Contents of the STS-49PK.TXT file
STS-49 PRESS KIT
SUMMARY OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES
VEHICLE AND PAYLOAD WEIGHTS
TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES
STS-49 PRE-LAUNCH PROCESSING
INTELSAT-VI RENDEZVOUS, CAPTURE AND DEPLOY
INTELSAT VI REBOOST EQUIPMENT
ASSEMBLY OF STATION BY EVA METHODS (ASEM)
PROTEIN CRYSTAL GROWTH (PCG)
AIR FORCE MAUI OPTICAL SYSTEM (AMOS)
SPACE SHUTTLE ENDEAVOUR
STS-49 CREW BIOGRAPHIES
STS-49 MISSION MANAGEMENT
SATELLITE RESCUE, SPACEWALKS MARK ENDEAVOUR'S FIRST FLIGHT
Endeavour's maiden space flight, STS-49, features rendezvous,
repair and reboost of a crippled communications satellite. Also
astronauts will perform spacewalks over three consecutive days, a first
on a Space Shuttle mission, to demonstrate Space Station Freedom
The launch of STS-49 is currently planned for 8:03 p.m. EDT May
5. Endeavour will be placed into an elliptical orbit of 183 by 95 n.m.
with an inclination of 28.35 degrees to the equator. With an on-time
launch, landing would be at 7:58 p.m. EDT May 12 at Edwards Air Force
Base, Calif. Mission duration is 6 days, 23 hours and 55 minutes.
Endeavour's crew -- Commander Dan Brandenstein, Pilot Kevin
Chilton and Mission Specialists Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb, Kathy
Thornton, Tom Akers and Bruce Melnick -- will rendezvous with the
INTELSAT VI (F-3) communications satellite on the 4th day of the
flight. The INTELSAT VI was launched 2 years ago by an unmanned Titan
rocket and stranded in a useless, low orbit when the Titan's second
stage failed to separate.
During the first spacewalk on flight day 4, Thuot will grasp the
satellite using a specially designed capture mechanism. Thout and Hieb
will attach a new solid rocket motor and then deploy the satellite.
INTELSAT VI's final destination will be a 22,300 n.m. high orbit where
it will be stationary above the Atlantic Ocean, providing
telecommunications services to more than 180 countries for at least the
rest of this decade.
On flight days 5 and 6, a Thornton and Akers team and a Thuot and
Hieb team will perform spacewalks to evaluate equipment and techniques
for constructing Space Station Freedom. The evaluations will include
construction of a pyramid simulating the space station truss structure;
the ability of an astronaut to manipulate large, heavy objects in
weightlessness; and the usefulness of five prototype devices to assist
a spacewalker, whose tether has come loose, in getting back to his
In addition, Endeavour will carry the Commercial Protein Crystal
Growth experiment in its middeck, an ongoing series of experiments that
grow near-perfect protein crystals in weightlessness for use in
developing new products and drugs. The Air Force Maui Optical Station,
a facility located on the Hawaiian island of Maui, will attempt to
calibrate its equipment by viewing jet firings and water dumps from
Endeavour. An Ultraviolet Plume Instrument on the LACE satellite will
observe the Shuttle for calibration information. Endeavour's first
flight will be the 47th Space Shuttle mission.
- end of general release -
NASA Select Television Transmission
NASA Select television is available on Satcom F-2R, Transponder 13,
located at 72 degrees west longitude; frequency 3960.0 MHz, audio 6.8
The schedule for television transmissions from the orbiter and for the
mission briefings from the Johnson Space Center, Houston, will be
available during the mission at Kennedy Space Center, Fla.; Marshall
Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.; Ames-Dryden Flight Research
Facility, Edwards, Calif.; Johnson Space Center; and NASA Headquarters,
Washington, D.C. The television schedule will be updated to reflect
changes dictated by mission operations.
Television schedules also may be obtained by calling COMSTOR,
713/483-5817. COMSTOR is a computer data base service requiring the
use of a telephone modem. A voice update of the television schedule
may be obtained by dialing 202/755-1788. This service is updated daily
at noon ET.
Status reports on countdown and mission progress, on- orbit activities
and landing operations will be produced by the appropriate NASA
A mission press briefing schedule will be issued prior to launch.
During the mission, change-of-shift briefings by the off-going flight
director will occur at least once per day. The updated NASA Select
television schedule will indicate when mission briefings are planned.
