Contents of the STS43.TXT file
STS-43 PRESS KIT
GENERAL RELEASE 4
MEDIA SERVICES 6
STS-43 QUICK-LOOK FACTS 7
SUMMARY OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES 8
VEHICLE AND PAYLOAD WEIGHTS 9
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES 10
TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS 11
STS-43 PRELAUNCH PROCESSING 12
TRACKING DATA RELAY SATELLITE (TDRS-E) 13
INERTIAL UPPER STAGE (IUS) 16
IUS/TDRS DEPLOYMENT AND FLIGHT SEQUENCE 18
SPACEFLIGHT TRACKING AND DATA NETWORK 20
SHUTTLE SOLAR BACKSCATTER ULTRAVIOLET (SSBUV) 20
PROTEIN CRYSTAL GROWTH (PCG) 21
POLYMER MEMBRANE PROCESSING INVESTIGATIONS (IPMP) 23
BIOSERVE MATERIALS DISPERSION APPARATUS (BIMDA) 24
AIR FORCE MAUI OPTICAL SYSTEM (AMOS) 25
AURORAL PHOTOGRAPHY EXPERIMENT-B (APE-B) 26
SPACE ACCELERATION MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (SAMS) 26
STS-43 CREW BIOGRAPHIES 26
STS-43 MISSION MANAGEMENT 28
ATLANTIS TO BOOST FOURTH NASA TRACKING SATELLITE
Atlantis will put NASA's fourth Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-E)
into orbit on Space Shuttle mission STS-43 to update the satellite tracking
network, resulting in two operating satellites plus a complement of two spares
in the space network.
TDRS-E, to be deployed from Atlantis about 6 hours after launch, will be
boosted to a geosynchronous orbit by an attached upper stage where TDRS-E will
be positioned to remain stationary 22,400 miles above the Pacific Ocean
southwest of Hawaii.
The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System, in operation since the
eighth Space Shuttle flight, provides almost uninterrupted communications with
Earth-orbiting shuttles and satellites and has replaced the intermittent
coverage provided by globe-encircling ground tracking stations used during the
early space program. A reduced string of ground stations remains in operation,
however, for radar tracking and backup communications.
Atlantis, making its ninth flight and the 42nd Space Shuttle mission, is
scheduled for a 10:53 a.m. EDT launch July 23 from Kennedy Space Center's
Launch Pad 39-A. On board Atlantis, planned to land about 9:30 a.m. EDT Aug.
1 at either Kennedy Space Center, Fla., or Dryden Flight Research Facility,
Edwards, Calif., will be Commander John Blaha, Pilot Mike Baker and mission
specialists Shannon Lucid, G. David Low and James C. Adamson.
Along with the TDRS-E/IUS in Atlantis' cargo bay for STS-43 will be the
Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet instrument used to aid in calibrating
ultraviolet satellites already in orbit that assist in measuring the Earth's
ozone layer, among other functions; the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced
Radiator Element-II, a reflight of an earlier Shuttle experiment that tests a
natural process incorporating no moving parts that may be used to cool Space
Station Freedom; and the Optical Communications Through the Shuttle Window
experiment that uses fiber optics for communications onboard the Shuttle.
In Atlantis' middeck will be the Auroral Photography Experiment-B , an Air
Force-sponsored experiment to study the Earth's auroras, more commonly known as
the Northern and Southern Lights; the Bioserve-Instrumentation Technology
Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus, an experiment in growing large
protein crystals in weightlessness; the Investigations into Polymer Membrane
Processing experiment, a test of manufacturing polymers in orbit; the Protein
Crystal Growth-III experiment, a device used to grow crystals in micro-
gravity; the Space Acceleration Measurement System, a device used to measure
accelerations and disturbances to weightlessness during Atlantis' stay in
orbit; the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment, a test of the way materials
burn in weightlessness; and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment, a check of
innovative methods for controlling the amount of pressure inside high-pressure
Although two Shuttle missions have landed at the Kennedy Space Center's
Shuttle Landing Facility since the return to flight following the Challenger
accident, both were diverted to Kennedy due to bad weather at Edwards Air Force
Base, Calif., STS-43 is the first mission since the return to flight to have
Kennedy as a planned landing site, dependent on weather.
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NASA Select Television Transmission
NASA Select television is available on Satcom F-2R, Transponder 13, located at
72 degrees west longitude; frequency 3960.0 MHz, audio 6.8 MHz.
The schedule for television transmissions from the orbiter and for the
change-of-shift briefings from Johnson Space Center, Houston, will be available
during the mission at Kennedy Space Center, Fla.; Marshall Space Flight Center,
Huntsville, Ala.; Johnson Space Center; and NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
The television schedule will be updated to reflect changes dictated by mission
Television schedules also may be obtained by calling COMSTOR, 713/483-
5817. COMSTOR is a computer data base service requiring the use of a telephone
modem. A voice update of the television schedule may be obtained by dialing
202/755-1788. This service is updated daily at noon ET.
Status reports on countdown and mission progress, on-orbit activities and
landing operations will be produced by the appropriate NASA newscenter.
A mission press briefing schedule will be issued prior to launch. During
the mission, change-of-shift briefings by the off-going flight director will
occur at approximately 8-hour intervals.
STS-43 QUICK LOOK
Launch Date July 23, 1991
Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center, Fla., Pad 39A
Launch Window: 10:53 a.m.-3:12 p.m. EDT
Orbiter: Atlantis (OV-104)
Orbit: 160 x 160 nautical miles, 28.45 degrees
Landing Date/Time: Approximately 9:30 a.m. EDT, Aug. 1, 1991
Primary Landing Sites: Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Edwards Air Force Base, Ca.
