Contents of the STS-51PK.TXT file
STS-51 PRESS KIT
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
Advanced Communications Technology Satellite
Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-
Shuttle Pallet Satellite
PUBLIC AFFAIRS CONTACTS
For Information on the Space Shuttle
Ed Campion Policy/Management
Headquarters, Wash., D.C.
James Hartsfield Mission Operations/EVA
Johnson Space Center, Astronauts
Bruce Buckingham Launch Processing
Kennedy Space Center, Fla. KSC Landing Information
June Malone External Tank/SRBs/SSMEs
Marshall Space Flight
Center, Huntsville, Ala.
Nancy Lovato DFRF Landing Information
Dryden Flight Research
Facility, Edwards, Calif.
For Information on NASA-Sponsored STS-51 Experiments
Michael Braukus ORFEUS-SPAS
Headquarters, Wash., D.C. ACTS hardware
Charles Redmond ACTS experiments
Headquarters, Wash., D.C.
General Release 1
Media Services Information 3
Quick-Look Facts 4
Payload and Vehicle Weights 5
STS-51 Summary Timeline 6
Space Shuttle Abort Modes 7
Crew Responsibilities 8
CARGO BAY PAYLOADS & ACTIVITIES
Advanced Communication Technology Satellite/Transfer Orbit
Stage (ACTS) Hardware 10
ACTS Overall Description 12
Transfer Orbit Stage Hardware & Operations 17
ACTS Experiments 21
Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer -
Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) 42
STS-51 ORPHEUS/SPAS Rendezvous Operations 50
Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure
Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX-4) 51
STS-51 EVA Activities 53
Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III) 54
Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) 54
Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B) 54
Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) 54
High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy-A (HRSGS-A) 55
Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP) 55
CREW BIOGRAPHIES & MISSION MANAGEMENT
STS-51 Crew Biographies 56
STS-51 Mission Management 58
ACTS DEPLOYMENT HIGHLIGHTS STS-51 MISSION
The deployment of a satellite which will serve as a testbed for
technology leading to a new generation of communication satellites
and the deployment and retrieval of a U.S./German free-flying
scientific observation satellite highlight NASA's Shuttle Mission
The mission, which is scheduled for mid-July, 1993, also will
see Space Shuttle Discovery and her five-person crew conduct a
variety of experiments on the effects of microgravity on various
plants and materials along with other payloads which will perform
photographic observations during the mission.
The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program
provides for the development and flight test of high-risk, advanced
communications satellite technology. Using sophisticated antenna
beams and advanced on-board switching and processing systems, ACTS
will pioneer new initiatives in communications satellite technology.
The Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet
Spectrometer - Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) mission is the
first of a series of missions using the German built ASTRO-SPAS
science satellite. ASTRO-SPAS is a spacecraft designed for launch,
deployment and retrieval by the Space Shuttle.
Once deployed from the Shuttle by its Remote Manipulation
System (RMS), ASTRO-SPAS operates quasi-autonomously for several
days in the Shuttle vicinity. After completion of the free flight
phase, the satellite is retrieved by the RMS and returned to Earth.
ORFEUS-SPAS is an astrophysics mission, designed to investigate very
hot and very cold matter in the universe.
On the fifth day of the mission, two STS-51 crew members will
perform a 6-hour extravehicular activity (EVA), or spacewalk, as
part of a continuing series of test spacewalks NASA is conducting to
increase experience with spacewalks and refine spacewalk training
In addition to performing tasks that investigate a
spacewalker's mobility in general, the astronauts will evaluate
several tools that may be used during the servicing of the Hubble
Space Telescope (HST) later this year on mission STS-61, including a
power socket wrench, a torque wrench, foot restraint, safety tethers
and tool holder.
Leading the STS-51 crew will be Mission Commander Frank
Culbertson who will be making his second space flight. The pilot
for the mission is William Readdy, making his second flight. The
three mission specialists for this flight are Daniel Bursch (MS-1),
James Newman (MS-2) and Carl Walz (MS-3), all three of whom will be
making their first flight.
The mission duration for STS-51 is planned for 9 days with a
scheduled landing at the Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
This will be the 17th flight of Space Shuttle Discovery and the
57th flight of the Space Shuttle system.
(end general release - background information follows)
MEDIA SERVICES INFORMATION
NASA Select Television Transmission
NASA Select television is available on Satcom F-2R, Transponder
13, located at 72 degrees west longitude; frequency 3960.0 MHz,
audio 6.8 MHz.
The schedule for television transmissions from the orbiter and
for mission briefings will be available during the mission at
Kennedy Space Center, Fla.; Marshall Space Flight Center,
Huntsville, Ala.; Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards,
Calif.; Johnson Space Center, Houston and NASA Headquarters,
Washington, D.C. The television schedule will be updated to reflect
changes dictated by mission operations.
Television schedules also may be obtained by calling COMSTOR
713/483-5817. COMSTOR is a computer data base service requiring the
use of a telephone modem. A voice update of the television schedule
is updated daily at noon Eastern time.
Status reports on countdown and mission progress, on-orbit
activities and landing operations will be produced by the
appropriate NASA newscenter.
A mission press briefing schedule will be issued prior to
launch. During the mission, status briefings by a Flight Director
or Mission Operations representative and when appropriate,
representatives from the science team, will occur at least once per
day. The updated NASA Select television schedule will indicate when
mission briefings are planned.
Launch Date/Site: July 1993, Kennedy Space Center - Pad 39B
Launch Time: TBD
Orbiter: Discovery (OV-103) - 17th Flight
Orbit/Inclination: 160 nautical miles/28.45 degrees
Mission Duration: 8 days, 21 hours, 59 minutes
Landing Time/Date: TBD
Primary Landing Site: Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Abort Landing Sites: Return to Launch Site - KSC, Fla.
Transatlantic Abort landing: Banjul, The Gambia;
Ben Guerir, Morocco; Moron, Spain
Abort Once Around: Edwards AFB, Calif.
Crew: Frank Culbertson, Commander (CDR)
William Readdy, Pilot (PLT)
Jim Newman, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1)
Dan Bursch, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2)
Carl Walz, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3)
Cargo Bay Payloads & Activities
Advanced Communication Technology Satellite/Transfer Orbit
Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-
Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS)
Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials
Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS)
Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B)
Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG)
Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX)
High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy-A (HRSGS-A)
Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP)
Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III)
STS- 51 PAYLOAD AND VEHICLE WEIGHTS
Orbiter (Discovery) empty and 3 SSMEs 173,117
Advanced Communications Satellite/Transfer Orbit Stage 26,756
ACTS Support Equipment 6,394
LDCE/GAS can 770
IMAX Camera System 320
Total Vehicle at SRB Ignition 4,525,219
Orbiter Landing Weight 203,639
STS-51 SUMMARY TIMELINE
Flight Day One
OMS-2 (160 n.m. x 161 n.m.)
Remote Manipulator System checkout
RCS, OMS Separation burns
(161 n.m. x 173 n.m.)
Flight Day Two
OMS, RCS burns (158 n.m. x 159 n.m.)
RCS Separation burns (158 n.m. x 159 n.m.)
Cabin depress to 10.2 psi
Flight Day Three
Stationkeeping burns (158 n.m. x 159 n.m.)
Flight Day Four
Stationkeeping burns (158 n.m. x 159 n.m.)
Flight Day Five
Extravehicular activity preparations
Extravehicular activity (six hours)
Stationkeeping burns (158 n.m. x 159 n.m.)
Flight Day Six
Stationkeeping burns (158 n.m. x 159 n.m.)
Flight Day Seven
(158 n.m. x 159 n.m.)
Flight Day Eight
DTO 412: Fuel Cell shutdown
Flight Day Nine
Cabin repress to 14.7 psi
Flight Control Systems checkout
Reaction Control System hot-fire
DTO 412: Fuel Cell restart
Flight Day Ten
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES
Space Shuttle launch abort philosophy aims toward safe and
intact recovery of the flight crew, Orbiter and its payload. Abort
* Abort-To-Orbit (ATO) -- Partial loss of main engine thrust
late enough to permit reaching a minimal 105-nautical mile orbit
with orbital maneuvering system engines.
* Abort-Once-Around (AOA) -- Earlier main engine shutdown with
the capability to allow one orbit around before landing at Edwards
Air Force Base, Calif.
* Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) -- Loss of one or more main
engines midway through powered flight would force a landing at
either Banjul, The Gambia; Ben Guerir, Morocco; or Moron, Spain.
* Return-To-Launch-Site (RTLS) -- Early shutdown of one or more
engines, and without enough energy to reach Banjul, would result in
a pitch around and thrust back toward KSC until within gliding
distance of the Shuttle Landing Facility.
STS-51 contingency landing sites are the Kennedy Space Center,
Edwards Air Force Base, Banjul, Ben Guerir and Moron.
STS-51 CREW RESPONSIBILITIES
TASK/PAYLOAD PRIMARY BACKUP
ACTS/TOS Walz Bursch
ORFEUS/SPAS Newman Newman
APE Walz Newman
CHROMEX Newman Readdy
CPCG Bursch Culbertson
IMAX Readdy Walz
IPMP Newman Bursch
HRSGS Newman Walz
AMOS Readdy Bursch
EVA Walz (EV1) Newman (EV2), Readdy (IV)
ET Photo Walz Newman
Fuel Cell Readdy Culbertson
PGSC Newman Walz
Thermal Print (TIPS) Newman Walz
ALBRT Culbertson Bursch
Laser Range (hand) Readdy Bursch
Laser Range (cargo bay) Bursch Readdy
GPS Walz Newman
PCMMU Newman Walz
VRCS Readdy Newman
Exercise Culbertson All
Entry ortho tolerance Newman Walz
Visual vestibular Newman
Posture Readdy Walz
Skeletal/muscle Readdy All
Gastro function Bursch Newman
Blood IV Readdy Bursch
ENH stand Culbertson Newman, Walz
Photography/TV Readdy Walz, Culbertson
Earth observations Readdy Culbertson
In-flight Maintenance Walz Readdy
Medic Readdy Bursch
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY
SATELLITE (ACTS) HARDWARE
The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides
for the development and flight test of high-risk, advanced
communications satellite technology. Using advanced antenna beams
and advanced on-board switching and processing systems, ACTS will
pioneer new initiatives in communications satellite technology.
ACTS provides new communications satellite technology for:
* Operating in the Ka-band (30/20 GHz) where there is 2.5 GHz of
spectrum available (five times that available at lower frequency
* Very high-gain, multiple hopping beam antenna systems which
permit smaller aperture Earth stations
* On-board baseband switching which permits interconnectivity
between users at an individual circuit level
* A microwave switch matrix which enables gigabit per second
communication between users.
These technologies provide for up to three times the
communications capacity for the same weight as today's satellites
(more cost effective), much higher rate communications between users
(20 times that offered by conventional satellites), greater
networking flexibility and on-demand digital services not currently
available from communications systems today. The development and
flight validation of this advanced space communications technology by
NASA's ACTS will allow industry to adapt this technology to their
individual commercial requirements at minimal risk. It also will aid
the U.S. industry in competing with European and Asian companies
which have, in the last decade, developed significant capabilities
for producing communications satellites and associated ground
ACTS technologies, which are applicable for a variety of frequency
bands, will potentially lower the cost or technical threshold so that
such new services as remote medical image diagnostics, global
personal communications, real-time TV transmissions to airliners,
direct transmission of reconnaissance image data to battlefield
commanders and interconnection of supercomputers will be feasible.
Technology spin-off is already occurring.
Motorola currently is adapting the ACTS Ka-band and on-board
switching technologies for their $3 billion Iridium satellite system,
which will provide global voice/data communications services. Norris
Communications also is proceeding with a Ka spot-beam communications
ACTS Overall Description
ACTS is comprised of a spacecraft bus with basic housekeeping
functions and a payload, known as the multibeam communications
At launch, ACTS weighs 6,108 pounds including the propellants
and the spacecraft adapter and clamp band which remain with the
Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) upon separation. When in the stowed
configuration in the Shuttle payload bay, ACTS' overall height is
15.9 feet (5 m) from the spacecraft separation plane to the tip of
the highest antenna.