STS-49 QUICK LOOK FACTS
Orbiter: Endeavour (OV-105)
Launch Date/Time: May 5, 1992 - 8:03 p.m. EDT
Launch Window: 53 minutes
Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center, Fla., Pad 39-B
Altitude/Inclination: 183 x 95 n.m./28.35 degrees
Duration: 7 Days
Landing Date/Time May 12, 1992 - 7:58 p.m. EDT (6/23:55 MET)
Primary Landing Site: Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
Abort Landing Sites: Return to Launch Site - Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Transoceanic Abort Landing - Ben Guerir, Morroco
Abort Once Around - Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
Daniel C. Brandenstein - Commander
Kevin P. Chilton - Pilot
Bruce E, Melnick - Mission Specialist
Pierre J. Thuot - Mission Specialist (EV1)
Richard J. Hieb - Mission Specialist (EV2)
Kathryn C. Thornton - Mission Specialist (EV3)
Thomas D. Akers - Mission Specialist (EV4)
Cargo Bay: Assembly of Station Methods (ASEM)
INTELSAT-VI Repair & Reboost Equipment
Middeck: Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG)
STS-49 SUMMARY OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES
Day One: Ascent; Orbital Maneuvering System-2;
first orbit - raising burn
Day Two: Cabin depressurization to 10.2 psi;
spacesuit checkout; mechanical arm checkout;
second orbit-raising burn
Day Three: Detailed Test Objectives (DTOs) and Detail
Supplementary Objectives (DSOs); orbit,
circularzation, plane correction burns
Day Four: INTELSAT rendezvous; spacewalk to attach
perigee kick motor; INTELSAT deploy
Day Five: Assembly of Space Station by Extravehicular
Activity Methods spacewalk
Day Six: Assembly of Space Station by Extravehicular
Activity Methods spacewalk
Day Seven: Flight control systems checkout; reaction
control system hot fire; DTOs, DSOs
Day Eight: Deorbit; entry; landing
STS-49 VEHICLE AND PAYLOAD WEIGHTS
Orbiter (Endeavour) empty, and 3 Shuttle Main Engines 173,314
INTELSAT perigee kick motor 23,195
INTELSAT cradle, airborne support equipment 4,418
INTELSAT support equipment 76
Assembly of Space Station by EVA Methods (ASEM) 3,990
ASEM support equipment 273
Commercial Protein Crystal Growth 69
Detailed Supplementary Objectives 35
Detailed Test Objectives 171
Total Vehicle at Solid Rocket Booster Ignition 4,522,750
Orbiter Landing Weight 201,088
STS-49 TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
EVENT MET VELOCITY MACH ALTITUDE
(d:h:m:s) (fps) (ft)
Begin Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:10 185 .16 782
End Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:15 319 .28 2,720
SSME Throttle to 89% 00/00:00:20 447 .40 3,980
SSME Throttle to 67% 00/00:00:32 742 .67 10,301
SSME Throttle to 104% 00/00:00:59 1,325 1.28 33,760
Maximum Dyn. Pressure (MAXQ) 00/00:01:02 1,445 1.43 38,079
SRB Separation 00/00:02:05 4,151 3.81 154,985
Main Eng. Cutoff (MECO) 00/00:08:30 24,542 22.61 364,738
Zero Thrust 00/00:08:36 24,541 N/A 363,652
External Tank Separation 00/00:08:48
OMS-2 Burn 00/00:39:58
Apogee, Perigee at MECO: 179 x 32 nautical miles
Apogee, Perigee post-OMS 2: 183 x 95 nautical miles
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES
Space Shuttle launch abort philosophy aims toward safe and intact recovery
of the flight crew, orbiter and its payload. Abort modes include:
* Abort-To-Orbit (ATO) -- Partial loss of main engine thrust late enough
to permit reaching a minimal 105-nautical mile orbit with orbital maneuvering
* Abort-Once-Around (AOA) -- Earlier main engine shutdown with the
capability to allow one orbit around before landing at either Edwards Air Force
Base, Calif., White Sands Space Harbor, N.M, or the Shuttle Landing Facility
(SLF) at the Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
* Trans-Atlantic Abort Landing (TAL) -- Loss of one or more main engines
midway through powered flight would force a landing at either Ben Guerir,
Morroco; Moron, Spain; or Rota, Spain.
* Return-To-Launch-Site (RTLS) -- Early shutdown of one or more engines,
and without enough energy to reach Ben Guerir, would result in a pitch around
and thrust back toward KSC until within gliding distance of the SLF.
STS-42 contingency landing sites are Edwards Air Force Base, Kennedy Space
Center, White Sands Space Harbor, Ben Guerir, Moron and Rota.
STS-49 PRE-LAUNCH PROCESSING
Endeavour arrived at KSC on May 7, 1991, several days after it rolled off
the assembly floor of Rockwell International in Palmdale, Calif. Many systems
on board Endeavour feature design changes or updates as part of continued
improvements to the Space Shuttle. The upgrades include several improved or
redesigned avionics systems, the drag chute and modifications to pave the way
for possibly extending shuttle flights to last as long as 16 days.
Endeavour underwent rigorous first flight processing required of new
orbiters during its stay in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF). The Shuttle
team installed major components associated with a new vehicle and performed
general processing operations.
Endeavour was transferred out of the OPF on March 7, just 10 months after
its arrival at Kennedy Space Center. Endeavour was towed several hundred yards
to the Vehicle Assembly Building and connected to its external tank and solid
rocket boosters on the same day.
The new orbiter spent 6 days in the VAB while technicians connected the
100-ton space plane to its already stacked solid rocket boosters and external
tank. Endeavour was transferred to newly refurbished launch pad 39-B on March
13. This marks the first use of pad B since it served as the launch pad for
Columbia (STS-40) last June.
A flight readiness firing (FRF) was conducted on April 6 in which
Endeavour's three main engines were fired for 22 seconds. The FRF is a
required test of all new Shuttles to verify the integrated operation of the
three main engines, the main propulsion system and pad propellant delivery
Following a review of the information from Endeavour's FRF, two
irregularities were identified in two of the high pressure oxidizer turbo pumps
on engines 1 and 2. Shuttle managers decided on April 8 to replace all three
main engines at the launch pad with three spares. The decision to replace the
engines was dictated by prudence and the fact that the work was expected to
have little impact on the launch preparation schedule. The engines were
replaced the following week.
Extensive post-FRF inspections of Endeavour's main propulsion system were
performed as well as required tests of the main engines to make sure all
systems are flight ready.
STS-49 payload elements, the perigee kick motor and the ASEM multi-purpose
experiment support structure were scheduled to be installed in Endeavour's
payload bay at the launch pad on April 14.
Routine operations and tests are planned while at the launch pad. This
includes the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test with the STS-49 flight crew,
which was scheduled for April 16-17.
A standard 43-hour launch countdown is scheduled to begin 3 days prior to
launch. During the countdown, the orbiter's fuel cell storage tanks will be
loaded with fuel and oxidizer and all orbiter systems will be prepared for
About 9 hours before launch, the external tank will be filled with its
flight load of a half million gallons of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen
propellants. About 2 1/2 hours before liftoff, the flight crew will begin
taking their assigned seats in the crew cabin.
Endeavour's end-of-mission landing is planned at Edwards Air Force Base,
Calif. Endeavour's landing will be the first Shuttle landing to use the new
drag chute. STS-49 astronauts will manually deploy the chute after the nose
gear has touched down. KSC's landing and recovery teams will be on hand to
prepare the vehicle for the cross-country ferry flight back to Florida.
INTELSAT VI RENDEZVOUS, CAPTURE AND DEPLOY
Endeavour will rendezvous with INTELSAT VI on flight day four of STS-49.
INTELSAT-VI is currently in an orbit of approximately 299 n.m. by 309 n.m.
Within 46 hours after Endeavour's launch, satellite controllers in Washington,
D.C. will maneuver INTELSAT so that its orbit moves within a "control box" area
within 6 degrees of arc of a 200 n.m. by 210 n.m., 28.35 degree inclination
orbit. In addition, the controllers will slow the satellite's rotation from
10.5 to about 0.65 revolutions per minute.