Abort Landing Sites:
Return to Launch Site - Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Transoceanic Abort Landing - Banjul, The Gambia
Alternate - Ben Guerir, Morocco
Abort Once Around - Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
John E. Blaha, Commander
Michael A. Baker, Pilot
Shannon W. Lucid, Mission Specialist 1
G. David Low, Mission Specialist 2
James C. Adamson, Mission Specialist 3
Cargo Bay Payloads:
TDRS-E/IUS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E/Inertial Upper Stage)
SHARE-II (Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element-II)
SSBUV (Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Experiment)
OCTW (Optical Communications Through the Shuttle Window)
AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical System)
APE-B (Auroral Photography Experiment-B)
BIMDA (Bioserve-Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials
IPMP (Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing)
PCG-III (Protein Crystal Growth-III)
SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System)
SSCE (Solid Surface Combustion Experiment)
TPCE (Tank Pressure Control Experiment)
SUMMARY OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES
FLIGHT DAY ONE
Ascent; OMS 2
Tank Pressure Control Experiment
Protein Crystal Growth activation
FLIGHT DAY TWO
SSBUV activation/Earth views
Remote Manipulator System checkout
SHARE-II; BIMDA sample activation
Ames Research Center operations
FLIGHT DAY THREE
SSBUV Earth views
Tank Pressure Control Experiment deactivation
FLIGHT DAY FOUR
SSBUV Solar views; OCTW activation; SHARE-II
FLIGHT DAY FIVE
SSBUV Earth/Solar views; OCTW operations
Remote Manipulator System powerdown
FLIGHT DAY SIX
Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing
Solid Surface Combustion Experiment
Auroral Photography Experiment-B
FLIGHT DAY SEVEN
SHARE-II operations; Medical DSOs
FLIGHT DAY EIGHT
Auroral Photography Experiment-B
Medical DSOs; Air Force Maui Optical System operations
FLIGHT DAY NINE
Flight Control System checkout
Reaction Control System hot-fire
FLIGHT DAY TEN
STS-43 VEHICLE AND PAYLOAD WEIGHTS
Orbiter (Atlantis), empty, and 3 SSMEs 171,748
TDRS-E Airborne Support Equipment 5,611
IUS Support Equipment 192
Space Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet 1,183
Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element-II 859
Optical Communication Through Shuttle Window 22
Protein Crystal Growth-III 63
Solid Surface Combustion Experiment 138
Space Acceleration Measurement System 102
Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing 17
Tank Pressure Control Experiment 203
Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSOs) 235
Auroral Photography Experiment-B 40
Bioserve-ITA Materials Dispersion Apparatus 72
Detailed Test Objectives 67
Total Vehicle at SRB Ignition 4,526,488
Orbiter Landing Weight 196,735
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES
Space Shuttle launch abort philosophy aims toward safe and intact recovery
of the flight crew, orbiter and its payload. Abort modes include:
Abort-To-Orbit (ATO) -- Partial loss of main engine thrust late enough to
permit reaching a minimal 105-nautical mile orbit with orbital maneuvering
Abort-Once-Around (AOA) -- Earlier main engine shutdown with the capability to
allow one orbit around before landing at either Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.;
the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center, Fla.; or White
Sands Space Harbor (Northrup Strip), NM.
Trans-Atlantic Abort Landing (TAL) -- Loss of one or more main engines midway
through powered flight would force a landing at either Banjul, The Gambia, or
Ben Guerir, Morocco.
Return-To-Launch-Site (RTLS) -- Early shutdown of one or more engines and
without enough energy to reach Banjul would result in a pitch around and thrust
back toward KSC until within gliding distance of the SLF. STS-43 contingency
landing sites are Edwards AFB, Kennedy Space Center, White Sands, Banjul and
STS-43 TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
EVENT MET VELOCITY MACH ALTITUDE
(d:h:m:s) (fps) (ft)
Begin Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:10 188 .16 797
End Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:15 324 .29 2,254
SSME Throttle Down to 87% 00/00:00:26 619 .55 6,917
Max. Dyn. Pressure (Max Q) 00/00:00:52 1,231 1.19 27,991
SSME Throttle Down to 67% 00/00:00:53 1,251 1.21 28,988
SSME Throttle Up to 104% 00/00:01:02 1,498 1.54 39,730
SRB Staging 00/00:02:05 4,249 4.07 155,183
Main Engine Cutoff (MECO) 00/00:08:39 24,512 22.75 363,521
Zero Thrust 00/00:08:39 24,509 N/A 363,809
ET Separation 00/00:08:52
OMS-2 Burn 00/00:39:57
TDRS-E/IUS Deploy 00/06:13:00
OMS-3 Burn 00/06:28:00
Deorbit Burn 08/21:45:00
Apogee, Perigee at MECO: 157 x 35 nautical miles
Apogee, Perigee post-OMS 2: 160 x 159 nautical miles
Apogee, Perigee post-Sep 1: 177 x 161 nautical miles
STS-43 PRELAUNCH PROCESSING
Processing the orbiter Atlantis for the STS-43 mission at Kennedy Space
Center (KSC) began April 19, following its last mission - STS-37/Gamma Ray
Originally, Atlantis was scheduled for a 65 day flow in the Orbiter
Processing Facility (OPF), but the relatively small number of problems
encountered allowed technicians to complete major tasks sooner and shorten the
schedule. The 59 day processing of Atlantis is the quickest turn around
accomplished since return to flight.
Space Shuttle main engine locations for this flight are as follows: engine
2024 is in the No. 1 position, engine 2012 is in the No. 2 position and engine
2028 is in the No. 3 position. These engines were installed in May.
The Crew Equipment Interface Test with the STS-43 flight crew was
conducted on June 8th in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF). This test
provided an opportunity for the crew to become familiar with the configuration
of the orbiter and anything that is unique to the STS-43 mission.
The TDRS-E spacecraft arrived at Kennedy Space Center from Los Angeles
aboard an Air Force C-5 transport plane on March 5, 1991. It was taken to the
Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) for processing. The Inertial Upper Stage
was delivered from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station to the VPF on April 26.
TDRS-E was mated to IUS-15 on May 8. The two primary integrated tests were
successfully completed. The Interface Verification (IVT) Test, which checks
electrical connections between the two flight elements, was finished on May 22.
The End-to-End (ETE) communications test, verifying all communications paths
with the payload, was complete on June 7.
IUS/TDRS was transported to Pad 39-A and placed in the payload changeout
room on June 17. The cargo was scheduled for installation into the payload bay
of Atlantis June 26. The IVT and End-to-End tests were scheduled to be
repeated, with the Space Shttle Atlantis also participating, in late June and
early July. The Inertial Upper Stage was scheduled to conduct its final
principal test, an IUS Simulated Countdown, in mid-July. The payload bay doors
are scheduled for closure 2 days before flight.