During the transfer orbit phase, the spacecraft is spin
stabilized, and the antenna reflectors and solar array panels are
retracted and stowed to provide better load support for these
appendages. During the on-orbit mission phase, the spacecraft is
three-axis stabilized with the large antenna reflectors facing the
Earth and the solar array panels rotating once per day to track the
Sun. On-orbit, ACTS measures 47.1 feet (14 m) from tip to tip of the
solar arrays and 29.9 feet (9 m) across the main receiving and
transmitting antenna reflectors.
The spacecraft bus structure is a rectangular box with a
cylindrical center structure that houses the apogee kick motor (AKM).
The multibeam antenna subsystem is mounted to the Earth facing panel
of the spacecraft bus. The North and South sides are each divided
into three panels. These panels are used to mount most of the
spacecraft bus and MCP electronics equipment. The spacecraft bus
provides support functions for the MCP such as electrical and
mechanical mounting surfaces, attitude control, electrical power,
thermal control, command reception, telemetry transmission and
ranging and propulsion for station keeping maneuvers.
Multibeam Communications Package
The multibeam communications package performs receiving,
switching, momentary storage, selectable coding and decoding,
amplifying and transmitting functions for Ka-band time division
multiple access (TDMA) communications signals. The multibeam antenna
(MBA) has fixed beams and hopping spot beams that can be used to
service traffic needs on a dynamic basis. (A hopping spot beam is an
antenna beam on the spacecraft that points at one location on the
ground for a fraction of a millisecond. It sends/receives voice or
data information and then the beam electronically "hops" to a second
location, then a third and so on. At the beginning of the second
millisecond the beam again points at the first location.)
In addition, the receiving antenna provides signals to the
autotrack receiver which generates input error signals to the
attitude control system for spacecraft pointing operations. Beam
forming networks (BFN) utilize hopping beams to provide independent
coverage of the East and West scan sectors, plus coverage for
isolated locations outside of either sector. The MBA also has three
fixed spot beams. A steerable beam antenna has been incorporated
into ACTS to provide antenna coverage of the entire disk of the Earth
as seen from l00 degrees west longitude and to any aircraft or low
Earth orbit spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle, within view of
ACTS Deployment Sequence
ACTS will be deployed from Discovery's cargo bay approximately 8
hours after launch on orbit six. The TOS burn which will inject ACTS
into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft apogee kick
motor will inject ACTS into a drift orbit. Finally, ACTS will be
placed in a geostationary orbit at 100 degrees west longitude over
the equator, approximately in line with the center of the United
States. A geostationary orbit is one where a satellite takes 24
hours to complete one revolution, thus appearing to remain motionless
above a single place on the Earth.
About 2 hours before deployment from the orbiter, the astronauts
perform a sequence of events beginning with preliminary TOS checks,
unlatching the TOS cradle and elevating the ACTS/TOS flight element
to a 42 degree angle for deployment. The crew will fire the
"Super*Zip" separation system, and six springs on the TOS aft cradle
will push the flight element out of the cargo bay.
The TOS motor firing is controlled by an on-board timer and
occurs 45 minutes following deployment from the orbiter or about 8
hours and 45 minutes after STS-51 launch. The approximately two-
minute burn will place ACTS in a geotransfer orbit. The apogee kick
motor burn to inject ACTS into drift orbit will take place 42 1/2
hours after deployment, approximately 50 1/2 hours into the mission.
The 7-day drift will allow ACTS to move toward its final station
location of 100 degrees west longitude. Firing of the spacecraft's
thrusters will bring the perigee and apogee radii increasingly closer
to the geostationary orbit.
Upon reaching geostationary orbit, ACTS will transition from a
spinning to a three-axis stabilized spacecraft configuration and
deploy its solar arrays and antennas.
ACTS experiments will begin 12 weeks after launch following the
placement of the spacecraft on-station and spacecraft checkout. ACTS
is designed to have a minimum life of 2 years but will have enough
station keeping fuel for a 4-year-plus mission.
ACTS Ground Systems and Support
The facilities and support to be used for the ACTS mission
phases include the Guam and Carpentersville, N.J., C-band telemetry,
tracking and command stations and the ACTS ground segment.
Tracking, Telemetry and Command
The ACTS mission telemetry, tracking and command (TT&C) control
and monitor functions are distributed between two geographically
separate locations: Lewis Research Center, Cleveland and the Martin
Marietta Satellite Operations Center (SOC), East Windsor, N.J. The
SOC is used to control the ACTS housekeeping functions during both
the transfer orbit and the on-station phases.
During the transfer orbit phases, the SOC controls the ACTS through
the C-band ground stations. During the on-station phase, command
parameters generated at the SOC are routed via landlines to Lewis to
be uplinked to the ACTS via Ka-band. Status information is displayed
at the Lewis ACTS master ground station for both the transfer orbit
and on-station phases.
ACTS Ground Segment
The ACTS ground segment is comprised of the ACTS master ground
station, the satellite operations center and the experimenter
ACTS Master Ground Station
The ACTS master ground station is located at the NASA Lewis
Research Center. It includes:
* The NASA ground station (NGS), which consists of a Ka-band
radio frequency terminal, two traffic terminals and a reference
terminal. It up-converts signals for the baseband processor
mode of perations to 30 GHz for transmission to ACTS and
amplifies and down-converts the 20 GHz baseband processor
modulated signals received from ACTS. Modulation and
demodulation of the baseband communications signals are
performed in the NASA ground station. It also transmits and
receives signals in support of the command, ranging and
telemetry functions for ACTS.
* The master control station provides network control for the
spacecraft baseband processor and backup to the satellite
operations center for configuring the multibeam communications
package. The master control station also enables experiment
execution and telemetry collection.
* The microwave switch matrix-link evaluation terminal provides
the capability for the on-orbit testing of the microwave switch
matrix and the multibeam antenna. It also will conduct
wideband communications experiments.
* The command, ranging and telemetry equipment interfaces with
theNASA ground station at intermediate frequency and exchanges
command, ranging and telemetry information to and from the
master control station, the G.E. SOC and the microwave switch
matrix-link evaluation terminal.
The SOC has primary responsibility for generating flight system
commands and for analyzing, processing and displaying flight system
telemetry data. Orbital maneuver planning and execution also are
handled by the SOC. The primary housekeeping function is performed
at the SOC which is linked via land line to the Ka-band command,
ranging and telemetry equipment at the ACTS master control station.
The Ka-band experimenter network consists of a variety of ground
stations to be operated by industry, universities and government
organizations. These ground stations have varying communication
services ranging from High Data Rate (HDR) at 1 gigabit per second,
to Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) at 1.5 megabits per second,
aeronautical and ground mobile voice and data at 500 kilabits per
second and Ultra Small Aperture Terminal (USAT) data at 4800 bits per
TRANSFER ORBIT STAGE FOR THE STS-51 MISSION
The Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) will boost NASA's Advanced
Communications Technology Satellite from low-Earth orbit into
geosynchronous transfer orbit with a maximum altitude of 21,519
nautical miles (34,624 km). This will be the second mission of the
Transfer Orbit Stage and the first time it has flown on a Space
The Transfer Orbit Stage was first used in September 1992 as the
upper stage booster for NASA's Mars Observer mission. Following
launch on an expendable rocket, the TOS successfully propelled the
spacecraft on a trajectory from Earth orbit to the red planet.
The Space Systems Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space
Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the TOS program for NASA.
That role involves ensuring TOS compliance with over all mission
requirements, including those for integration with the launch vehicle
and satellite and flight safety requirements.
Transfer Orbit Stage Description
The Transfer Orbit Stage, built by Martin Marietta Astronautics
Group in Denver, for Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., is a
single-stage, solid-propellant rocket system. It is the latest
addition to NASA's upper stage fleet, which includes a range of
vehicles to boost satellites or spacecraft in the second step of
their journey to geostationary orbit or toward interplanetary
TOS, constructed primarily of high-strength aluminum alloy,
weighs 20,780 pounds (9,426 kg) including solid propellant fuel. It
is almost 11 feet (3.3 m) long and about 7.5 feet (2.3 m) in
diameter. The satellite, weighing 6,108 pounds (2,771 kg), is
mounted on top of the Transfer Orbit Stage. Portions of both the
satellite and TOS are covered with gold foil multi-layered insulation
for thermal protection from the Sun.
Major elements of the TOS system are a solid rocket main
propulsion system, a navigation and guidance system, a reaction
control system which is used to adjust TOS attitude or local pointing
and an airborne support equipment cradle that holds the satellite and
upper stage in the Shuttle cargo bay and facilitates deployment from
The ORBUS-21 solid rocket motor main propulsion system,
manufactured by United Technologies Chemical Systems Division, San
Jose, Calif., will give the primary thrust for the 110 seconds of
powered flight. To provide the 59,000 pounds of thrust (262,445
newtons) to inject the satellite into its transfer orbit, the motor
will use 18,013 pounds (8,171 kg) of the solid rocket propellant
HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene).
Pitch (maneuvering upward or downward) and yaw (turning to the
left or right) will be controlled during the burn by gimballing the
nozzle of the solid rocket motor with two thrust vector control
actuators. Roll control is provided by the reaction control system
during motor burn.
TOS guidance and control avionics are based on a laser inertial
navigation system manufactured by Honeywell, Inc., Clearwater, Fla.
It acts as the brains of the vehicle, computing location and
providing signals to the propulsion system to maintain the proper
trajectory. All TOS operations are performed autonomously with no
ground commanding required. The guidance system uses laser
gyroscopes with no moving parts, thus reducing chances for
malfunctions in space. A telemetry and encoder unit records
performance data from all on-board electronics and sends it to
ground control at KSC.
The reaction control system thruster assembly, manufactured by
UTC/Hamilton Standard Division, Windsor Locks, Conn., correctly
positions the TOS and its payload, based on information from the
laser inertial navigation system. The three-axis control system
uses 12 small maneuvering rockets, which rely on decomposed
hydrazine as their propellant, to fine-tune the orientation of the
vehicle and its payload before solid rocket motor ignition.
The reaction control system also slowly turns the satellite-TOS
for thermal control to avoid overheating from the sun. The reaction
control system makes final attitude adjustments before TOS
separation from the satellite.
The equipment needed to adapt the satellite-TOS to the Space
Shuttle is called the airborne support equipment. This equipment is
manufactured by Martin Marietta. Prior to deployment, the TOS rests
in the aft cradle and is clamped firmly in the Shuttle's cargo bay
by the forward cradle.
ACTS/TOS deployment scenario
During the STS-51 mission, Discovery crew members will initiate
a predeployment checkout to ensure that all critical TOS systems are
healthy and ready to deploy. The upper forward cradle, similar to a
clamp, will then be unlatched and rotated open. The satellite-
booster will be elevated 45 degrees out of the cargo bay. If any
problems are detected in the combined payload up to this point, it
can be lowered, relatched and returned to Earth at the end of the
mission. If no anomalies are detected, a pyrotechnic system will
release the satellite-TOS and springs on the cradle will gently
nudge it out of the orbiter. The satellite-TOS will coast for 45
minutes while the Shuttle maneuvers to a safe distance, 11.7 miles
(18.8 km) away, to avoid a possible collision or damage from the TOS
solid rocket exhaust plume.
Once the Transfer Orbit Stage has positioned the satellite in
the proper attitude, the TOS solid rocket motor will fire for 110
seconds, accelerating to the 22,800-mph velocity (36,685 km/hr)
necessary to boost the satellite into its geosynchronous transfer
orbit. Then the Transfer Orbit Stage will make final attitude
adjustments as the satellite speeds toward apogee, the point
farthest from the Earth in its orbit.
Shortly after rocket burnout, the satellite will separate from
the TOS and the TOS will make a perpendicular turn to avoid being in
the satellite's path. Later, thrusters and a solid rocket motor on
the satellite itself will fire to place the satellite into its final
geosynchronous orbit. The actual timing of the satellite burn is
controlled by commands from the ground.
Extra-Vehicular Activity Tools
If a mechanical problem with the TOS airborne support equipment
were to develop prior to or after deployment of the satellite-TOS,
two astronauts can use one or more specially designed tools to
correct it. The tools were designed at Marshall Space Flight Center
and tested under simulated weightless conditions in the center's
Neutral Buoyancy Simulator water tank. The actual use of these
devices is considered unlikely since the airborne support equipment
itself is fully redundant, with all systems having built-in back-
ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY
SATELLITE (ACTS) EXPERIMENTS PROGRAM
The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite Experiments
Program gives industry, academic, and government organizations an
opportunity to investigate new ways of communicating. In
conjunction with industry, NASA has developed the ACTS and an
extensive network of ground stations to test and prove pioneering
communications concepts and technologies that will advance cheaper,
on-demand, flexible communications.
