Contents of the STS-42.TXT file
STS-42 PRESS KIT
STS-42 PRESS KIT
PUBLIC AFFAIRS CONTACTS
Mark Hess/Jim Cast/Ed Campion
Office of Space Flight
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
Mike Braukus/Paula Cleggett-Haleim/Brian Dunbar
Office of Space Science and Applications
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.
Johnson Space Center, Houston
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
Stennis Space Center, Miss.
Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, Calif.
GENERAL RELEASE 4
MEDIA SERVICES 5
STS-42 QUICK-LOOK FACTS 6
TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS 7
SUMMARY OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES 7
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES 8
VEHICLE AND PAYLOAD WEIGHTS 8
STS-42 PRELAUNCH PROCESSING 13
IML SCIENCE OPERATIONS 14
LIFE SCIENCES EXPERIMENTS 15
GRAVITATIONAL PLANT PHYSIOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS......24
MICROGRAVITY VESTIBULAR INVESTIGATIONS.......26
MENTAL WORKLOAD PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTS.....26
SPACE PHYSIOLOGY EXPERIMENTS....27
MATERIALS SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS....32
SPACE ACCELERATION MEASUREMENT SYSTEM........38
GELATION OF SOLS: APPLIED MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH.......39
GET AWAY SPECIALS (GAS) ..41
INVESTIGATIONS INTO POLYMER MEMBRANE PROCESSING (IPMP)....44
RADIATION MONITORING EQUIPMENT-III (RME-III)........46
STS-42 CREW BIOGRAPHIES........46
STS-42 MISSION MANAGEMENT.......49
STS-42 NEWS RELEASE 12/27/91
WORLD-WIDE MATERIALS, LIFE SCIENCE STUDIES HIGHLIGHT STS-42
Space Shuttle mission STS-42, the 45th Shuttle flight, will be a
world-wide research effort in the behavior of materials and life in
Scientists from NASA, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space
Agency, the French National Center for Space Studies, the German Space
Agency and the National Space Development Agency of Japan have cooperated
in planning experiments aboard the International Microgravity Laboratory- 1
(IML-1) in Discovery's cargo bay. More than 200 scientists from 16
countries will participate in the investigations.
STS-42 will be the 15th flight of Discovery. Commanding the mission
will Ron Grabe, Col., USAF. Steve Oswald will serve as pilot. Mission
specialists will include Dr. Norm Thagard, M.D.; Dave Hilmers, Lt. Col.,
USMC; and Bill Readdy. In addition, Dr. Roberta Bondar, M.D. and Ph.D., of
the Canadian Space Agency and Ulf Merbold of the European Space Agency will
serve as payload specialists.
Discovery is currently planned for a 8:54 a.m. EST, Jan. 22, 1992,
launch. With an as-planned launch, landing will be at 10:06 a.m. EST,
Jan. 29, 1992, at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
Along with the IML-1 module, 12 Get Away Special containers will be
mounted in Discovery's cargo bay containing experiments ranging from
materials processing work to investigations into the development of animal
life in weightlessness.
Also aboard Discovery will be the IMAX camera, a large format camera
flown on several Shuttle missions as a joint project by NASA, the National
Air and Space Museum and the IMAX Film Corporation. On Discovery's lower
deck, the Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing will investigate
possible advances in filtering technologies in microgravity, and the
Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III will record radiation levels in the crew
Two experiments developed by students and submitted to NASA under the
Space Shuttle Student Involvement Program will fly on Discovery as well.
Convection in Zero Gravity, conceived by Scott Thomas while attending
Richland High School in Johnstown, Pa., will make a second Shuttle flight
to investigate the effects of heat on fluid surface tension in
weightlessness. The Zero-G Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular
Porous Media, conceived by Constantine Costes while he attended the
Randolph School in Huntsville, Ala., will investigate how a fluid flows
through granular substances in weightlessness.
STS-42 will be the first of eight Space Shuttle flights planned during
1992, five of which will feature international participation.