Booster stacking operations for STS-43 began on April 29. Stacking of all
booster segments was completed by May 31st. The external tank was mated to the
boosters on June 3 and Atlantis was transferred to the Vehicle Assembly
Building on June 19 where it was mated to the external tank and solid rocket
boosters. The STS-43 vehicle was rolled out to Launch Pad 39-A on June 25. A
launch countdown dress rehearsal was scheduled for July 3 at KSC.
A standard 43-hour launch countdown is scheduled to begin 3 days prior to
launch. During the countdown, the orbiter's onboard fuel and oxidizer storage
tanks will be loaded and all orbiter systems will be prepared for flight.
About 9 hours before launch, the external tank will be filled with its
flight load of a half million gallons of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen
propellants. About 2 and one-half hours before liftoff, the flight crew will
begin taking their assigned seats in the crew cabin.
For the first time since return to flight, there will be two primary
landing sites. Under newly established guidelines, KSC will be considered on
equal status with Dryden Flight Research Facility (DFRF) in support of Shuttle
landing. After reviewing data on various factors that affect landing such as
tire performance, braking performance, runway condition, weather forcasting,
mission duration, orbiter weight and use of a drag chute, officials concluded
that the program was ready to use the Kennedy Space Center as a nominal end of
mission landing site. Specific landing criteria based on the factors mentioned
above will deternine whether the Shuttle lands at KSC or DFRF.
TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM
The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-E is the fifth in a series of
communications spacecraft planned for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite
System (TDRSS). TDRS-A, now in orbit and known as TDRS-1, was deployed from
the Space Shuttle Challenger on April 5, 1983 on STS-6. TDRS-B was destroyed
during the Challenger accident in January 1986. TDRS-C, known as TDRS-3 in
orbit, was launched from Discovery on Sept. 29, 1988 on STS-26. TDRS-D, known
as TDRS-4 in orbit, was launched from Discovery on March 13, 1989 on STS-29.
Currently, TDRS-4 is located at 41 degrees West longitude, over the
Atlantic Ocean off Brazil, TDRS-3 is located at 174 degrees west longitude, and
TDRS-1 is located at 171 degrees west longitude. Both TDRS-3 and TDRS-1 are
over the Pacific, east of the Gilbert Islands and South of Hawaii. TDRS-4 also
is known as TDRS-East and the combination of TDRS-1 and TDRS-4 provide the TDRS
western satellite capability.
The satellite communications system was initiated following studies in the
early 1970s which showed that a system of telecommunication satellites operated
from a single ground station could better support the Space Shuttle and
scientific application mission requirements planned for the Nation's space
program than a world-wide network of ground stations. In addition, the system
was seen as a means of halting the spiralling costs of upgrading and operating
a network of tracking and communications ground stations located around the
Upon reaching geosynchronous orbit, the deployment of TDRS' antennas and
appendages is started. The deployment sequence is:
1. Deploy solar arrays.
2. Deploy space-ground link boom.
3. Deploy C-band boom.
4. Separation of IUS and TDRS.
5. Release single access booms.
6. Position single access antennas.
7. Open single access antennas.
During steps five, six and seven, Earth acquisition is taking place
The TDRS is three-axis stabilized with the multiple access body fixed
antennas pointing constantly at the Earth while the solar arrays track the sun.
The TDRSs do not process user traffic in either direction. Rather, they
operate as "bent pipe" repeaters, relaying signals and data between the user
spacecraft and the ground terminal and vice versa without processing.
The operational TDRSS is equipped to support up to 24 user spacecraft,
including the Space Shuttle, simultaneously. It will provide two types of
(1) multiple access which can relay data from as many as 20 low data rate (100
bits per second to 50 kilobits per second) user satellites simultaneously and
(2) single access which will provide two high data rate channels (to 300
megabits per second) from both the East and West locations.
The TDRSS ground terminal is located at White Sands, NM. It provides a
location with a clear line-of-sight to the TDRSs and a place where rain
conditions have limited interference with the availability of the Ku-band
uplink and downlink channels. The White Sands Ground Terminal (WSGT) is
operated for NASA by Contel Federal Systems, Atlanta, Ga., under a contract
expiring in 1995.
Co-located at White Sands is the NASA Ground Terminal (NGT), which is
operated for NASA by Bendix Field Engineering and provides the interface
between WSGT and other primary network elements located at NASA's Goddard Space
Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
Those facilities at Goddard include the Network Control Center (NCC),
which provides system scheduling and is the focal point for NASA communications
and the WSGT and TDRSS users; the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF), which
provides the network with antenna pointing information for user spacecraft and
the TDRSs; and the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM), which provides the
common carrier interface through Earth terminals at Goddard, White Sands and
the Johnson Space Center in Houston.
The Network Control Center console operators monitor the network's
performance, schedule emergency interfaces, isolate faults in the system,
account for system use, test the system and conduct simulations. The user
services available from the Space Network are provided through NASCOM, a global
system which provides operational communications support to all NASA projects.
NASCOM offers voice, data and teletype links with the Space Network, the
Ground Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (GSTDN) and the user spacecraft
The TDRSs are composed of three distinct modules: a spacecraft module, a
payload module and an antenna module. The modular design reduces the cost of
individual design and construction efforts that, in turn, lower the cost of
The spacecraft module, housing the subsystems that operate the satellite,
is located in the lower hexagon of the spacecraft. The attitude control
subsystem stabilizes the satellite to provide accurate antenna pointing and
proper orientation of the solar panels to the sun. The electrical power
subsystems consists of two solar panels that provide power of approximately
1,700 watts. The thermal control subsystem consists of surface coatings and
controlled electric heaters.
The payload module is composed of the electronic equipment required to
provide communications between the user spacecraft and the ground. The
receivers and transmitters for single access services are mounted in
compartments on the back of the single-access antennas.
The antenna module is composed of seven antenna systems: two single-
access, the multiple access array and space-to-ground link and the S-band omni
for satellite health and housekeeping. Commercial K-band and C-band antennas
round out the complement.
For single-access service, the TDRSs have dual-feed S-band, Ku-band
parabolic (umbrella-like) antennas. These antennas are free to be positioned
in two axes directing the radio beam to orbiting user spacecraft below.
These antennas are used only to relay communications to and from user
spacecraft. The high data rates provided by these antennas is available to
users on a time-shared basis. Each antenna is capable of supporting two user
spacecraft services simultaneously -- one at S-band and one at Ku-band --
provided both users are within the beam width of the antenna.