The Experiments Program provides access to these new
telecommunication tools that will be widely used in the 21st
century. ACTS experimenters design, fund, and conduct
investigations. NASA contributes spacecraft time, manages
operations, and assists investigators in developing a final
experiment plan. This partnership brings the capabilities of this
unique national resource to regional telecommunications users.
The goals of the program reflect national priorities in
advancing technology development and promoting U.S. competitiveness
in international markets. The program will conduct technical
verification experiments to prove the high-risk technology and a
balanced set of experiments which evaluate the potential
applications of the technology.
Experiments have been selected that meet these goals and
challenge the ACTS system. The results of these investigations
could yield numerous benefits to business, health care, education,
national defense, and emergency/disaster relief and advance the
technology in high data rate communications. The following
describes ACTS's contribution to these areas and candidate
experiments. (The experiments listed below have been officially
accepted into the ACTS Experiments Program at press time.)
Communications is an essential element of any community's
infrastructure, but in business it can be the factor that promotes
profit or inhibits growth. Expanded communication capacities such
as fax machines and electronic information networks have
revolutionized the way the business is conducted around the world.
The ACTS Experiments Program provides an opportunity for business to
test new technologies that may lead to more efficient ways to
operate and create new services.
With the advent of ACTS, a new generation in communications
technology will bring benefits to business. ACTS-type technologies
will increase efficiency and lower the cost of business
communications by enabling real-time communications and the use of
smaller satellite dishes. It can augment fiber-optic networks to
extend communications capacity to remote areas, creating new
telecommunications users and enhancing the "information
superhighway" with Earth-space linkages.
The ACTS Program has developed and will validate, by flight
testing, high risk advanced communication satellite technologies.
The validation of these technologies is to be accomplished through
the ACTS Experiments Program. The ACTS flight and ground systems
will be made available to the public and private sectors (industry,
universities and government agencies) for evaluation,
experimentation and demonstration of key technologies and their
applications after launch. A formal 2-year Experiments Program
currently is planned, including:
* demonstrate the commercial viability and market acceptability
of new voice, data and video networks and service with ACTS
* verify the on-orbit performances of the advanced technology
components of the ACTS flight system
* demonstrate and evaluate the system networking aspects of the
switching and processing technology
* characterize the Ka-band transmission medium and develop
techniques to combat signal fade and attenuation
To date, some 60 experiments have been approved to use the ACTS
system. These experiments represent 86 principal investigators and
co-investigators from over 61 different organizations.
The following table breaks down the application experiments
category into a number of sub-categories and lists the number of
experiments currently planned for each.
Application Experiments Categories
Business Networks 7
Integrated Services Digital Network 4
Public Switched Network 3
DOD Strategic/Tactical 2
Gigabit Networks 3
High Definition TV 1
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 1
Land Mobile 6
Aeronautical Mobile 1
Network Protocol 1
Availability Comparison Between Ku and Ka Satellite Technologies
American Express is interested in testing the ACTS very-small
aperture terminal (VSAT) technology to determine if it will be a
viable future business option for transactions. ACTS will operate as
a data channel between facilities in Phoenix, Ariz., and Mexico City,
Mexico. American Express has an existing Ku-band link between these
sites and wants to compare the performance of the ACTS Ka-band T-1
VSAT (capable of higher data rates, 1.544 Mbps, with a smaller
terminal) to its current system. Contact: Thomas Marshall, 602/492-
Southern California Edison
Low Cost SCADA Network
Affiliated Organizations: Weber State University, Wasatch Research
Southern California Edison (SCE) is working with NASA Lewis
Research Center to build and test an ultra-small aperture terminal
(USAT) that operates at Ka-band for use in a supervisory control and
data acquisition (SCADA) network. Weber State University will
conduct the tests of the terminal with both Ku- and Ka-band antennas
and will compare performance.
The spotbeam antenna technology of ACTS makes it possible to use
smaller terminal apertures. SCE is investigating the Ka-band USAT to
determine its suitability for use with electric utilities and other
industries. Contact: Dr. Roosevelt Fernandes, 818/812-7305.
Disaster Recovery, Backup, and Communications Augmentation Experiment
Affiliated Organizations: Huntington Bank, SUNGARD Recovery
Services, Inc., Unisys Corporation, Ascom Timeplex, Inc.
Ohio University will conduct tests with ACTS to help Huntington
Bank recover from a "simulated" natural or other disaster, thus
protecting it against a total loss of communications. ACTS will
transmit financial data such as deposits, account balances and
transfers of funds. The experiment will determine the reliability of
the data link and the ability to switch over to a backup
communications system within an acceptable period of time as well as
the economical advantages of using such a system. Contact: Dr. Don
COMSAT World Systems
Prototype INTELSAT Operations
Affiliated Organization: INTELSAT
This experiment will provide operational experience with ACTS
technology to potential service providers, earth station owners, and
users, emphasizing the use of Ka-band and onboard signal processing.
The reliability and transmission quality of Ka-band will be compared
with C- and Ku-bands to determine feasibility of future use.
Contact: A.M. Goldman, Jr., 202/863-6601.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
ACTS Aeronautical Experiment
Affiliated Organizations: Air Force Rome Labs, Boeing Defense and
Space Group, GE Electronics Laboratory, Texas Instruments
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) will demonstrate a 4.8 kbps
voice and data link between an aircraft and a fixed terminal using
phased-array antennas. This experiment will evaluate ACTS spotbeam
technology, the ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT), and phased-array antennas
for use in aeronautical communications. Aeronautical communications
could be an important new growth area in the telecommunications
industry. Contact: Brian Abbe, 818/354-3887.
Baseline Land-mobile Experiments
JPL will conduct multiple mobile communications experiments
demonstrating various applications involving voice, data, and slow-
scan video. They will evaluate the commercial viability of system
concepts and perform propagation measurements. The main purpose is
to evaluate K/Ka-band feasibility for mobile applications. Contact:
Mr. Tom Jedrey, 818/354-5187.
Direct-to-Premises ACTS-based Video Services
Affiliated Organizations: University of California-Berkeley,
Mississippi State University
Dataflow Systems will investigate two-way, direct-to-premises
static and motion video services with ACTS, based on low cost, low
power workstations. Such services are needed to communicate images
between offices during normal business operations or in emergency
situations. Some of the possible applications include: multimedia
conferencing between remotely located CAD/CAE design teams, doctors
in surgery, lawyers in court, and industrial process control teams.
Also, use of ACTS would enable on-demand and dynamic database
browsing and copying. Contact: Dr. Vason P. Srini, 415/527-7183.
Public Broadcasting Service
High Definition Television and Video Demonstration
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) will use ACTS to transmit
high definition television (HDTV) and digital video signals from PBS
to member stations. Member stations could then distribute the
signals via terrestrial transmitters or cable TV. PBS will be
experimenting with the High Data Rate terminal -- the only ground
station available capable of transmitting HDTV signals.
In another test, PBS would transmit via ACTS from member
stations to a small area to demonstrate the feasibility of local
direct broadcast satellite service (DBS) within a single city or
market region. Contact: Mr. Carl Girod, 703/739-5483.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Experiments
In this experiment, COMSAT will demonstrate the ability of
satellite communications to provide state-of-the-art commercial
telecommunications services. The experiment is designed to test the
viability of providing a variety of services and teleservices via
ISDN using an ACTS-type system. COMSAT will measure the performance
of the ACTS ISDN technology and its network capabilities. Contact:
Moorthy Hariharan, 301/428-7747.
University of Florida
Narrow band ISDN Applications Using ACTS
The relationship between ISDN and satellites is complementary.
ISDN provides satellite networks with a single access point into
multiple ground networks. On the other hand, satellite systems
provide increased geographical coverage for ISDN. ACTS's advanced
features enhance this relationship by increasing flexibility of
connectivity, network efficiency, and quality of service.
The University of Florida will conduct three narrow band ISDN-
related investigations which can be implemented using ACTS: video
teleconferencing, performance evaluation of High-Level Data Link
Control (HDLC) protocol over a Ka-band satellite channel (which will
study the effect of rain fade on this protocol with respect to its
various control functions such as addressing, frame numbering, error
recovery, and flow control), and Local Area Network interconnection.
Contact: Dr. Haniph A. Latchman, 904/392-4950.
NASA Lewis Research Center
North American ISDN Users' Forum (NIUF) Demonstration
Affiliated Organizations: A consortium of users and telephony
industry, including: Bellcore, Regional Bell Operating Companies,
This experiment will demonstrate ACTS ISDN services to NIUF
members. It will involve the use of a T-1 VSAT transportable link
back to Lewis Research Center, JPL, and other ACTS ISDN transportable
nodes. The primary application demonstrated will be PC-based
multimedia teleconferencing. Contact: Tom vonDeak, 216/433-3277.
Satellite News Vehicle (AMT) Experiment
T-1 VSAT Backhaul Experiment
Affiliated Organization: JPL
NBC will investigate mobile and fixed terminal capabilities for
providing increased communications for people in the satellite news
industry, specifically while enroute to and from news sites. The
experiments will determine how many "hops" can be made between points
before image quality degrades beyond acceptable levels.
The fixed experiment involves using several T-1 VSATs to provide
multiple "hop" communications, transmitting the same images from
point to point between different broadcast locations. The mobile
experiment will evaluate the ACTS and AMT technologies for remote
communications purposes, e.g., from a news bureau to a satellite news
vehicle. Contact: Robert Sisko, 212/664-6186.
IDB Communications Group
Satellite News Gathering Land-Mobile Experiment/Demonstration
Affiliated Organization: JPL
IDB Communications is interested in showcasing the ACTS and AMT
technologies for remote broadcast purposes. This
experiment/demonstration will be a live transmission of IDB
Communications' network-fed broadcast via ACTS. It will occur at the
National Association of Broadcaster's Convention in 1994. Contact:
David Anderson, 213/240-3726.
Experimentation with Satellite-based Personal Communications Services
Affiliated Organization: JPL
The goal of this research effort is to demonstrate the
capabilities of satellites for enhancement of ground-based personal
communications voice and data services. The experiment will
determine the ways in which local exchange network providers can
interface to wireless service providers and the kinds of services
that should be offered.
The applications being investigated include: two-way messaging,
delivery of personalized information services, use of satellites to
alert nomadic end users of incoming telephone calls. It will also
test the combined capability of satellites plus Global Positioning
System service to locate nomadic end users, update network databases,
and route calls and/or messages to their current location. Contact:
Richard Wolff, 201/829-4537.
Florida Atlantic University
ACTS Wide Bandwidth and Video Compression Experiments
The primary goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the use of
ACTS for commercial video data transmission. Florida Atlantic
University will use video compression techniques developed by the
University and will test the reliability and feasibility of ACTS to
provide this commercial service. Contact: Dr. Henry Helmken,
Martin Marietta Astrospace
Business Telecommunications for Potential Customers
Martin Marietta Astrospace will be allowing potential customers
to evaluate the Ka-band frequency for business communications.
Martin Marietta has purchased a ground station for its facility in
East Windsor, N.J., in order to experiment with ACTS. It is
identifying various areas for investigation. Contact: Frank
HEALTH CARE ADVANTAGES
Availability of quality health care is a primary concern to
people everywhere. When a patient is not able to get to health
facilities or when specialists are not available for consultation,
precious time is wasted. Improved and expanded telecommunications
can help overcome distance barriers, improve upon local facilities,
and extend medical services to more people, while maintaining
The ACTS Experiments Program is working with medical personnel
around the country to test delivery of health care services to remote
locations and to demonstrate the use of more sophisticated mobile
communications. ACTS will transmit images and information to
physicians and specialists for use in diagnoses. High-resolution
medical imagery from X-rays, MRIs, or CT scans can be sent to another
location for review by a consulting physician. The ACTS Mobile
Terminal (AMT) will also be used to transmit patient data from
emergency vehicles while en route to a hospital.
