to the isothermal
characteristics of ECLiPSE.

Thus, although the original CVTE furnace was designed to
process crystals, SEF operations are not being restricted to
crystal growth. For instance, on SPACEHAB-2, UAH will be using
the opaque core for its Sintered and Alloyed Materials project.
The Consortium for Commercial Crystal Growth at Clarkson
University, another CCDS, will use a transparent furnace for
growth of Cadmium Telluride crystals using vapor transport

The industry affiliates involved in designing,
fabricating, and integrating the SEF for SPACEHAB-2 flight are:
Boeing Commercial Space Development Company, Seattle, WA;
McDonnell Douglas Aerospace - Huntsville, Huntsville, AL; and
Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, AL.

The Principal Investigator for the UAH/CMDS Sintered and
Alloyed Materials project which will use the opaque core
furnace in the SEF for SPACEHAB-2 is Dr. James E. Smith, Jr.,
Associate Professor and Chairman, Department of Chemical and
Materials Engineering, The University of Alabama in Huntsville.
Dr. Smith is also the P.I. of the ECLiPSE furnace experiment
which will be flying on SPACEHAB-2. The Principal Investigator
for the Clarkson-sponsored Cadmium Telluride activity is
Professor Herbert Wiedemeier of Rensselaer Polytechnic



The ASTROCULTURE* payload is sponsored by the Wisconsin
Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), a NASA Center
for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), located at the
University of Wisconsin in Madison.

Extended space ventures that involve human presence will
require safe and reliable life support at a reasonable cost.
Plants play a vital role in the life support system we have
here on Earth. Likewise, we can expect that plants will be a
critically important part of a life support system in space
because they can be a source of food while providing a means of
purifying air and water for humans. Currently, no satisfactory
plant-growing unit is available to support long-term plant
growth in space. Several industry affiliates including
Automated Agriculture Assoc., Inc., Dodgeville, WI; Biotronics
Technologies, Inc., Waukesha, WI; Orbital Technologies Corp.,
Madison, WI; and Quantum Devices, Inc., Barneveld, WI, together
with WCSAR have embarked on a cooperative program to develop
the technologies needed for growing plants in a space

The objective of the ASTROCULTURE* (ASC) series of flight
experiments is to validate the performance of plant growth
technologies in the microgravity environment of space. Each of
the flight experiments will involve the incremental addition of
important subsystems required to provide the necessary
environmental control for plant growth. The flight hardware is
based on commercially available components, thereby
significantly reducing the cost of the hardware. The
information from these flight experiments will become the basis
for developing large scale plant growing units required in a
life support system. In addition, these technologies will also
have extensive uses on Earth, such as improved
dehumidification/humidification units, water-efficient
irrigation systems, and energy-efficient lighting systems for
plant growth.

The ASC-1 flight experiment, conducted during the USML-1
mission on STS-50, evaluated the WCSAR concept for providing
water and nutrients to plants. The ASC-2 flight experiment,
conducted during the SPACEHAB-01 mission on STS-57, provided
additional data on the water and nutrient delivery concept,
plus an evaluation of the light emitting diode (LED) based
plant lighting concept. Results from both these flight
experiments indicate that all the goals were achieved and
confirmed the validity of these concepts for use in space-based
plant growing unit.

The ASTROCULTURE* (ASC-3) flight experiment included in
the SPACEHAB-2 mission is designed to validate a WCSAR
developed concept for controlling temperature and humidity in a
closed air loop of the plant growth chamber. This unit is
capable of both humidifying and dehumidifying the air and does
not require a gas/liquid separator for recovery of the
condensed water as do all other systems now being used for
dehumidification in space. This condensed water can be used as
a source of cooking and drinking water. Demonstration of the
successful performance in space of this humidity and
temperature control technology will represent a major advance
in our ability to provide superior environmental control for
plant growth in an inexpensive and reliable space flight

The flight hardware for this mission is accommodated in a
SPACEHAB locker located in the module and weighs approximately
50 pounds. The ASC-3 flight unit includes the water and
nutrient delivery unit, the LED-based plant lighting unit, the
temperature and humidity control unit, and a microprocessor
unit for control and data acquisition functions. These
subsystems, or units, provide essentially all the environmental
regulation needed for plant growth. It is expected that the
next ASC flight experiment beyond SPACEHAB-2 will include
plants as a test of the operational effectiveness of the units
to support plant growth.

The Principal Investigator on ASTROCULTURE* is Dr.
Raymond J. Bula, WCSAR.

Penn State Biomodule

The Penn State Biomodule (PSB) payload will test the
hypothesis that exposure to near zero gravity (microgravity)
can alter microbial gene expression in commercially useful
ways. The payload was developed by the Center for Cell
Research (CCR), a NASA CCDS based at The Pennsylvania State
University, and its commercial partner, Novo Nordisk Entotech,
Inc. Novo Nordisk Entotech, Inc., is located in Davis,
California, and is part of Denmark-based Novo Nordisk A/S, a
global company with diverse business anchored primarily in
biotechnology, serving the health care, industrial and
agricultural sectors.

Novo Nordisk Entotech develops bioinsecticides, naturally
occurring microbes that produce products that are toxic to
certain insects, but are non-toxic to non-target pests, people
and the environment. The company is interested in determining
if exposure to microgravity can enhance microbial expression,
altering the growth, toxin production and potency of these
environmentally friendly pest-control agents.

The microbes scheduled to be tested aboard STS-60,
Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis, are known to be
specifically effective against the Colorado potato beetle. They
will be carried in the Penn State Biomodule which is being used
for the first time aboard the Shuttle. The biomodule is a
computer-controlled, fluid-transfer, mixing device developed by
the Center for Cell Research. It was flight tested and
developed aboard the Consort sounding rocket series.

Eight Biomodules, each containing eight microbial samples,
will be housed in a sealed containment vessel within a
Commercial Refrigeration/Incubation Module (CRIM) located in
the middeck. The containment vessel was also designed and
developed by the Center for Cell Research in conjunction with
Commercial Payloads, Inc., of St. Louis, MO.

In its STS-60 configuration, the Biomodule needs no hands-
on attention from the astronauts. The device automatically
provides dynamic temperature regulation, three levels of liquid
containment and the ability to add two different fluids to each
sample at different time intervals during the spaceflight.

To accelerate postflight data analyses, the CCR has
developed a gel encapsulation procedure for bacteria that
enables quick, efficient, automated, identification of microbes
that display altered patterns of gene expression. In this
technique, individual bacteria are trapped inside tiny (30
micron) gel beads. Using fluorescent markers and a flow
cytometer, the researchers can quantify bacterial growth and
product formation within each individual bead. In this way,
altered bacteria that over- or under-produce insect toxins can
be quickly identified, isolated and cultured as part of the
postflight analysis.

