Contents of the STS-52.TXT file
STS-52 PRESS KIT
PUBLIC AFFAIRS CONTACTS
Office of Space Flight/Office of Space Systems Development
Mark Hess/Jim Cast/Ed Campion
Office of Space Science and Applications
Paula Cleggett-Haleim/Mike Braukus/Brian Dunbar
Office of Commercial Programs
Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology
Drucella Andersen/Les Dorr
Office of Safety & Mission Quality/Office of Space
Ames Research Center Langley Research Center
Jane Hutchison Jean Drummond Clough
Dryden Flight Research Facility Lewis Research Center
Nancy Lovato Mary Ann Peto
Goddard Space Flight Center Marshall Space Flight Center
Susan Marucci June Malone
Jet Propulsion Laboratory Stennis Space Center
James Wilson Myron Webb
Johnson Space Center Wallops Flight Center
James Hartsfield Keith Koehler
Kennedy Space Center
General Release 3
Media Services Information 6
Summary of Major Activities 8
Payload and Vehicle Weights 9
Trajectory Sequence of Events 10
Space Shuttle Abort Modes 11
Pre-Launch Processing 12
CARGO BAY PAYLOADS
Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS) 13
U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP) 18
Attitude Sensor Package (ASP) 21
Canadian Experiments (CANEX) 22
Space Technology And Science Experiments 23
Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) 29
Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE) 29
Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP) 31
Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE) 32
Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus
ITA Experiment (CMIX) 32
Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE) 35
Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) 36
CREW BIOGRAPHIES & MISSION MANAGEMENT
STS-52 Crew Biographies 39
Mission Management for STS-52 42
Shuttle Missions 45
RELEASE: 92-153 October 1992
COLUMBIA TO DEPLOY LAGEOS-II, SERVE AS TECHNOLOGY TESTBED
Shuttle flight STS-52 will be an ambitious mission, demonstrating the
versatility of orbiter Columbia as a satellite launcher, science platform and
technology testbed. Launch is planned for Oct. 15 from the Kennedy Space
Center, Fla. The 9-day, 20-hour and 54-minute mission is scheduled to land on
Oct. 25 at the Kennedy center.
A crew of six and 11 major payloads will be aboard Columbia's 13th mission,
the 51st Space Shuttle flight. Mission Commander is James Wetherbee with
Michael Baker the Pilot. Mission specialists are Charles Lacy Veach, William
Shepherd and Tamara Jernigan. Steve MacLean is the Payload Specialist and the
third Canadian citizen to fly aboard the Shuttle.
LAGEOS 2 - Small Satellite, Big Results
Columbia will eject the LAGEOS-II satellite from the cargo bay on the
second mission day. Built by the Italian Space Agency using NASA blueprints,
this small, 900-pound satellite will help geologists fill in important details
about the Earth. The first LAGEOS was launched in 1976. Adding a second
spacecraft will enable researchers to gather twice the data.
"The satellite may be small, but the data returned is big time science,"
says Program Scientist Dr. Miriam Baltuck. This information will be
particularly useful for monitoring regional fault movement in earthquake-prone
Baltuck said geologists use this information to monitor the extremely slow
movements of the Earth's crustal plates, to measure and understand the "wobble"
in the Earth's axis of rotation, collect information on the Earth's size and
shape and more accurately determine the length of the day.
Baltuck explained that ground-based researchers from 30 countries will
participate in collecting and analysing the data received from the satellite .
The researchers will bounce laser beams off the mirror-covered spacecraft and
log how long it takes the beams to make the round-trip voyage.
"We know the speed that light travels," said Baltuck. "So by plugging that
into our formula, we can measure precisely the distances between stations on
the Earth and the satellite."
USMP Makes Debut
A major new materials processing payload makes its debut on STS-52 -- the
first United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-1). The payload consists of
three experiments mounted on a new carrier, derived from the previously flown
Materials Science Lab, in Columbia's cargo bay.
"This is an excellent use of the Shuttle to perform microgravity
experiments that are primarily operated remotely from the ground," said Program
Manager David Jarrett. This type of remote operations will help prepare the
science community for Space Station Freedom prior to its permanently manned
Experiments on USMP-1 will explore using the unique space environment to do
research that is not possible on Earth. The science, while basic in nature,
could impact applications on Earth in areas such as computer memory, metals and
semiconductors. Another experiment will measure the Shuttle's vibrations,
information critical to scientists understanding the current experiments and
planning future experiments.
Canada Provides Variety of Experiments
Canadian Payload Specialist MacLean will perform a bevy of experiments
called CANEX-2. Many of these experiments are extensions of work carried out by
Dr. Marc Garneau as part of the CANEX group of experiments that flew in 1984.
CANEX-2 is actually 10 separate investigations. Results from CANEX-2 have
potential applications in machine vision systems for use with robotic equipment
in space and in environments such as mines and nuclear reactors. Other
potential applications relate to the manufacturing of goods, the development of
new protective coatings for spacecraft materials, improvements in materials
processing, and a better understanding of Earth's stratosphere which contains
the protective ozone layer.
Greater knowledge of human adaptation to microgravity is another objective
of the CANEX-2 payload. MacLean will conduct experiments on back pain, body
water changes and the effect of weightlessness on the vestibular system.
Columbia, An Orbiting Testbed
Columbia will be turned into an orbiting test-bed for other STS-52
experiments. One, called the Attitude Sensor Package built by the European
Space Agency, will gather information on the performance and accuracy of new
sensors. Space is the best place to test these sensors. The data returned
could be used in the design of sensors for future spacecraft.
Other space technology experiments will examine how very cold liquids
behave in space, the use of heat pipe technology for temperature control, and
the effects of atomic oxygen on different materials -- technologies that may
have important contributions to the design of future spacecraft.
Commercial Office Payloads
Major payloads, sponsored by NASA's Commercial Programs Office, will
examine a compound for possible use in combating diseases which involve loss of
bone mass; thin-film membrane research which has potential application in the
biotechnology and pollution control field; and a new facility for growing
semiconductor crystals which permits interaction from the crew to achieve
A commercial protein crystal growth facility will fly on STS-52. Scientists
hope the new facility will result in more crystals that are better ordered,
larger and more uniform in size than their ground-based counterparts.
With the exception of the Canadian Payload Specialist, there are no
"rookie" astronauts on this flight. STS-52 will mark Wetherbee's second
Shuttle flight. He was the Pilot on the STS-32 Columbia mission. Baker also
will be making his second flight, but his first as a Pilot. Baker was a mission
specialist on STS-43.
Veach, Shepherd and Jernigan are Shuttle veterans. Veach previously flew
on STS-39, and Shepherd has two previous flights, STS-27 and -41. Jernigan
last flew on STS-40, a Columbia mission devoted to life sciences research.
MacLean is one of six Canadian astronauts selected in December 1983. In
addition to his CANEX-2 duties, he is the Program Manager for the Advanced
Space Vision System experiment.
-end of general release-
MEDIA SERVICES INFORMATION
NASA Select Television Transmission
NASA Select television is available on Satcom F-2R, Transponder 13, located
at 72 degrees west longitude; frequency 3960.0 MHz, audio 6.8 MHz.
The schedule for television transmissions from the orbiter and for mission
briefings will be available during the mission at Kennedy Space Center, Fla;
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.; Ames-Dryden Flight Research
Facility, Edwards, Calif.; Johnson Space Center, Houston and NASA Headquarters,
Washington, D.C. The television schedule will be updated to reflect changes
dictated by mission operations.
Television schedules also may be obtained by calling COMSTOR 713/483-5817.
COMSTOR is a computer data base service requiring the use of a telephone modem.
A voice recording of the television schedule is updated daily at noon Eastern
Status reports on countdown and mission progress, on- orbit activities and
landing operations will be produced by the appropriate NASA newscenter.
A mission press briefing schedule will be issued prior to launch. During
the mission, change-of-shift briefings by a flight director and the science
team will occur at least once per day. The updated NASA Select television
schedule will indicate when mission briefings are planned.
STS-52 QUICK LOOK
Launch Date and Site: Oct. 15, 1992
Kennedy Space Center, Fla. -- Pad 39B
Launch Window: 11:10 a.m. EDT (1510 GMT) to
1:37 p.m. EDT (1737 GMT)
Orbiter: Columbia's 13th Flight
Orbit/Inclination: 160 x 163 nm (LAGEOS)/ 28.45 degrees
110 x 111 nm (CANEX)/ 28.45 degrees
Landing Time/Date: 8:04 a.m. EDT (1204 GMT)/Oct. 25
Primary Landing Site: Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Abort Landing Sites
Return To Launch Site Abort: Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
TransAtlantic Abort Landing: Banjul, The Gambia -- Prime
Ben Guerir, Morroco -- Alternate
Moron, Spain -- Alternate
Abort-Once-Around: Edwards AFB, Calif. -- Prime
KSC, Fla./White Sands, N.M.
Crew: James Wetherbee - Commander
Michael Baker - Pilot
Charles Lacy Veach - MS1
William Shepherd - MS2
Tamara Jernigan - MS3
Steven MacLean - PS1
Cargo Bay Payloads: Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS)
U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP-1)
Canadian Experiments (CANEX-2)
Attitude Sensor Package (ASP)
Tank Pressure Control Exp. (TPCE)
Middeck Payloads: Commercial Protein Crystal Growth
Commercial Materials ITA Exp. (CMIX)
Crystals by Vapor Transport Exp.