The multiple access antenna array is hard-mounted in one position on the
surface of the antenna module facing the Earth. Another antenna, a 6.5 foot (2-
meter) parabolic reflector, provides the prime link for relaying transmissions
to and from the ground terminal at Ku-band.
TRW Space and Technology Group, Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime
spacecraft contractor. Ground operations at the White Sands complex are
conducted by Contel Federal Systems and Bendix Field Engineering.
INERTIAL UPPER STAGE (IUS)
The IUS was developed and built under contract to the Air Force Systems
Command's Space Division. The Space Division is executive agent for all
Department of Defense activities pertaining to the Space Shuttle system and
provides the IUS to NASA for Space Shuttle use. After 2-1/2 years of
competition, Boeing Aerospace Company, Seattle, was selected in August 1976 to
begin preliminary design of the IUS.
IUS-15, the vehicle to be used on mission STS-43, is a two-stage rocket
weighing approximately 32,500 pounds. Each stage has a solid rocket motor,
preferred over liquid-fueled engines for their relative simplicity, high
reliability, low cost and safety.
The IUS is 5.18 meters (17 feet) long and 2.8 meters (9.25 feet) in
diameter. It consists of an aft skirt; an aft stage solid rocket motor
containing 21,400 pounds of propellant generating approximately 42,000 pounds
of thrust; an interstage; a forward stage solid rocket motor with 6,000 pounds
of propellant generating approximately 18,000 pounds of thrust; and an
equipment support section.
The equipment support section contains the avionics which provide
guidance, navigation, control, telemetry, command and data management, reaction
control and electrical power. All mission-critical components of the avionics
system, along with thrust vector actuators, reaction control thrusters, motor
igniter and pyrotechnic stage separation equipment are redundant to assure
reliability of better than 98 percent.
Airborne Support Equipment
The IUS Airborne Support Equipment (ASE) is the mechanical, avionics, and
structural equipment located in the orbiter. The ASE supports the IUS and the
TDRS-E in the orbiter payload bay and elevates the IUS/TDRS for final checkout
and deployment from the orbiter.
The IUS ASE consists of the structure, aft tilt frame actuator, batteries,
electronics and cabling to support the IUS/TDRS combination. These ASE
subsystems enable the deployment of the combined vehicle; provide, distribute
and/or control electrical power to the IUS and satellite; and serve as
communication conduits between the IUS and/or satellite and the orbiter.
The IUS structure is capable of supporting all the loads generated
internally and also by the cantilevered spacecraft during orbiter operations
and the IUS free flight. In addition, the structure physically supports all
the equipment and solid rocket motors within the IUS and provides the
mechanisms for IUS stage separation. The major structural assemblies of the
two-stage IUS are the equipment support section, interstage and aft skirt. It
is made by aluminum skin-stringer construction, with longerons and ring frames.
Equipment Support Section
The Equipment Support Section houses the majority of the avionics of the
IUS. The top of the equipment support section contains the spacecraft interface
mounting ring and electrical interface connector segment for mating and
integrating the spacecraft with the IUS. Thermal isolation is provided by a
multilayer insulation blanket across the interface between the IUS and TDRS.
IUS Avionics Subsystems
The avionics subsystems consist of the telemetry, tracking and command
subsystems; guidance and navigation subsystem; data management; thrust vector
control; and electrical power subsystems. These subsystems include all the
electronic and electrical hardware used to perform all computations, signal
conditioning, data processing and formatting associated with navigation,
guidance, control, data and redundancy management. The IUS avionics subsystems
also provide the equipment for communications between the orbiter and ground
stations, as well as electrical power distribution.
Attitude control in response to guidance commands is provided by thrust
vectoring during powered flight and by reaction control thrusters while
Attitude is compared with guidance commands to generate error signals.
During solid motor firing, these commands gimble the IUS's movable nozzle to
provide the desired attitude pitch and yaw control. The IUS's roll axis
thrusters maintain roll control. While coasting, the error signals are
processed in the computer to generate thruster commands to maintain the
vehicle's altitude or to maneuver the vehicle.
The IUS electrical power subsystem consists of avionics batteries, IUS
power distribution units, power transfer unit, utility batteries, pyrotechnic
switching unit, IUS wiring harness and umbilical and staging connectors. The
IUS avionics system distributes electrical power to the IUS/TDRS interface
connector for all mission phases from prelaunch to spacecraft separation.
IUS Solid Rocket Motors
The IUS two-stage vehicle uses a large solid rocket motor and a small
solid rocket motor. These motors employ movable nozzles for thrust vector
control. The nozzles provide up to 4 degrees of steering on the large motor
and 7 degrees on the small motor. The large motor is the longest thrusting
duration solid rocket motor ever developed for space, with the capability to
thrust as long as 150 seconds. Mission requirements and constraints (such as
weight) can be met by tailoring the amount of fuel carried. The IUS-15 first
stage motor will carry 21,400 pounds of propellant; the second stage over 6,000
Reaction Control System
The reaction control system controls the IUS/TDRS's attitude during
coasting; roll control during SRM thrustings; and velocity impulses for
accurate orbit injection.
As a minimum, the IUS includes one reaction control fuel tank with a
capacity of 120 pounds of hydrazine. Production options are available to add a
second or third tank. IUS-15 will carry two tanks, each with 120 pounds of
To avoid spacecraft contamination, the IUS has no forward facing
thrusters. The reaction control system also is used to provide the velocities
for spacing between several spacecraft deployments and for avoiding collision
or contamination after the spacecraft separates.
The TDRS spacecraft is physically attached to the IUS at eight attachment
points, providing substantial load-carrying capability while minimizing the
transfer of heat across the connecting points.
Power, command and data transmission between the two are provided by
several IUS interface connectors. In addition, the IUS provides an insulation
blanket comprised of multiple layers of double-aluminized Kapton and polyester
net spacers across the IUS/TDRS interface. The outer layer of the blanket,
facing the TDRS spacecraft, is a special Teflon-coated fabric called Beta
cloth. The blankets are vented toward and into the IUS cavity, which in turn
is vented to the orbiter payload bay. There is no gas flow between the
spacecraft and the IUS. The thermal blankets are grounded to the IUS structure
to prevent electrostatic charge buildup.