Application of the NASA ACTS Satellite System to the Practice of
Medicine in an Integrated Group Practice
Affiliated Organizations: U.S. Army Medical Diagnostic Imaging
The Mayo Foundation will be using ACTS to investigate
communication techniques which may eventually allow large medical
centers to provide supporting medical services to small and medium-
sized medical facilities in small towns and rural areas. The
objective of the experiment is to demonstrate that the provision of
quality medical diagnostic and information services to remote
facilities can be cost effective and timely.
It has become essential to be able to communicate and transmit
data from one medical facility to another to enhance the quality of
care for individual patients and to seek consultation from experts
who may be at a distant location. Mayo will be investigating a
variety of medical applications including image, data, and voice
transmission. They will use ACTS to transmit in real-time medical
imagery and other patient test information for diagnosis. The on-
demand flexibility, wide bandwidth, ISDN and high data rate
capabilities of ACTS could solve many medical outreach problems.
Contact: Dr. Robert Hattery, 507/284-9425.
Georgetown University School of Medicine
In this experiment, Georgetown University will transmit magnetic
resonance images (MRI) and radiological images from Tripler Army Base
in Hawaii to Washington, DC. Tele-education will also be provided
for radiologists and radiologists-in-training. The experiment may be
expanded to include transmission to South America. Contact: Dr.
Seong K. Mun, 202/687-5990.
NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center
Application of Small Earth Stations in Conducting Telescience and
Affiliated Organizations: Krug Life Sciences, University of Colorado
Johnson Space Center will use ACTS to test the utility of
advanced satellite technology for conducting telemedicine,
telescience, video conferencing, and high resolution image transfer.
Specifically, the experiment will generate images of the interior of
the eye. The images will then be transmitted to another location via
ACTS for analysis. Contact: Dr. Gerald Taylor, 713/280-0469.
EMSAT: Advanced Technology for Emergency Medical Services
Emergency Medicine Land-Mobile Satellite Experiment (EMSAT)
Affiliated Organizations: JPL
EMSAT will evaluate the feasibility of mobile satellite
communications for pre-hospital communications. Experiment
objectives are to demonstrate and assess the transmission and
reception of satellite digital voice for two-way, pre-hospital
communications, one-way transmission of patient data from field
paramedics to the base hospital, and telemetry of patient assessment
data to the base hospital. Factors that affect pre-hospital
satellite communications will be studied.
Contact: Bruce P. Jackson, 818/842-0207.
University of Washington
Mobile Radiology Image Transfer
Affiliated Organization: GE Medical Systems
This experiment will link a mobile Computed Tomography (CT) or
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) van to the Department of Radiology
at the University of Washington Medical Center. The mobile van will
transmit digital medical images (while stationary) from various
locations in the state of Washington. This investigation will allow
for quality control and for diagnostic consultation and
interpretation of the remotely obtained images at a major university
medical center. This use of ACTS demonstrates a practical medical
application of teleradiology from remote locations to medical
centers. Contact: Dr. Stephen J. Carter, 206/685-2693.
ACTS/AMT Telemedicine Experiment
Affiliated Organization: JPL
This experiment involves the transmission of CT and MRI images
to the University of Washington via ACTS using a portable computer
with the AMT, the fixed terminal located at NASA Lewis Research
Center (LeRC), and a telephone line from LeRC to the University of
Washington Medical Center. The received images will be filmed with a
laser camera and compared with original films. The transmissions
will be performed during various weather conditions and at multiple
locations throughout rural Washington state. Contact: Dr. Stephen
J. Carter, 206/685-2693.
Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications
National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health
VAMA: VSAT Access to Medical Archives
Affiliated Organization: University of California at San Francisco,
School of Medicine
ACTS offers the opportunity to experiment with techniques and
procedures suitable for a communications environment that allows
real-time access to critical medical information. Current access to
medical archives at the National Library of Medicine is achievable
through INTERNET. However, the transmission rate is such that real-
time interaction and selection of information is not possible.
A set of experiments will test prototype systems for the rapid
transfer of medical images across widely-separated geographical
areas. Two possible experiments: test a prototype medical
information system to provide remote access to a national medical
database in real time and demonstrate a system to rapidly and
accurately transfer a large volume of uncompressed digital x-ray
image files. Contact: Mr. Rodney Long, 301/496-4496.
LONG DISTANCE EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Education and training are key to increased knowledge and
productivity. In this era of changes in the economy and the
workplace, students and workers, with increasingly limited time and
resources, will need to have better access to educational and
training facilities. ACTS-type technology can provide real-time,
more advanced communications capability to the classroom or the
workplace. It can also tap into information networks faster and
transmit that information quicker than current communications
Some ACTS experimenters will be investigating the use of long-
distance, real-time, interactive communications to educate people
outside of major learning institutions. They will test the
capability of ACTS to deliver instruction to interested students in
different areas in the United States and in South America. Other
experimenters will use ACTS to provide special training. ACTS-type
service could create new educational networks.
Georgetown Technical Hemispheric Intercultural Network for Knowledge
Affiliated Organizations: Inter-American Development Bank, IBM,
Citibank, Martin Marietta Astrospace, Loral, Andres Bello University,
Catholic University, Javeriana University, Latin America Institute of
Doctrinal and Social Studies, Sophia University
Georgetown University will investigate the viability of two-way,
interactive distance learning, involving programs that are medical,
scientific, or research in nature. ACTS will be used to demonstrate
distance education to four South American sites in Columbia, Ecuador,
Venezuela, and Chile.
Georgetown will also conduct distance education projects in the
United States in the areas of medicine, business, teleradiology,
library database access, veterinary medicine, and remote sensing.
Contact: Rev. Harold C. Bradley, S.J., 202/687-3455.
NASA Kennedy Space Center
Distance Learning in the Area of Hazardous Materials and
Affiliated Organizations: Lockheed Space Operations Company,
University of Central Florida
This experiment involves distance learning in the area of
hazardous materials and environmental safety. ACTS will link Dryden
Flight Research Facility, Calif., and Kennedy Space Center, Fla., for
approximately 10 hours of training to Lockheed employees. The
experiment consists of distance learning classes using lecture,
graphics, and videotape. It will test the quality of video and audio
and effectiveness of Ka-band for distance learning. Contact: Darwin
V. Brown, 407/867-7293.
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
ACTS will be used to link the College of Pharmacy at Florida A&M
University (FAMU) in Tallahassee with the FAMU Clinical Training Unit
located in Miami and allow for the instruction of students. The
experiment will involve two-way voice and video transmission and will
be divided into two 16-week and one 13-week segments. Contact:
Johnnie L. Early, 904/599-3301.
IMPROVED NATIONAL DEFENSE AND EMERGENCY/DISASTER COMMUNICATIONS
In the Persian Gulf war and the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew,
the United States reaffirmed the value of advanced military and
disaster communications. Secure and reliable communications provided
necessary advantages to American troops in executing quick and
successful air and ground attacks, while minimizing casualties. In
severe contrast, lack of immediate and adequate communications
capability severely hampered the relief efforts in Florida and
Experimenters with ACTS will gain insight into improved military
and emergency/disaster communications by testing new concepts. The
use of the ACTS Mobile Terminal can restore communications capability
immediately. ACTS T-1 VSATs can be used to restore damaged points
within the Public Switched Network.
Military and emergency communications can benefit from the real-
time, higher communications capacity demonstrated by the ACTS system.
National Communications System
Public Switched Network (PSN) Restoration
Isolated User Access
Secure Mobile Communications
Affiliated Organizations: MITRE Corporation
The National Communications System (NCS) experiments will
demonstrate the capability to restore or augment communication
networks. It is the responsibility of the NCS to coordinate the
planning for and provision of communications services to a set of
National Security/Emergency Preparedness (NS/EP) users. NCS
initiated the Commercial SATCOM Interconnectivity (CSI) program in
1983 in response to a Presidential directive stating that CONUS-based
commercial satellite communication resources should be exploited to
augment and restore Government communications capabilities during
times of emergency. ACTS will be used to investigate new advanced
satellite communications technologies.
The first three experiments examine restoration of the PSN when
disrupted. The first restores communications at the point where loss
of connectivity occurs or augments existing capability when needed.
The second experiment provides point-to-point trunking via ACTS for
NS/EP users when disruption occurs in the PSN inter-exchange carrier
switches. The third experiment will demonstrate ACTS's ability to
communicate with isolated users by restoring communications between
local carriers in the PSN and inter-exchange carrier switches. The
final experiment utilizes the AMT capability to restore
communications in areas affected by disaster. Contact: Mr. Frank
U.S. Army Space Command
Army ACTS Experiments
Affiliated Organizations: Combined Arms Center, Department of the
Army/Army Space Institute, Laboratory Command/Army Space Technology
Research Office, U.S. Army Communications Electronics Command, U.S.
Army Information Systems Engineering Command, U.S. Army Future Battle
Lab, U.S. Army Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support
The Army ACTS experiments will be incorporated into the Army
Space Demonstration Program which demonstrates space systems
capabilities to support AirLand Battle Doctrine. The Army will use
ACTS to overcome various operational communications shortfalls. A
complete set of verification experiments will be conducted to
evaluate ACTS technologies and interactions with ground communication
systems. The experiments will explore a variety of uses including
video teleconferencing; transfer of large imagery,
geographic/meteorological information, logistics, and medical
databases; remote training; transmission of video, voice and data to
the field; and testing of mobile communications. Contact: Pete
U.S Army Topographic Engineering Center
Use of ACTS for Communicating Differential GPS
Affiliated Organization: Rockwell International
U.S. Army Topographic Engineering Center (USATEC) is conducting
an experiment using the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS uses
satellite signals to calculate a position on earth and is subject to
several sources of error. These errors remain relatively constant
within a specific region, and a set of corrections can be generated
at one location and applied to another. USATEC via ACTS will
transmit these corrections to users in real-time. They will analyze
time delay, transmission quality, bit error rate, and cost and
convenience of terminal location and satellite acquisition. Contact:
Andrew Austin, 703/355-2765.
U.S. Army Research Labs
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) via Satellite
Affiliated Organization: Georgia Tech Research Institute
This experiment evaluates ACTS' ability to provide ISDN
connectivity among a geographically-dispersed population of end
users. It will provide real-time networking of ISDN users via
satellite and multimedia desktop video teleconferencing. The ACTS
system will be compared to a terrestrial DoD ISDN baseline system.
Contact: Dr. Jay Gowens, 404/894-3137.
EXPANDING SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH NETWORKS
Scientific research can be greatly facilitated and augmented by
improved communications capability. The majority of scientific
research is conducted in remote areas that are not accessible by
modern transportation or fiber-optic cable. With ACTS-type
technologies, researchers could gain access to remote databases that
contain needed information. Researchers would also have the ability
to communicate in real-time with other scientists in the field to
obtain results from experiments or to consult on a problem. Mobile
communications could benefit researchers by providing a transportable
link to laboratories or universities.
Experimenters in the ACTS Program will be investigating the use
of new communication techniques in conducting scientific research.
From operating remote laboratories to simply transmitting needed
information from Arctic climates, ACTS can improve the way scientists
operate and make it easier to distribute scientific results.
New Mexico State University
Real-Time, High-Bandwidth Data Links
ACTS will provide a high-bandwidth, real-time link to gain
access and control of an astronomy telescope located at the Apache
Point Observatory in south-central New Mexico by a remote user within
the continental United States. The user will not have to be on-site
during the observation period. The present mode of access to the
observatory is through commercial, land-based telephone lines.
New Mexico State University will look to ACTS to give the user a
"touch and feel" for remote access and control and to provide the
high-rate capacity needed for data transmission from a new, deep-sky
telescope which will produce continuous, digital data from an array
of sensors. They will also test ACTS for non-real-time data
networking to support observatory management, database sharing,
computer conferencing, and similar services for the science
community. Contact: Dr. Stephen Horan, 505/646-5870.
National Science Foundation
Antarctic Researcher Support
Affiliated Organization: University of California-Santa Barbara
ACTS would provide an advanced communications link between
Palmer Station in the Antarctica and U.S. laboratories. It would
also provide access to the INTERNET and high quality voice
communications, allow rapid and relatively large transfer of data,
and permit access to high data rate satellite information such as SAR
sea-ice images. It would also allow for off-station logistics and
scientific support, database management, data analysis, and open
Palmer to as yet untapped educational opportunities. ACTS would
contribute to increased researcher productivity thereby decreasing
the number of researchers needed on-site and would provide a greatly
needed link to the outside world from Palmer's remote location.