-end of general news release-
STS-42 MEDIA SERVICES
NASA Select Television Transmissions
NASA Select television is available on Satcom F-2R, Transponder 13,
located at 72 degrees west longitude; frequency 3960.0 MHz, audio 6.8 MHz.
The schedule for television transmissions from the Space Shuttle
orbiter and for change-of-shift briefings from Johnson Space Center,
Houston, will be available during the mission at Kennedy Space Center, Fla;
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.; Johnson Space Center; and
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The television schedule will be updated
to reflect changes dictated by mission operations.
Television schedules also may be obtained by calling the Johnson TV
schedule bulletin board, 713/483-5817. The bulletin board is a computer
data base service requiring the use of a telephone modem. A voice update
of the television schedule may be obtained by dialing 202/755-1788. This
service is updated daily at noon ET.
Status reports on countdown and mission progress, on- orbit
activities and landing operations will be produced by the appropriate NASA
A mission briefing schedule will be issued prior to launch. During
the mission, change-of-shift briefings by the off-going flight director
will occur at least once a day. The updated NASA Select television
schedule will indicate when mission briefings are planned to occur.
STS-42 QUICK LOOK FACTS
Launch Date:Jan. 22, 1991
Launch Site:Kennedy Space Center, Fla., Pad 39A
Launch Window:8:54 a.m. - 11:24 a.m. EST
Orbiter: Discovery (OV-103)
Orbit: 163 x 163 nautical miles, 57 degrees
Landing Date/Time: 10:06 a.m. EST, Jan. 29, 1991
Primary Landing Site: Edwards AFB, Calif.
Abort Landing Sites:Return to Launch Site - Kennedy
Space Center, Fla.
Transoceanic Abort Landing - Zaragoza, Spain
Alternates - Moron, Spain; Ben Guerir, Morocco
Abort Once Around - Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
Crew:Ronald J. Grabe, Commander (Blue Team)
Stephen S. Oswald, Pilot (Blue Team)
Norman E. Thagard, Mission Specialist 1 (Blue Team)
William F. Readdy, Mission Specialist 2 (Red Team)
David C. Hilmers, Mission Specialist 3 (Red Team)
Roberta L. Bondar, Payload Specialist 1 (Blue Team)
Ulf D. Merbold, Payload Specialist 2 (Red Team)
Cargo Bay:IML-1 (International Microgravity Lab-1)
GAS Bridge (Get-Away Special Bridge)
Middeck:GOSAMR-1 (Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity
IPMP (Investigations into Polymer Membrane
RME-III (Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III)
SE-81-09 (Student Exp., Convection in Zero Gravity)
SE-82-03 (Student Exp., Capillary Rise of Liquid
Through Granular Porous Media)
STS-42 TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
EVENT MET REL. VELOCITY MACH ALTITUDE
(d:h:m:s) (fps) (ft)
Begin Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:10 182 .16 771
End Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:18 389 .35 3,164
SSME Throttle to 70% 00/00:00:30 699 .63 8,963
SSME Throttle to 104% 00/00:01:01 1,408 1.38 36,655
Max. Dyn. Pressure (Max Q) 00/00:01:03 1,471 1.46 38,862
SRB Staging 00/00:02:06 4,195 3.80 155,520
Main Engine Cutoff (MECO) 00/00:08:34 25,000 21.62 376,591
Zero Thrust 00/00:08:40 25,000 N/A 376,909
ET Separation 00/00:08:52
OMS-2 Burn 00/00:36:12
Apogee, Perigee at MECO: 160 x 17 nautical miles
Apogee, Perigee post-OMS 2: 163 x 163 nautical miles
STS-42 SUMMARY OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES
Transfer science specimens to Spacelab
Begin IML-1 experiment operations
Days Two-SixIML-1 experiment operations
Day SevenConclude experiment operations
Landing at Edwards AFB
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES
Space Shuttle launch abort philosophy aims toward safe and intact recovery
of the flight crew, orbiter and its payload. Abort modes include:
* Abort-To-Orbit (ATO) -- Partial loss of main engine thrust late enough
to permit reaching a minimal 105-nautical mile orbit with orbital maneuvering
* Abort-Once-Around (AOA) -- Earlier main engine shutdown with the
capability to allow one orbit around before landing at either Edwards Air Force
Base, Calif.; the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center, Fla.;
or White Sands Space Harbor (Northrup Strip), N.M.