IUS/TDRS DEPLOYMENT AND FLIGHT SEQUENCE
After the orbiter payload bay doors are opened in orbit, the orbiter will
maintain a preselected attitude to keep the payload within thermal requirements
On-orbit predeployment checkout begins, followed by an IUS command link
check and spacecraft communications command check. Orbiter trim maneuver(s)
are normally performed at this time.
Forward payload restraints are released and the aft frame of the airborne
support equipment tilts the IUS/TDRS to 29 degrees. This extends the TDRS into
space just outside the orbiter payload bay, allowing direct communication with
Earth during systems checkout. The orbiter then is maneuvered to the
deployment attitude. If a problem developes within the spacecraft or IUS, the
IUS and its payload can be restowed.
Prior to deployment, the spacecraft electrical power source is switched
from orbiter power to IUS internal power by the orbiter flight crew. After
verifying that the spacecraft is on IUS internal power and that all IUS/TDRS
predeployment operations have been successfully completed, a GO/NO-GO decision
for IUS/TDRS deployment is sent to the crew.
When the orbiter flight crew is given a GO decision, they activate the
pyrotechnics that separate the IUS/TDRS umbilical cables. The crew then
commands the electromechanical tilt actuator to raise the tilt table to a 58-
degree deployment position. The orbiter's RCS thrusters are inhibited and an
pyrotechnic separation device is initiated to physically separate the
IUS/spacecraft combination from the tilt table. Compressed springs provide the
force to jettison the IUS/TDRS from the orbiter payload bay at approximately
0.10 meters (4.2 inches) per second. The deployment normally is performed in
the shadow of the orbiter or in Earth eclipse.
The tilt table then is lowered to minus 6 degrees after IUS and its
spacecraft are deployed. A small orbiter maneuver is made to back away from
the IUS/TDRS. Approximately 19 minutes after IUS/TDRS deployment, the orbiter's
engines are ignited to move the orbiter away from the IUS/spacecraft.
At this point, the IUS/TDRS is controlled by the IUS onboard computers.
Approximately 10 minutes after the IUS/TDRS is ejected from the orbiter, the
IUS onboard computer sends signals used by the IUS and/or TDRS to begin mission
sequence events. This signal also enables the reaction control system. All
subsequent operations are sequenced by the IUS computer, from transfer orbit
injection through spacecraft separation and IUS deactivation.
After the RCS has been activated, the IUS maneuvers to the required
thermal attitude and performs any required spacecraft thermal control
At approximately 45 minutes after ejection from the orbiter, the
pyrotechnic inhibits for the first solid rocket motor are removed. The belly
of the orbiter has been oriented towards the IUS/TDRS combination to protect
the orbiter windows from the IUS's plume. The IUS recomputes the first
ignition time and maneuvers necessary to attain the proper attitude for the
first thrusting period.
When the proper transfer orbit opportunity is reached, the IUS computer
sends the signal to ignite the first stage motor. This is expected at
approximately 60 minutes after deployment (L+7 hours, 13 minutes). After
firing approximately 146 seconds and prior to reaching the apogee point of its
trajectory, the IUS first stage expends its fuel. While coasting, the IUS
performs any maneuvers needed by TDRS for thermal protection or communications.
When this is completed, the IUS first stage and interstage separate from the
IUS second stage.
Approximately 6 hours, 12 minutes after deployment (at approximately
L+12:30) the second stage motor ignites, thrusting about 108 seconds. After
burn is complete, the IUS stabilizes the TDRS while the solar arrays and two
antennas are deployed. The IUS second stage separates and performs a final
collision/contamination avoidance maneuver before deactivating.
SPACEFLIGHT TRACKING AND DATA NETWORK
Although primary communications for most activities on STS-43 will be
conducted through the orbiting Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS -1 and
TDRS-4), NASA's Spaceflight Tracking and Data Relay Network (STDN)- controlled
ground stations will play a key role in several mission activities. In
addition, the stations along with the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM), at
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., will serve as backups for
communications with Space Shuttle Atlantis should a problem develop in the
Three of the 7 stations serve as the primary communications focal point
during the launch and ascent phase of the Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center ,
Fla. They are Merritt Island and Ponce de Leon in Florida and Bermuda down
range from the launch site. For the first minute and 20 seconds, all voice,
telemetry and other communications from the Shuttle are relayed to the mission
managers at KSC and at Johnson Space Center , Houston, by way of the Merritt
At 1 minute, 20 seconds, the communications are picked up from the Shuttle
and relayed to KSC and JSC from the Ponce de Leon facility, 30 miles north of
the launch pad. This facility provides the communications for 70 seconds or
during a critical period when exhaust energy from the solid rocket motors
"blocks out" the Merritt Island antennas.
The Merritt Island facility resumes communications to and from the Shuttle
after those 70 seconds and maintains them until 6 minutes and 30 seconds after
launch when communications are "handed over" to Bermuda. Bermuda then provides
the communications until 8 minutes and 45 seconds after liftoff when the TDRS-4
(EAST) satellite acquires the Shuttle.
SHUTTLE SOLAR BACKSCATTER ULTRAVIOLET (SSBUV)
The Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) instrument was developed
by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to compare the observations of several
ozone measuring instruments aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration's NOAA-9 and NOAA-11 satellites and NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite.
The SSBUV data is used to calibrate these instruments to ensure the most
accurate readings possible for the detection of atmospheric ozone trends.
The SSBUV will help scientists solve the problem of data repeatability
caused by the calibration drift of the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV)
instruments on these satellites. The SSBUV uses the Space Shuttle's orbital
flight path to assess instrument performance by directly comparing data from
identical instruments aboard the NOAA spacecraft and Nimbus-7 as the Shuttle
and satellite pass over the same Earth location within an hour. These orbital
coincidences can occur 17 times a day.
The satellite-based SBUV instruments estimate the amount and height
distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere by measuring the incident solar
ultraviolet radiation and ultraviolet radiation backscattered from the Earth's
atmosphere. The SBUV measures these parameters in 12 discrete wavelength
channels in the ultraviolet. Because ozone absorbs energy in the ultraviolet
wavelengths, an ozone measurement can be derived by comparing the amount of
incoming radiation to the amount backscattered by the atmosphere.