As Endeavour approaches INTELSAT in the final phase of rendezvous, crew
members Pierre Thuot and Rick Hieb will begin a spacewalk to capture the
satellite, install a perigee kick motor and deploy the satellite. The
spacewalk is planned to begin about 1.5 hours prior to capture of the
As Endeavour closes in, Thuot will position himself on a foot restraint at
the end of Endeavour's mechanical arm. From Endeavour's crew cabin, fellow
crew member Bruce Melnick will maneuver the robot arm. As Endeavour holds a
position in formation with the satellite, Melnick will move the arm and Thuot
toward the slowly rotating INTELSAT. Once within reach, Thuot will install a
specially designed "capture bar" on the aft end of the satellite in a soft
attached mode. After it is soft attached, the attachment will be rigidized by
Thuot with the installation of a locking device using a specially built power
tool. Thuot will then manually halt the satellite's rotation using a special
"steering wheel" on the capture bar. Once the satellite is stabilized, Melnick
will grapple the INTELSAT with Endeavour's mechanical arm.
While Thuot is capturing the INTELSAT, Hieb will be preparing clamps and
electrical connections in Endeavour's cargo bay for the satellite. Once
INTELSAT has been grappled, Melnick will move the mechanical arm to position
Thuot and the INTELSAT above the cargo bay, where Thuot will exit the foot
restraint. The foot restraint then will be removed from the mechanical arm and
Hieb will remove the steering wheel assembly and install an extension to the
capture bar in preparation for docking INTELSAT to the new perigee kick motor
located in Endeavour's cargo bay.
Melnick then will move the arm to position the satellite next to the
motor's docking clamps. Thuot and Hieb will manually move the satellite into a
final position within the four clamps, close the latches and attach two
electrical umbilicals from the motor to INTELSAT. The capture bar will be
released from INTELSAT and secured to the kick motor so that it will be
jettisoned with the motor when the satellite reaches the proper altitude. Once
all of the connections are completed, the spacewalkers will activate four
springs that will eventually eject INTELSAT from the cargo bay.
Thuot and Hieb will activate two timers for the solid rocket kick motor
and move to Endeavour's airlock to await INTELSAT's ejection from the payload
bay. After a switch is thrown from the aft flight deck of Endeavour, INTELSAT
VI will be ejected by the springs at about 0.6 feet per second and with a
slight rotation of about 0.7 revolutions per minute. After it has sufficiently
cleared the orbiter, Endeavour will slowly back away. About 35 minutes later,
satellite controllers will position INTELSAT for the motor firing and increase
the spin rate.
INTELSAT eventually will take position in geosynchronous orbit at an
altitude of about 22,300 n.m. above the Atlantic Ocean. It is expected to be in
full service by mid-1992.
INTELSAT-VI (F-3) is a communications satellite of the International
Telecommunications Satellite Consortium (INTELSAT), owned by 124 member nations
and formed in the late 1960s to create a global telecommunications system. The
system has a network of 17 satellites and the INTELSAT-VI series is the latest
generation of satellites manufactured by Hughes Aircraft Co., El Segundo,
Calif. The first INTELSAT- VI was launched in the fall of 1989. Three more
successful launches followed. Of these, two are now in service over the
Atlantic Ocean region and two above the Indian Ocean region. INTELSAT-VI (F-3)
was launched on March 14, 1990, by a commercial Titan rocket. A launch vehicle
malfunction left the Titan's second stage attached to the satellite, thus
prohibiting the firing of a solid rocket motor that was to raise it to
geosynchronous orbit. Satellite controllers later jettisoned the solid rocket
motor with the Titan second stage attached and raised the satellite to its
INTELSAT-VI (F-3) weighs about 8,960 pounds, has a diameter of 11.7 feet
and a height of 17.5 feet. With its solar arrays fully deployed, the
satellite's height will be almost 40 feet. Each satellite's expected
operational lifetime is 10 years. It is designed to provide a variety of
voice, video and data communications with 48 transponders powered by 2,600
watts of direct current. Two nickel-hydrogen batteries can supply power for
short periods when solar power is unavailable as the satellite passes through
INTELSAT-VI REBOOST EQUIPMENT
Perigee Kick Motor (PKM) -- The perigee kick motor weighs 23,000 pounds,
is 127.22 inches tall and 92.52 inches in diameter. It is an Orbus 215 solid
propellant motor built by United Technologies Corp. and provided by Hughes
Aircraft Co., El Segundo, Calif., for the mission.
Capture Bar Assembly -- The capture bar assembly was designed by engineers
in the Crew and Thermal Systems Division, Johnson Space Center, Houston. It
weighs 162 pounds, is 181.37 inches long, 40.75 inches tall and 37.38 inches
wide. The capture bar has a detachable right beam extension, left beam
extension and steering wheel. All of the capture bar equipment is constructed
of aluminum and stainless steel.
Cradle -- The cradle holds the perigee kick motor in Endeavour's cargo bay
during launch and weighs 3,749 pounds. It is constructed of aluminum and is
193 inches wide, 93.53 inches long and 151.48 inches tall. It was provided by
Hughes Aircraft Co.
Docking Adapter -- The docking adapter allows attachment of the perigee
kick motor to the INTELSAT- VI and weighs 152.8 pounds. It is 92.52 inches in
diameter and 12 inches thick, constructed of aluminum with some stainless steel
ASSEMBLY OF SPACE STATION BY EVA METHODS
STS-49 astronauts will venture out of the crew cabin two more times
following the repair of INTELSAT VI. The objective of the second EVA, performed
by Thornton and Akers, and the third spacewalk, performed by Thuot and Hieb,
will be to demonstrate and verify Space Station Freedom maintenance and
The Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity Methods (ASEM)
evaluation consists of hardware and techniques to construct a partial truss
structure bay. Crew members will build a truss pyramid; unberth, maneuver and
berth the Multiple Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) pallet to
assess the mass handling capabilities of an EVA astronaut; and evaluate the
ability to work with the mechanical arm at positions above and forward of the
Shuttle's cargo bay.