Heatpipe Performance Experiment
Physiological Systems Experiment
Shuttle Plume Impingement Exp. (SPIE)
STS-52 SUMMARY OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES
Flight Day One
Flight Day Two
Robot Arm (RMS) Checkout
Heatpipe Performance Experiment (HPP)
Flight Day Three
Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP)
Space Vision Systems Operations (CANEX)
Flight Day Four
Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG)
Flight Day Five
Flight Day Six
Phase Partitioning in Liquids (CANEX)
Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment Setup/Activation
Flight Day Seven
Phase Partitioning in Liquids
Flight Day Eight
Material Exposure in Low Earth Orbit (CANEX)
Attitude Sensor Package Maneuvers
Flight Day Nine
Material Exposure in Low Earth Orbit (MELEO)
Orbiter Glow Experiment (OGLOW)
Flight Day Ten
Canadian Target Assembly Release
Flight Control Surface Checkout
Reaction Control System Hotfire
Flight Day Eleven
Deorbit Burn and Landing at Kennedy Space Center
STS-52 VEHICLE AND PAYLOAD WEIGHTS
Orbiter Columbia Empty and three SSMEs 181,502
Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS) 5,512
LAGEOS Support Equipment 2,214
U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP-1) 8,748
Attitude Sensor Package (ASP) 632
Canadian Experiments (CANEX-2) 301
Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) 63
Heatpipe Performance Experiment (HPP) 100
Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE) 142
Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO) 96
Total Vehicle at Solid Rocket Booster Ignition 4,511,341
Orbiter Landing Weight 214,289
STS-52 TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
EVENT Elapsed Time Velocity Mach Altitude
(d/h:m:s) (fps) (feet)
Begin Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:10 188 .17 799
End Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:14 299 .26 1,956
SSME Throttle To 00/00:00:29 692 .62 8,573
Max. Dynamic Press 00/00:01:00 1,371 1.36 34,977
SSME Throttle Up 00/00:01:06 1,576 1.63 42,771
SRB Separation 00/00:02:04 4,111 3.84 151,131
Main Engine Cutoff 00/00:08:31 24,512 22.73 363,666
Zero Thrust 00/00:08:37 24,509 362,770
Fuel Tank Separation 00/00:08:50
OMS-2 Burn 00/00:39:55
Deorbit Burn 09/19:54:00
Landing at KSC 09/20:54:00
Apogee, Perigee at MECO: 156 x 35 nautical miles
Apogee, Perigee after OMS-2: 163 x 160 nautical miles
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES
Space Shuttle launch abort philosophy aims toward safe and intact recovery
of the flight crew, orbiter and its payload. Abort modes include:
* Abort-To-Orbit (ATO) -- Partial loss of main engine thrust late enough
to permit reaching a minimal 105-nautical mile orbit with orbital maneuvering
* Abort-Once-Around (AOA) -- Earlier main engine shutdown with the
capability to allow one orbit around before landing at either Edwards Air Force
Base, Calif., White Sands Space Harbor, N.M., or the Shuttle Landing Facility
(SLF) at the Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
* Trans-Atlantic Abort Landing (TAL) -- Loss of one or more main engines
midway through powered flight would force a landing at either Banjul, The
Gambia; Ben Guerir, Morocco; or Moron, Spain.
* Return-To-Launch-Site (RTLS) -- Early shutdown of one or more engines
without enough energy to reach Banjul would result in a pitch around and thrust
back toward KSC until within gliding distance of the Shuttle Landing Facility.
STS-52 contingency landing sites are Edwards Air Force Base, the Kennedy
Space Center, White Sands Space Harbor, Banjul, Ben Guerir and Moron.
STS-52 Prelaunch Processing
With three other vehicles at various processing stages, the KSC's Shuttle
team began work on July 10 to ready Columbia for its 13th voyage into space -
the day after its unscheduled landing at KSC. Columbia was towed to Orbiter
Processing Facility (OPF) bay 1 where post-flight inspections and tests were
In August, technicians installed the Shuttle orbiter main engines. Engine
2030 is in the number 1 position, engine 2015 is in the number 2 position and
engine 2028 is in the number 3 position.
Following completion of space vehicle assembly and associated testing, the
Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test with the STS-52 flight crew was scheduled
for late September.
A standard 43-hour launch countdown is scheduled to begin 3 days prior to
launch. During the countdown, the orbiter's fuel cell storage tanks and all
orbiter systems will be prepared for flight.
About 9 hours before launch, the external tank will be filled with its
flight load of a half million gallons of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen
propellants. About 2 and one-half hours before liftoff, the flight crew will
begin taking their assigned seats in the crew cabin.
Columbia's end-of-mission landing is planned at Kennedy Space Center's
Shuttle Landing Facility. KSC's landing and recovery team will perform convoy
operations on the runway to safe the vehicle and prepare it for towing to the
Columbia's next flight, STS-55, targeted for early next year, is a 10-day
mission with the German Spacelab D-2 module.
LASER GEODYNAMICS SATELLITE (LAGEOS) II
The Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS) II, like its predecessor launched
in 1976, is a passive satellite dedicated exclusively to laser ranging. Laser
ranging involves sending laser beams from Earthto the satellite and recording
the round-trip travel time. This measurement enables scientists to precisely
measure the distances between laser ranging stations on the Earth and the
LAGEOS is designed to provide a reference point for laser ranging
experiments that will monitor the motion of the Earth's crust, measure and
understand the "wobble" in the Earth's axis of rotation, collect information on
the Earth's size and shape and more accurately determine the length of the day.
The information will be particularly useful for monitoring regional fault
movement in earthquake-prone areas such as California and the Mediterranean
The LAGEOS II project is a joint program between NASA and the Italian
space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), which built the satellite using
LAGEOS I drawings and specifications, handling fixtures, dummy spacecraft and
other materials provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt,
Md. GSFC also tested the corner-cube retroreflectors on the surface of LAGEOS
II. ASI provided the Italian Research Interim Stage (IRIS) and the LAGEOS
Apogee Stage (LAS), the two upper stages that will transport LAGEOS II to its
proper altitude and circularize its orbit. NASA is providing the launch aboard
Space Shuttle Columbia.
The LAGEOS II satellite is a spherical satellite made of aluminum with a
brass core. It is only 24 inches (60 cm) in diameter yet it weighs
approximately 900 pounds (405 kg). This compact, dense design makes the
satellite's orbit as stable as possible.
The LAGEOS design evolved from several trade-offs that proved necessary to
achieve the program objectives. For example, the satellite had to be as heavy
as possible to minimize the effects of non-gravitational forces, yet light
enough to be placed in a high orbit. The satellite had to be big enough to
accommodate many retroreflectors, but small enough to minimize the force of
Aluminum would have been too light for the entire body of the sphere.
Design engineers finally decided to combine two aluminum hemispheres bolted
together around a brass core. They selected the materials to reduce the
effects of the Earth's magnetic field. LAGEOS II should remain in orbit
LAGEOS II has the dimpled appearance of a large golf ball. Imbedded into
the satellite are 426 nearly equally spaced, cube-corner retroreflectors, or
prisms. Most of the retroreflectors (422) are made of suprasil, a fused silica
glass. The remaining four, made of germanium, may be used by lasers of the
future. About 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) in diameter, each retroreflector has a flat,
circular front-face with a prism-shaped back.
The retroreflectors on the surface of LAGEOS II are three-dimensional
prisms that reflect light, in this case a laser beam, directly back to its
source. A timing signal starts when the laser beam leaves the ground station
and continues until the pulse, reflected from one of LAGEOS II's
retroreflectors, returns to the ground station.
Since the speed of light is constant, the distance between the station and
the satellite can be determined. This process is known as satellite laser
ranging (SLR). Scientists use this technique to measure movements of the
Earth's surface up to several inches per year. By tracking the LAGEOS
satellites for several years, scientists can characterize these motions and
perhaps correlate them with Earth dynamics observed on the ground.
Launch, Orbit Insertion And Data Collection
After the Shuttle releases LAGEOS II, two solid-fuel stages, the Italian
Research Interim Stage (IRIS) and the LAGEOS Apogee Stage (LAS), will engage.
The IRIS will boost LAGEOS II from the Shuttle's 184-mile (296 km) parking
orbit to the satellite injection altitude of 3,666 miles (5,900 km). The LAS
will circularize the orbit. This will be the first IRIS mission and will
qualify the IRIS, a spinning solid fuel rocket upper stage, for use in
deploying satellites from the Space Shuttle cargo bay.
LAGEOS II's circular orbit is the same as that of LAGEOS I, but at a
different angle to the Earth's equator: 52 degrees for LAGEOS II and 110
degrees for LAGEOS I. The complementary orbit will provide more coverage of the
seismically active areas such as the Mediterranean Basin and California,
improving the accuracy of crustal-motion measurements. It also may help
scientists understand irregularities noted in the position of LAGEOS I, which
appear to be linked to erratic spinning of the satellite itself.
LAGEOS II will undergo a very intensive tracking program in its first 30
days of flight. This will allow laser ranging stations to precisely calculate
and predict the satellite's orbit. By the end of the 30 days, full science
operations will have begun.