Contact: Dennis Peacock, 202/357-7894.
George Washington University
Supercomputer Networking Applications
Affiliated Organizations: COMSAT Laboratories, Cray Research, NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory
George Washington will use ACTS to demonstrate the ability of
satellites to support high data rate communications such as
distributed supercomputer applications. JPL will be able to access
GSFC's supercomputer facilities to enable oceanic/atmospheric
modeling. Also, supercomputers will be linked to accelerate weather
forecasting. The experiments can simulate Earth and space science
processes, create real-time visualization of the data, and distribute
the data through a wideband data communications network. Contact:
Dr. Burt Edelson, 202/994-1431.
Pacific Space Center (PacSpace) and University of Hawaii
Advanced Applications to Validate ACTS Technologies
Affiliated Organizations: Argonne National Laboratory, Hawaii Space
The State of Hawaii faces unique communication problems caused
by distance. PacSpace will utilize ACTS to help solve some of these
problems and to perform a range of experiments. They will use the
high capacity of an ACTS ground station to support other on-going
programs at the University of Hawaii, involving image processing and
management, high performance computing and communications, oceanic
research, and integration of advanced communications networking.
Experiments will test the practicality of remote access to large
image databases for scientific, military and educational information.
They also will test transfer of scientific research data to central
facilities. Contact: Dr. David Yun, 808/533-1539.
ADVANCING TECHNOLOGIES AND U.S. COMPETITIVENESS
The ACTS Program has and will continue to contribute to the
development of advanced technologies. Since ACTS will operate at the
Ka-band frequency, off-the-shelf Ka-band components are now
available. The spotbeam and onboard switching and processing
technologies developed for ACTS have already in part been adapted for
use in planned communication systems. American research efforts in
high definition television (HDTV) and in integrated services digital
networks are also being advanced by ACTS technology development.
Smaller ground stations that transmit at higher data rates have been
created for use with ACTS. The proving ground for all of these
technologies is the ACTS Experiments Program. The testing and
performance of the technology could yield important results that will
impact future communication systems in years to come.
ACTS technology not only advances the state-of-the-art but also
strengthens U.S. competitiveness in the international
telecommunications market. Since 1982, the U.S. share of the
communications satellite and equipment market has shrunk in the face
of increased competition from European and Japanese companies. NASA,
in conjunction with industry, government and academia, developed the
ACTS and its associated ground system to advance the U.S. competitive
position in technologies expected to be widely used in the 21st
Advanced Research Projects Agency
High Data Rate Terminal Development and Experiments
The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), in a cooperative
effort with NASA, has sponsored the development of the High Data Rate
(HDR) terminal as part of a satellite research testbed network using
ACTS and in support of the federal High Performance Computing and
Communications (HPCC) program.
The HPCC was developed as a multi-agency effort for the purposes
of extending U.S. technological leadership in high performance
computing and computer communications and of providing wide
dissemination and application of these technologies.
One element of the HPCC program is the development of technology
for wide area gigabit (one billion bits per second) data networking.
ARPA has the responsibility for coordinating the multi-agency
research effort to achieve this capability. Also, ARPA has strong
interests in investigating very high speed satellite/terrestrial
communications for defense applications. NASA believes that
satellites can render significant service in hastening the
development of high data rate applications for commercial and
In order to achieve mutual goals, ARPA and NASA supported the
development of the HDR terminal and experiments to challenge network
capabilities and promote the state-of-the-art in this area. The HDR
experiments are intended to demonstrate new capabilities and the
functionality of high-speed communications.
The ARPA HDR experiments will investigate the linking of
satellite and fiber networks, the real-time user interaction with
complex climate models created with supercomputer visualization,
military applications, and the distribution of medical imagery.
Experiment collaborations are currently being developed with:
Ohio Supercomputer Center
Public Broadcasting Service
National Center for Atmospheric Research
U.S. Army Future Battle Lab
Army High Performance Computer Research Center
University of Hawaii
Contact: Paul Mockapetris, ARPA, 703/696-2262.
National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)
Institute for Telecommunication Sciences
Quantify ACTS End-to-End Communication System Performance
The primary objective of NTIA's experiment is to measure and
quantify the end-to-end digital communication system performance of
ACTS from the end user's perspective. The experiment will also
provide documented knowledge of advance communication satellite
system performance. These measurements will be used to establish a
baseline measure of performance of ACTS. This quantification of the
ACTS system will enable performance comparisons of advanced
satellites with other telecommunications technologies, e.g., public
data networks and conventional communication satellite systems.
This performance data will be used by NTIA/ITS to help develop
national and international telecommunication standards that will
strengthen the use of advanced communication satellites in
telecommunication networks. Future networks may incorporate
satellites in a hybrid network design where a satellite provides
back-up and restoration services as well as thin-route and mobile
communications. Contact: Marjorie Weibel, 303/497-3967.
BBP Transmit Window Characterization
High Burst Rate Modem Evaluation
Coding Gain Evaluation
Motorola will be conducting a series of experiments to
technically challenge the ACTS system. In the first experiment, it
will measure the times of data arriving at the ground station while
varying transmit time in order to evaluate ACTS link erosion due to
orbital variations and clock accuracies.
The second experiment will test Motorola's modem technologies
through the ACTS microwave switch matrix channel which is capable of
higher data rates. Motorola will use advanced modulation techniques
and coding to maximize bit error rate performance.
The last experiment will investigate the effect of coding on
ground station transmissions. Data will be transmitted in coded and
uncoded modes, and bit error rates will be measured. The data will
be evaluated to determine the advantage realized by coding
techniques. Contact: Kerry Lee, 602/732-2299.
Demonstration of Advanced Networking Concepts
Affiliated Organization: INTELSAT
The trend toward utilizing smaller ground station antenna sizes
and increasing the use of higher frequency bands has focused
attention on methods for overcoming rain-induced degradation of the
satellite signal. One method is to integrate a number of VSATs
through a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) into a Wide Area Diversity
The objective of this experiment is to identify whether Ka-band
VSATs can achieve error performance and availability levels defined
for an international ISDN connection, despite the propagation
conditions in these bands, based on the networking method described
above. Successful penetration of satellite-distributed
communications services into existing and new markets hinges on two
factors: economics and quality of service. Economy can be achieved
through use of smaller Earth stations. Availability is achievable
through site diversity. COMSAT Laboratories will use ACTS to test
this theory. Contact: Dr. Asoka Dissanayake, 301/428-4411.
Hopping Beam TDMA Operation Observations
One of the most advanced features of ACTS is the combination of
satellite baseband circuit switching, Time Division Multiple Access
(TDMA), and spotbeam hopping. This experiment will test the
operation of these technologies and will evaluate receive and
transmit acquisition performance under normal and worst case
operational conditions. Contact: Robert Ridings, 301/428-4264.
Corporate Computer Systems
High Quality Audio (AMT) Experiment
Affiliated Organizations: JPL, CBS Radio
Two mobile satellite communications experiments are planned for
ACTS. The first involves interfacing the AMT with a MUSICAM
Perceptual Coder and operating this system at coded 64 kbps to
demonstrate high quality mono audio transmission. The second
experiment interfaces the equipment with the AMT and operates at
uncoded 128 kbps. The experiments also involve testing of an
algorithm built into the processing capabilities of the MUSICAM
Perceptual Coder. The audio coder will monitor the received signal
and vary the "amount of coding" necessary to maintain the link.
Contact: Dr. Larry Hinderks, 908/946-3800
Protocol Evaluation for Advanced Space Data Interchange
MITRE will study the suitability of standard data communication
protocols for future generations of communications satellites. The
hopping spotbeam technology of ACTS, together with T-1 VSATs
providing direct service to experimenters, suggests that the current
method of payload data distribution, using a "bent-pipe" combined
with a data distribution hub on the ground (the current Tracking and
Data Relay Satellite System method), could be replaced or augmented
by direct data distribution to users.
ACTS will be tested and data communication protocols evaluated
to determine feasibility of an ACTS-type system for data
distribution. Contact: Quoc Nquyen, 703/883-5674.
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Traffic Modeling, Channel Characterization, Coding, and Modulation on
Affiliated Organization: Martin Marietta Astrospace
The New Jersey Institute of Technology will perform a group of
technology verification experiments. It will test various traffic
models for video teleconferencing data. It also will investigate the
performance of ACTS at Ka-band and will test several coding and
channel equalization methods. Contact: Dr. Y. Bar-Ness, 201/596-
University of Maryland Center for the Commercial Development of Space
Frame Relay Experiments over ACTS: LAN Interconnection Services
Affiliated Organizations: Comsat Labs, National
Telecommunications and Information Administration, National
Information Technology Center, and University of Colorado
The University of Maryland will demonstrate fast packet
switching communication using the ACTS T-1 VSAT network as applied to
interconnection of Local Area Networks (LANs). The experiment will
measure the bit error rate and performance of congestion control
algorithms and confirm ACTS Frame Relay conformance to performance
requirements. It will also demonstrate the capability of satellites
such as ACTS to interconnect geographically dispersed LANs.
Applications to be tested include file transfer, electronic mail, and
interactive visualization (X-Windows) between LANs. Contact: Dr.
Anthony Ephremides, 301/405-3641.
NASA Lewis Research Center
On-orbit Spacecraft Dynamics
This experiment will determine the spacecraft position (angular
and range) as a function of time with respect to the Master Control
Station at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Contact: Dr. Roberto
Mini Terminal Test Bed (MTTB)
The goal of this experiment is to develop and test a
communications technology testbed. The testbed will contain state-of-
the-art Ka-band subsystems and components currently being designed by
the NASA Lewis Research Center, Space Electronics Division. The
experiment will determine the performance of these components for
possible use in future communications systems. Contact: Gene
Multibeam Antenna Performance Verification
This experiment will determine the ACTS on-orbit antenna
performance and will validate the LeRC Structural/Thermal/RF Analysis
Program. Contact: Dr. Roberto Acosta, 216-433/6640.
Networking Technical Experiment for BBP Operations
Performance of the ACTS network control system and the adaptive
rain fade compensation technique will be evaluated. Contact: Thom
Microwave Switch Matrix and Wideband Transponder Performance
LeRC will verify the ACTS Microwave Switch Matrix (MSM) mode of
operation through all of ACTS transponder paths. In addition, the
experiment will verify that the MSM can support reliable high data
rate communications. Also, various rain fade compensation algorithms
will be developed and implemented to explore improved approaches.
Contact: Don Hilderman, 216/433-3538.
Communications Link Performance
This experiment will measure co-frequency interference, adjacent
frequency interference, adjacent burst interference, and uplink bit
error rate performance under various conditions. It will also
evaluate ground station performance and investigate clock accuracy on
network performance. Contact: Dr. Jon Freeman, 216/433-3380.
ACTS Propagation Studies
The ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model will be tested to
verify fade occurrence and duration predictions at ACTS ground
stations. The experiment also will demonstrate the capability of
rain fade compensation algorithms for the NASA Ground Station in
Cleveland. Contact: Dr. Roberto Acosta, 216/433-6640.
Autotrack Control Performance
This experiment will test and verify the on-orbit antenna
pointing stability at peak thermal cycles. Contact: Dr. Roberto
HBR SMSK Interference Experiment (INTEX)
LeRC will measure the bit error rate of a transmitted serial
minimum shift-keyed modulated satellite signal in the presence of
various types of interfering signals. Contact: Robert Kerczewski,
Compressed Digital Video Transmission
Satellite delivery of compressed digital video will be tested.
The experiment also will demonstrate the effects of the ACTS system
on a 25-30 Mbps broadcast quality digital television system while
evaluating video compression hardware over a real channel. Contact:
Wayne Whyte, 216/433-3482.
ACTS PROPAGATION EXPERIMENTS
ACTS provides an opportunity to study the characteristics of
impairments to Earth-space communications at Ka-band (30/20 GHz)
caused by propagation phenomena and to develop techniques to counter
them. Rain is a major impediment to Ka-band communications because
it causes fades in the satellite signal. It presents quite a
challenge to system designers because it causes more severe fades at
this frequency than in other, lower frequency bands.