The MPESS, located in the forward payload bay, will house two node boxes
for the truss pyramid; a releasable grapple fixture and interface plate; a
truss leg dispenser and legs and strut dispenser; and the struts for the truss
Other tests will evaluate the assembly area and MPESS berthing operations
guided by the spacewalker and a spacesuit-mounted camera. The three
consecutive days of spacewalks will evaluate the capability to perform
day-after-day spacewalks by a variety of astronauts, a procedure that will be
needed to build Space Station Freedom.
Another of the ASEM drills will be a demonstration of crew rescue device
prototypes. Five concepts will be tested by all of the spacewalkers -- the
astrorope, telescopic pole, bi-stem pole, inflatable pole and the crew
The astrorope uses an approach similar to the concept of a bola-type
lasso. It is comprised of two cleats attached to a Kevlar cord. The astrorope
is thrown by hand and is meant to wrap around an element of the space station
structure. The astrorope must be manually retracted prior to throwing it again
and has an effective reach range of about 20 feet.
The telescopic pole uses a design similar to a telescoping radio antenna.
It has a grapple fixture on the end and seven sections that can be manually
extended. This concept would allow an unlimited number of grapple attempts and
reaches up to 12 feet.
The bi-stem pole consists of two thin strips of spring steel which, when
allowed to return to their equilibrium state during deployment, overlap one
another to form a rigid pole. It has a grapple fixture attached to one end and
would be used with a power tool for extension and retraction. This powered
approach design also is capable of unlimited grapple attempts. Its reach range
is about 20 feet.
The inflatable pole uses a tubular sock that when pressurized forms a
rigid pole. It has a grapple fixture attached to the end and can accomplish
unlimited grapple attempts. Once it is attached, the sock is deflated and a
hand-over-hand reapproach can be performed. This design does not allow reuse
and has a reach range of 15 feet.
The crew propulsive device is essentially a redesigned handheld
maneuvering unit from the Skylab program. The device can be unfolded and small
jets are used as thrusters, powered by a small canister of pressurized
nitrogen. Using a powered reapproach, its reach range is limited by its
Only three of the concepts have spacewalk time dedicated to them -- the
crew propulsive device, the bi-stem and the inflatable pole -- and will take
place on flight days 5 and 6. The astrorope and the telescoping pole concepts
will be evaluated as time permits during the spacewalks. The crew self rescue
hardware was developed by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division at the Johnson
Langley Truss Joint Used in ASEM Flight Experiment
During the ASEM flight experiment, astronauts will assemble a truss
structure segment using an advance truss joint, designed and fabricated at the
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.. The truss joint (see illustration)
is easily operated without the aid of tools and provides a strong and stiff
connection between truss components. The truss joint, which only requires the
simple rotation of a collar to lock, was designed to be operated either
manually by the astronauts or robotically if required in future applications.
The joint which measures approximately 2 inches in diameter, has been tested
extensively by the astronauts on the ground and in neutral buoyancy, and their
evaluations have lead to improvements in the design. However, the ASEM flight
experiment will be the first time a truss structure has been assembled in space
using this truss joint.
This truss joint is a key product of an extensive NASA Langley Research
Center program to develop the technology for efficient on-orbit construction of
spacecraft which are too large to be boosted into orbit intact. It was
selected as the baseline structural joint for the original larger, erectable
Space Station Freedom design. The joint components are produced at Langley
Research Center on numerically controlled machine tools for accuracy and
economy and are made of a high strength aluminum alloy. A total of 137 strut
end joint assemblies were supplied to the Johnson Space Center, which permitted
assembly of the three sets of experimental hardware required for neutral
buoyancy training certification and flight.
COMMERCIAL PROTEIN CRYSTAL GROWTH EXPERIMENT
In the past decade, exponential growth in the use of protein
pharmaceuticals has resulted in the successful use of proteins in insulin,
interferons, human growth hormone and tissue plasminogen activator. Pure
protein crystals are facing an increase in demand by the pharmaceutical
industry because such purity will facilitate Federal Drug Administration
approval of new protein-based drugs. Pure, well-ordered protein crystals of
uniform size are in demand by the pharmaceutical industry as special
formulations for use in drug delivery.
During the past 6 years, a variety of hardware configurations have been
used to conduct Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiments aboard 12 Space
Shuttle flights. These experiments have involved minute quantities of sample
materials to be processed. On STS-49, the Protein Crystallization Facility
(PCF), developed by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC), a NASA
Center for the Commercial Development of Space at the University of
Alabama-Birmingham, will use much larger quantities of materials to grow
crystals in batches, using temperature as a means to initiate and control
The PCF has been reconfigured to include cylinders with the same height,
but varying diameters to obtain different volumes (500, 200, 100, 20 ml).
These cylinders allow for a relatively minimal temperature gradient and require
less protein solution to produce quality crystals. This is an industry- driven
change brought about by a need to reduce the cost and amount of protein sample
needed to grow protein crystals in space, while at the same time increasing the
quality and quantity of crystals.
Also flying on STS-49 as part of the CPCG payload complement is a
newly-designed, "state-of-the-art" Commercial Refrigerator Incubator Module
(CRIM) which allows for a pre-programmed temperature profile. The CRIM
temperatures are programmed prior to launch and a feedback loop monitors CRIM
temperatures during flight. Developed by Space Industries, Inc., Webster,
Texas, for CMC, the CRIM also provides improved thermal capability and has a
microprocessor that uses "fuzzy logic" (a branch of artificial intelligence) to
control and monitor the CRIM's thermal environment. A thermoelectric device is
used to electrically "pump" heat in or out of the CRIM.
The PCF serves as the growth chamber for significant quantities of protein
crystals. Each of the PCF cylinders on STS-49 is encapsulated within
individual aluminum containment tubes and supported by an aluminum structure.
Prior to launch, the cylinders will be filled with bovine insulin solution and
mounted into a CRIM set at 40 degrees C. Each cylinder lid will pass through
the left wall of the aluminum structure and come into direct contact with a
metal plate in the CRIM that is temperature- controlled by the thermoelectric
Shortly after achieving orbit, the crew will activate the PCF experiment
by initiating the pre- programmed temperature profile. The CRIM temperature
will be reduced automatically from 40 degrees C to 22 degrees C over a 4-day
period. The change in CRIM temperature will be transferred from the cold plate
through the cylinders' lids to the insulin solution.