CCR scientific affiliates Dr. Zane Smilowitz, Penn State
professor of entomology, and Dr. William McCarthy, Penn State
associate professor of entomology, are co-principal
investigators. Penn State graduate student Bryan Severyn, an
M.S. candidate in entomology, is assisting them. Dr. Chi-Li
Liu, Manager of Microbiology, is Entotech's representative.
Dr. William W. Wilfinger is CCR Director of Physiological
Testing and principal investigator on the gel encapsulation
project. Dr. W. C. Hymer is Director of the Center for Cell
Research. Dr. Pamela Marrone is President of Novo Nordisk
Entotech, Inc.

BioServe Pilot Laboratory

The BioServe Pilot Laboratory (BPL) is sponsored by
BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Center for the Commercial
Development of Space (CCDS) based at the University of Colorado
in Boulder.

The BPL will play an important role in providing the
commercial and scientific communities affordable access to
space for material and life sciences research. The main focus
of the project is to provide a "first step" opportunity to
companies interested in exploring materials processing and life
science experiments in space. The notion behind the project is
to allow industry a mechanism for entry level "proof of
concept" flights. Thus, the BPL is a crucial screening device
for more complex, targeted space research and development

The BPL payload has been designed to support
investigations in a wide variety of life sciences areas with
primary emphasis on cellular studies. Following a successful
flight on STS-57 SPACEHAB-01, this second BPL flight on
SPACEHAB-2 consists of investigations on bacterial products and

One investigation examines Rhizobium trifolii behavior in
microgravity. Rhizobia are special bacteria that form a
symbiotic relationship with certain plants. The bacteria infect
the plants early in seedling development to form nodules on the
plant roots. The bacteria in these nodules derive nutritional
support from the plant while in turn providing the plant with
nitrogen fixed from the air. Plants that form such
relationships with rhizobia are called legumes and include
alfalfa, clover and soybean. Such plants do not require
synthetic fertilizers to grow. In contrast, many important
crop plants such as wheat and corn are dependent on synthetic
fertilizers since they do not form symbiotic relationships with

The experimental system employing Rhizobium trifolii is a
model that can be used to better understand the multi-step
process associated with rhizobia infection of legumes. Once
understood, it may become possible to manipulate the process to
cause infection of other crop plants. The potential savings in
fertilizer production would be tremendous.

One of the commercial goals of the BioServe Center is to
determine whether microgravity might be exploited as a tool for
rhizobial infection of significant crop plants. This BPL
investigation along with complementary investigations in
BioServe's Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA)
also flying in the SPACEHAB Space Research Laboratory should
provide data needed to address this goal.

Another investigation being flown in the BPL concerns

E. Coli. These bacteria are normally found in the
gastrointestinal tracts of mammals, including humans. E. Coli
have been well studied as a model system for bacterial
infection and population dynamics and in genetics research.
With regard to commercial application, the genetic material in
E. Coli has been manipulated to produce bacteria capable of
secreting important pharmaceutical products. These bacteria
also serve as a model for bacteria used in waste treatment and
water reclamation.

For STS-60, these bacteria are being studied to determine
changes in growth and behavior that occur as a consequence of
exposure to microgravity. The commercial objectives for this
investigation include understanding and controlling bacterial
infection in closed environments, exploiting bacteria and other
micro-organisms in the development of ecological life support
systems and waste management, and determining the opportunity
for enhanced genetic engineering and enhanced pharmaceutical
production using bacterial systems.

Yet another BPL investigation examines a biomedical test
model based on cells derived from frog kidney. This
investigation is intended to provide insight into effects of
microgravity on cell behavior -- especially cell division.
Gravitational effects on such cell systems may be used as
models of diseases or disorders that occur on Earth. For STS-
60, the kidney cell system is being examined to determine
feasibility for use as such a test model.

On STS-60, the BPL will consist of 40 Bioprocessing
Modules (BPMs) stowed in a standard middeck locker. The BPMs
will contain the biological sample materials. The stowage
locker will also contain an Ambient Temperature Recorder (ATR)
which will provide a temperature history of the payload
throughout the mission.

Each BPM consists of three syringes held together on an
aluminum tray. Generally, the center syringe in each BPM will
be loaded with the cell culture system. Adjacent syringes will
contain process initiation and termination fluids,
respectively. A three-way valve is mounted on the trays which
permits fluid transfer from one syringe to the next. The
syringes, valve tubing and fittings provide for containment of
the sample materials. The hardware is further enclosed in
heat-sealed plastic bags to provide additional levels of

Some of the BPMs will be fitted with a special filter at
the front of the center syringe. This filter allows fluids,
but not cells, to pass in and out of the center syringe. With
these special BPMs, products secreted by the cells under study
can be separated from the cells on orbit and preserved, without
the need for a fixative that would damage the secreted

Approximately 26 hours after reaching orbit, a crew member
will initiate the various investigations within the BPMs.
Typically, this is done by removing each BPM from stowage,
turning the three-way valve and pushing a syringe plunger to
transfer the initiation solution into the center syringe.

The BPMs will be terminated at predetermined time points
throughout the mission. Similar to initiation, the three-way
valve is turned and the plunger on the center syringe is pushed
to transfer cell materials into the termination solution. In
some instances, only part of the contents of the center syringe
will be transferred. This will effectively produce two samples
for analysis, one that is terminated and another that continues
to develop during the balance of operations.

For most of the investigations, simultaneous ground
controls will be run. Using similar hardware and identical
sample fluids, ground personnel will activate and terminate
BPMs in parallel with the flight crew. Synchronization will be
accomplished based on voice downlink from the crew. Ground
controls will be conducted at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing
Facility at Cape Canaveral, Fla.

After the orbiter has landed, the stowage locker
containing the BPMs will be turned over to BioServe personnel
for deintegration. Some sample processing will be performed at
the landing site. However, most BPMs will be shipped or hand-
carried back to the sponsoring laboratories for detailed

Dr. Marvin Luttges, Director of the BioServe CCDS, is
Program Manager. Drs. Louis Stodieck and Michael Robinson,
also of BioServe, are responsible for mission management.

Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus

The Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA)
payload is sponsored by BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA
Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), located
at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The purpose of the
CGBA is to allow a wide variety of sophisticated biomaterials,
life sciences and biotechnology investigations to be performed
in one device in the low gravity environment of space.

During the STS-60 mission, the CGBA will support 32
separate commercial investigations, which can be classified in
three application areas: biomedical testing and drug
development, controlled ecological life support system (CELSS)
development and agricultural development and manufacture of
biological-based materials. These areas and investigations are
shown in the following three tables.

Biomedical Testing and Drug Development -- To collect
information on how microgravity affects biological organisms,
the CGBA will include twelve biomedical test models. Of the
twelve test models, four are related to immune disorders: one
will investigate the process in which certain cells engulf and
destroy foreign materials (phagocytosis); another will study
bone marrow cell cultures; two others will study the ability of
the immune system to respond to infectious-type materials
(lymphocyte and T-cell induction); and one will investigate the
ability of immune cells to kill infectious cells (TNF-Mediated

The other eight test models -- Which are related to bone
and developmental disorders, toxicological wound healing,
cancer and cellular disorders -- will investigate bone tissue,
miniature wasp development testing, brine shrimp development,
inhibition of cell division processes, stimulation of cell
division processes and the ability of protein channels to pass
materials through cell membranes.