Other phenomena also affect the satellite signal. Clouds and
atmospheric gases -- such as water vapor and oxygen -- can also cause
signal fades. Tropospheric scintillation (twinkling in the
atmosphere) is another important factor. Also, the advent of smaller
user terminals with their smaller operating margins increases the
need for propagation data.
The ACTS Propagation Program will determine the impairments to
the satellite signal caused by the various physical phenomena during
the planned experiment period. The experiments will:
* provide a lasting base of 30/20 GHz propagation data for
* collect propagation data for a minimum of 2 years, and
* obtain information on the physical processes that cause
Researchers in this field believe that it is necessary to
conduct measurements over longer periods of time to obtain valid
information concerning the effects of propagation phenomena on
satellite signals. ACTS provides a unique opportunity to measure the
effects at Ka-band for a statistically adequate time period and in
different climatic areas for which no measurements currently exist.
Lewis Research Center issued a NASA Research Announcement to
solicit experiments to expand the current base of knowledge
concerning propagation effects on Ka-band satellite signals. NASA
sponsored the development and production of the ACTS Propagation
Terminal for experimenters to use to conduct these measurements. The
selected experiments consist of two defined classes.
CLASS I In situ measurements using the propagation terminal to
obtain radio wave propagation data at 20 and 28 GHz using
beacons on ACTS as the signal source. Propagation
terminals will be located in various climate zones in North
America to gather this data.
Colorado State University
Ka-band Propagation Studies Using ACTS Propagation Terminal and the
CSU-CHILL Multiparameter, Doppler Radar
Contact: V. N. Bringi, 303/491-5595.
University of Alaska
ACTS Propagation Measurements in Alaska
Contact: Dr. Charles E. Mayer, 907/474-6091.
ACTS Uplink Transmit Power Control Measurement Experiment
Ka-band Propagation Measurements Experiment Using the ACTS Spacecraft
Contact: Dr. Asoka W. Dissanayake, 301/428-4411.
A Proposal for ACTS Propagation Experiments
Contact: Dr. Louis J. Ippolito, 703/438-8069.
Affiliated Organizations: New Mexico State University, NASA HQ Code
University of Oklahoma
Rain Attenuation Statistics for the ACTS Propagation Experiments for
Contact: Prof. Robert E. Crane, 405/325-4419.
University of British Columbia
ACTS Ka-band Propagation Measurements in a West Coast Maritime
Contact: Dr. M.M.Z. Kharadly, 604/822-2816.
University of South Florida and Florida Atlantic University
Propagation Measurements Using ACTS
Contact: Dr. Rudolph E. Henning (USF), 813/974-4782 or Dr. Henry
Helmken (FAU), 407/367-3452.
CLASS II Measurements using either the ACTS communications channels
or beacon signals to investigate other aspects of radio
wave propagation on new communication services, such as
multipath and blockage effects on mobile communications.
ACTS Wide Area Diversity Experiment
Contact: Dr. Asoka Dissanayake, 301/428-4411.
John Hopkins University and University of Texas
Land-Mobile Satellite Measurements in Central Maryland and Alaska
Using ACTS: Passive Antenna Tracking System and Mobile Receiver
Contact: Dr. Julius Goldhirsh (JHU), 301/953-5042 or Wolfgard J.
Vogel (UT), 512/471-8608.
Georgia Tech Research Institute
RF Propagation Effects and ACTS Satellite Channel Characterization
for Very Small Aperture Terminals
Contact: Daniel Howard, 404/894-3541.
In another effort Teleglobe Canada will be participating in the ACTS
Propagation Program, using its own terminal to conduct measurements.
The experiment effort is not funded by the NRA, but Teleglobe
Canada's data will be included in the overall Program's propagation
Measuring Propagation Effects Utilizing ACTS
Contact: Ara Karahisar, 514/868-8322.
ORBITING AND RETRIEVABLE FAR AND EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROMETER
- SHUTTLE PALLET SATELLITE (ORFEUS-SPAS)
The Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet
Spectrometer - Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) mission is the
first in a series of missions using the German built ASTRO-SPAS
science satellite. The ASTRO-SPAS program is a joint German/U.S.
endeavor, based upon a memorandum of understanding between NASA and
the German Space Agency, DARA.
ASTRO-SPAS is a spacecraft designed for launch, deployment and
retrieval by the Space Shuttle. Once deployed from the Shuttle by
its Remote Manipulation System (RMS), ASTRO-SPAS operates quasi-
autonomously for several days in the Shuttle vicinity. After
completion of the free flight phase, the satellite is retrieved by
the RMS and returned to Earth. The ASTRO-SPAS program is very cost
efficient, owing to the versatility and the retrievability of the
ORFEUS-SPAS is an astrophysics mission, designed to investigate
very hot and very cold matter in the universe. The one-meter
diameter ORFEUS-Telescope with the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) Spectrograph
and the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Spectrograph is the main payload.
A secondary, but highly complementary payload is the Interstellar
Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS). In addition to the
astronomy payloads, ORFEUS-SPAS carries the Surface Effects Sample
Monitor (SESAM) and the Remote IMAX Camera System (RICS).
The ORFEUS-SPAS Mission is dedicated to astronomical
observations at very short wavelengths, specifically the two spectral
ranges Far Ultraviolet (FUV, 90-125 nm) and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV,
40-90 nm). This part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which is
obscured by the Earth's atmosphere for ground-based observations,
bears among the highest density of spectral lines (especially from
various states of hydrogen and oxygen), which are emitted or absorbed
by matter of very different temperature.
ORFEUS-SPAS will add information to the understanding of the
life-cycle of stars by observing some of the coldest (several degrees
above absolute zero) and the hottest (more than one million degrees)
matter found in our galaxy. Specific mission objectives are:
* Investigation of physical parameters in hot stellar atmospheres
* Investigation of cooling mechanisms of white dwarfs
* Determination of physical parameters of stellar accretion-
disks, e.g. mass transfer rates, orbital parameters and
* Shells associated with nova explosions and symbiotic stars
* Investigation of supernova remnants
* Investigation of the interstellar medium and potential star
forming regions. In particular, determination of distance,
density and temperature
* Studies of the intergalactic medium by observations of quasar
Star formation is not yet completely understood. Stars are,
however, known to be formed in dense clouds of interstellar gas and
dust. Under gravitational contraction, these clouds can become dense
enough to trigger star formation. ORFEUS-SPAS will observe the
ultraviolet absorption lines associated with such clouds.
More generally, ORFEUS-SPAS will investigate absorption line
spectra of hydrogen and other elements in a wide range of excitation
states. Hydrogen is the main constituent of such clouds and can get
optically excited by background star light. ORFEUS-SPAS data will
allow determination of the size, distance, density and temperature of
such clouds, which in turn, aids our understanding of the
circumstances under which interstellar clouds collapse and new stars
Once a star is formed, its evolution is mainly ruled by just one
parameter, its mass. High mass stars burn energy, through nuclear
fusion, more than 100,000 times faster than our sun. These processes
give rise to bright ultraviolet emission and strong winds of hot
ionized material. ORFEUS will study the surfaces and winds of such
Low-mass stars like Earth's sun burn their energy reserves
relatively slowly, not emitting large amounts of ultraviolet
radiation. The outermost layers of their atmospheres can become very
hot, however, due to turbulent convection which creates shock-waves.
ORFEUS will measure ultraviolet spectra of such hot layers of
relatively cold stars in order to contribute to an understanding of
Most stars end up as compact white dwarfs. These stars take a
very long time to cool down. During this time, they emit most of
their energy in the ultraviolet wavelength range. Moreover, they are
among the brightest EUV sources, which makes them perfect targets for
ORFEUS-SPAS observations. ORFEUS data will contribute to a new
understanding of the cooling mechanisms of white dwarf stars.
Once their energy reserves have been depleted, larger stars
explode as supernovae and return their mass back to the interstellar
medium. ORFEUS-SPAS is capable of tracing supernova remnants.
Under certain circumstances, the stars of binary systems can
exchange material, forming hot accretion disks. ORFEUS observations
are aimed at determination of mass exchange rates, orbital parameters
The physics of accretion disks is of particular interest in
current astrophysical research, since there is good reason to believe
that similar phenomena take place on a much larger scale in the
centers of some galaxies, known as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN).
Massive black holes are believed to be surrounded by huge accretion
disks. This may even be the case at the center of Earth's galaxy,
the Milky Way. Dense dust clouds almost completely prevent direct
observation of this region.
AGNs are inherently very bright, but because of the large
distance from Earth, even the nearest ones appear very faint.
Therefore, only the brightest AGN may be accessible to ORFEUS
observations. Because little information is yet available on these
exotic objects, even a single spectrum may lead to an important new
THE SCIENCE PAYLOAD
The ORFEUS-SPAS science payload is provided by German and U.S.
research institutions and funded through DARA and NASA.
The core instrument is the ORFEUS telescope with the FUV Echelle
spectrometer and the EUV spectrometer, built into the telescope
structure. The one meter diameter ultraviolet telescope has a 2.426
m focal length. An iridium coating on the primary mirror serves as a
reflection enhancement for ultraviolet wavelengths. Essential
stability against mechanical and thermal load deformations is
provided by the carbon fibre epoxy compound tube structure.
The EUV spectrometer is directly exposed to light reflected off
the main mirror. It covers the spectral range 40-115 nm, offering a
resolution of about 5000 over the whole bandwidth. In order to
achieve this unprecedentedly high, resolution over such a wide band-
width, a completely new design was used. A set of four novel
gratings are the key to producing high quality spectra. The groove
density of up to 6,000 lines per millimeter is not uniform, but
varies over the gratings in a way which compensates for distortions
introduced by their unusual location in the telescope beam. Novel
detectors, allowing for the resolution of single photon events, can
locate the distance between individual photons with a precision of
about 30 micro-meter.
The FUV Echelle spectrometer is operated alternatively with the
EUV spectrometer, by flipping a mirror into the beam reflected off
the primary mirror. The FUV spectrometer covers the wavelength range
90-125 nm and provides a spectral resolution on the order of 10,000.
Two reflection gratings disperse the light into a spectrum, which is
projected onto a two-dimensional micro channel-plate-detector. The
detector is optimized for high spatial resolution.
IMAPS, the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph
is a separate instrument, attached to the ASTRO-SPAS framework.
IMAPS was successfully flown on several sounding rocket missions.
IMAPS will be operated for about 1 day during the ORFEUS-SPAS mission
and during that time will observe the brightest galactic objects.
IMAPS operates independently of the ORFEUS telescope. It covers the
95-115 nm band and provides a resolution of about 240,000, which is
by far the highest spectral resolution ever achieved by a space
telescope. This resolution allows study of fine structure in
interstellar gas lines. The individual motions of interstellar gas
clouds can be determined to an accuracy of 1.6 km per second.
Another science payload is the Surface Effects Sample Monitor
(SESAM), a passive carrier for state of the art optical surfaces and
potential future detector materials. SESAM will investigate the
impact of the space environment on materials and surfaces in
different phases of a Space Shuttle mission, from launch, orbit phase
to re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. Among the SESAM samples are
also witness samples to the telescope mirror, allowing for accurate
calibration measurements after landing. Sample spaces are available
to scientific and industrial users. Since SESAM is very efficient
with respect to volume, weight and resources, it is envisaged for
future ASTRO-SPAS missions as well.
The Remote IMAX Camera System (RICS) aboard ORFEUS-SPAS will
take footage of the Shuttle during deployment and retrieval, to
contribute to a motion picture. At the same time, RMS operations and
the ORFEUS-SPAS satellite will be filmed by another IMAX camera
aboard the shuttle.
The ASTRO-SPAS Carrier
ASTRO-SPAS is designed for up to 10 days of autonomous operation
in the Shuttles vicinity, commanded by the mobile German SPAS Payload
Operations Center (SPOC). To keep up with the extended mission
capability of the Shuttle fleet, increasing the length of the ASTRO-
SPAS operational phase is currently under investigation.
ASTRO-SPAS provides standardized equipment support panels,
extensive onboard facilities and resources to scientific payloads.