NASA operates 10 SLR stations. Four are Transportable Laser Ranging
Systems (TLRS), built to be moved easily from location to location. Four
Mobile Laser Ranging Systems (MOBLAS) are in semi-permanent locations in
Australia and North America, including GSFC. The University of Hawaii and the
University of Texas at Austin operate the other two NASA systems.
NASA and ASI have selected 27 LAGEOS II science investigators from the
United States, Italy, Germany, France, the Netherlands and Hungary. The
investigators will obtain and interpret the scientific results that come from
measurements to the satellite. By tracking both LAGEOS I and LAGEOS II,
scientists will collect more data in a shorter time span than with LAGEOS I
Data from LAGEOS II investigations will be archived in the Crustal
Dynamics Data and Information System (CDDIS) at GSFC. It will be available
worldwide to investigators studying crustal dynamics.
U.S. MICROGRAVITY PAYLOAD 1 (USMP)
The first U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP-1) will be launched aboard Space
Shuttle Columbia for a 10-day mission. The USMP program is a series of NASA
missions designed for microgravity experiments that do not require the
"hands-on" environment of the Spacelab. The Marshall Space Flight Center
(MSFC), Huntsville, Ala., manages USMP for NASA's Office of Space Science and
The USMP-1 payload will carry three investigations. The Lambda-Point
Experiment (LPE) will study fluid behavior in microgravity. The Materials for
the Study of Interesting Phenomena of Solidification on Earth and in Orbit,
(Materiel pour l'Etude des Phenomenes Interessant la Solidification sur Terre
et'en Orbite, or MEPHISTO) will study metallurgical processes in microgravity.
The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) will study the microgravity
environment onboard the Space Shuttle.
In orbit, the crew will activate the carrier and the experiments, which
will operate for about 6 days during the mission. Science teams at MSFC's
Payload Operations Control Center will command and monitor instruments and
Two Mission-Peculiar Equipment Support Structures (MPESS) in the Shuttle
cargo bay make up USMP-1. Carrier subsystems mounted on the front MPESS provide
electrical power, communications, data-handling capabilities and thermal
control. MSFC developed the USMP carrier.
Lambda-Point Experiment (LPE)
Principal Investigator: Dr. J.A. Lipa, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Project Manager: R. Ruiz, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
The Lambda-Point Experiment will study liquid helium as it changes from
normal fluid to a superfluid state. In the superfluid state, helium moves
freely through small pores that block other liquids, and it also conducts heat
1,000 times more effectively than copper. This change occurs at liquid
helium's "lambda point" (-456 degrees Fahrenheit or 2.17 degrees Kelvin).
Because the transition from one phase to another causes the organized
interaction of large numbers of particles, it is of great scientific interest.
The transition from fluid to superfluid state can be studied more closely
in microgravity than on Earth. Gravity causes a sample of liquid helium to have
greater pressure at the bottom than at the top, in turn causing the top of the
sample to become superfluid at higher temperatures.
Onboard USMP, a sample of helium cooled far below its lambda point will be
placed in a low-temperature cryostat (an apparatus used to keep something cold,
such as a thermos bottle). During a series of 2-hour runs controlled by an
onboard computer, the helium's temperature will be raised through the
transition point by a precision temperature- control system. Sensitive
instruments inside the cryostat will measure the heat capacity of the liquid
helium as it changes phases. The temperature of the helium sample will be
maintained to within a billionth of degree during the experiment.
Materials for the Study of Interesting Phenomena of Solidification on Earth and
in Orbit (MEPHISTO)
Principal Investigator: Dr. J. J. Favier, Commissariat a' l' Energie Atomique,
Project Manager: G. Cambon, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Toulous
MEPHISTO is a joint American-French cooperative program. The definition
and development of the flight hardware has been led by CNES (French Space
Agency) and CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission). This mission will be the
first of a series of six flights, about 1 per year, provided by NASA on the
MEPHISTO will study the behavior of metals and semiconductors as they
solidify to help determine the effect gravity has during solidification at the
point where solid meets liquid, called the solid/liquid interface. Data
gathered from MEPHISTO will be used to improve molten materials. For example,
more resilient metallic alloys and composite materials could be designed for
engines that will power future aircraft and spacecraft.
The cylindrical-shaped MEPHISTO furnace experiment will contain three
identical rod-shaped samples of a tin-bismuth alloy. MEPHISTO will process the
samples using two furnaces, one fixed and one moving. As a run begins, the
mobile furnace will move outward from the fixed furnace, melting the samples.
The mobile furnace then moves back toward the fixed furnace, and the sample
resolidifies. The fixed furnace contains a stationary solid/liquid interface
to be used as a reference for studying the mobile solid/liquid interface.
MEPHISTO has been designed to perform quantitative investigations of the
solidification process by using several specific diagnosis methods. During the
experiment runs, a small electrical voltage will constantly measure the
temperature changes at the interface to verify solidification rates. During
the last experimental run, electrical pulses will be sent through one sample,
"freezing" the shape of the interface for post-mission analysis.
The MEPHISTO apparatus allows many cycles of solidification and remelting
and is particularly well-adapted for long-duration missions. During the
mission, scientists will compare the electrical signal to data from a SAMS
sensor to see if the Shuttle's movement is disturbing the interface. They then
can make adjustments to the experiments if necessary. Post-mission analysis of
the space-solidified sample will allow correlation between the electrical
measurements and changes in the sample.
Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS)
Scientific Investigator: Charles Baugher, MSFC, Huntsville, Ala.
Project Manager: R. De Lombard, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland
The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) is designed to measure
and record low-level acceleration during experiment operations. The signals
from these sensors are amplified, filtered and converted to digital data before
it is stored on optical disks and sent via downlink to the ground control
USMP-1 will be the first mission for two SAMS flight units in the cargo
bay configuration. The two units each will support two remote sensor heads.
Two heads will be mounted in the Lambda Point Experiment (LPE) and the other
two heads will be mounted to the MPESS structure near the MEPHISTO furnace.
Some of the data will be recorded on optical disks in the SAMS units,
while other data will be down-linked to the Marshall Spaceflight Center's
Payload Operations Control Center.
The down-linked SAMS data will be utilized during experiment operations by
the principal investigators (PI) involved with LPE and MEPHISTO. The SAMS data
also will be monitored by the SAMS project team.
The PIs will look for acceleration events or conditions that exceed a
threshold where the experiment results could be affected. This may be, for
example, a frequency versus amplitude condition, an energy content condition or
simply an acceleration magnitude threshold. Experiment operations may be
changed based on the observed microgravity environment.
SAMS flight hardware was designed and developed in-house by the NASA Lewis
Research Center and Sverdrup Technology Inc. project team. The units have
flown on STS-40, STS-43, STS-42, STS-50 and STS-47 missions.
ATTITUDE SENSOR PACKAGE (ASP)
STS-52 will carry the third Hitchhiker payload to fly in space.
Hitchhikers are a part of Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Shuttle Small
Payloads Project (SSPP). Hitchhiker provides quick-response, economical
flights for small attached payloads that have more complex requirements than
Get Away Special experiments.
The STS-52 Hitchhiker payload carries one foreign reimbursable experiment,
the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP) experiment. This experiment was prepared by
the In-Orbit Technology Demonstration Programme of the European Space Agency
The ASP experiment consists of three unique spacecraft attitude sensors,
an on board computer and a support structure. The primary sensor is the
Modular Star Sensor (MOSS). The other two sensors are the Yaw Earth Sensor
(YESS) and the Low Altitude Conical Earth Sensor (LACES). The ASP sensors and
their support structure are assembled on a Hitchhiker small mounting plate.
The Hitchhiker avionics, mounted to another small mounting plate, provides
power and signal interfaces between the ASP experiment and the Shuttle.
Often the performance of the space instruments cannot be predicted
accurately on Earth because of the lack of knowledge of and actual simulation
of the space environment. The ASP experiment exposes these attitude sensors to
actual space conditions, demonstrating their performance and accuracy. This
flight experience will be evaluated by ESA for possible use of these sensors on
future ESA programs.
During the mission, the ASP experiment will operate for 16 orbits from the
Hitchhiker Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at GSFC, Greenbelt,
Md. ESA personnel and contractors will operate their ground support equipment
in the POCC during the Shuttle flight.
The SSPP is managed by Goddard for NASA's Office of Space Flight. The
Hitchhiker Program, managed by the SSPP, performs overall mission management
duties for Hitchhiker payloads flying on the NASA Shuttle, including experiment
integration on the Shuttle and operations management during the flight.
Theodore C. Goldsmith is SSPP Project Manager. Chris Dunker is Goddard's
ASP mission manager. The In-Orbit Technology Demonstration Programme Manager
for ESA is Manfred Trischberger, the ESA ASP payload Manager is Roberto Aceti
and the ESA Principal Investigator is Peter Underwood. The In-Orbit Technology
Demonstration Programme is part of the European Space Technology and
Engineering Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
CANADIAN EXPERIMENTS (CANEX)
The Canadian Space Agency
The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) was formed in 1989 with a mandate to
promote the peaceful use and development of space, to advance the knowledge of
space through science and to ensure that space science and technology provide
social and economic benefits for Canadians.