Decreasing the temperature of the solution by 18 degrees C will effect the
resulting crystals' formation, which should be well ordered due to the reduced
effects the Earth's gravity. Once activated, the payload will not require any
further crew interaction (except for periodic monitoring), nor will it require
any modifications for landing.
In general, purified proteins have a very short lifetime in solution;
therefore, the CPCG payload and CRIM will be loaded onto the Shuttle no earlier
than 24 hours prior to launch. Due to the instability of the resulting protein
crystals, the CRIM will be retrieved from the Shuttle within 3 hours of
landing. The CRIM will be battery-powered continuously from the time the
samples are placed in the CRIM and it is loaded onto the Shuttle, until the
time it is recovered and delivered to the investigating team. For launch
delays lasting more than 24 hours, the payload will need to be replenished with
Once the samples are returned to Earth, they will be analyzed by
morphometry to determine size distribution and absolute/relative crystal size.
They also will be analyzed with X-ray crystallography and biochemical assays of
purity to determine internal molecular order and protein homogeneity,
The Commercial Protein Crystal Growth payload, sponsored by NASA's Office
of Commercial Programs, is developed and managed by the Center for
Macromolecular Crystallography. Dr. Charles E. Bugg, Director, CMC, is lead
investigator for the CPCG experiment. Dr. Marianna Long, CMC Associate
Director for Commercial Development also is a CPCG investigator.
AIR FORCE MAUI OPTICAL SYSTEM (AMOS)
The AMOS is an electrical-optical facility located on the Hawaiian island
of Maui. The facility tracks the orbiter as it flies over the area and records
signatures from thruster firings, water dumps or the phenomena of "Shuttle
glow," a well-documented glowing effect around the orbiter caused by the
interaction of atomic oxygen with the spacecraft. The information obtained is
used to calibrate the infrared and optical sensors at the facility. No
hardware onboard the Shuttle is needed for the system.
SPACE SHUTTLE ENDEAVOUR (OV-105)
Construction of Endeavour
Rockwell International's Space Systems Division (SSD) received authority
to proceed with construction of a fifth Space Shuttle orbiter -- designated
OV-105 -- from NASA on Aug. 1, 1987. OV-105 is the replacement orbiter for
OV-099 which was lost in the Space Shuttle Challenger accident.
Rockwell managed the OV-105 construction program under the direction of
NASA's Johnson Space Center. The division fabricated the orbiter's forward and
aft fuselages, forward reaction control systems, crew compartment and secondary
structures at its Downey, Calif., headquarters facility. Final assembly, test
and checkout took place at Rockwell's orbiter assembly facility in Palmdale,
Calif. In addition, more than 250 major subcontractors and thousand of
associated suppliers across the nation performed work on Shuttle components and
support services, which accounted for nearly 50 percent of the total work on
the program. OV-105 was officially turned over to NASA on April 25, 1991 at a
ceremony at Rockwell's Palmdale facility.
IMPROVED FEATURES OF SPACE SHUTTLE ENDEAVOUR
Many systems onboard Endeavour have had design changes or have been
updated from earlier equipment to take advantage of technological advances and
continue improvements to the Space Shuttle. The upgrades include several
improved or redesigned avionics systems; installation of a drag chute as part
of a series of landing aid additions to the orbiters; and modifications to pave
the way for possibly extending Shuttle flights to last as long as 3 weeks in
Some such updated systems already have been installed in the rest of
the shuttle orbiters as well as Endeavour; some will be installed in all
orbiters in the near future; and others will be used on Endeavour only.
Updated avionics systems
Advanced General Purpose Computers
The advanced general purpose computers (GPCs) are now in the process of
being incorporated into the entire orbiter fleet and will be installed and used
on Endeavour for its first space flight. The updated computers have more than
twice the memory and three times the processing speed of their predecessors.
Officially designated the IBM 10-101S, built by IBM, Inc., they are half the
size, about half the weight and require less electricity than the
first-generation GPCs. The central processor unit and input/output processor,
previously installed as two separate boxes, are now a single unit.
The new GPCs use the existing Shuttle software with only subtle
changes. However, the increases in memory and processing speed allow for
future innovations in the ShuttleUs data processing system. Although there is
no real difference in the way the crew will operate with the new computers, the
upgrade increases the reliability and efficiency in commanding the Shuttle
systems. The predicted "mean time between failures" (MTBF) for the advanced
GPCs is 6,000 hours. The flight computers are already exceeding that
prediction with an MTBF of 18,500 hours. The MTBF for the original GPCs is
New GPC Specifications
Dimensions: 19.52S x 7.62S x 10.2S
Weight: 64 lbs.
Memory Capacity: 262,000 words (32-bits each)
Processing Rate: 1.2 million instructions per second
Power Requirements: 550 watts
HAINS Inertial Measurement Units
The High Accuracy Inertial Navigation System (HAINS) Inertial
Measurement Unit (IMU) will be incorporated into the orbiter fleet on an
attrition basis as replacements for the current KT-70 model IMUs. The three
IMUs on each Shuttle orbiter are four-gimbal, inertially stabilized,
all-attitude platforms that measure changes in the spacecraftUs speed used for
navigation and provide spacecraft attitude information on flight control.
For Endeavour's first flight, one HAINS IMU will fly with two
accompanying DT-70 IMUs to provide redundancy with proven hardware. The HAINS
IMU for the Space Shuttle is a derivative of IMUs used in the Air Force's B-1B
aircraft. It includes an improved gyroscope model and microprocessor and has
demonstrated in testing improved abilities to hold an accurate alignment for
longer periods of time. In addition, it has proven more reliable than the
KT-70 IMUs. The new IMUs require no software changes on the orbiter or changes
in electrical or cooling connections. The HAINS IMU is manufactured by
Kearfott, Inc., of Little Falls, N.J.