Test model results will provide information to better
understand diseases and disorders that affect human health,
including cancer, osteoporosis and AIDS. In the future, these
models may be used for the development and testing of new drugs
to treat these diseases.

Closed Agricultural Systems Development -- To gain
knowledge on how microgravity affects micro-organisms, small
animal systems, algae and higher plant life, the CGBA will
include 11 ecological test systems. One of the test systems
will examine miniature wasp development. Five separate studies
will concern seed germination and seedling processes related to
CELSS development. Another four test systems will investigate
bacterial products and processes and bacterial colonies for
waste management applications. Finally, another system will
study new materials to control build-up of unwanted bacteria
and other micro-organisms.

Test system results will provide research information with
many commercial applications. For example, evaluating higher
plant growth in microgravity could lead to new commercial
opportunities in controlled agriculture applications. Test
systems that alter micro-organisms or animal cells to produce
important pharmaceuticals could later be returned to Earth for
large-scale production. Similarly, it may be possible to
manipulate agricultural materials to produce valuable seed

Biomaterials Products and Processes -- The CGBA also will
be used to investigate nine different biomaterials products and
processes. Two investigations will attempt to grow large
protein and RNA crystals to yield information for use in
commercial drug development. A third investigation will
evaluate the assembly of virus shells for use in a
commercially-developed drug delivery system. Two other
investigations will use fibrin clot materials and collagen as a
model of potentially implantable materials that could be
developed commercially as replacements for skin, tendons, blood
vessels and even cornea. Three investigations will focus on
drug development. One will be using plant tissue cultures to
create the anti-cancer drug taxol. The second will be looking
at the bacteria E. Coli and its resistance to drugs in
microgravity. The third investigation will be looking at yeast
reproduction as a drug production process.

Results from the 32 investigations will be carefully
considered in determining subsequent steps toward
commercialization. STS-60 marks the fourth of six CGBA
flights. Future flights will continue to focus on selecting
and developing investigations that show the greatest commercial

The CGBA consists of 432 Fluids Processing Apparatuses
(FPAs) packaged in 54 Group Activation Packs (GAPs). Each GAP
will house eight FPAs. The FPAs will contain biological sample
materials which are mixed on-orbit to begin and end an
experiment. Individual experiments will use two to 24 FPAs
each. 192 FPAs in 24 GAPs will be stored in the SPACEHAB Space
Research Laboratory in two standard stowage lockers; these
samples are less time critical than the others with regard to
installation or retrieval. 240 FPAs in 30 GAPs will be stored
on the middeck of the orbiter in 3 standard stowage lockers or
locker equivalents. 144 FPAs will be kept at a temperature of
37{C throughout the mission, while 288 FPAs will be kept at
ambient temperature. Those lockers containing FPA at ambient
temperature will also contain ambient temperature records
(ATRs) which will provide a temperature history of the payload
throughout the mission.

Fluids Processing Apparatus (FPA) -- Sample materials are
contained inside a glass barrel that has rubber stoppers to
separate three chambers. For each investigation, the chambers
will contain precursor, initiation and termination fluids,
respectively. The loaded glass barrel will be assembled into a
plastic sheath that protects the glass from breakage and serves
as a second level of sample fluid containment.

The FPAs are operated by a plunger mechanism that will be
depressed on-orbit, causing the chambers of precursor fluid and
the stoppers to move forward inside the glass barrel. When a
specific stopper reaches an indentation in the glass barrel,
initiation fluid from the second chamber is injected into the
first chamber, activating the biological process.

Once processing is complete, the plunger will again be
depressed until the termination fluid in the third chamber is
injected across the bypass in the glass barrel into the first

Group Activation Packs (GAP) -- The GAP consists of a 4-
inch diameter plastic cylinder and two aluminum endcaps. Eight
FPAs will be contained around the inside circumference of the
GAP cylinder. A crank mechanism extends into one end of the
GAP and attaches to a metal pressure plate. By rotating the
crank, the plate will advance and depress the eight FPA
plungers simultaneously, significantly facilitating crew
handling of the FPAs.

Upon reaching orbit, the crew will initiate the various
investigations by attaching a crank handle to each GAP.
Turning the crank will cause an internal plate to advance and
push the plungers on the contained FPAs. This action, in turn,
causes the fluids in the forward chambers of each FPA to mix.
Most of the GAPs will be activated on the second flight day.

The crew will terminate the investigations in a manner
similar to activation. Attaching and turning the GAP crank will
cause further depression of the FPA plungers which will cause
the fluid in the rear chamber to mix with the processed
biological materials. This fluid will typically stop the
process or "fix" the sample for return to Earth in a preserved
state. Each of the 54 GAPs will be terminated at different
time points during the mission. In this manner, sample
materials can be processed from as little as one hour to nearly
the whole mission duration.

For most of the investigations, simultaneous ground
controls will be run. Using identical hardware and samples
fluids and materials, ground personnel will activate and
terminate FPAs in parallel with the flight crew.
Synchronization will be accomplished based on indications from
the crew as to when specific GAPs are operated. A temperature-
controlled environment at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing
Facility (SPPF), Cape Canaveral, Fla., will be used to
duplicate flight conditions.

After the orbiter has landed, the stowage lockers will be
retrieved and turned over to BioServe personnel for
deintegration. Some sample processing will be performed at the
SPPF; however, most FPAs will be shipped or hand-carried back
to the sponsoring laboratories for detailed analysis.

Dr. Marvin Luttges, Director of the BioServe CCDS, is
program manager for CGBA. Drs. Louis Stodieck and Michael
Robinson, also of BioServe, are responsible for mission










The IMMUNE-1 experiment is a middeck payload sponsored by
BioServe Space Technologies. BioServe is a NASA Center for the
Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) at the University of
Colorado, Boulder, and Kansas State University, Manhattan. The
corporate affiliate leading the IMMUNE-1 investigation is
Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, Calif., with NASA's Ames
Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., providing payload and
mission integration support.

The goal of IMMUNE-1 is to reduce or prevent the changes
seen in the immune system of rats after space flight. The
experiment may provide a new therapy to treat the effects of
space flight on the human immune system, as well as on
physiological systems affected by the immune system.

Hardware for the IMMUNE-1 experiment consists of two
Commercial Animal Enclosure Modules (CAEMs). The CAEM is a
copy of the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) developed by the Ames
Research Center. The CAEM provides life support for the rats.

IMMUNE-1 is the second experiment to use the CAEM in
support of activities to develop the commercial uses of space.
(The first was the Physiological Systems Experiment, conducted
with the Center for Cell Research, another NASA CCDS.) The AEM
has a considerable successful flight history in support of
other NASA investigations.