To meet these objectives, CSA coordinates a variety of programs involving
space science, space technology, Space Station development, satellite
communications, remote sensing and human space flight. An integral part of
CSA, the Canadian Astronaut Program, supports space research and development in
close cooperation with scientists and engineers in government, universities and
the private sector. These investigations focus on space science, space
technology and life sciences research carried out on Earth and in space.
Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2)
CANEX-2 is a group of space technology, space science, materials
processing and life sciences experiments which will be performed in space by
Canadian Payload Specialist Dr. Steve MacLean during the STS-52 mission of
Space Shuttle Columbia. Bjarni Tryggvason is a backup crew member and alternate
to Dr. MacLean for this mission.
The potential applications of CANEX-2 space research include machine
vision systems for use with robotic equipment in space and in environments such
as mines and nuclear reactors. Other potential applications relate to the
manufacturing of goods, the development of new protective coatings for
spacecraft materials, improvements in materials processing, a better
understanding of the stratosphere which contains the protective ozone layer,
and greater knowledge of human adaptation to microgravity.
Many of these experiments are extensions of the work carried out by Dr.
Marc Garneau as part of the CANEX group of experiments that helped form his
Space Vision System Experiment (SVS)
Principal Investigator: Dr. H.F. Lloyd Pinkney, National Research Council of
Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Space is a difficult visual environment with few reference points and
frequent periods of extremely dark or bright lighting conditions. Astronauts
working in space find it difficult to gauge the distance and speed of objects
such as satellites.
The development of the Space Vision System (SVS), a machine vision system
for robotic devices, such as the Canada arm, was undertaken to enhance human
vision in the unfavorable viewing conditions of space. The SVS can provide
information on the exact location, orientation and motion of a specified
object. Dr. MacLean will evaluate an experimental Space Vision System for
possible use in the Space Shuttle and in the construction of Space Station
The Space Vision System uses a Shuttle TV camera to monitor a pattern of
target dots of known spacing arranged on an object to be tracked. As the
object moves, the SVS computer measures the changing position of the dots and
provides a real-time TV display of the location and orientation of the object.
This displayed information will help an operator guide the Canada arm or the
Mobile Servicing System (MSS) when berthing or deploying satellites.
For the CANEX-2 experiments, target dots have been placed on the Canadian
Target Assembly (CTA), a small satellite carried in the Space Shuttle's cargo
bay. During the flight, a mission specialist will use the arm to deploy the
CTA and take it through a series of maneuvers using the information displayed
by the SVS. Dr. MacLean will evaluate SVS performance and investigate details
that need to be considered to design a production model of the system.
Beyond its possible application as a computerized eye for the Space
Shuttle, a system derived from the Space Vision System may be used to help
construct and maintain the Space Station. In another application, an SVS-based
system could guide small, remotely-operated space vehicles for satellite
retrieval and servicing. On Earth, advances in machine vision could lead to
improvements in the manufacturing of products, in auto plants for example, and
to applications involving work in environments such as mines or nuclear
SPACE TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS
Materials Exposure in Low-Earth Orbit (MELEO)
Principal Investigator: Dr. David G. Zimcik, Canadian Space Agency, Ottawa,
Plastics and composite materials used on the external surfaces of
spacecraft have been found to degrade in the harsh environment of space.
Evidence suggests that this degradation is caused by interaction with atomic
oxygen which induces damaging chemical and physical reactions. The result is a
loss in mass, strength, stiffness and stability of size and shape.
The MELEO experiment is an extension of work performed by the CSA which
began with the Advanced Composite Materials Experiment (ACOMEX) flown on Marc
Garneau's 1984 mission. Researchers now want to extend the valuable baseline
date obtained to further investigate the deterioration process, try new
protective coatings and test materials designed for use on specific space
hardware such as the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) for the Space Station
Freedom and RADARSAT, the Canadian remote sensing satellite scheduled for
launch in early 1995.
The MELEO experiment will expose over 350 material specimens mounted on
"witness plates" on the Canada arm and analyzed after the mission. Typical
spacecraft materials will be tested along with new developments in protective
measures against atomic oxygen. The specimens will be exposed in the flight
direction for at least 30 hours. Dr. MacLean periodically will photograph the
specimens to record the stages of erosion. All materials will be returned to
Earth for detailed examination.
The MELEO experiment uses active elements called Quartz Crystal
Microbalances (QCM's), attached to the end of the Canada arm, to measure the
erosion of material with a very high degree of accuracy. Their electrical
functions are regulated by a controller located on the aft flight-deck of the
Shuttle orbiter. Data will be recorded using the on- board Payload General
Service Computer (PGSC). This will enable the Canadian Payload Specialist to
have real-time readouts of the erosion data during the mission.
It is expected that the MELEO experiment will provide data on the
performance of new materials exposed to the true space environment and provide
information to be used in the development of effective ground-based space
simulation facilities capable of testing and screening spacecraft materials in
Orbiter Glow-2 (OGLOW-2)
Principal Investigator: Dr. E.J. (Ted) Llewellyn, University of Saskatchewan,
Photographs taken by astronauts have revealed a glow emanating from
Shuttle surfaces facing the direction of motion. This phenomenon is thought to
be caused by the impact of high-velocity atoms and the effect of the orbiter's
In the first OGLOW experiment, Dr. Marc Garneau successfully photographed
the glow phenomenon. Computer analysis of these photographs and of
corresponding video recordings revealed the bright areas to be concentrated
around the Shuttle's tail section instead of around the entire Shuttle, as had
Additional data, obtained when Dr. Garneau took several photographs while
the Shuttle's thrusters were firing, led to the need for an OGLOW-2 experiment.
This experiment will explore in greater detail the gaseous reactions caused by
the orbiter thrusters through the post-flight analysis of the thruster-induced
Photographs of the Shuttle's tail, primarily while the thrusters are
firing, will be taken. On-board TV cameras will obtain corresponding video
recordings. The OGLOW-2 experiment also should determine when theroptical
measurements taken from the Shuttle might be adversely affected by the glow.
As part of the experiment, Dr. MacLean will use newly developed equipment
to photograph the Canadian Target Assembly with its different material
surfaces. The OGLOW-2 experiment also will study the glow from the Earth's
Queen's University Experiment in Liquid-Metal Diffusion (QUELD)
Principal Investigator: Prof. Reginald W. Smith, Queen's University, Kingston,
Atoms of any substance, whether liquid or solid, are in constant motion.
Knowledge of the rate at which atoms move around and in between each other
(diffusion) is important for a variety of industrial processes. On Earth, the
effects of convection make it difficult to measure the actual degree of
diffusion taking place within a substance. In space, where convection is
eliminated, it is possible to obtain more accurate information.
The QUELD experiment will allow diffusion coefficient measurements of a
number of liquid state metals. The QUELD apparatus contains two small electric
furnaces in which over 40 specimens will be heated in tiny graphite crucibles
until the test metals are molten. They will be allowed to diffuse for 30
minutes or more and then rapidly cooled to solidify the metals for post-flight
The researchers hope to use the data to help develop a general theory to
predict the rate of diffusion for any metal in the liquid state, as well as
provide fundamental information about the structure of liquid metals. This is
expected to lead to creation of better crystals for use in the fabrication of
computer microchips and radiation sensors and to the development of special
alloys which cannot be made on Earth.
Sun Photo Spectrometer Earth Atmosphere Measurement (SPEAM-2)
Principal Investigator: Dr. David I. Wardle, Environment Canada, Toronto,
The measurement of atmospheric structure and composition using space-based
instruments has provided a vast new capability for environmental monitoring.
SPEAM-2 will add to an expanding body of information about the stratosphere,
the part of the upper atmosphere containing most of Earth's protective ozone
The SPEAM-2 experiment comprises two measuring instruments and a control
computer developed by the Atmospheric Environment Service of Environment
Canada. The Sun Photo Spectrometer (SPS) will make multispectral measurements
of ozone and nitrogen compounds which play an important role in controlling
ozone balance especially in the presence of chlorine. Atmospheric
transmission, or the degree to which light is absorbed in the Earth's
atmosphere, also will be measured in the visible and near-infrared parts of the
solar spectrum. This hand-held instrument will be aimed at the sun by Dr.
MacLean during several sunset and sunrise periods.
The Airglow Imaging Radiometer (AIR) will observe atmospheric air glow
from atmospheric molecular oxygen in several regions of the electromagnetic
spectrum and possibly from OH radicals, highly reactive molecules composed of
oxygen and hydrogen, which affect the ozone concentration in the stratosphere.
These measurements will provide information about the chemical processes
which take place in the stratosphere and affect the protective ozone layer.
SPEAM-2 data will complement other measurements including those from NASA's
Solar Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and other ground- based observations.
It is expected that the SPEAM-2 experiment will provide extremely useful
information about the upper atmosphere and the capabilities of the new
instruments. The engineering data and experience gathered will enable Canadian
atmospheric scientists to make more effective use of future space platforms
such as research satellites and Space Station Freedom.
Phase Partitioning in Liquids (PARLIQ)
Principal Investigator: Dr. Donald E. Brooks, Department of Pathology and
Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Phase partitioning is being studied as a way of separating, from complex
substances, different kinds of cells which differ only subtly in their surface
The process uses two types of polymers (compounds formed by repeated units
of similar but not identical molecules) dissolved together in water. They form
two solutions, called"phases", which react to one another like oil and vinegar,
one floating up to lie on top of the other once they have been mixed and left
to stand. When mixtures of small particles such as cells are added to the
liquids, some are attracted to one of the phases, some to the other.