Improved Tactical Air Navigation Systems
A complete set of three improved TACANS will fly on Endeavour's first
flight. The improved TACAN is a modified off-the-shelf unit developed by
Collins, Inc., of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, for military aircraft and slightly
modified for the Shuttle. The improved TACAN operates on 28-volt direct current
electricity as compared to the current TACANs that use 110-volt alternating
current for power. Also, the new TACANs do not require forced air cooling as
do the current TACANs.
The TACANs' connections to the Shuttle's guidance, navigation and
control system are identical. The TACANs provide supplemental navigational
information on slant range and bearing to the orbiter using radio transmissions
from ground stations during the final phases of entry and landing. Enhanced
Master Events Controller (EMEC)
The EMEC features improved reliability, lower power usage and less
maintenance than current MECs. The new design uses 30 percent less electricity
and has more internal backup components. The MECs, two aboard each Shuttle,
are a relay for onboard flight computers used to send signals to arm and fire
pyrotechnics that separate the solid rockets and external tank during assent.
The EMEC were built by Rockwell's Satellite Space Electronics Division,
Anaheim, Calif. Present plans call for Endeavour to be the only orbiter with
the EMECs. Mass Memory Unit Product Improvement
Improvements to the current MMUs in the form of modifications include
error correction and detection circuitry to accommodate tape wear, tape drive
motor speed reduction to extend the tape's lifetime. In addition,
modifications were made to the tape drive head to extend its lifetime. The
improvements have no effect on the current software or connections of the MMUs.
Two MMUs are on each orbiter and are a magnetic reel-to-reel tape storage
device for the Shuttle's onboard computer software. The modification to the
MMUs will be done for the first flight of Endeavour and for the rest of the
orbiter fleet during normal maintenance activities. The MMUs were built and
upgraded by Odetics of Anaheim, Calif. Enhanced Multiplexer-Demultiplexer
The EMDM uses state-of-the-art components to replace obsolete parts and
improve maintenance requirements. The new components have simplified the
structure of the EMDM by more than 50 parts in some instances. The EMDMs are
installed on Endeavour, but plans have not been made to replace the current
MDMs in other orbiter. The MDMs, 19 located throughout each orbiter, act as a
relay for the onboard computer system as it attains data from the Shuttle's
equipment and relays commands to the various controls and systems. The EMDMs
are manufactured by Honeywell Space Systems Group, Phoenix, Ariz. Radar
The improved radar altimeter aboard Endeavour already has been
installed and flown on all other Shuttle orbiters since STS-26. The altimeter
is an off-the-shelf model originally developed for the militaryUs cruise
missile program. The altimeter has the capability to automatically adjust its
gain control as a function of changes in altitude. Along with anti-false lock
circuitry, the improvements have eliminated a problem frequently experienced
with the original radar altimeter caused by interference from the ShuttleUs
nose landing gear. The radar altimeter is built by Honeywell, Minneapolis.
Improved Nosewheel Steering
Improvements to the nosewheel steering mechanisms include a second
command channel, used as a backup in case of a failure in the primary channel,
for controlling the steering through the onboard computers. In addition, a
valve has been installed in the hydraulic system to switch in a secondary
hydraulic pressure system in case of a failure in the primary system.
Endeavour will have the modifications prior to its first flight, and the rest
of the orbiter fleet will have the improvements made during their major
modifications periods. The improved nosewheel steering was designed by Sterer
Engineering and Manufacturing Components, Los Angeles.
Solid State Star Tracker
The SSST is a new star tracker design developed for Endeavour which
takes advantage of advances in star tracker technology. The two star trackers
on each Shuttle orbiter are used to search for, detect and track selected guide
stars to precisely determine the orientation of the spacecraft. The precise
information is used to periodically update the orbiter's IMUs during flight.
The SSST uses a solid state charge coupled device to convert light from stars
into an electric current from which the starUs position and intensity are
determined. The solid state design consumes less electricity and provides
greater reliability than the current star trackers. The SSSTs require no
modification to the orbiter or its software for installation. Current plans
are for one SSST to be installed on Endeavour and another to be incorporated
into the orbiter fleet on an attrition basis. The SSST was developed and built
by Ball Aerospace Division, Boulder, Colo.
UPDATED MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
Improved Auxiliary Power Units
An improved version of the APUs, three identical units that provide
power to operate the Shuttle's hydraulic system, has been installed on
Endeavour. The IAPUs will be installed on the rest of the orbiter fleet as each
spacecraft is taken out of operation for a major modification period during the
next 2 years.
The IAPU is lighter than the original system, saving about 134 pounds.
The weight savings are due to the use of passive cooling for the IAPUs,
eliminating an active water spray cooling system required by the original
units. The redesigned APUs are expected to extend the life of the units from
the current 20 hours or 12 flights to 75 hours or 50 flights. The increased
lifetime is anticipated to result in fewer APU changeouts and improved ground
turnaround time between flights.
Components of the APU that have been redesigned to improve reliability
include gas generator, fuel pump, redundant seals between the fuel system and
gearbox lubricating oil and a materials change in the turbine housings.
Orbiter Drag Chute
During construction, a drag chute was added to Endeavour to be deployed
between main gear and nose gear touchdown to assist in stopping and add greater
stability in the event of a flat tire or steering problem. The drag chute is
another in a series of improvements to the ShuttleUs landing aids. Other
improvements recently installed in Shuttle orbiters and already in use include
carbon brakes to replace the original beryllium brakes and nose wheel steering
The 40-foot diameter drag chute canopy will trail 87 feet behind the
orbiter as it rolls out after landing. The main drag chute and a 9-foot
diameter pilot chute are deployed by a mortar fired from a small compartment
added to the bottom of the vertical stabilizer. The drag chute will be
jettisoned when the spacecraft slows to less than 60 knots.
The drag chute is expected to decrease the orbiterUs rollout distance
by 1,000 to 2,000 feet. The drag chute is deployed using two switches located
to the left of the commanderUs heads up display. One switch arms the mortar
and a second switch fires it. A third switch, located to the right of the
commander's heads up display, jettisons the drag chute. A second set of
switches is mounted beside the pilot's heads up display.
From the time the pilot chute mortar is fired to full inflation of the
main chute is anticipated to be less than 5 seconds. The drag chute system was
designed by NASA's Johnson Space Center, Rockwell- Downey and Irvin Industries,
Santa Ana, Calif.