Energy is provided by a new powerful Li-SO2 battery pack, which was
space qualified for ASTRO-SPAS. Precise attitude-control is achieved
by a 3-axis stabilized cold gas system in combination with a star
tracker and a specially developed space borne GPS receiver. The
versatility of ASTRO-SPAS permits it to support experiments ranging
from ultraviolet astronomy to infrared sensing of the Earth's
atmosphere. Refurbishment between missions is achieved in less than
Instrument Team Leader Features
Far Ultraviolet M. Grewing, G. Kraemer Coverage of the 90-125
Spectrograph (FUV) Astronomisches Institut nm wavelength
Universitaet Tuebingen range; spectral
I. Appenzeller resolution of 10,000;
Landessternwarte Micro-channel Plate
Heidelberg Detector with
Extreme Ultraviolet S. Bowyer, M. Hurwitz Coverage of the 40-115
Spectrograph (EUV) University of California nm wavelength
Berkeley, Calif. range; spectral
resolution of 5,000;
detection of individual
Interstellar Medium E. Jenkins Coverage of 95-115 nm
Absorption Profile Princeton University wavelength range;
Spectrograph (IMAPS) Princeton, N.J. spectral resolution of
interstellar gas lines
Surface Effects Sample D.-R. Schmitt Carrier for optical
Monitor (SESAM) Deutsche Forschungs- samples to investigate
anstalt fuer Luft- und degradation of
Raumfahrt (DLR) surfaces and
Braunschweig materials in space
places for user
KEY SPACECRAFT CHARACTERISTICS
Total Weight 3,154 kg (1,905 kg available to science
Dimensions 4.50 m (payload envelope),
2.50 m (front to rear)
Design Concept carbon fibre framework, modular equipment
support panels support for a 1.2 m telescope
Power System new modular Li-SO2 battery pack with 10 kwh
each, total of 40 kwh available to payload
Attitude Control 3-axis-stabilized cold gas system
Thrusters 12 nozzles of 100 mN thrust each
Attitude Verification precision star tracker and Global
Positioning System (GPS) Receiver
Pointing Accuracy better than 5 arc seconds
Telemetry/ S-band link to Shuttle, utilizing NASA standard
Telecommand Near Earth Transponder
Data Storage onboard tape recorder, 60 Gbit
Mission Control mobile Micro VAX based SPAS Payload
Operations Center (SPOC) set up at KSC
ASTRO-SPAS mission control is provided by the SPOC ground
station at KSC. The Shuttle is used as a relay station for the
command and telemetry link. Real time telemetry data analysis and
commanding is provided by the micro-VAX-based ground station.
Science data are stored by an onboard tape recorder. Downlink of
quick-look data is available.
Future Astro-Spas Missions
The DARA/NASA ASTRO-SPAS program makes provisions for at least
three more joint missions. The second mission, named CRISTA-SPAS
(Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere),
will be launched in 1994. A better understanding of the photo-
chemistry and small scale dynamics of the Earth's-atmosphere are the
main objectives of the CRISTA-SPAS mission.
A reflight of ORFEUS-SPAS is planned as the third ASTRO-SPAS
mission. Increased mission duration and possibly improved instrument
performance may allow for an extended extra-galactic observation
CRISTA-SPAS is planned to be reflown as the fourth ASTRO-SPAS
mission. In addition, an Automated Rendezvous and Capture (ARC)
mission, utilizing the ASTRO-SPAS carrier, may be flown later this
decade as a joint project between the European Space Agency (ESA) and
NASA. The ARC mission is designed to demonstrate automated
rendezvous and capture technologies in support of the space station.
STS-51 ORFEUS/SPAS RENDEZVOUS OPERATIONS
The ORFEUS/SPAS will be released by Mission Specialist Dan
Bursch using Discovery's mechanical arm on the second day of the
While Bursch works with the arm to release the satellite, fellow
crew member Jim Newman will oversee the mechanical operations of the
ORFEUS instrument and the SPAS. The majority of commands to ORFEUS,
however, will come from ground controllers.
Once Bursch has released the satellite, Commander Frank
Culbertson will fire Discovery's small steering jets twice to
separate from the vicinity of ORFEUS/SPAS, moving at least 13
nautical miles ahead of the satellite.
For ORFEUS/SPAS operations, science ground controllers require
at least 1 1/2 hours of communications with ORFEUS/SPAS out of every
4 1/2 hours (three orbits). For these transmissions, Discovery must
act as a relay station -- ground communications will reach
ORFEUS/SPAS via Discovery and vice versa.
ORFEUS/SPAS will fly free of Discovery for almost 6 days.
Discovery will move from being ahead of the satellite to trailing it
the day before it is recaptured. The actual maneuvers to recapture
the satellite will begin about 5 1/2 hours before ORFEUS/SPAS is
captured, with Discovery trailing 30 n.m. behind the satellite.
Discovery then will perform an engine firing to begin closing in on
to a point 8 n.m. behind the satellite at a rate of about 11 n.m. per
orbit. After two orbits and one fine-tuning burn once the
ORFEUS/SPAS is in sight of the electronic star trackers on the
Shuttle's nose, Discovery will reach the 8 n.m. point.
From 8 n.m., the final rendezvous sequence begins with the
Terminal Intercept (TI) burn. The TI burn, occurring less than 2
hours before capture, will send Discovery on a final approach to
ORFEUS/SPAS. As Discovery closes in, four mid-course correction
firings will be done, if needed, with the Shuttle's small steering
jets. The dish-shaped Ku-band antenna on the Shuttle will obtain a
radar lock on the satellite.
About 1 hour, 10 minutes before capture, when Discovery is
passing about 1 statute mile below ORFEUS/SPAS, Culbertson will take
manual control of the rendezvous. Around that time, two laser
ranging devices that measure distance and closing rate by bouncing a
laser beam off of the satellite, will be used for navigation as well.
One laser ranging unit is hand-held and will be pointed by Pilot Bill
Readdy through the Shuttle cockpit window at ORFEUS/SPAS. A second
laser ranging unit, being flown for the first time, mounted in the
cargo bay of Discovery, will be remotely operated. These two units
will supplement onboard radar information.
Culbertson will brake Discovery, flying with the control stick
on the flight deck as it moves toward ORFEUS/SPAS, finally reaching a
point a few hundred feet in front of the satellite. While Discovery
is closing in, Bursch will extend the mechanical arm. With
Culbertson moving Discovery to within 35 feet of ORFEUS/SPAS and
holding position, Bursch will grapple the satellite and reberth it in
the cargo bay for the trip back to Earth.
LIMITED DURATION SPACE ENVIRONMENT CANDIDATE MATERIALS EXPOSURE
The primary objective of the Limited Duration Space Environment
Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE) is to introduce development
composite materials to a flux atomic oxygen atoms in low-Earth orbit.
The candidate materials-polymeric, coated polymeric, and light
metallic composites will have undergone extensive ground based
material performance testing prior to being attached to reusable test
fixtures designed for multi-mission Space Shuttle use.
The LDCE, configuration C, consists of two standard 5-cubic-foot
GAS cans with Motorized Door Assemblies (MDA's). A crewmember uses
the Autonomous Payload Control System to control the payload from the
aft flight deck. The LDCE is a simple exposure experiment that
utilizes an MDA on each can but does not contain any batteries or
CHROMOSOMES AND PLANT CELL DIVISION IN SPACE
Dr. Abraham Krikorian, State University of New York at Stony Brook
Dr. Mary Musgrave, Louisiana State University
Dr. Norman Lewis, Washington State University
The upcoming flight of the CHROMEX-4 experiment is the fourth in
a series of Life Sciences middeck experiments dealing with the growth
of plants in microgravity.
The CHROMEX-4 payload consists of three scientific experiments.
They are plant reproduction studies which are a reflight of the
CHROMEX-3 experiment; plant cell developmental studies which carry
the studies of CHROMEX-1 and CHROMEX-2 to another plant species; and
cell wall formation and gene expression studies. The CHROMEX-4
payload also will provide the opportunity to evaluate a new nutrient
support system developed at Washington State University.
The anticipated science benefits may lead to new strategies to
manipulate and exploit the effect of gravity in plant growth,
development, biochemistry and biotechnology. Such understandings
will directly benefit the agriculture, horticulture and forestry
industries which depend upon plant growth for their products.
The plants being studied on CHROMEX-4 are mouse-ear cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana) and a strain of wheat (Triticum aestivum).
Arabidopsis is a small, fast-growing plant widely studied by
plant scientists. It is found in the wild and cultivated for
research. This plant will self pollinate during the 9-day mission
and begin producing seeds. Dr. Musgrave will investigate the effects
of the microgravity environment on seed production and seed forming
structures of the plants.
Triticum is a superdwarf variety of wheat and has been widely
studied among plant researchers. Root and shoot development, cell
wall formation and gene expression studies are being conducted on
these specimens by Drs. Krikorian and Lewis.
These plant specimens and their nutrient support systems are
integrated with the Plant Growth Chambers (PGC) approximately 1 day
before launch. The PCGs are loaded into the Plant Growth Unit (PGU).
The PGU replaces one standard middeck locker and requires 28 volts of
power from the orbiter. This hardware provides lighting, limited
temperature control and data acquisition for post-flight analysis.
The payload crew is required to perform nominal experiment activities
consisting of a daily status check to monitor the PGU's systems'
Following the flight of these plants, the investigators will
perform complete dissections of the entire plant structure and
preserve the tissues by chemical fixation or flash freezing.
The PGU was developed by NASA. The experiment is sponsored by
NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications.
STS-51 EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY
STS-51 crewmembers Carl Walz and Jim Newman will perform a 6-
hour extravehicular activity (EVA), or spacewalk, on the fifth day of
the mission as a continuation of a series of test spacewalks NASA is
conducting to increase experience with spacewalks and refine
spacewalk training methods.
Walz will be designated extravehicular crew member 1 (EV1) and
Newman will be EV2. Pilot Bill Readdy will serve as the
intravehicular (IV) crew member inside Discovery, supervising the
coordination of spacewalk activities in the Shuttle's cargo bay.
In addition to performing tasks that investigate a spacewalker's
mobility in general, Walz and Newman will evaluate several tools that
may be used during the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)
later this year on mission STS-61, including a power socket wrench, a
torque wrench, foot restraint, safety tethers and tool holder.
Unlike Shuttle mission STS-57, the astronauts will not use the
50-foot long robot arm during the spacewalk, since it will be
important for use several days after the spacewalk to retrieve the
ORFEUS-SPAS satellite. Walz and Newman will spend part of their time
outside Discovery testing various types of rigid and semi-rigid
tethers as well as moving up and down the bay carrying each other,
evaluating how well spacewalking astronauts can maneuver in
weightlessness with a large object.
Other tests include an evaluation of how well an astronaut must
be restrained in weightlessness to apply a large amount of tightening
to a bolt using the tools provided. In addition, the spacewalkers
will use a large tool onboard Discovery for use in case of a problem
with the ACTS/TOS satellite's deployment to evaluate methods of using
As is the rule with the test spacewalks, the STS-51 EVA will be
one of the lowest priorities of the flight, subject to cancellation
if needed due to a problem with one of the primary payloads. It is
planned with a minimum of extra equipment flown on Discovery, making
optimum use of materials already aboard for other purposes.
The planned spacewalk will be the third such test spacewalk this
year. Previous spacewalk tests were conducted on STS-54 in January
and STS-57 in June. NASA plans to continue adding spacewalks to
Shuttle flights when they can be performed without interference to
the primary activities onboard. The STS-51 spacewalk is the final
test EVA planned for 1993. The spacewalks planned for STS-61 in
December will be performed to service the HST and not for test
STS-51 RADIATION MONITORING EQUIPMENT-III (RME-III)
The Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III) measures
ionizing radiation exposure to the crew within the orbiter cabin.
RME-III measures gamma ray, electron, neutron and proton radiation
and calculates in real time exposure in RADS-tissue equivalent. The
information is stored in a memory module for post-flight analysis.
The hand-held instrument is stored in a middeck locker during
flight except for when the crew activates it and replaces the memory
module every two days. RME-III will be activated by the crew as soon
as possible after they achieve orbit and it will operate throughout
the mission. A crew member will enter the correct mission elapsed
time upon activation. ME-III is sponsored by the Department of
Defense in cooperation with NASA.