Each of the two CAEMs in the Shuttle's middeck area will
hold six rats. Six of the rats will be treated pre-flight with
a prescribed dosage of a compound similar to the commercially
available recombinant Interleukin-2, which is known to
stimulate the immune system. The compound used in IMMUNE-1 --
polyethylene glycol-modified recombinant human Interleukin-2
(PEG-IL-2) -- is longer-lasting than recombinant Interleukin-2.
It will be used in an attempt to reduce or prevent the
suppression of the immune system seen in rats flown in space.
The other six rats will receive a placebo.

The rats will live in an environment similar to that of
the astronauts in terms of launch stress, length of exposure to
microgravity, and the forces of Shuttle re-entry and recovery.
These conditions are known to result in a suppression of the
immune system similar to "shipping fever" in cattle. The
utility of PEG-IL-2 in preventing spaceflight-induced effects
on the immune system may lead to its use as a therapeutic
treatment for shipping fever in animals on Earth.

The longer-lasting PEG-IL-2 probably will be useful in
clinical settings in which patients could receive less frequent
injections, perhaps once a week instead of up to three times a
day, as is necessary with recombinant IL-2. The development of
recombinant IL-2 for treatment of some human cancers is still
being investigated, although it is licensed for high-dose
therapy of kidney cancer in humans.

Based on recent experimental findings, PEG-IL-2 (and
recombinant IL-2) appears to have potential as an antiviral, as
well as an antibacterial, agent. As such, PEG-IL-2 may become
a part of a therapy used to treat various opportunistic
infections associated with AIDS and other non-AIDS related
infectious diseases.

It also may become part of a standard treatment for the
nation's aging population, because aging individuals
demonstrate decreased levels of Interleukin-2. The PEG-IL-2
treatment could accompany flu shots to bolster the immune
system of the elderly. These important applications present
exciting commercial opportunities for Chiron Corp.

The science team will be led by principal investigator Dr.
Robert Zimmerman of Chiron Corp. Co-principal investigators
are Drs. Marvin Luttges and Keith Chapes of BioServe and Dr.
Gerald Sonnenfield of the Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte,
N.C. Other investigators include Drs. Richard Gerren, Steven
Simske and Louis Stodieck, BioServe; Ed Miller, Harrington
Cancer Center/Texas Tech University, Amarillo, Texas; and Jason
Armstrong and Mary Fleet, BioServe.

Organic Separations

The Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS)
based at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has developed
the Organic Separations (ORSEP) payload for flight on STS-60.

ORSEP offers the commercial and scientific communities the
opportunity to separate cells and particles based on their
surface properties using a process known as counter current
phase partitioning. Such separations cannot be carried to
equilibrium on Earth because sedimentation influences the
separation before partitioning equilibrium can be established.
It is hoped that equilibrium separations will produce
subpopulations with nearly identical surface properties rather
than with some contamination of surface and density that is
presently the case with Earth-based users. The potential
commercial value of separations includes the opportunity to
identify subpopulations, to study the purified samples and to
culture cell subpopulations for cell product.

The ORSEP hardware was built by Space Hardware
Optimization Technology (SHOT), Inc. Floyd Knobs, Ind. It is
considerably lower cost than existing phase partitioning
devices, and SHOT may be able to capture a good portion of the
commercial market on Earth. The hardware is a modular design
which can be configured for use with Shuttle middeck, Spacelab,
the SPACEHAB Space Research Laboratory, and sounding rockets.
On this flight, ORSEP will be accommodated in a standard-sized
locker located in the module.

It is a multi-sample, multi-step, fully automated device
that separates non-biological particles, as well as biological
cells, particles, macromolecular assemblies and organelles in
low gravity via partitioning in liquid polymer two-phase
systems. The hardware has been designed to perform
partitioning in microgravity for a long duration because two to
three hours are required for each separation step. Commercial
interests were factored into the hardware design in its multi-
sample capability that offers temperature control and
sterility. On STS-60, the SPACEHAB Space Research Laboratory
makes available continuous power, which allows for constant
heating/cooling for the experiment while the vacuum of space
provides thermal insulation. As a result of these design
features, four samples can be processed through 12 steps while
being held at selected temperatures in a sterile environment.

The samples that will be processed on STS-60 in the ORSEP
apparatus include growth hormone vesicles supplied by the Penn
State Center for Cell Research along with inert particles for
equilibration and diagnostics. On STS-60, a new use for the
ORSEP hardware as a low-gravity cell culturing facility will be
demonstrated. The ability of the ORSEP hardware to mix a
culture medium with various activators and fixture agents in a
controlled manner offers several unique advantages over other
flight-qualified cell culturing hardware. Lymphocytes and
bone-marrow cells will be provided by Dr. Marian Lewis at UAH.
ORSEP has flown on 9 prior Shuttle missions and two suborbital
flights as a part of its development. The UAH CMDS plans to
continue development of ORSEP on additional suborbital rocket
flights and SPACEHAB missions.

ORSEP is designed to be capable of fully-automated
operations but it relies on crew interaction to maximize its
results. Full function digital display and interaction controls
allow the crew to monitor and control the vacuum which will
modifie the temperature of the experiment. The crew can also
control both the initiation and operation of the four
experiments which provide for potential variations in mission
operations. The next planned generation of ORSEP is to be
designed for use on space station. New samples in sterile
cassette devices will be launched in the Shuttle.

The principal investigator of ORSEP is Dr. Robert J.
Naumann, University of Alabama in Huntsville.

Commercial Protein Crystal Growth

The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC), based
at the University of Alabama in Birmingham (UAB), is sponsoring
Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiments on STS-60.
The CMC is a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of
Space (CCDS), which forms a bridge between NASA and private
industry to stimulate biotechnology research for growing
protein crystals in space and offers other protein
crystallography services to a wide range of pharmaceutical,
chemical and biotechnology companies.

The objective of space-based protein crystal growth
experiments on STS-60 SPACEHAB-2 is to produce large, well-
ordered crystals of various proteins. These crystals are to be
used in ground-based studies to determine the three-dimensional
structures of the proteins. These experiments also continue to
investigate how to control and optimize protein crystal growth
in order to reduce uncertainties or risks associated with using
this space-based process as a vital and enabling technology for
many critical areas. The SPACEHAB-01 protein crystal growth
experiments were extremely successful. Three of the seven
proteins flown produced superior data when compared to the very
best crystals ever obtained by Earth-grown methods using any
other method of crystallization.

The technique most-widely used to determine a protein's
three-dimensional structure is X-ray crystallography, which
requires large, well-ordered crystals for analysis. Crystals
produced on Earth often are large enough to study, but they
usually have numerous gravity-induced flaws. However, space-
produced crystals tend to have more highly-ordered structures
that significantly facilitate X-ray diffraction studies.

Since proteins play an important role in everyday life --
from providing nourishment to fighting diseases -- research in
this area is quickly becoming a viable commercial industry.
Scientists need large, well-ordered crystals to study the
structure of a protein and to learn how its structure
determines a protein's functions.