SSBUVUs value lies in its ability to provide precisely calibrated, or
verified, ozone measurements. The instrument is calibrated to a laboratory
standard before flight, then is recalibrated during and after flight to ensure
its accuracy. When SSBUV is on the ground, its transmission diffuser, which
allows sunlight into the instrument, is calibrated separately at the National
Institute of Standards and Technology. The rigorous calibration provides a
highly reliable standard to which data from the SBUV instruments can be
The two previous SSBUV flights occurred on STS-34 in October 1989 and
STS-41 in October 1990. Five more flights are manifested through 1996,
beginning with STS-48 in April 1992. During that mission, SSBUV data will be
used to calibrate measurements from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,
planned for launch this September. NASA's goal is to fly SSBUV missions
approximately once a year between 1989 and 2000 to provide precise calibration
measurements across a full 11-year solar cycle.
The SSBUV instruments and its dedicated electronics, power, data and
command systems are mounted in the Shuttle's payload bay in two Get Away
Special canisters that together weigh 1,200 pounds (545 kilograms). The
instrument canister holds the SSBUV, its aspect sensors and in-flight
calibration system. A motorized door assembly opens the canister to allow the
SSBUV to view the sun and Earth and closes during in-flight calibration. The
support canister contains the power system, data storage and command decoders.
The dedicated power system can operate the SSBUV for approximately 40 hours.
Ernest Hilsenrath of GSFC is the principal investigator for SSBUV, which
is managed by GSFC for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.
PROTEIN CRYSTAL GROWTH EXPERIMENT
The Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) payload aboard STS-43 is a continuing
series of experiments leading toward major benefits in biomedical technology.
The experiments on this Space Shuttle mission could improve pharmaceutical
agents such as insulin for treatment of diabetes. Protein crystals like
inorganic crystals such as quartz, are structured in a regular pattern. With a
good crystal, roughly the size of a grain of table salt, scientists are able to
study the protein's molecular architechture.
Determining a protein crystal's molecular shape is an essential step in
several phases of medical research. Once the three-dimensional structure of a
protein is known, it may be possible to design drugs that will either block or
enhance the protein's normal function within the body or other organisms.
Though crystallographic techniques can be used to determine a protein's
structure, this powerful technique has been limited by problems encountered in
obtaining high-quality crystals well ordered and large enough to yield precise
Protein crystals grown in Earth-based laboratories are typically small and
lacking in uniformity or "order." However, lack of size and order greatly
hamper procedures used to deduce the actual structure of the molecules
constituting the protein crystal. The problem with growing larger and highly
ordered crystals on Earth is analogous to trying to make a geometric shape out
of styrofoam cups on a breezy day. The "breeze" is caused by gravity-driven
forces of convection that thwart attempts to arrange the cups (molecules) in a
neat and orderly fashion. The growth of relatively large and highly ordered
protein crystals in the almost "breeze-less" environment of space facilitates
and greatly reduces the time required for the analysis of protein structure.
During the STS-43 flight, experiments will be conducted using bovine
insulin. Though there are four processes used to grow crystals on Earth --
vapor diffusion, liquid diffusion, dialysis and batch process -- only batch
process will be used in this set of experiments. Shortly after achieveing
orbit, a crewmember will activate the experiment to grow insulin crystals by
decreasing the experiment's temperature from 40 degrees C to 22 degrees C as
was done on STS-37. The results of the STS-37 experiment indicate that the
space-grown crystals are much larger than their Earth-grown counterparts.
Protein crystal growth experiments were first carried out by the
investigating team during Spacelab 3 in April 1985. The experiments have flown
a total of nine times. The STS-26, -29, -32 and -31 experiments were the first
opportunities for scientific attempts to grow useful crystals at controlled
temperatures by vapor diffusion in microgravity. The set of PCG experiments on
STS-43 will use the batch process and fly in hardware configuration flown for
the time on STS-37, the Protein Crystallization Facility, developed by the PCG
The PCG program is sponsored by NASA's Office of Commercial Programs, the
Office of Space Science and Applications, with management provided through
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala. Richard E. Valentine is mission
manager, Blair Herron is PCG experiment manager and Dr. Daniel Carter is
project scientist for Marshall.
Dr. Charles E. Bugg, Director, Center for Macromolecular Crystallography
(CMC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space located at the
University of Alabama-Birmingham, is lead investigator for the PCG experiment.
Dr. Lawrence J. DeLucas, Associate Director and Chief Scientist, and Dr.
Marianna Long, Associate Director for Commercial Development, also are PCG
investigators for CMC.
INVESTIGATIONS INTO POLYMER MEMBRANE PROCESSING
The Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), a middeck
payload, will make its third Space Shuttle flight for the Columbus, Ohio-based
Battelle Advanced Materials Center, a NASA Center for the Commercial
Development of Space (CCDS), sponsored in part by the Office of Commercial
The objective of the IPMP is to investigate the physical and chemical
processes that occur during the formation of polymer membranes in microgravity
such that the improved knowledge base can be applied to commercial membrane
processing techniques. Supporting the overall program objective, the STS-43
mission will provide additional data on the polymer precipitation process.
Polymer membranes have been used by industry in separation processes for
many years. Typical applications include enriching the oxygen content of air,
desalination of water and kidney dialysis.
Polymer membranes frequently are made using a twoPstep process. A sample
mixture of polymer and solvents is applied to a casting surface. The first
step involves the evaporation of solvents from the mixture. In the second
step, the remaining sample is immersed in a fluid (typically water) bath to
precipitate the membrane from the solution and complete the process.
On the STS-43 mission, Commander John Blaha will operate the IPMP
experiment. By turning the unit's valve to the first stop, the evaporation
process is initiated. After a specified period consisting of several minutes,
a quench procedure will be initiated. The quench consists of introducing a
humid atmosphere which will allow the polymer membrane to precipitate out. The
units are allowed to free float in the cabin for 10 minutes. GroundPbased
research indicates that the precipitation process should be complete after
approximately 10 minutes, and the entire procedure is at that point effectively
quenched. The two units are then restowed in the locker for the duration of
Following the flight, the samples will be retrieved and returned to
Battelle for testing. Portions of the samples will be sent to the CCDS's
industry partners for quantitative evaluation consisting of comparisons of the
membranes' permeability and selectivity characteristics with those of
Lisa A. McCauley, Associate Director of the Battelle CCDS, is program
manager for IPMP. Dr. Vince McGinness of Battelle is principal investigator.