Consequently, the liquids separate the cell types.
The astronaut will shake a container holding a number of chambers with
solutions containing different mixtures of model cells visible through windows.
The container then will be observed and photographed at short intervals as
partitioning occurs. At the end of the experiment, the separated phases
containing their cells will be isolated and returned to Earth. The effects of
applying an electric field on the separation process also will be studied.
The ultimate objective is to increase the purity of the separated cells.
On Earth, it is difficult to separate substances and achieve maximum purity
using this process because of gravity-induced fluid flow. In microgravity, the
combined forces acting on the liquids and the cells are entirely different from
those on Earth, and the physics of the process can be better understood.
A phase partitioning experiment using the same apparatus was performed by
Dr. Roberta Bondar and other crew members during her January 1992 mission.
This investigation was itself an extension of an experiment carried out in 1985
on Shuttle mission 51D in which test solutions separated in a way that had not
been observed previously. The results of this experiment will be of interest
to medical researchers because the results apply to the separation and
purification of cells involved in transplants and treatment of disease.
Space Adaptation Tests and Observations (SATO)
Principal Investigator: Dr. Alan Mortimer, CSA, Ottawa, Ontario.
Every flight by a Canadian astronaut includes research into human
adaptation to spaceflight. Dr. MacLean's mission is no exception. The data
obtained will supplement the results of similar experiments performed during
the missions of Drs. Marc Garneau and Roberta Bondar. What follows are
descriptions of the investigations which make up the SATO group of experiments.
Vestibular-Ocular Reflex Check
Investigator: Dr. Doug Watt, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.
An experiment performed by Marc Garneau in October 1984 investigated the
effect of weightlessness on the vestibulo- ocular reflex, an automatic response
triggered by the vestibular system that keeps the eyes focused on a given
object despite head motion. Although researchers expected at least a slight
deterioration in the functioning of this reflex, systematic testing revealed no
Since these unexpected results were obtained several hours after launch,
time during which considerable adaptation could have occurred, it is now
necessary to test the vestibulo-ocular reflex at the time of entry into
The payload specialist will use a hand-held target and by rotating the
head back and forth, determine the ability of the eyes to track correctly.
Body Water Changes in Microgravity
Investigators: Dr. Howard Parsons, Dr. Jayne Thirsk and Dr. Roy Krouse,
University of Calgary.
In the absence of gravity there is a shift of body fluids towards the head
which leads to the "puffy face" syndrome observed in astronauts after several
days of spaceflight. There also is a loss of water from the body early in a
spaceflight. Preliminary results from Dr. Roberta Bondar's IML-1 mission in-
dicate that there may be significant dehydration occurring.
This test will determine changes in total body water throughout the
spaceflight. The payload specialist will ingest a sample of heavy water at the
beginning and end of the mission, and saliva samples will be collected daily.
Upon return, the samples will be analyzed to determine total body water.
The results of this experiment are important in developing nutritional
protocols for long duration spaceflight and will contribute to the development
of countermeasures to be used during re-entry.
Assessment of Back Pain in Astronauts
Investigator: Dr. Peter C. Wing, Head, Department of Orthopedic Surgery,
University of British Columbia,, University Hospital, Vancouver.
More than two thirds of astronauts have reported experiencing back pain
during spaceflight. The pain seems to be worst during the first few days in
space. This may be due to the astronauts' total height increase of up to 7.4
cm as recently documented during Dr. Roberta Bondar's IML-1 mission.
The height increase in the absence of gravity results from spinal column
lengthening and the flattening of the normal spinal curves. This probably
results from an increase in the water content and thus, the height of the discs
between the vertebrae of the spine. This in turn may result in an increase in
the distance between the vertebrae and may cause pain from tension on soft
tissue such as muscle, nerves and ligaments.
This experiment will continue the investigation of the causes of back pain
in space which began during the IML-1 mission. The ultimate goal is to develop
techniques to be used either before or during spaceflight to alleviate its
effects. During the mission, Dr. Steve MacLean will measure his height and use
a special diagram to record the precise location and intensity of any back
pain. It is expected that the results of this experiment will lead to an
increased understanding of back pain on Earth.
Illusions During Movement
Investigator: Dr. Doug Watt, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.
Astronauts have experienced the disconcerting illusion that the floor is
moving up and down while performing deep knee bends in space and after return
The objective of this test is to determine when these illusions occur and
to investigate how visual and tactile inputs may affect such illusions. For
example, the payload specialist may hold onto a fixed object such as a seat
while doing knee bends to see if that alters the illusion of the floor moving.
TANK PRESSURE CONTROL EXPERIMENT/THERMAL PHENOMENA
An important issue in microgravity fluid management is controlling
pressure in on-orbit storage tanks for cryogenic propellants and life support
fluids, particularly liquid hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The purpose of the
Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP) is to provide some
of the data required to develop the technology for pressure control of
TPCE/TP represents an extension of the data acquired in the Tank Pressure
Control Experiment (TPCE) which flew on STS-43 in 1991. The flight of TPCE
significantly increased the knowledge base for using jet-induced mixing to
reduce the pressure in thermally stratified subcritical tanks. Mixing
represents a positive means of limiting pressure build-up due to thermal
stratification and may allow non-vented storage of cryogenics for some of the
shorter duration missions.
Longer missions, however, will require venting and will likely use
thermodynamic vent systems for pressure control. The efficient design of
either active or passive pressure control systems will depend on knowledge of
the thermodynamic processes and phenomena controlling the pressure build-up in
a low-gravity environment.
The purpose of the reflight, TPCE/TP, is to focus on the thermal phenomena
involved in the self-pressurization of subcritical tanks in a low-g
New technology for managing fluids in low gravity will be required for
future space systems, such as the Space Transfer Vehicle, Space Station
Freedom, space exploration initiatives, serviceable satellites, hypervelocity
aerospace vehicles and space defense systems.
Both TPCE and TPCE/TP are part of NASA's In-Space Technology Experiments
Program (IN-STEP), managed by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space
Technology. The TPCE/TP Project Manager is Richard Knoll, NASA Lewis Research
Center, Cleveland. Lewis investigators proposed and are managing the refight.
M. M. Hasan from Lewis is the Principal Investigator. Boeing Aerospace Co.,
Seattle, Washington, developed the original flight hardware.
PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS EXPERIMENT
The Physiological Systems Experiment-02 (PSE-02) is a middeck payload
resulting from a collaboration by Merck & Co.,Inc., and the Center for Cell
Research (CCR), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space located
at Pennsylvania State University.
Physiological systems experiments use microgravity- induced biological
effects, such as bone loss, muscle atrophy, depressed hormone secretion,
decreased immune response, cardiac deconditioning, neurovestibular disturbances
or other changes to test pharmaceutical products or to discover new therapeutic
PSE-02 will evaluate a compound being developed to treat osteoporosis.
The experiment will test the ability of the compound to slow or stop bone loss
induced by microgravity. Merck scientists will examine whether the lower
gravity experienced on a space flight accelerates the rate at which bone mass
is lost, compared to losses observed when a limb is immobilized on Earth.
The compound to be tested in PSE-02 is currently in large scale human
clinical studies as a treatment for osteoporosis associated with menopause. In
postmenopausal women, this loss is a consequence of estrogen depletion.
Today, 25 million Americans, primarily women, have the bone-thinning
disease known as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis often progresses without symptoms
or pain until a fracture occurs, typically in the hips, spine or wrist. Each
year, it leads to more than 1.3 million fractures that can cause permanent
disability, loss of independence or death.
PSE-02 could help determine if the compound will be useful in treating the
bone loss caused by prolonged immobilization of weight-bearing limbs in
bedridden or paralyzed patients. The experiment also may have direct
application in space, as a preventative for bone loss that might effect
astronauts on extended flights.
In this experiment, six healthy, adolescent, male, albino rats will be
treated with the Merck developmental anti-osteoporotic compound prior to
flight. An equivalent number of flight rats will remain untreated to serve as
controls. The two groups will be housed in completely self- contained units
called Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) during the flight. The AEMs will
contain enough food and water for the duration of the mission. No interaction
with the crew is required on orbit. A clear plastic cover on the AEM will
permit the crew to visually inspect the condition of the rats.
The experiment protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Animal Care
and Use Committees of both NASA and Merck. Veterinarians oversee selection,
care and handling of the rats.
After the flight, tissues from the rats will be evaluated in a series of
studies by teams of scientists from both Merck and the CCR. These studies are
expected to last several months to a year.
Dr. W. C. Hymer is Director of the Center for Cell Research at Penn State
and co-investigator for PSE. Dr. William W.Wilfinger is the CCR Director of
Physiological Testing. Dr. Gideon Rodan of Merck & Co., Inc., is Principal
HEAT PIPE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENT (HPP)
The Heat Pipe Performance experiment is the latest in a series of tests to
develop technology that will make it easier for a space vehicle to reject
excess heat generated by its equipment and crew.