* Trans-Atlantic Abort Landing (TAL) -- Loss of one or more main engines
midway through powered flight would force a landing at either Zaragoza, Spain;
Moron, Spain; or Ben Guerir, Morocco.
* Return-To-Launch-Site (RTLS) -- Early shutdown of one or more engines
without enough energy to reach Zaragoza would result in a pitch around and
thrust back toward KSC until within gliding distance of the SLF.
STS-42 contingency landing sites are Edwards AFB, Kennedy Space Center,
White Sands, Zaragoza, Moron and Ben Guerir.
STS-42 VEHICLE AND PAYLOAD WEIGHTS
Orbiter (Discovery) empty and 3 SSMEs173,044
International Microgravity Lab-1/ Support Equipment23,201
Get-Away Special Bridge Assembly5,185
Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research-170
Investigations of Polymer Membrane Processing17
Radiation Monitoring Experiment-III7
Total Vehicle at SRB Ignition4,509,166
Orbiter Landing Weight217,251
STS-42 PREFLIGHT PROCESSING
Flight preparations on Discovery for the STS-42 mission began Sept. 27
following its last mission, STS-48, which ended with a landing at Edwards Air
Force Base, Calif.
The orbiter spent about 10 weeks in the Orbiter Processing Facility
(OPF) bay 3 undergoing checkout and inspections to prepare it for its 14th
flight, including the installation of the International Microgravity Laboratory
which is the primary payload for mission STS-42.
Space Shuttle main engine locations for this flight are engine 2026 in
the no.1 position, engine 2022 in the no. 2 position, and engine 2027 in the
no. 3 position. These engines were installed on October 24-25.
Technicians installed the International Microgravity Laboratory payload
into Discovery's payload bay on Nov. 17, while the vehicle was in the OPF. The
payload was closed out for flight in the OPF on Dec. 9.
The Crew Equipment Interface Test with the STS-42 flight crew was
conducted in the OPF on Dec. 4. The crew became familiar with the
configuration of the orbiter, the IML payload and unique equipment for mission
Booster stacking operations on mobile launcher platform 3 began Oct. 1,
and were completed by Oct. 21. The external tank was mated to the boosters on
Nov. 4 and the orbiter Discovery was transferred to the Vehicle Assembly
Building on Dec. 12, where it was mated to the external tank and solid rocket
The STS-42 vehicle was rolled out to Launch Pad 39-A on Dec. 19. A
dress rehearsal launch countdown with the flight crew members was scheduled for
Jan. 6-7 at KSC.
A standard 43-hour launch countdown was scheduled to begin 3 days prior
to launch. During the countdown, the orbiter's onboard fuel and oxidizer
storage tanks will be loaded and all orbiter systems will be prepared for
About 9 hours before launch the external tank will be filled with its
flight load of a half a million gallons of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen
propellants. About 2 and one-half hours before liftoff, the flight crew will
begin taking their assigned seats in the crew cabin.
Landing is planned at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., because of the
heavier weight of the vehicle returning with the IML tucked inside its payload
bay. KSC's landing convoy teams will be on station to safe the vehicle on the
runway and prepare it for the cross-country ferry flight back to Florida. Five
days are planned at Dryden Flight Research Facility and a 2-day ferry flight is
Once back in Florida, Discovery will be taken out of flight status for
the next 8 and a half months while undergoing major modifications, upgrades and
required inspections. The shuttle processing team will perform this work on
Discovery in the OPF. Discovery's 15th space flight is planned in the fall on
Mission STS-53, a Department of Defense flight.
IML-1 SCIENCE OPERATIONS
IML-1 science operations will be a cooperative effort between the
Discovery's crew in orbit and mission management, scientists and engineers in a
control facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Though the crew and the
ground-based controllers and science teams will be separated by many miles,
they will interact with one another in much the same way as they would if
working side by side.