BIOSERVE ITA MATERIALS DISPERSION APPARATUS (BIMDA)
The BioServe/Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA) Materials
Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA) payload has been jointly developed by BioServe
Space Technologies, a NASA Center for Commercial Development of Space (CCDS)
located at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and its industrial affiliate,
Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc. (ITA), Exton, Pa. Also
collaborating in the BIMDA activity are researchers from NASA's Johnson Space
Center, Houston, and Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif.
Sponsored by NASA's Office of Commercial Programs, the objective of the
BIMDA experiment is to obtain data on scientific methods and commercial
potential of biomedical manufacturing processes and fluid science processing in
the microgravity environment of space.
The BIMDA primary elements, developed by ITA with private sector funding,
are the Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA) minilabs and their controller with
a self-contained power supply and the Refrigerator/Incubator Module (R/IM)
carrier which houses the entire BIMDA experiment hardware. The MDA minilab is
a compact mixing device capabable of mixing up to 100 separate samples of any
two or three fluids using the liquid-to-liquid diffusion process. The MDA is
capable of conducting biomedical, manufacturing processes and fluid sciences
The BIMDA-2 mission is essentially a reflight of the BIMDA-1 flown aboard
STS-37 with repeats of some experiments and some additional new experiments.
The four MDA units to be flown on STS-43 are expected to yield over 200
separate data points from experiments conducted in the science disciplines of
protein crystal growth, zeolite crystal formation, collagen and virus assembly,
interferon induction, seed germination, cell fixation and fluid
Another primary element of the BIMDA payload is the bioprocessing testbed,
designed and developed by BioServe. The testbed contains the hardware for six
bioprocessing modules and six cell syringes. The bioprocessing testbed
elements will be used to mix cells with various activation fluids followed by
extended periods of metabolic activity and subsequent sampling into a fixative
solution. The bioprocessing module and cell experiments are to determine the
response of live cells to various hormones and stimulating agents under
On this second and last of the planned flights of BIMDA aboard the Space
Shuttle, 17 principal investigators will use the MDA to explore the commercial
potential of 36 different experiments in the biomedical, manufacturing
processes and fluid sciences fields.
Subsequent Shuttle flights of the MDA hardware by ITA will be on a
commercial basis and will contribute to the commercial development of space
infrastructure by providing generic materials processing in space hardware for
The BIMDA payload includes three elements of hardware: the MDA minilab
units, cell syringes and bioprocessing modules (contained in a bioprocessing
testbed). All are contained within a temperature-controlled environment
provided by a R/IM in a Shuttle middeck locker position.
At the beginning of BIMDA activation, the testbed housing the cell
syringes and bioprocessing modules will be removed from the R\IM and attached
with velcro to an available surface within the middeck. The testbed will
remain outside the R/IM until BIMDA reconfiguration prior to reentry.
The MDA minilabs will remain in the thermally controlled environment of
the R/IM during the entire flight. Each MDA minilab unit consists of a number
of sample blocks having self-aligning reservoirs or reaction chambers in both
top and bottom portions of the device. By sliding one block in relation to the
other, the reservoirs align to allow diffusion to occur between fluid
substances contain within each reservoir. The process of sliding the blocks
can be repeated to achieve time-dependent dispersion (or mixing) of different
substances. A prism window in each MDA unit allows the crew member to
determine the alignment of the blocks on each unit.
The cell syringe apparatus consists of six twoPchambered syringes
containing biological cells, needle/valve adapters and sample vials. When the
plunger is depressed, the payload is activated, thus the fluids in the two
chambers are mixed and permitted to react. Periodic samples are taken during
the flight, using the needle/valve adaptors and sample vials.
The six bioprocessing module units each consist of three syringes
connected via tubing and three-position valve. The direction of the valve
controls the flow of biological cells/fluids between various syringes, allowing
different types of mixing and sampling from one syringe to another. The valve
apparatus provides options for variations in the mixing of fluids.
Lead investigators for the BIMDA payload are Dr. Marvin Luttges, Director
of BioServe Space Technologies, and John M. Cassanto, President of ITA, whose
company developed the MDA hardware with private sector funds as a commercial
space venture.AIR FORCE MAUI OPTICAL SYSTEM (AMOS)
The Air Force Maui Optical System (AMOS) is an electrical-optical facility
located on the Hawaiian island of Maui. The facility tracks the orbiter as it
flies over the area and records signatures from thruster firings, water dumps
or the phenomena of Shuttle glow, a well-documented glowing effect around the
Shuttle caused by the interaction of atomic oxygen with the spacecraft.
The information obtained is used to calibrate the infrared and optical
sensors at the facility. No hardware onboard the Shuttle is needed for the
AURORAL PHOTOGRAPHY EXPERIMENT-B (APE-B)
The Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B) is an Air Force-sponsored
payload designed to study the the aurora, or the Northern and Southern lights,
and the phenomena of Shuttle glow, an illumination around the shuttle caused as
the spacecraft encounters atomic oxygen in orbit.
APE-B hardware consists of a Nikon 35 mm camera, a 55 mm lens and several
filters and adapters. The camera can be mounted in the aft flight deck window
using a special camera mount, and shrouds are provided to block out light from
the crew compartment during exposures. The photography will take place while
Atlantis is in darkness, with crew cabin lights and cargo bay lights off.
SPACE ACCELERATION MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (SAMS)
The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) payload is sponsored by
NASA and used to collect data on accelerations felt onboard the Shuttle while
it is in orbit, measuring the amount of disturbance to the weightless
Located in the middeck, information from the sensors in the unit is stored
on optical disks. The SAMS will be activated by the crew about two and a half
hours after launch, and the optical disks will be changed periodically.
Acceleration information will be recorded throughout the flight, and during
specific events such as orbital maneuvering system and reaction control system
STS-43 CREW BIOGRAPHIES
John E. Blaha, 48, Col., USAF, will serve as Commander of STS-43 and will
be making his third space flight. Blaha, from San Antonio, Texas, was selected
as an astronaut in May 1980.
Blaha graduated from Granby High School in Norfolk, Va., in 1960, received
a bachelor of science in engineering science from the USAF Academy in 1965, and
received a master of science in astronautical engineering from Purdue
University in 1966.