Current heat control technology - as found on the Shuttle orbiter, for
example - uses a complex system of pumps, valves and radiators to dump waste
heat into space. A fluid, Freon 21, circulates through a loop where heat is
collected and then pumped between two flat plates that radiate the heat to
space. But radiators can be damaged by orbital debris and mechanical pumping
systems may not be reliable for longer missions.
A heat pipe system provides a simple, highly reliable way to reject heat.
It is a closed vessel containing a fluid and does not have moving mechanical
parts. Instead, it relies on the natural phenomenon of liquids absorbing heat
to evaporate and releasing that heat when condensing. The waste heat generated
by a spacecraft evaporates the liquid at one end of the heat pipe, and the
vapor condenses and releases heat to space at the other end. Capillary action
moves the fluid back to the evaporator end.
The Heat Pipe Performance experiment on STS-52 will evaluate the
sensitivity of state-of-the-art heat pipes to large and small accelerations.
It also will gather data on the force needed to 'deprime' (dry out) heat pipes
and how long it takes them to recover.
Columbia's crew will test two designs for fluid return by capillary
action: eight heat pipes with axial grooves and six with a fibrous wick. Some
of the heat pipes consist of a copper vessel with water as the working fluid
and the others of aluminum with Freon 113.
During the mission, one or two astronauts will assemble HPP in the
orbiterUs middeck area and conduct the tests. Four heat pipes will be
evaluated in each experiment run by rotating them on a cross-shaped frame. A
motor on an instrument unit mounted to the middeck floor will drive the
assembly. A battery-powered data logger will record the data.
The HPP device will spin at various rates to simulate different levels of
spacecraft acceleration and body forces. Crew members also will do
're-wicking' tests to measure the time needed for the heat pipes to reprime and
operate after excessive spin forces make them deprime. Mission plans call for
18.3 hours of HPP flight tests with another 4.5 hours needed for setup and
Researchers will carefully check the results of the tests with existing
computer models and static ground tests to see how well they can predict heat
pipe performance in microgravity.
Heat Pipe Performance is part of NASA'S In-Space Technology Experiments
Program (IN-STEP) that brings NASA, the aerospace community and universities
together to research potentially valuable space technologies using small,
relatively inexpensive experiments.
NASA'S Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology selects the experiments
and manages the program. Hughes Aircraft Co. designed and built the HPP
hardware. The experiment is managed at NASA'S Goddard Space Flight Center,
SHUTTLE PLUME IMPINGEMENT EXPERIMENT
The Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE) will record measurements
of atomic oxygen and contamination from Shuttle thruster firings during STS-52.
With sensors located at the end of Columbia's mechanical arm, SPIE will
support the CANEX-2 MELEO experiment as it exposes materials to the atomic
oxygen in the vicinity of Columbia. During these operations, the mechanical arm
will be positioned to place the SPIE sensor package in the direction of travel
of Columbia, and the atomic oxygen levels will be recorded on a portable
computer in the Shuttle cabin.
To measure contamination from Columbia's steering jets, the SPIE package
at the end of the arm will be positioned above the nose of the Shuttle and a
large or primary reaction control system (RCS) jet will be fired in its
vicinity. Quartz Crystal Microbalances are the sensors used to measure the
contaminants. In addition, any particles ejected by the thrusters will be
collected via a sticky piece of Kapton material that is part of the sensor
Measurements from the quartz sensors will be recorded on the Payload and
General Support Computer (PGSC), a portable lap-top computer in the crew cabin
of Columbia, for later analysis on the ground. Measurements of the amount and
kinds of contamination produced by thruster firings from the Shuttle will
assist designers in assessing the materials planned for use in constructing
Space Station Freedom.
Contamination will be a part of space station operations because the
Shuttle will fire its thrusters as it docks and departs from the station on
each visit. Designers want to know what and how much contamination should be
planned for in building Freedom. The SPIE principal investigator is Steve
Koontz of the Non-Metallic Materials Section in the Structures and Mechanics
Division at the Johnson Space Center, Houston.
COMMERCIAL MDA ITA EXPERIMENTS
NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is sponsoring the Commercial MDA ITA
Experiments (CMIX) payload, with program management provided by the Consortium
for Materials Development in Space (CMDS). CMDS is one of NASA's 17 Centers
for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). CMDS is based at the
University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH).
Flight hardware for the payload, including four Materials Dispersion
Apparatus (MDA) Minilabs, is provided by Instrumentation Technology Associates,
Inc. (ITA), Exton, Penn., an industry partner of the UAH CMDS.
ITA has a commercial agreement with the UAH CMDS to provide its MDA
hardware for five Shuttle missions. The arrangement is a "value exchange" by
which the MDA will be flown in exchange for a designated amount of MDA capacity
provided to NASA's CCDS researchers. The agreement is for a 5-year period or
until the five flight activities are complete, whichever comes first.
The MDA was developed by ITA as a commercial space infrastructure element
and as such, is in support of the Administration's and NASA's Commercial
Development of Space initiatives. Financed with support from private sector
resources over the past 5 years, the MDA hardware provides generic turnkey
space experiments equipment for users who want to conduct suitable science in
the microgravity environment of space. The company performs the integration
and documentation, thus freeing the user to concentrate on the experiment.
The objective of the CMIX payload is to provide industry and CCDS users
with low-cost space experimentation opportunities, thereby supporting one of
the objectives of the NASA CCDS program to provide commercial materials
development projects that benefit from the unique attributes of space.
The MDA was initially developed to grow protein crystals in space.
However, since flying on two Shuttle missions and several suborbital rocket
flights, use of the MDA has been expanded to include other research areas,
including thin-film membrane formation, zeolite crystal growth, bioprocessing
and live test cells. During the STS-52 mission, 31 different types of
experiments will be conducted in these research areas.
The goal of the protein crystal growth experiments is to 9produce larger,
more pure crystals than can be produced on Earth. The pharmaceutical industry
will use such crystals to help decipher the structure of a protein using x-ray
crystallographic analysis. The principal commercial application of such data
is in the development of new drugs or treatments.
Data collected from experiments in thin-film membrane formation will be
used in gaining an understanding of membrane structures applicable to producing
membranes made on the ground. The microgravity environment may be used to
develop a more uniform membrane structure, specifically one with few
irregularities and with uniform thickness and internal structure. Potential
commercial applications of membranes produced in microgravity exist in areas
such as gas separation, biotechnology, pollution control and waste stream
Results from zeolite crystal growth experiments are applicable in
improving the manufacturing of zeolites on Earth because those found in nature
and made by man are small and do not feature uniform molecular structures.
Zeolites are a class of minerals whose crystal structure is porous rather than
solid. Because of this, zeolites are full of molecular size holes that can be
used as sieves. Synthetic zeolites are used by the petrochemical industry for
catalytic cracking of large hydrocarbon molecules to increase the yield of
gasoline and other products. Zeolites also are used to clean up low-level
nuclear wastes and other hazardous wastes.
Bioprocessing experiments will provide knowledge on benefits from space
processing and on how to improve bioprocessing efforts on Earth. One example is
the use of microgravity for self-assembly of macromolecules. This type of
research has potential in the development of new implant materials for heart
valves, replacement joints, blood vessels and replacement lenses for the human
eye. Another commercial application exists with the assembly of complex
liposomes and virus particles to target specific drugs to treat cancer.
Recently modified to accommodate live test cells, the MDAs also will carry
several human and mouse cell types. Information from live test cells will be
used in identifying low-response cells for potential development of
pharmaceuticals targeted at improving the undesirable effects of space travel.
In addition to the 31 CCDS- and industry-sponsored experiments, ITA is
donating five percent of the four MDA Minilabs to high school students, for a
total of seven experiments. Among these student-designed experiments are
investigations of seed germination, brine shrimp growth and crystal formation
in the low-gravity of space. ITA sponsors these experiments as part of its
space educational program.
The MDA Minilab is a brick-sized materials processing device that has the
capability to bring into contact and/or mix as many as 100 different samples of
multiple fluids and/or solids at precisely timed intervals. The MDA operates
on the principles of liquid-to-liquid diffusion and vapor diffusion (osmotic
Throughout STS-52, the four MDA Minilabs, each consisting of an upper and
lower block, will remain in the thermally-controlled environment of a
Commercial Refrigerator/Incubator Module (CRIM). The upper and lower blocks,
misaligned at launch, will contain an equal number of reservoirs filled with
different substances. When the experiment is activated, blocks will be moved
in relation to each other, and the self-aligning reservoirs will align to allow
dispersion (or mixing) of the different substances.
To complete microgravity operations, the blocks again will be moved to
bring a third set of reservoirs to mix additional fluids or to fix the process
for selected reservoirs. A prism window in each MDA allows the crew member to
determine alignment of the blocks.
To activate the four MDAs, the crew will open the CRIM door to access the
MDAs and the MDA Controller and Power Supply. Activation will occur
simultaneously and is required as early as possible in the mission, followed by
minimum microgravity disturbances for a period of at least 8 hours. The crew
will operate switches to activate each MDA and once all the MDAs are activated,
the CRIM door will be closed.
Deactivation of each MDA will occur at different intervals. For example,
one MDA will automatically deactivate within minutes of being activated.