EXTENDED DURATION ORBITER MODIFICATIONS
Although there are no plans currently to use it as such, Endeavour has
been fitted with internal plumbing and electrical connections needed for a
series of Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) modifications that could enable the
spacecraft to stay in orbit as long as 28 days. The first extended duration
flight is currently planned for June 1992, the USML-l flight aboard Columbia
(modified between August 1991 and February 1992) is planned to be 13 days long.
Modifications necessary for extended stays include an improved waste
collection system that compacts human waste, thus allowing greater capacity;
extra middeck lockers for additional stowage; two additional nitrogen tanks for
the crew cabin atmosphere; a regenerating system for removing carbon dioxide
from the crew cabin atmosphere; and a set of supercold liquid hydrogen and
liquid oxygen tanks mounted on a special pallet in the payload bay as
supplemental fuel for the Shuttle's electrical generation system.
Modifications already made to Endeavour include:
Additional Nitrogen Tanks
The internal electrical and plumbing connections have been built into
Endeavour to allow for nitrogen tank installation. At present, there is no
timetable for installation of these tanks. If installed, they would be located
near the current nitrogen tanks below the payload bay.
Additional Cryogenic Tanks
Endeavour has five liquid hydrogen and five liquid oxygen tanks
installed internally. On the rest of the orbiter fleet, Columbia also has five
tank pairs, and Atlantis and Discovery each have four tank sets. In addition,
Endeavour has the internal connections needed to hook up an Extended Duration
Orbiter cryogenic payload bay pallet, containing four additional tanks of both
hydrogen and oxygen. The plumbing systems on board Endeavour could be hooked
up to feed fuel from such a pallet to create electricity and water for the
Shuttle. The four payload bay tank sets coupled with five internal sets provide
a 16-day mission capability. For a 28-day mission, four additional tank sets
would be required in the payload bay on either a second pallet or larger
Improved Waste Collection System
Hookups for an Improved Waste Collection System are built into
Endeavour. The IWCS compacts human waste and has an increased capacity for
storage of waste.
Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System
Endeavour is outfitted with a Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal
System that may be used in tandem with Lithium Hydroxide (LioH) canisters to
remove carbon dioxide from the crew cabin atmosphere. The regenerative system,
if used alone, would eliminate the need to carry extensive amounts of LioH
canisters for a long flight. Currently, the crew must change out LioH
canisters daily as part of spacecraft housekeeping.
The regenerative system works by removing the CO2 and then releasing it
to space through a vent. The new system will not be used alone for Endeavour's
first flight, but will be tested. Enough LioH canisters for the first flight
will be flown aboard Endeavour to allow proven equipment to be used for the
duration. The regenerative system is located under the middeck floor.
Additional Cabin Stowage
Endeavour is outfitted with brackets necessary to mount additional
middeck lockers on board. About 127 cubit feet of additional stowage would be
needed for an extended duration flight. The crew compartment size, however, is
exactly the same as all other orbiters.
NAMING OF OV-105 AS SPACE SHUTTLE ENDEAVOUR
In response to the outpouring of concerns by students after the Challenger
accident, Congressman Tom Lewis (R-Fla.) introduced a bill in Congress to
established the NASA Orbiter-Naming Program. In October 1987, Congress
authorized that the name for Orbiter Vehicle 105 be selected "from among
suggestions submitted by students in elementary and secondary schools."
The name "Endeavour" resulted from a nationwide orbiter-naming competition
supported by educational projects created by student teams in elementary and
secondary schools. NASA's orbiters are named after sea vessels used in
research and exploration. Therefore, the teams education project had to relate
to exploration, discovery and experimentation.
The NASA Orbiter-Naming Program involved over 71,000 students with over
6,100 entries. In May 1989, President Bush selected and announced the winning
name and met with the national winning teams of both divisions.
The winning team in Division I (K-6) was the fifth grade class from
Senatobia Middle School, Senatobia, Miss. The winning team in Division II (7-
12) was from the Tallulah Falls School, Inc., Tallulah Falls, Ga. Both winning
teams proposed the name "Endeavour," the first ship commanded by Captain James
Cook, a British explorer, navigator and astronomer. In August 1768, on
Endeavour's maiden voyage, Cook observed and recorded the transit of the planet
President Bush said the teams "showed how the possibilities of tomorrow
point us onward and upward. Both of your schools chose the name 'Endeavour'
which Webster's defines as 'to make an effort, strive, to try to reach or
achieve.' And each of your schools has lived that definition."
STS-49 CREW BIOGRAPHIES
Daniel C. Brandenstein, 49, Capt., USN, is the Commander of STS-49.
Selected as an astronaut in January 1978, Brandenstein was born in Watertown,
Wis., and will be making his fourth space flight.
He was the Pilot on STS-8, the first Shuttle mission with a night launch
and night landing. On his second mission, Brandenstein commanded the crew of
STS-51G, deploying four satellites and retrieving one. In 1990, he commanded
STS-32 which retrieved the 21,400 pound Long Duration Exposure Facility.
Brandenstein graduated from Watertown High School and received a bachelor
of science in mathematics and physics from the University of Wisconsin in 1965.
He was designated a naval aviator in 1967 and served in a variety of
operational and flight test billets. He has logged 6,300 hours flying time in
24 different types of aircraft, including 400 aircraft carrier landings. With
the completion of his third space flight, Brandenstein has logged 576 hours in
Kevin P. Chilton, 36, Lt. Col., USAF, will serve as Pilot. Selected as an
astronaut in June 1987, Chilton was born in Los Angeles, Calif., and will be
making his first space flight.
Chilton graduated from St. Bernard High School, Playa del Rey, Calif., in
1972; received a bachelor of science in engineering sciences from the Air Force
Academy in 1976; and received a master of science in mechanical engineering
from Columbia University on a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1977.
He served as a combat ready pilot and instructor pilot in the RF-4 and
F-15 from 1978 to 1983. In 1984, he graduated from the Air Force Test Pilot
School and served as a test pilot until his selection as an astronaut in 1987.
Richard J. Hieb, 36, will serve as Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and
Extravehicular Activity crewman 2 (EV2). Born in Jamestown, N.D., Hieb was
selected as an astronaut in 1985 and will be making his second space flight.