This degree of interaction is made possible by the ready availability
of digital data, video and voice communications between the Shuttle and the
Spacelab Mission Operations Control facility at Marshall. With these links,
controllers and experiment scientists can talk to the orbiting Spacelab crew,
visually monitor crew and experiment activities, receive data from the
experiments and send commands directly to Spacelab to make adjustments to
experiment hardware, parameters or protocols.
The result is a highly effective level of teamwork in sharing
information about experiments, monitoring and evaluating data, solving problems
which may arise during the mission and revising experiment plans to take
advantage of unexpected research opportunities.
Many IML-1 experiments require a very smooth ride through space so that
their delicate operations will not be disturbed. Therefore, when the Space
Shuttle Discovery achieves its orbit of approximately 184 statute miles, it
will be placed into a "gravity-gradient stabilized" attitude with its tail
pointed toward Earth. This allows the orbiter's position to be maintained
primarily by natural forces and reduces the need for frequent orbiter thruster
firings which would disturb sensitive experiments.
To complete as many experiments as possible, the crew will work in
12-hour shifts around the clock. The first hours of the mission will be
especially busy. The payload crew will begin the mission by setting up
equipment and turning on equipment facilities. Because the Spacelab module is
placed in the Shuttle's cargo bay weeks before launch, critical biological and
materials samples, which degrade quickly, will be loaded into crew-cabin
lockers a few hours before liftoff. Orbiter and payload crew members will
transfer these samples to experiment facilities in the laboratory before
science operations are begun.
During the first days of the mission, the payload crew will activate
critical biological and material experiments and set up those involving plants,
cells and crystals. Much of the crew time throughout the mission will be
devoted to experiments which measure how their own bodies adapt to living in
space. In the middle of the mission, processing research will be continued and
experiments which require precisely timed activities will be carried out.
Experiments also will continue with plants, cells and other biological
specimens. The crew will check investigations periodically, make adjustments
needed to enhance results and when necessary, replace specimens or preserve
them for ground- based analysis. The payload crew aboard Spacelab will use
both voice and video links to consult with scientists on the ground during
critical operations and to modify experiments as required.
The last days will be spent completing investigations. The crew will
repeat some experiments performed earlier in the mission to measure how their
bodies have adapted to space over the course of the flight. On the final day,
they will turn off the equipment, store samples and specimens and prepare the
laboratory for landing.
Complete analysis of all the data acquired during the mission may take
from a few months to several years. Results will be shared with the worldwide
scientific community through normal publication channels.
IML-1 LIFE SCIENCES EXPERIMENTS
Biorack will advance our knowledge of the fundamental behavior of
living organisms. Broadly speaking there are five areas of research to be
addressed by Biorack: cell proliferation and differentiation, genetics, gravity
sensing and membrane behavior. The cells to be examined will include those of
frogs, fruit flies, humans and mice. Exposure to microgravity will alter the
regulatory mechanisms at a cellular level. The facilities aboard Biorack allow
manipulation and study of large numbers of cells. Over the 7-day mission in
space, these cells can be observed at various stages of their development.
Specimens can be preserved at those stages and returned to Earth for detailed
Leukemia Virus Transformed Cells to Microgravity in the Presence of DMSO
Provided by the European Space Agency (ESA)
ETH Institute of Biotechnology
Space Biology Group
This is one of three Biorack experiments being flown on the IML-1
mission as part of an investigation to study cell proliferation and performance
in space. The purpose of this particular experiment is to study the adaptation
of living cells to microgravity.
Previous experiments have shown that blood cells -- both white blood
cells that fight infection and red blood cells that transport oxygen throughout
the body -- are sensitive to gravity. On Earth, cells that normally would
differentiate to become blood cells are sometimes transformed by the leukemia
virus and become cancerous Friend leukemia cells.