Whereas one will not deactivate at all. Deactivation of the other two MDAs
will occur later in the mission. Once the Shuttle lands, the MDA Minilabs will
be deintegrated, and the samples will be returned to the researchers for
Principal Investigator for the CMIX payload is Dr. Marian Lewis of the UAH
CMDS. Dr. Charles Lundquist is Director of the UAH CMDS. John Cassanto,
President, Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., is co- investigator.
CRYSTAL VAPOR TRANSPORT EXPERIMENT
NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is sponsoring the Crystal Vapor
Transport Experiment (CVTE) payload, developed by Boeing Defense & Space Group,
Missiles & Space Division, Kent, Wash.
The Boeing-designed crystal growth experiment will enable scientists to
learn more about growing larger and more uniform industrial crystals for use in
producing faster and more capable semiconductors. The CVTE equipment designed
to produce these crystals is a precursor to the kinds of scientific work
planned to take place aboard Space Station Freedom later this decade.
This experiment is important to the semiconductor industry because the
ability of semiconductors to process and store information is dependent on the
quality of the crystals used. Thus, large, uniform crystals grown in space may
lead to greater speed and capability of computers, sensors and other electronic
Although materials scientists have succeeded in producing very
high-quality silicon found in today's computer chips, certain effects caused by
Earth's gravitational pull - - known as thermal convection, buoyancy and
sedimentation -- have limited scientists' ability to produce more advanced
materials on Earth.
Thermal convection is turbulence induced by variations in densities caused
by the temperature differences that occur in a material when it's heated.
Buoyancy and sedimentation is a similar phenomenon, created by Earth's
gravitational pull, that makes less dense materials rise (buoyancy) and denser
materials sink (sedimentation). Because of these gravity-induced phenomena,
crystals grown on Earth are smaller and less ordered, containing imperfections
that limit the capability of transistors, sensors and other types of electronic
In the microgravity environment of space, the Boeing CVTE system will
attempt to grow purer and more uniform crystals using a cadmium telluride
compound and a process called vapor transport.
The cadmium telluride compound is a solid, sealed inside a glass tube
placed inside the CVTE furnace and heated to 850 degrees Celsius. When heated,
the compound evaporates and forms two gaseous materials: cadmium and tellurium.
This process is reversed during crystallization. Both evaporation and
crystallization processes occur in the CVTE glass tube.
Cadmium telluride vaporizes at one end of the glass tube and crystallizes
at the other. By carefully controlling the temperatures and temperature
profile inside the glass tube, large single crystals can be produced. The high
temperature used in this experiment is expected to produce samples as large in
diameter as a dime -- whereas previous crystal- growth facilities only have
been able to grow samples about the size of a pencil eraser.
Unlike previous, fully automated crystal-growth experiments conducted in
space, the Boeing experiment will be tended by the orbiter crew. The CVTE
system has a transparent window allowing the crew to observe the growing
crystal and adjust its position and furnace temperature to achieve optimum
STS-52 astronauts Bill Shepherd and Mike Baker trained with Boeing
scientists to learn to work the CVTE equipment. By having the astronauts
monitor and observe the on-orbit crystal growth, it is hoped that they might be
able to better interpret the resulting data and ultimately help industry
produce superior crystals.
In addition to the astronauts monitoring the experiment, NASA still
cameras will document, every several minutes, the rate of crystal growth.
Scientists later will use these photos to further analyze the crystal's growth.
The CVTE system is accommodated in a structure about the size of a
telephone booth, which will be installed in the galley area of the Shuttle
Principal investigators for CVTE are Dr. R. T. Ruggeri and Dr. Ching-Hua
Su, both of Boeing. The CVTE Program Manager is Barbara Heizer and the Chief
Engineer is David Garman, both of Boeing.
COMMERCIAL PROTEIN CRYSTAL GROWTH
The Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload is sponsored by
NASA's Office of Commercial Programs. Program management and development of the
CPCG experiments is provided by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography
(CMC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) based at
the University of Alabama at Birmingham. The CMC's goal is to develop the
technology and applications needed for successful space-based protein crystal
Metabolic processes involving proteins play an essential role in the
living of our lives from providing nourishment to fighting disease. Protein
crystal growth investigations are conducted in space because space-grown
crystals tend to be larger, purer and more highly structured than their ground-
based counterparts. Having high-quality protein crystals to study is important
because they greatly facilitate studies of protein structures. Scientists want
to learn about a protein's three-dimensional structure to understand how it
works, how to reproduce it or how to change it. Such information is a key to
developing new and more effective pharmaceuticals.
The technique most-widely used to determine a protein's three-dimensional
structure is x-ray crystallography, which needs large, well-ordered crystals
for analysis. While crystals produced on Earth often are large enough to
analyze, usually they have numerous gravity-induced flaws. By comparison,
space-grown crystals tend to be purer and have more highly-ordered structures,
significantly enhancing x-ray crystallography studies. Besides the increased
size and quality, space-grown crystals are important because they may be the
first crystals large enough to reveal their structure through x-ray analysis.
With the tremendous role that proteins play in everyday life, research in
this area is quickly becoming a viable commercial industry. In fact, the
profit potential for commercial applications has attracted firms in the
pharmaceutical, biotechnological and chemical industries. In response to
industry interest, the CMC has formed affiliations with a variety of companies
that are investing substantial amounts of time, research and funding in
developing protein samples for use in evaluating the benefits of microgravity.
For the past 10 years, exponential growth in protein pharmaceuticals has
resulted in the successful use of proteins such as insulin, interferons, human
growth hormone and tissue plasminogen activator. Pure, well-ordered protein
crystals of uniform size are in demand by the pharmaceutical industry as tools
for drug discovery and drug delivery.
Structural information gained from CPCG activities can provide, among
other information, a better understanding of the body's immune system, and
ultimately aid in the design of safe and effective treatment for disease and
infections. For these reasons, CPCG crystal structure studies have been
conducted on 7 Shuttle missions starting in 1988.
During 1991 and 1992, other CPCG experiments were conducted on three
Shuttle missions, and successful results were obtained using a CMC-developed
hardware configuration know as the Protein Crystallization Facility (PCF).
These efforts focused on the production of relatively large quantities of
crystals that were pure and uniform in size. The space-grown crystals were
much larger than their Earth- grown counterparts.
On STS-52, the CPCG flight hardware will consist of the PCF and the third
flight of a newly-designed, "state-of-the- art" Commercial
Refrigerator/Incubator Module (CRIM). Its thermal profile is programmed prior
to launch, and it monitors and records CRIM temperatures during flight.
The objectives for producing protein crystals using the PCF hardware are
to grow them in large batches and to use temperature as the means to initiate
and control crystal growth. Using temperature as an activator in the
microgravity environment of space is advantageous because essentially no
temperature-induced convection currents are generated to interfere with protein
The PCF, as used in two past missions, comprises four plastic cylinders.
Each PCF cylinder is encapsulated within individual aluminum containment tubes
supported by an aluminum structure. Prior to launch, the cylinders will be
filled with protein solution and mounted into a CRIM. Each cylinder lid will
pass through the left wall of the aluminum structure and come into contact with
a temperature-controlled plate inside the CRIM. As configured for the STS-52
mission, the PCF will comprise 50-milliliter cylinders.
Shortly after achieving orbit, the crew will activate the experiment by
initiating the pre-programmed temperature profile. The CRIM temperature will
be changed gradually over several days to cause the protein solution to form
protein crystals. The change in CRIM temperature will be transferred from the
temperature-controlled plate through the cylinder lids to the protein solution.
Changing the solution temperature will allow crystals to form and based on
previous experience, these crystals will be well-ordered due to a reduction in
the damaging effects of the Earth's gravity. Once activated, the payload will
not require any further crew interaction except for periodic monitoring, nor
will it require any modifications for landing.
Due to the protein's short lifetime and the crystals' resulting
instability, the payload will be retrieved from the Shuttle within 3 hours of
landing and returned to the CMC for post-flight analyses. The crystals will be
analyzed by morphometry to determine size distribution and absolute/relative
crystal size. They also will be analyzed with x-ray crystallography and
biochemical assays of purity to determine internal molecular order and protein
The CPCG activities associated with the STS-52 mission are sponsored by
NASA's Office of Commercial Programs. Lead investigators for the experiment
include CMC Director Dr. Charles Bugg, CMC Deputy Director Dr. Lawrence DeLucas
and CMC Associate Director Dr. Marianna Long.
Principal Investigators for CVTE are Dr. R. T. Ruggeri and Dr.
Ching-Hua Su, both of Boeing. The CVTE Program Manager is Barbara Heizer and
the Chief Engineer is David Garman, both work for Boeing.
STS-52 CREW BIOGRAPHIES
James (Jim) D. Wetherbee, 39, U.S. Navy Commander, is Commander of
Columbia's 13th space mission. Selected to be an astronaut in 1984, Wetherbee,
from Flushing, N.Y., is making his second Shuttle flight.
Wetherbee served as Pilot on Columbia's STS-32 mission in January 1990 to
rendezvous with and retrieve the Long Duration Exposure Facility and to deploy
a Navy communications satellite.
A graduate of Holy Family Diocesan High School in South Huntington, N.Y.,
in 1970, Wetherbee received a bachelor of science degree in Aerospace
Engineering from the University of Notre Dame in 1974.