He flew as a mission specialist on STS-39, operating the Shuttle's remote
manipulator system to deploy and retrieve the SPAS satellite.
Hieb graduated from Jamestown High School in 1973; received a bachelor of
arts in math and physics from Northwest Nazarene College in 1977 and received a
master of science in aerospace engineering from the University of Colorado in
1979. After graduation, Hieb joined NASA to work in crew procedures
development and crew activity planning. He worked in the Mission Control
Center on the ascent team for STS- 1 and during rendezvous phases on numerous
He has logged 199 hours in space.
Bruce E. Melnick, 42, Cmdr., USCG, will serve as Mission Specialist 2
(MS2). Selected as an astronaut in June 1987, Melnick was born in New York,
N.Y., but considers Clearwater, Fla., to be his hometown and will be making his
second space flight.
Melnick graduated from Clearwater High School, attended Georgia Tech,
received a bachelor of science in engineering from the Coast Guard Academy in
1972 and received a master of science in aeronautical systems from the
University of West Florida in 1975.
Melnick served as a mission specialist on STS- 41, which deployed the
Ulysses spacecraft. He has logged more than 4,900 hours aircraft flying time,
predominantly in the H-3, H-52, H-65 and T-38 aircraft. Melnick has logged 98
hours in space.
Pierre J. Thuot, 36, Cmdr., USN, will serve as Mission Specialist 3 (MS3)
and Extravehicular Activity crewman 1 (EV1). Selected as an astronaut in June
1985, Thuot was born in Groton, Conn., but considers Fairfax, Va., and New
Bedford, Mass., to be his hometowns and will be making his second space flight.
Thuot graduated from Fairfax High School, received a bachelor of science
in physics from the Naval Academy in 1977 and received a master of science in
systems management from the University of Southern California in 1985.
Thuot served as a mission specialist on STS-36, a Department of
Defense-dedicated mission. He has more than 2,700 flight hours in more than 40
different aircraft, including 270 carrier landings. He has logged 106 hours in
Kathryn C. Thornton, 39, will serve as Mission Specialist 4 (MS4) and
Extravehicular Activity crewman 3 (EV3). Selected as an astronaut in May 1984,
Thornton was born in Montgomery, Ala., and will be making her second space
She received a bachelor of science in physics from Auburn University, a
master of science in physics from the University of Virginia in 1977 and
received a doctorate of philosophy in physics from the University of Virginia
in 1979. Thornton was awarded a NATO postdoctoral fellowship to continue her
research at the Max Planck Institute of Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany.
Prior to being selected by NASA, she was a physicist at the U.S. Army Foreign
Science and Technology Center in Charlottesville, Va.
Thornton was a mission specialist on STS-33, a Department of
Defense-dedicated flight. She has logged 120 hours in space.
Thomas D. Akers, 40, Lt. Col., USAF, will serve as Mission Specialist 5
(MS5) and Extravehicular Activity crewman 4 (EV4). Selected as an astronaut in
June 1987, Akers was born in St. Louis, Mo., but considers Eminence, Mo., his
hometown and will be making his second space flight.
He graduated from Eminence High School and received bachelor and master
of science degrees in applied mathematics from the University of Missouri-
Rolla in 1973 and 1975, respectively.
Akers was a National Park Ranger and spent 4 years as the high school
principal in his hometown of Eminence before joining the Air Force in 1979. He
served at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., and Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., as a
flight test engineer in F-4 and T-38 aircraft.
He flew as a mission specialist on STS-41, deploying the Ulysses
spacecraft. Akers has logged 98 hours in space.
SHUTTLE MISSION STS-49 MANAGEMENT
NASA HEADQUARTERS, WASHINGTON, D.C.
Office of Space Flight
Thomas E. Utsman - Deputy Associate Administrator
Leonard Nicholson -Director, Space Shuttle Office of Commercial Programs
John G. Mannix - Assistant Administrator for Commercial Programs
Richard H. Ott -Director, Commercial Development Division
Garland C. Misener - Chief, Flight Requirements and Accommodations
Ana M. Villamil - Program Manager, Centers for the Commercial
Development of Space
Office of Safety & Mission Quality
George A. Rodney - Associate Administrator
Charles Mertz - Deputy Associate Administrator (Acting)
Richard U. Perry - Director, Programs Assurance Division
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA
Robert L. Crippen - Director
James A. "Gene" Thomas -Deputy Director
Jay Honeycutt - Director, Shuttle Management and Operations
Robert B. Sieck - Launch Director
John J. "Tip" Talone - Endeavour Flow Director
J. Robert Lang - Director, Vehicle Engineering
Al J. Parrish -Director of Safety Reliability and Quality Assurance
John T. Conway - Director, Payload Management and Operations
P. Thomas Breakfield -Director, Shuttle Payload Operations
Joanne H. Morgan - Director, Payload Project Management
Roelof L. Schuiling - STS-49 Payload Processing Manager
MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, AL
Thomas J. Lee - Director
Dr. J. Wayne Littles - Deputy Director
Alex A. McCool - Manager, Shuttle Projects Office
Dr. George F. McDonough -Director, Science and Engineering
James H. Ehl -Director, Safety and Mission Assurance
Alex A. McCool - Acting Manager, Space Shuttle Main Engine Project
Victor Keith Henson - Manager, Solid Rocket Motor Project
Cary H. Rutland - Manager, Solid Rocket Booster Project
Gerald C. Ladner - Manager, External Tank Project
JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON, TX
Paul J. Weitz - Director (Acting)
Paul J. Weitz - Deputy Director
Daniel Germany - Manager, Orbiter and GFE Projects
Donald R. Puddy - Director, Flight Crew Operations
Eugene F. Kranz - Director, Mission Operations
Henry O. Pohl -Director, Engineering
Charles S. Harlan - Director, Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance
STENNIS SPACE CENTER, BAY ST. LOUIS, MS
Gerald W. Smith - Director (Acting)
J. Harry Guin -Director, Propulsion Test Operations
AMES-DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH FACILITY, EDWARDS, CA
Kenneth J. Szalai - Director
T. G. Ayers - Deputy Director
James R. Phelps - Chief, Space Support Office