He received his pilot wings at Williams Air Force Base, Ariz., in 1967,
and subsequently was assigned as an operational pilot completing 361 combat
missions in Vietnam. He attended the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School at
Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., in 1971, and following graduation, served as an
F-104 instructor pilot. In 1973, he was assigned as a test pilot working with
the Royal Air Force, Boscombe Down, United Kingdom. He then attended the USAF
Air Command and Staff College and upon graduation was assigned to USAF
Headquarters in the Pentagon.
Blaha was pilot on Shuttle mission STS-29, flown March 13-18, 1989, to
deploy a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. Blaha next flew in space as pilot
on STS-33 from Nov. 22-27, 1989, a Department of Defense-dedicated mission.
Blaha has logged a total of 239 hours in space.
Michael A. Baker, 37, Cmdr., USN, will serve as Pilot. Selected as an
astronaut in 1985, Baker, from Lemoore, Calif., will be making his first space
Baker graduated from Lemoore Union High School in 1971 and received a
bachelor of science degree in aerospace engineering from the University of
Texas in 1975.
He earned his wings at NAS Chase Field, Beeville, Texas, in 1977 and
attended the USN Test Pilot School in 1981, becoming an instructor at the
school after graduation.
After his selection as an astronaut, Baker was assigned as a member of the
team pursuing redesign, modification and improvements to Shuttle landing and
deceleration systems before the return to flight following the Challenger
accident. Baker also has served as a CAPCOM in Mission Control for 11 Shuttle
Shannon W. Lucid, 48, Ph.D., will serve as Mission Specialist 1 (MS1).
Selected as an astronaut in 1978, Lucid considers Bethany, Okla., her hometown
and will be making her third space flight.
Lucid graduated from Bethany High School in 1960; received a bachelor of
science degree in chemistry from the University of Oklahoma in 1963; and
received a master of science followed by a doctorate in biochemistry in 1970
and 1973, respectively, from the University of Oklahoma.
Lucid flew as a mission specialist on STS-51G, June 17-24,1985, on which
the crew deployed three communications satellites and used the mechanical arm
to deploy and retrieve an X-ray astronomy platform. She next flew on STS-34,
Oct. 18-23, 1989, that deployed the Galileo planetary probe on its way to
explore Jupiter and operated the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet
instrument. Lucid has logged more than 290 hours in space.
G. David Low, 35, will serve as Mission Specialist 2 (MS2). Selected as
an astronaut in 1984, Low will be making his second space flight.
Low graduated from Langley High School, McLean, Va., in 1974; received a
bachelor of science in physics-engineering from Washington and Lee University
in 1978; a bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from Cornell
University in 1980; and received a master of science in aeronautics and
astronautics from Stanford University in 1983.
Low served as a mission specialist on STS-32, Jan. 9-20, 1990, a flight
that retrieved the Long Duration Exposure Facility using the Shuttle's
mechanical arm. Low has logged more than 261 hours in space.
James C. Adamson, 45, Col., USA, will serve as Mission Specialist 3 (MS3).
Selected as an astronaut in 1984, he will be making his second space flight and
considers Monarch, Mont., his hometown.
Adamson received a bachelor of science in engineering and was commissioned
in the Army at West Point in 1969. In 1977, he received a master of science in
aerospace engineering from Princeton University.
He completed undergraduate and graduate pilot training and paratrooper
training in the Army and has served as a test pilot, logging over 3,000 hours
in 30 different aircraft. Adamson worked for NASA in mission control, serving
as a guidance, navigation and control officer prior to his selection as an
astronaut. Adamson flew on STS-28, Aug. 8-13, 1989, a Department of
Defense-dedicated mission. He has logged 121 hours in space.
STS-43 MISSION MANAGEMENT
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
Richard H. Truly NASA Administrator
J. R. Thompson Deputy Administrator
Dr. William Lenoir Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight
Robert L. Crippen Director, Space Shuttle
Leonard S. Nicholson Deputy Director, Space Shuttle (Program)
Brewster Shaw Deputy Director, Space Shuttle (Operations)
Charles Force Associate Administrator for Space Operations
Eugene Ferrick Director, Space Network
David Harris Manager, Space Network Operations
James Maley Manager, Launch and Space Segment
Daniel Brandel Manager, TDRSS Continuation
Raymond Newman Manager, Ground Segment
Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Forest S. McCartney Director
Jay Honeycutt Director, Shuttle Management and Operations
Robert B. Sieck Launch Director
John T. Conway Director, Payload Management and Operations
P. Thomas Breakfield Director, STS Payload Operations
Russell D. Lunnen, Jr. STS-43 Payload Manager
Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas
Aaron Cohen Director
Paul J. Weitz Deputy Director
Daniel Germany Manager, Orbiter and GFE Projects
Paul J. Weitz Acting Director, Flight Crew Operations
Eugene F. Kranz Director, Mission Operations
Henry O. Pohl Director, Engineering
Charles S. Harlan Director, Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.
Thomas J. Lee Director
Dr. J. Wayne Littles Deputy Director
G. Porter Bridwell Manager, Shuttle Projects Office
Dr. George F. McDonough Director, Science and Engineering
Alexander A. McCool Director, Safety and Mission Assurance
Victor Keith Henson Manager, Solid Rocket Motor Project
Cary H. Rutland Manager, Solid Rocket Booster Project
Jerry W. Smelser Manager, Space Shuttle Main Engine Project
Gerald C. Ladner Manager, External Tank Project
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
Dr. John M. Klineberg Director
Dr. Dale W. Harris Director, Flight Projects
Dale L. Fahnestock Director, Mission Operations and Data Systems
Daniel A. Spintman Chief, Networks Division
Vaughn E. Turner Chief, Communications Division
Charles Vanek Project Manager, Advanced TDRS Project
Thomas E. Williams Deputy Project Manager, Advanced TDRS Project
Nicholas G. Chrissotimos TDRS Manager
Gary A. Morse Network Manager
Stennis Space Center, Bay St. Louis, Miss.
Roy S. Estess Director
Gerald W. Smith Deputy Director
J. Harry Guin Director, Propulsion Test Operations
Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, Calif.
Kenneth J. Szalai Director
T.G. Ayers Deputy Director
James R. Phelps Chief, Shuttle Support Office