He was commissioned in the U.S. Navy in 1975 and was designated a Naval
Aviator in 1976. He has logged more than 3,500 hours flying time in 20
different types of aircraft. His first Shuttle mission lasted 261 hours.
Michael (Mike) A. Baker, 38, U.S. Navy Captain, is Pilot of STS-52. From
Lemoore, Calif., he was selected as an astronaut candidate in 1985 and flew his
first Shuttle mission aboard Atlantis' STS-43 mission in August 1991.
As a crewmember on that flight, Baker helped in conducting 32 experiments
as well as the primary mission to deploy a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite.
Baker graduated from Lemoore Union High School in 1971 and received a
bachelor of science degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of
Texas in 1975.
He completed flight training in 1977 and has logged more than 3,600 hours
flying time in almost 50 types of aircraft. Baker logged more than 213 hours
in space on his first Shuttle mission.
Charles L. (Lacy) Veach, 48, is Mission Specialist 1. Prior to being
selected as an astronaut in 1984, he served as an instructor pilot in the
Shuttle Training Aircraft used to train pilot astronauts to land the Space
Shuttle. Veach from Honolulu, Haw., previously was a mission specialist on
STS-39 in April 1991.
Veach was responsible for operating a group of instruments in support of
the unclassified Department of Defense mission aboard Discovery to better
understand rocket plume signatures in space as part of the Strategic Defense
A graduate of Punahou School in Honolulu, Veach received a bachelor of
science degree in Engineering Management from the U.S. Air Force Academy in
He was commissioned in the Air Force after graduation and received his
pilot wings at Moody AFB, Ga., in 1967. Veach has logged more than 5,000 hours
in various aircraft. His first Shuttle mission lasted more than 199 hours.
William M. Shepherd, 43, Navy Captain, is Mission Specialist 2. He was
selected as an astronaut in 1984 and is from Babylon, N.Y. STS-52 is Shepherd's
third Space Shuttle flight.
He served as a mission specialist on Atlantis' STS-27 mission, a
Department of Defense flight in December 1988. His second flight also was as a
mission specialist on STS-41, a Discovery flight in October 1990 to deploy the
Ulysses spacecraft designed to explore the polar regions of the Sun.
Shepherd graduated from Arcadia High School, Scottsdale, Ariz., in 1967
and received a bachelor of science degree in Aerospace Engineering from the
Naval Academy in 1971. In 1978 he received the degrees of Ocean Engineer and
master of science in Mechanical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of
Prior to joining NASA, Shepherd served with the Navy's Underwater
Demolition Team, Seal Team and Special Boat Unit. He has logged more than 203
hours in space.
Tamara (Tammy) E. Jernigan, 33, is Mission Specialist 3. Born in
Chattanooga, Tenn., she was selected to be an astronaut in 1985. She first
flew on Columbia's STS-40 Spacelab Life Sciences-1 mission.
As a mission specialist, Jernigan participated in experiments to better
understand how the human body adapts to the space environment and then readapts
to Earth's gravity. The Spacelab mission was the first dedicated to life
sciences aboard the Shuttle.
She graduated from Sante Fe High School in Santa Fe Springs, Calif., in
1977. She received a bachelor of science degree in Physics and a master of
science degree in Engineering Science from Stanford University in 1981 and
1983. Jernigan also received a master of science degree in Astronomy from the
University of California-Berkeley in 1985 and a doctorate in Space Physics and
Astronomy from Rice University in 1988.
Prior to becoming an astronaut, Jernigan worked in the Theoretical Studies
Branch at NASA's Ames Research Center. With her first Shuttle mission, Jernigan
has logged more than 218 hours in space.
Steven (Steve) Glenwood MacLean, 37, is Payload Specialist 1. Born in
Ottawa, Ontario, he will be making his first Shuttle flight.
MacLean attended primary and secondary school in Ottawa and received a
bachelor of science degree in Honours Physics and doctorate in Physics from
York University in 1977 and 1983, respectively.
He was one of six Canadian astronauts selected in December 1983. He was
designated as the payload specialist to fly with the CANEX-2 set of Canadian
experiments manifested on the STS-52 flight.
MacLean is currently actively involved in the development of space
technology, space science, materials processing and life sciences experiments
that he will perform in space on the mission. He is astronaut advisor to the
Strategic Technologies in the Automation and Robotics Program and Program
Manager of the Advanced Space Vision System being flown on the mission.
MISSION MANAGEMENT FOR STS-52
NASA HEADQUARTERS, WASHINGTON, D.C.
Office of Space Flight
Jeremiah W. Pearson III - Associate Administrator
Brian O'Connor - Deputy Associate Administrator
Tom Utsman - Director, Space Shuttle
Office of Space Science
Dr. Lennard A. Fisk - Associate Administrator
Alphonso V. Diaz - Deputy Associate Administrator
Dr. Shelby G. Tilford - Director, Earth Science
Robert Benson - Director, Flight Systems
Robert Rhome - Director, Microgravity Science and
Louis Caudill - LAGEOS II Program Manager
Dr. Miriam Baltuck - LAGEOS II Program Scientist
David Jarrett - USMP-1 Program Manager
Office of Commercial Programs
John G. Mannix - Assistant Administrator
Richard H. Ott - Director, Commercial Development Division
Garland C. Misener - Chief, Flight Requirements and
Ana M. Villamil - Program Manager, Centers for the Commercial
Development of Space
Raymond P. Whitten - Director, Commercial Infrastructure
Office of Safety and Mission Quality
Col. Federick Gregory - Associate Administrator
Dr. Charles Pellerin, Jr. - Deputy Associate Administrator
Richard Perry - Director, Programs Assurance
Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology
Richard H. Petersen - Associate Administrator
Gregory M. Reck - Director for Space Technology
Jack Levine - Manager, Space Experiments Office
Arthur R. Lee - Program Manager, Heat Pipe Performance
Richard A. Gualdoni - Program Manager, Tank Pressure Control
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA.
Robert L. Crippen - Director
James A. "Gene" Thomas - Deputy Director
Jay F. Honeycutt - Director, Shuttle Management and
Robert B. Sieck - Launch Director
Bascom Murrah - Columbia Flow Director
J. Robert Lang - Director, Vehicle Engineering
Al J. Parrish - Director of Safety Reliability and
John T. Conway - Director, Payload Management and Operations
P. Thomas Breakfield - Director, Shuttle Payload Operations
Joanne H. Morgan - Director, Payload Project Management
Mike Kinnan - STS-52 Payload Processing Manager
MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, ALA.
Thomas J. Lee - Director
Dr. J. Wayne Littles - Deputy Director
Harry G. Craft - Manager, Payload Projects Office
Alexander A. McCool - Manager, Shuttle Projects Office
Dr. George McDonough - Director, Science and Engineering
James H., Ehl - Director, Safety and Mission Assurance
Otto Goetz - Manager, Space Shuttle Main Engine Project
Victor Keith Henson - Manager, Redesigned Solid Rocket
Cary H. Rutland - Manager, Solid Rocket Booster Project
Parker Counts - Manager, External Tank Project
R. E. Valentine - Mission Manager, USMP-1
Sherwood Anderson - Asst. Mission Manager
Dr. S. L. Lehoczky - Mission Scientist, USMP-1
Dr. M. Volz - Asst. Mission Scientist
Lyne Luna - Payload Operations Lead
Rose Cramer - Payload Operations Lead
JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON
Aaron Cohen - Director
Paul J. Weitz - Acting Director
Daniel Germany - Manager, Orbiter and GFE Projects
Donald Puddy - Director, Flight Crew Operations
Eugene F. Kranz - Director, Mission Operations
Henry O. Pohl - Director, Engineering
Charles S. Harlan - Director, Safety, Reliability and Quality
STENNIS SPACE CENTER, BAY ST LOUIS, MISS.
Roy S. Estess - Director
Gerald Smith - Deputy Director
J. Harry Guin - Director, Propulsion Test Operations
AMES-DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH FACILITY, EDWARDS, CALIF.
Kenneth J. Szalai - Director
T. G. Ayers - Deputy Director
James R. Phelps - Chief, Shuttle Support Office
AMES RESEARCH CENTER, MOUNTAIN VIEW, CALIF.
Dr. Dale L. Compton - Director
Victor L. Peterson - Deputy Director
Dr. Joseph C. Sharp - Director, Space Research
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, GREENBELT, MD.
Dr. John M. Klineberg - Director
Peter T. Burr - Deputy Director
Vernon J. Weyers - Director, Flight Projects Directorate
Jerre Hartman - Project Manager, International Projects
James P. Murphy - Deputy Project Manager for LAGEOS
Dr. Ronald Kolenkiewicz - Project Scientist
ITALIAN SPACE AGENCY
Professor Luciano Guerriero - President, Italian Space Agency
Professor Carlo Buongiorno - Director General, Italian
Cesare Albanesi - Program Manager, Lageos II, Italian
Giovanni Rum - Program Manager, IRIS, Italian Space Agency
Dr. Roberto Ibba - Mission Manager, Lageos II/IRIS
CANADIAN SPACE AGENCY
W. MacDonald Evans - Vice President, Operations
Bruce A. Aikenhead - CANEX-II Program Manager And Director-
General, Astronaut Program
Bjarni V. Tryggvason - Alternate Payload Specialist
And Payload Operations Director