Studies of such crystals not only can provide information
on basic biological processes, but they may lead to the
development of food with higher protein content, the production
of highly resistant crops and, of great importance, the
development of more effective drugs. By studying the growth
rates of crystals under different conditions, scientists can
find ways to improve crystal growth in microgravity, thus
providing higher-quality crystals for study and the ability to
produce satisfactory protein crystals that are hard or
impossible to grow on Earth. For these reasons, the CMC will
have conducted protein crystal growth experiments on 19 Shuttle
missions after completion of STS-60.

Crystallization Facility Experiments

The CPCG experiments are contained in two thermal control
enclosures called Commercial Refrigerator/Incubator Modules
(CRIM) both located in the middeck. Each CRIM contains a
Protein Crystallization Facility (PCF), and one has been
modified with a light scattering (LS) system and is called

The PCF has been successful in inducing crystallization of
human insulin by lowering the temperature of one end of a
cylindrical crystallization chamber from 40{C to 22{C over a
period of 24 hours. Since the rest of the chamber takes time
to match the temperature of the controlled end, the crystals
are formed within a temperature gradient.

The light scattering system is designed to detect crystals
at the nucleation stage, before they would be visible by
ordinary microscopy. The information is to be used to alert
the astronauts of initial crystal formation. After they know
that crystals have formed they will decrease the rate at which
the temperature of the controlled end is changing. This will
allow the crystals that have formed to grow more slowly and
more perfectly in the weightlessness of space.

The light scattering system consists of a laser beam from
a laser diode delivered into the sample chamber and a photo
detector viewing the beam from an angle of 30{. As the protein
molecules begin to collect into small nuclei, they become
larger, hence more efficient, scattering particles, and the
laser beam becomes brighter. This principle is demonstrated
when large dust particles appear brighter than small ones in a
sunbeam shining through a household window. The increased
brightness is seen by the detector, and the information is sent
to a Macintosh Powerbook computer. This information is graphed
on the screen of the Powerbook for the astronauts to view.

The computer evaluates the scattering information and has
an alarm that alerts the astronauts of crystal formation, but
the astronauts must still evaluate the scattering curve to
confirm that nucleation has actually occurred before modifying
the rate of temperature change. Human insulin is the protein
to be crystallized in this flight of the PCFLS system.

Due to each protein's short lifetime and the crystals'
resulting instability, the protein crystal growth experiments
will be retrieved within 3 hours of the Shuttle landing and
will be returned to the CMC for post-flight analyses. This
early retrieval is made possible by the quick access to the
SPACEHAB laboratory after landing.

The CMC has flown over 50 different types of proteins in
space, seeking protein structure data and techniques for
predictable enhancement by growth in microgravity.
Crystallographic analysis has revealed that on average 20% of
proteins grown in space are superior to their Earth-grown
counterparts. As a result of advances made by the CMC in its
microgravity crystallographic technologies, 40% of the proteins
flown on the first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-
1) mission in July 1992, yielded diffraction size crystals,
several of which were superior to any previously grown on

With continued research, the commercial applications
developed using protein crystal growth have phenomenal
potential, and the number of proteins that need study exceeds
tens of thousands. Current research with the aid of
pharmaceutical companies may lead to a whole new generation of
drugs, which could be able to help treat diseases such as
cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal disease, influenza,
septic shock, emphysema, aging and AIDS. These possibilities
plus drugs and other products for agriculture, proteins for
bioprocessing in manufacturing processes and waste management,
and other biotechnical applications, represent critical
capabilities for dealing with the future of our world.

A number of companies are participating in the CMC's
protein crystal growth projects including: BioCryst
Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Eli Lilly & Co., Schering-Plough
Research, Du Pont Merck Pharmaceuticals, Sterling Winthrop
Inc., Eastman Kodak Co., The Upjohn Co., Smith Kline Beecham
Pharmaceuticals, and Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Principal
Investigator for the STS-60 protein crystal growth experiments
is Dr. Charles E. Bugg, Director of the CMC.

Three-Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer

The Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS),
is sponsoring the Three-Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer
(3-DMA) on the STS-60 mission. The CMDS is a NASA Center for
the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) based at the
University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH).

The acceleration measurements system will help chart the
effects of deviations of zero gravity on the experiments
conducted in space. The microgravity environment inside the
SPACEHAB Space Research Laboratory will be measured in three
dimensions by the 3-DMA at different locations, allowing
researchers to review experiment results against deviations
from zero gravity. This information will be used to determine
the degree of microgravity achieved inside the SPACEHAB Space
Research Laboratory. 3-DMA will measure disturbances caused by
operating various experiments in SPACEHAB and the residual
microgravity resulting from orbiter rotational motions and by
the resistance of extreme upper atmosphere fringes. The 3-DMA
experiment was successful on the SPACEHAB-01 STS-57 flight; all
twelve accelerometers situated at four different locations
worked well and continuously generated data. All data desired
for the technology development were obtained.

The 3-DMA hardware consists of four accelerometer
assemblies to be located in different parts of the SPACEHAB
Space Research Laboratory. The accelerometer package is
comprised of three remotely located standard three-dimensional
systems and three new invertible accelerometers in the central
unit. The signal processing system and the new, unique
invertible feature permit measurements of absolute microgravity
and low-level, quasi-steady, residual accelerations. Those
extremely low frequency disturbances are particularly
detrimental to space processes such as crystal growth and have
proven difficult to measure in the past. The accelerometers
provide the acceleration data to a central control unit located
in a single locker. The data are recorded in flight on three
two-gigabyte magnetic hard drive devices.

A potential application of 3-DMA would be to characterize
the microgravity environment of space station in support of
experiments, research and commercialization activities.
Principal Investigator for 3-DMA is Jan Bijvoet of the UAH

Space Acceleration Measurement System

NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division at
the Lewis Research Center is sponsoring the Space Acceleration
Measurement System (SAMS) on the STS-60 mission. The SAMS is
designed to measure and record low-level accelerations during
experiment operations. The signals from these sensors are
amplified, filtered and converted to digital data before being
stored on optical disks and sent via downlink to the ground
control center.
SAMS has flown successfully on seven previous Shuttle flights
and acquired nearly 15 gigabytes of data which represents 50
days of operation. Approximately two gigabytes of data will be
acquired on the SPACEHAB-2 mission.

The capacity of SAMS' double-sided optical disk used on
Shuttle missions is 400 megabytes. This compares to
approximately 400 high density floppy disks, or forty standard
boxes of ten disks. All the data will fit on one optical disk
measuring about 5 inches square.

Three sensors will be flown. One sensor will measure the
disturbances near an Environmental Control Support System.
Another sensor will be located on the support structure of the
SPACEHAB Space Research Laboratory. The third sensor will be
attached to a locker door to determine the level of
disturbances experienced by experiments in the locker and
nearby. Data from all three sensors will be used to further
characterize the SPACEHAB Space Research Laboratory
microgravity environment. SAMS data will be compared with data
from the Three-Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer (3-DMA.)