AIR FORCE OPTICAL SITE (AMOS)
This geophysical environmental study will test ground based
optical sensors. The experiment will also examine
contamination/exhaust plume phenomena using the Space Shuttle as a
AURORA PHOTOGRAPHY EXPERIMENT-B (APE-B)
The mission objectives of the Aurora Photography Experiment-B
(APE-B) are to photograph the airglow aurora, auroral optical
effects, the Shuttle glow phenomenon and thruster emissions in the
imaging mode of photography as well as in the Fabry-Perot and
spectrometer modes of photography.
COMMERCIAL PROTEIN CRYSTAL GROWTH (CPCG)
The Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload is designed
to conduct experiments which supply information on the scientific
methods and commercial potential for growing large high-quality
protein crystals in microgravity. The CPCG payload consists of
Commercial Refrigerator/Incubator Modules (CR/IM's) and their
There are two possible configurations for this experiment, Block
I and Block II. This experiment is configured in Block II
configuration for the STS-51 mission, in which the CR/IM contents
consist of four cylinder containers of the same diameter but
different volumes. The four cylinders are 500 mm, 200 mm, 100 mm and
20 mm. Depending on the specific protein being flown, the
temperature is either lowered or raised in up to a five-step process
over Flight Day 1 and 2.
One CR/IM occupies the space of one middeck stowage locker.
Orbiter 28V dc power is provided to the CPCG CR/IM via single power
cables from a standard middeck outlet. The CPCG experiment is
installed at the pad within launch minus 24 hours.
HIGH RESOLUTION SHUTTLE GLOW SPECTROSCOPY
The High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy-A (HRSGS-A) is an
experimental payload designed to obtain high resolution spectra in
the visible and near visible wavelength range (4000 angstroms to 8000
angstroms) of the Shuttle surface glow as observed on the orbiter
surfaces which face the velocity vector while in low Earth-orbit.
The spectral resolution of the spectrograph is 2 angstroms and it is
hoped this will help identify the cause of the Shuttle glow. The
HRSGS-A will look at the vertical tail, Orbital Maneuvering System
Pod or a suitable alternative.
The IMAX payload is a 70mm motion picture camera system for
filming general orbiter scenes. The system consists of a camera,
lenses, rolls of film, two magazines with film, an emergency speed
control, a Sony recorder and associated equipment, two photographic
lights, supporting hardware in the form of mounting brackets to
accommodate the mode of use, two cables and various supplemental
The IMAX and supporting equipment are stowed in the middeck for
in-cabin use. The IMAX uses two film magazines which can be
interchanged as part of the operation. Each magazine runs for
approximately 3 minutes. When both magazines are consumed, reloading
of the magazines from the stowed supply of film is required. Lenses
are interchanged based on scene requirements. The IMAX will be
installed in the orbiter middeck approximately 7 days prior to
INVESTIGATION INTO POLYMER MEMBRANES PROCESSING (IPMP)
The research objectives of the IPMP is to flash evaporate mixed
solvent systems in the absence of convection to control the porosity
of a polymer membrane. Two experimental units will be flown. Each
unit will consist of two 304L stainless steel sample cylinders
connected to each other by a stainless steel packless valve with an
aluminum cap. Before launch, the two larger canisters are evacuated
and sealed with threaded stainless steel plugs using a Teflon( tape
In the smaller units, a thin film polymer membrane is swollen in
a solvent compound. The film is rolled up and inserted into the
canisters. The small canisters are sealed at ambient pressure
(approximately 14.7 psia). The valves are secured with Teflon(
The locker containing the IPMP payload will be installed in the
orbiter during the period from L-6 to L-3 days.
STS-51 CREW BIOGRAPHIES
Frank L. Culbertson, Jr., 44, Capt., USN, will command STS-51.
Selected as an astronaut in 1984, Culbertson will be making his
second space flight and considers Holly Hill, S.C., his hometown.
Culbertson graduated from Holly Hill High School in 1967 and
received a bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from the
Naval Academy in 1971.
After serving aboard the USS Fox in the Vietnam War, Culbertson
was designated a Naval aviator in 1973 and, from 1974-1976, he served
as an F-4 Phantom pilot aboard the USS Midway. Subsequently, he was
assigned as an exchange pilot with the Air Force, serving as a
weapons and tactics instructor at Luke Air Force Base, Ariz., until
1978. His next assignment was as the catapult and arresting gear
officer aboard the USS John F. Kennedy. In 1982, he graduated with
distinction from the Naval Test Pilot School and, subsequently,
served as a test pilot in the Carrier Systems Branch. He was engaged
in fleet replacement training in the F-14A Tomcat in 1984 until his
selection by NASA.
Culbertson's first shuttle flight was as pilot of STS-38, a
Department of Defense-dedicated mission in November 1990. He has
logged more than 117 hours in space, more than 4,500 hours flying
time in 40 different types of aircraft and 450 carrier landings.
William F. Readdy, 41, will serve as pilot. Selected as an
astronaut in 1987, Readdy will be making his second space flight and
considers McLean, Va., his hometown.
Readdy graduated from McLean High School in 1970 and received a
bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from the U. S. Naval
Academy in 1974.
Readdy was designated a Naval aviator in 1975. From 1976-1980,
he served as an A-6 pilot aboard the USS Forrestal. He graduated from
the Naval Test Pilot School in 1981. His Navy assignments included
the Strike Aircraft Test Directorate, instructor duty at the Naval
Test Pilot School and strike operations officer aboard the USS Coral
In 1986, Readdy accepted a reserve commission from the Navy to
join NASA as a research pilot and aerospace engineer at JSC. Prior
to his selection as an astronaut, he served as program manager for
the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft.
Readdy's first flight was on STS-42, the first flight of the
International Microgravity Lab (IML), in January 1992. Readdy has
logged more than 193 hours in space and more than 5,500 hours flying
time in 50 types of aircraft, including more than 550 carrier
James H. Newman, 36, will be Mission Specialist 1 (MS1).
Selected as an astronaut in 1990, Newman will be making his first
space flight and considers San Diego, Calif., his hometown.
Newman graduated from La Jolla High School, San Diego, in 1974;
received a bachelor of arts in physics from Dartmouth College in
1978; and received a master's and doctorate in physics from Rice
University in 1982 and 1984, respectively.
Newman performed post-doctoral work at Rice in atomic and
molecular physics and was appointed an adjunct assistant professor in
the Department of Space Physics in 1985. He later joined NASA,
serving as a simulation supervisor for astronaut training at the time
of his selection
Daniel W. Bursch, Commander, USN, will be Mission Specialist 2
(MS2). Selected as an astronaut in January 1990, Bursch will be
making his first space flight and considers Vestal, N.Y., his
Bursch graduated from Vestal Senior High School in 1975;
received a bachelor of science in physics from the Naval Academy in
1979; and received a master's in engineering science from the Naval
Postgraduate School in 1991.
Bursch was designated a Naval flight officer in 1979 and was
assigned to Attack Squadron 34 as a bombardier/navigator in the A-6E
Intruder. He graduated from the Naval Test Pilot School in 1984 and
later returned to the school as a flight instructor. Later, he was
assigned as strike operations officer for Commander, Cruiser
Destroyer Group One. He had just completed work at the Naval
Postgraduate School at the time of his selection by NASA.
He has logged more than 1,800 flying hours in 35 types of
Carl E. Walz, 37, Major, USAF, will be Mission Specialist 3
(MS3). Selected as an astronaut in January 1990, Walz will be making
his first space flight and was born in Cleveland.
Walz graduated from Charles F. Bush High School, Lyndhurst,
Ohio., in 1973; received a bachelor of science in physics from Kent
State University in 1977; and received a master's in solid state
physics from John Carroll University in 1979.
Commissioned in the Air Force, from 1979-1982, Walz was assigned
as radiochemical project officer with the 1155th Technical Operations
Squadron at McClellan Air Force Base, Calif. He graduated as a
flight test engineer from the Air Force Test Pilot School in 1983.
From 1983-1987, Walz was assigned to the F-16 Combined Test Force,
and in 1987 he was assigned as a flight test program manager at Det.
3, Air Force Flight Test Center, where he served at the time of his
selection by NASA.
STS-51 MISSION MANAGEMENT
NASA HEADQUARTERS, WASHINGTON, D.C.
Office of Space Flight
Jeremiah W. Pearson III - Associate Administrator
Bryan O'Connor - Deputy Associate Administrator
Tom Utsman - Space Shuttle Program Director
Brewster Shaw - Director, Space Shuttle Operations (JSC)
Loren Shriver - Technical Assistant to the Director of Space Shuttle
Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology
Gregory M. Reck - Acting Associate Administrator
Jack Levine - Acting Director, Flight Projects Division
Andrew B. Dougherty - Spacehab Utilization Program Manager
Richard H. Ott - ActingDirector, Space Processing Division
Ana M. Villamil - Acting Deputy Director, Space Processing Division
Dan Bland - Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module Project Manager
Office of Safety and Mission Assurance
Col. Frederick Gregory - Associate Administrator
Charles Mertz - Acting Deputy Associate Administrator
Richard Perry - Director, Programs Assurance
Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications
Gary Martin - SAMS Program Manager
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA.
Robert L. Crippen - Director
James A. "Gene" Thomas - Deputy Director
Jay F. Honeycutt - Director, Shuttle Management and Operations
Robert B. Sieck - Launch Director
David King - Discovery Flow Director
J. Robert Lang - Director, Vehicle Engineering
Al J. Parrish - Director of Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance
John T. Conway - Director, Payload Management and Operations
P. Thomas Breakfield - Director, Shuttle Payload Operations
Joann H. Morgan - Director, Payload Ground Operations
Mike Kinnan - STS-51 Payload Manager
MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, ALA.
Thomas J. Lee - Director
Dr. J. Wayne Littles - Deputy Director
Alexander A. McCool - Manager, Shuttle Projects Office
Harry G. Craft, Jr. - Manager, Payload Projects Office
Sid Saucier - Manager, Space Systems Projects Office
Alvin E. Hughes - Manager, Upper Stage Projects
Dr. George McDonough - Director, Science and Engineering
James H. Ehl - Director, Safety and Mission Assurance
Otto Goetz - Manager, Space Shuttle Main Engine Project
Victor Keith Henson - Manager, Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor Project
Cary H. Rutland - Manager, Solid Rocket Booster Project
Parker Counts - Manager, External Tank Project
JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON
Aaron Cohen - Director
Paul J. Weitz - Deputy Director
Daniel Germany - Manager, Orbiter and GFE Projects
David Leestma - Director, Flight Crew Operations
Eugene F. Kranz - Director, Mission Operations
Henry O. Pohl - Director, Engineering
Charles S. Harlan - Director, Safety, Reliability and Quality
STENNIS SPACE CENTER, BAY ST. LOUIS, MISS.
Roy S. Estess - Director
Gerald Smith - Deputy Director
J. Harry Guin - Director, Propulsion Test Operations
AMES-DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH FACILITY, EDWARDS AFB, CALIF.
Kenneth J. Szalai - Director
Robert R. Meyers, Jr. - Assistant Director
James R. Phelps - Chief, Shuttle Support Office.
AMES RESEARCH CENTER, MOUNTAIN VIEW, CALIF.
Dr. Dale L. Compton - Director
Victor L. Peterson - Deputy Director
Dr. Joseph C. Sharp - Director, Space Research
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, GREENBELT, MD.
Dr. John Klineberg - Director
Thomas E. Huber - Director, Engineering Directorate
Robert Weaver - Chief, Special Payloads Division
David Shrewsberry - Associate Chief, Special Payloads Division
GERMAN SPACE AGENCY (DARA), BONN, GERMANY
Heinz Stoewer - Managing Director Space Utilization
Gernot Hartmann - Head of Space Science Division
Roland Wattenbach - ASTRO-SPAS Program/Project Manager,
Klaus Steinberg - ORFEUS-SPAS Project Manager
Rolf Densing - ASTRO-SPAS System Scientist
Wolfgang Frings - ASTRO-SPAS representative at NASA-JSC
Franz-Peter Spaunhorst - Head of Public Affairs Office
Rudolf Teuwsen - ASTRO-SPAS Public Affairs Manager
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