Scientists may use the SAMS data in different ways,
depending on the nature of the science experiment and the
principal investigators' experience and ground-based testing
results. The principal investigators will typically look for
acceleration events or conditions that exceed a threshold where
the experiment results could be affected. This may be, for
example, a frequency versus amplitude condition, an energy
content condition or simply an acceleration magnitude
threshold. Data from previous missions were used to
characterize the Shuttle middeck and Spacelab microgravity
environment, including disturbances caused by thruster firings
and crew exercise with the treadmill and bicycle ergometer.

SAMS flight hardware was designed and developed in-house
by the NASA Lewis Research Center. Ronald Sicker is the SAMS
Project Manager and Richard Delombard is responsible for
analyzing SAMS data.

The flight of the Stirling Orbiter Refrigerator/Freezer
(SOR/F) on SPACEHAB-2 is a demonstration to obtain necessary
information and characterization about the operation of
Stirling refrigerator/freezer technology in microgravity. If
proven successful, this technology will be targeted to replace
the current vapor compression systems, which historically have
had marginal reliability and lower theoretical efficiencies.

The Stirling system in the SOR/F uses environmentally
benign helium as a working fluid, has an easily variable
capacity, a quick chill capacity, long life gas bearings, and a
motor hermetically sealed within the fluid loop, thus avoiding

Refrigerator/freezer technology for support of on-orbit
investigations has been identified by the NASA Office of Life
and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the SOR/F sponsor,
as one of its highest priority technologies for development.
Since microgravity operation of the SOR/F Stirling unit has not
been proven on orbit, this flight test requirement was
established as a requirement before the unit can become

SOR/F is a system the size of two standard lockers and was
developed under the auspices of the Life Sciences Project
Division at the Johnson Space Center. It weighs a total of
nearly 100 pounds (97.8 kilograms) and consumes 50 watts of
electricity at refrigerator conditions and 70 watts at freezer
conditions, with cold set points ranging from -22The volume within the refrigerator/freezer unit is slightly
less than one cubic foot.


Principal Investigator: Peter Tsou, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Coinvestigator: Donald E. Brownie, University of Washington

The Sample Return Experiment sits on top of the Spacehab
Module poised to capture intact cosmic dust particles as they
come in contact with the 160 capture cells. The capture cells
consist of transparent silica aerogel with a density of 0.02/
g/cm3. Silica aerogel is the lowest density known solid
material and has extremely fine structure, about 50A.

Cosmic dust particles come from other planetary bodies,
remnants of the formation of our solar system, or materials of
other stellar systems. Capturing them allows detailed
laboratory studies needed to gain understanding of their
composition, type of cosmic processing and even the age. The
information will contribute to answering the questions
pertaining to the origin and development of our solar system
and life itself. Along with the cosmic dust, space debris and
other hypervelocity materials will be captured to provide
detailed tracing of the sources of these other particles as


STS-60 is especially significant to the Get Away Special
(GAS) program because Discovery will fly the 100th GAS payload
since the program's inception. NASA began flying small self-
contained payloads in 1982. The program, managed by the
Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Md., fully
utilizes the Shuttle's capacity not used by major payloads. It
affords the average person a chance to perform small
experiments in space. The program enhances education with
hands-on space research opportunities and generates new
activities unique to space. Customers also are able to
inexpensively test ideas that could later grow into major space

The first GAS payload reservation was purchased by R.
Gilbert Moore. Moore enthusiastically advocated the GAS
program throughout aerospace circles. Soon, others began
depositing money for GAS payload reservations. When Moore, a
Martin Thiokol Corporation executive, donated the first GAS
payload to Utah State University (USU), he presented USU
students with a new world of hands-on space research.

USU's first payload was very ambitious. Students put ten
experiments into a 5 cubic-foot (.14 cubic-meter) GAS
container. One experiment grew successive generations of fruit
flies to see if microgravity would affect their genetic
structure. Other tests examined the effects of microgravity on
epoxy resin-graphite composite curing, brine shrimp genetics,
duckweed root growth, soldering, homogeneous alloy formation,
surface tension, growth rate of algae, and thermal conductivity
of a water and oil mixture.

From this first payload a scholarship program emerged in
which undergraduate students could design and build experiments
to be flown in GAS payloads. Students have since generated
payloads totaling numerous experiments, while assisting other
universities and institutions with their GAS projects.

Since the program's early days, the GAS team at Goddard
have relied on numerous NASA and contractor personnel at the
Johnson and Kennedy Space Centers. Without their active
support, GAS payloads never would have left the ground. GAS
team members at Johnson helped establish simplified
integration, operational, and safety documentation procedures.
Personnel at Kennedy streamlined techniques and procedures for
processing payloads from arrival at Kennedy to installation in
the orbiters and from their postflight removal to their
shipment back to the experimenters. As well, Kennedy team
members found a home for the GAS program on Cape Canaveral.

An unusual feature of the GAS program is that
experimenters are not required to furnish postflight reports to
NASA. NASA feels that GAS customers can best speak for their
own experiments. The payloads results can be reviewed in
detail by obtaining papers presented by the experimenters at
NASA's Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposiums.

To date, 97 payloads have flown on 19 Shuttle missions.
STS-60 will fly four GAS experiments as well as three other
payloads on the GAS bridge. Clarke Prouty is GAS Mission
Manager and Lawrence R. Thomas is Customer Support Manager for
the Shuttle Small Payloads Project at Goddard. The following
is a brief description of the payloads that will fly on

G-071 The Orbiter Ball Bearing Experiment

Customer: California State University, Northridge
Customer Manager: Joan Yazejian
NASA Technical Manager: Dave Peters

A team of researchers from California State University,
Northridge, have built an experiment apparatus called the OBBEX
(Orbital Ball Bearing Experiment), to test the effects of
melting cylindrical metal pellets in microgravity. If
successful, this experiment may produce a new kind of ball
bearing, which has never before been built.

One of the goals of the OBBEX experiment is to create the
world's first seamless, hollow ball bearing. The hollow
characteristic of the ball can improve the service-life rating
of a ball bearing. This permits higher speeds and higher load
applications, and may reduce the friction encountered in normal

The OBBEX is a self-contained package that provides its
own energy needs and is controlled by an on-board computer.
The system will be activated by one of the Space Shuttle's crew
members at a pre-determined time during the flight, starting
with a 90-minute process to melt several metal alloy pellets.

G-514 The Orbiter Stability Experiment

Customer: Dr. Werner Neupert
Customer Manager: James Houston
NASA Technical Manager: Charlie Knapp

The primary scientific objective of this experiment is to
measure the vibration spectrum of the orbiter structure that is
present during normal orbiter and crew operations. The
information received as a result of this measurement is
valuable for any fine-pointed optical instrument mounted in the
orbiter bay, as even small orbiter disturbances, such as those
that may result from normal crew activity, could have an
impact on the line-of-sight stability of sensitive optical
systems. The net effect is that the vibration spectrum acts
as a low level acceleration spectrum that may influence
experiments requiring a low gravity environment.

This primary experiment consists of rapid and accurate
measurements of the direction of the Sun while the orbiter is
oriented with the bay (-Z axis) pointed to the center of the
Sun with a nominal deadband. It also measures the effects of
exposure to space environment on over-the-counter medicines and
plant seeds.

Piggy-backing on this experiment are: Morgan State
University, Baltimore, Md., Howard University, Washington,
D.C., and native-American high school students from South
Dakota. They are participants in the Scientific Knowledge for
Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL) program.

G-536 The Pool Boiling Experiment

Customer: NASA Headquarters, Office of Space Science and
Applications, Microgravity Sciences Division, Washington, D.C.
Customer Manager: Warren Hodges
NASA Technical Manager: Tom Dixon, GSFC

The Pool Boiling Experiment marks the 100th GAS payload to
fly since the program's inception. The objective of this
experiment is to improve the understanding of the boiling
process in microgravity. This involves putting a pool of
liquid in contact with a surface that can supply heat to the
liquid. The experiment will observe heating and vapor bubble
dynamics associated with bubble growth/collapse and subsequent
bubble motion. The lack of gravity driven motion makes the
boiling process easier to study in microgravity.

This will be the third flight of this payload. The two
previous flights have been extremely successful. The data in
each flight have been used to improve the science return on the
next flight.

G-557 The Capillary Pumped Loop Experiment

Customer: The European Space Agency, The Netherlands
Customer Manager: Dr. G. Reibaldi
NASA Technical Manager: Rich Hoffman

This experiment gives an in-orbit demonstration of the
working principle and performances of a two-phase Capillary
Pumped Loop (CPL), a two-phase Vapor Quality Sensor, and a two-
phase multi-channel Condenser Profile. It also compares data
on CPL behavior in a low-gravity environment with analytical
predictions resulting from modeling and on-Earth performance.

The Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL)

The CAPL payload is sponsored by the Goddard Space Flight
Center Earth Observing System project and will fly as a
Hitchhiker payload on the Space Shuttle. The CAPL experiment
will provide a microgravity test of a full sized prototype for
a capillary pumped thermal control system. This two-phase
system utilizes an ammonia working fluid to transfer large
amounts of heat over long distances at nearly constant
temperature. Capillary pumped systems will be used for thermal
control on Earth Observing System satellites and other future

Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS)

ODERACS is a project of the Space Sciences Branch of the
Solar System Exploration Division at the Johnson Space Center,
Houston, Texas and NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. This
experiment deploys six spheres of three different sizes from
the orbiter payload bay. The spheres range in size from two to
six inches in diameter (five to 15.2 centimeters). The spheres
will be observed, tracked, and recorded by ground-based radars
and optical telescopes. ODERACS enables end-to-end calibration
of the radar facilities and data analysis systems. This
calibration is particularly geared toward the small debris size
range. Additionally, ODERACS enables the correlation of
controlled empirical optical and radar debris signatures to the
spheres which have physical dimensions, compositions, albedos,
and electromagnetic scattering properties.

The University of Bremen Satellite (BREMSAT)

BREMSAT is a 140 lb (63 kilogram) small satellite built by
the University of Bremen's Center of Applied Space Technology
and Microgravity (ZARM) under sponsorship of the German Space
Agency (DARA). This 480 mm (19 inch) deployable satellite is
contained in a GAS canister with a Standard Door Assembly and a
modified GAS Carrier Ejection System. BREMSAT performs the
following scientific activities at various mission phases
before and after satellite deployment:

Measures heat conductivity.

Measures residual acceleration forces by acceleration
sensors to estimate the in-orbit microgravity quality onboard

Investigates the density distribution and dynamics of
micrometeorites and dust particles in low-Earth orbit.

Maps atomic oxygen.

Measures the exchange of momentum and energy between the
molecular flow and the rotating satellite.

Measures pressure and temperature during satellite re-



STS-60 Shuttle Amateur Radio EXperiment (SAREX)

Students in the U.S. and Russia will have a chance to
speak via amateur radio with astronauts aboard the Space
Shuttle Discovery during STS-60. Ground-based amateur radio
operators ("hams") will be able to contact the Shuttle through
automated computer-to-computer amateur (packet) radio link.
There also will be voice contacts with the general ham
community as time permits.

Shuttle commander Charles Bolden (license pending) and
mission specialists Ronald Sega (license pending) and Sergei K.
Krikalev (call sign U5MIR) will talk with students in 5 schools
in the U.S. and Russia using "ham radio."

Students in the following schools will have the
opportunity to talk directly with orbiting astronauts for
approximately 4 to 8 minutes:

* Boise Senior High School, Boise, Idaho (WA7QKD)
* Chariton High School, Chariton, Iowa (KB0IWE)
* James Bean School, Sidney, Maine (N1IFP)
* Mars Area Middle School, Mars, Penn (N3HKN)
* House of Science and Technology for Youth,
Central Moscow, Russia (UA3CR)

The radio contacts are part of the SAREX (Shuttle Amateur
Radio EXperiment) project, a joint effort by NASA, the American
Radio Relay League (ARRL), and the Radio Amateur Satellite
Corporation (AMSAT)

The project, which has flown on 11 previous Shuttle
missions, is designed to encourage public participation in the
space program and support the conduct of educational
initiatives through a program to demonstrate the effectiveness
of communications between the Shuttle and low-cost ground
stations using amateur radio voice and digital techniques.

Information about orbital elements, contact times,
frequencies and crew operating schedules will be available
during the mission from NASA, ARRL (Steve Mansfield, 203/666-
1541) and AMSAT (Frank Bauer, 301/ 286-8496). AMSAT will
provide information bulletins for interested parties on
INTERNET and amateur packet radio.

The ham radio club at the Johnson Space Center, (W5RRR),
will be operating on amateur short wave frequencies, and the
ARRL station (W1AW) will include SAREX information in its
regular voice and teletype bulletins.

There will be a SAREX information desk during the mission
in the Johnson Space Center newsroom. Mission information will
be available on the computer bulletin board (BBS). To reach
the bulletin board, use JSC BBS (8 N 1 1200 baud): dial 713-
483-2500, then type 62511.

The amateur radio station at the Goddard Space Flight
Center, (WA3NAN), will operate around the clock during the
mission, providing SAREX information and retransmitting live
Shuttle air-to-ground audio.

STS-60 SAREX Frequencies

Routine SAREX transmissions from the Space Shuttle may be
monitored on a worldwide downlink frequency of 145.55 MHz.

The voice uplink frequencies are (except Europe):
144.91 MHz

The voice uplink frequencies for Europe only are:

Note: The astronauts will not favor any one of the above
frequencies. Therefore, the ability to talk with an astronaut
depends on selecting one of the above frequencies chosen by the

The worldwide amateur packet frequencies are:

Packet downlink 145.55 MHz
Packet uplink 144.49 MHz

The Goddard Space Flight Center amateur radio club planned
HF operating frequencies:

.860 MHz 7.185 MHz
4.295 21.395

- end -


The objectives of the Auroral Photography Experiment-B
(APE-B) is to obtain spectral images of orbiter thruster
emissions, Shuttle glow, air glow and auroral glow. This will
be accomplished by photographing these phenomena with the on
board CCTV cameras and recording the information on two video

Still photos will be taken with a spectrometer assembly
consisting of a 35mm camera, intensifier assembly, 55mm lens,
clamp and spectrometer section. The experiment will be
operated by the flight crew at pre-determined times throughout
the mission.


Charles F. Bolden, 47, Col., USMC, is the commander (CDR)
of STS-60. A native of Columbia, S.C., Bolden was selected as
an astronaut in 1980 and will be making his fourth Space Shuttle

Bolden graduated from C.A. Johnson High School in Columbia
in 1964; received a bachelor's degree in electrical science
from the Naval Academy in 1968; and received a master's in
systems management from the University of Southern California
in 1977.

After flying more than 100 sorties in Vietnam as a Marine
Corps aviator, Bolden graduated from the Naval Test Pilot
School in 1979. Following his selection by NASA, Bolden's first
flight was as pilot of Shuttle mission STS-61C in January 1986.
His second flight was as pilot of Shuttle mission STS-31 in
April 1990, and his third flight was as commander of STS-45 in
March 1992. His technical assignments with NASA have included
service as a Special Assistant to the Johnson Space Center
Director in Houston and as an Assistant Deputy Administrator at
NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Bolden has logged more than 481 hours in space.

Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr., 42, Capt., USN, is the pilot
(PLT) of STS-60. Selected as an astronaut in 1987, Reightler
considers Virginia Beach, Va., his hometown and will be making
his second space flight.

Reightler graduated from Bayside High School in Virginia
Beach in 1969; received a bachelor's degree in aerospace
engineering from the Naval Academy in 1973; received a master's
in aeronautical engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School
in 1984; and received a master's in systems management from the
University of Southern California in 1984.

As a Naval aviator, Reightler attended the Naval Test
Pilot School in 1978, and, following service as a test pilot
for a variety of Naval aircraft, later was serving as chief
instructor at the test pilot school when selected by NASA.His
first Shuttle flight was as pilot of STS-48 in September 1991.
Reightler has logged more than 128 hours in space and 4,500
hours flying time in over 60 different types of aircraft.

Dr. N. Jan Davis, Ph.D., 40, is mission specialist 1 (MS1)
on STS-60. Selected as an astronaut in 1987, Davis considers
Huntsville, Al., her hometown and will be making her second
space flight.

Davis graduated from Huntsville High School in 1971;
received bachelors' degrees in applied biology from the Georgia
Institute of Technology and in mechanical engineering from
Auburn University in 1975 and 1977, respectively; and received
a master's and a doctorate in mechanical engineering from the
University of Alabama in Huntsville in 1983 and 1985,

Davis joined NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in 1979
as an aerospace engineer, where, in 1986, she was named team
leader in the Structural Analysis Division. Projects with which
Davis was involved during her tenure at Marshall included
structural analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Advanced
X-Ray Astrophysics Facility and the redesign of the Shuttle
solid rocket booster external tank attach ring. After her
selection as an astronaut, she first flew aboard Endeavour in
September 1992 on Shuttle mission STS-47.

Davis has logged more than 188 hours in space.

Dr. Ronald M. Sega, Ph.D., 41, is mission specialist 2
(MS2) on STS-60. Selected as an astronaut in 1991, Sega
considers Northfield, Ohio, and Colorado Springs, Co., his
hometowns, and he will be making his first space flight.

Sega graduated from Nordonia High School, Macedonia, Ohio,
in 1970; received a bachelor's degree in mathematics and
physics from the Air Force Academy in 1974; received a master's
in physics from Ohio State University 1975; and received a
doctorate in electrical engineering from the University of
Colorado in 1982.

Sega completed Air Force pilot training in 1974 and served
as an instructor pilot in the Air Force from 1976-1979. From
1979-1982, he was on the faculty of the Air Force Academy's
Dept. of Physics, and, from 1982 through 1990 was actively on
the faculty of the University of Colorado in Colorado Springs,
from which he is currently on a leave of absence. From 1989-
1990, while on leave from the University of Colorado, Sega
served as research associate professor of physics at the
University of Houston and is a co-prinicipal investigator of
the Wake Shield Facility.

Sega has logged more than 3,700 hours flying time in

Dr. Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Ph.D., 43, is payload
commander and mission specialist 3 (MS3) on STS-60. A native of
San Jose, Costa Rica, Chang-Diaz was selected as an astronaut
in 1980 and will be making his fourth space flight.

Chang-Diaz graduated from Colegio De La Salle in San Jose
in 1967 and from Hartford High School, Hartford, Ct., in 1969.
He received a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from
the University of Connecticut in 1973; and received a doctorate
in applied plasma physics from the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in 1977.

Chang-Diaz has been a visiting scientist with the MIT
Plasma Fusion Center since 1983, working with the institute to
develop a future propulsion system for spacecraft based on
magnetically confined high temperature plasmas. As an
astronaut, his non-flight assignments have included starting
the Astronaut Science Colloquium Program and the Astronaut
Science Support Group, implementing closer ties between the
astronaut corps and the scientific community.

Chang-Diaz first flew on STS-61C in January 1986 as a
mission specialist. His second flight was on STS-34 in October
1989, and his third Shuttle flight was on STS-46 in August

Chang-Diaz has logged more than 457 hours in space.

Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, 35, a Russian Space
Agency cosmonaut, is mission specialist 4 (MS4) on STS-60. A
native of St. Petersburg, Russia, Krikalev is one of two
candidates named by the Russian Space Agency to fly on the
Space Shuttle. Krikalev is a veteran of two flights in space,
both long-duration stays aboard the Russian Mir Space Station.

Krikalev graduated from high school in 1975 and received a
mechanical engineering degree from the Leningrad Mechanical
Institute, now renamed the St. Petersburg Technical University,
in 1981.

Krikalev joined NPO Energia, the Russian industrial
organization responsible for manned space flight activities in
1981, and his duties included testing space flight equipment,
developing space operations methods, and ground control
operations. He worked with the rescue team for the Salyut 7
space station failure in 1985, developing methods for docking
with the uncontrolled station and for repair of the station.

Krikalev was selected as a cosmonaut in 1985 and first
flew aboard Soyuz TM-7 as a flight engineer. The Soyuz TM-7
mission was launched Nov. 26, 1988, and the crew stayed aboard
the Mir space station until their return on April 27, 1989.

His next flight was as flight engineer aboard Soyuz TM-12,
the ninth Mir mission, launched on May 19, 1991. Krikalev
remained aboard the Mir station, performing seven spacewalks
during his stay, until his return on March 25, 1992.

Krikalev has logged a total of more than 1 year and three
months in space.

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