Such cells do not produce hemoglobin, which plays an essential role in
oxygen transport. But when exposed to a drug called dimethylsufoxide (DMSO),
Friend cells produce hemoglobin. By studying these cells in microgravity,
scientists may determine how the gene responsible for hemoglobin synthesis is
Proliferation and Performance of Hybridoma Cells in Microgravity (HYBRID)
Provided by ESA
ETH Institute of Biotechnology
Space Biology Group
This experiment is one of three Biorack experiments being flown in the
IML-1 mission as part of an investigation to study cell proliferation and
performance in space. The purpose of this experiment is to study how cell
performance (biosynthesis and secretion) is altered by altered gravity
conditions. If cells produce material more rapidly in space, it may be
practical to manufacture some pharmaceutical products in space.
Hybridoma cells are obtained by fusion of activated white blood cells
(B-lymphocytes) with cancerous tumor cells (melanoma cells). Activated
B-lymphocytes, derived from a human or an animal, carry the information
required to produce antibodies of a certain specificity and can survive only a
few days in culture. Myeloma cells are tumor cells which can grow indefinitely
in culture. Therefore, the product of the fusion is a continuing cell line
capable of producing homogeneous antibodies (monoclonal antibodies) more
rapidly than white blood cells alone. Growing these cell cultures in
microgravity will allow scientists to compare the amount of their antibody
secretions to those grown on Earth.
Dynamic Cell Culture System (CULTURE) Provided by ESA
ETH Institute of Biotechnology
Space Biology Group
This experiment is one of three IML-1 Biorack experiments as part of an
investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the
objectives is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with
the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in
space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture
chamber, the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS), that was designed for use in a
bioreactor in space.
The DCCS is a simple device for cell cultures in which media are
reviewed or chemicals are injected automatically by means of osmotic pumps. As
culture nutrients flow into the cell container, old medium is forced out. The
system is designed to operate automatically for 2 weeks.
Chondrogenesis in Micromass Cultures of Mouse Limb Mesenchyme
Exposed to Microgravity (CELLS) Provided by NASA
Dr. P. J. Duke
Dental Science Institute
University of Texas, Houston
This investigation studies the effect of microgravity on cartilage
formation by embryonic mouse limb cells in culture. The susceptibility of
cartilage cells to gravitational changes is well documented. Cartilage
impairments found in rodents flown on previous space flights are similar to
those observed in skeletal malformations in children. Among these are changes
in the collagen molecules -- the major support fibers of cartilage and bone.
By studying how gravity affects cartilage formation, scientists may learn
subtle aspects of cartilage development on Earth.
This experiment also may help clarify how bones heal in space.
Fracture healing involves a cartilage stage prior to formation of bone. Soviet
experience indicates that a bone broken by an astronaut during a 3-year mission
to Mars will not heal properly. Cartilage formation, which is the subject of
this experiment, is part of the healing process.
Effects of Microgravity and Mechanical Stimulation on the In- Vitro
Mineralization and Resorption of Fetal Mouse Bones (BONES)
Provided by ESA
Dr. Jacobos-Paul Veldhuijzen
ACTA Free University
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Astronauts experience a loss of minerals from their bones during
exposure to the microgravity of space. If calcium loss continues indefinitely
during space flight, the likelihood that crew members will break these weakened
bones increases the longer a mission lasts. Significant calcium loss also
affects a person's ability to function in Earth's gravity after a mission.
Before long spaceflights can be planned, the effects of microgravity on bone
growth, maintenance and repair must be understood.
In this experiment, scientists will study the response to microgravity
of embryonic mouse leg bones. Scientists postulate that the uncompressed
cultures grown outside the centrifuge (under microgravity conditions) should
respond like bones that are unstressed in a weightless environment. To test
this hypothesis, both the microscopic structure and the biochemical make-up of
the cultures are analyzed to determine their mineralization and resorption
Why Microgravity Might Interfere With Amphibian Egg Fertilization and the Role
of Gravity in Determination of the Dorsal/Ventral Axis in Developing Amphibian
Embryos (EGGS) Provided by ESA
Dr. Geertje A. Ubbels
Utrecht, The Netherlands
Scientists are not sure what role gravity plays in the earliest stages
of embryonic development that determine the future front and back sides of the
body. This experiment may help scientists clarify the role of gravity by
studying fertilization of eggs and embryo formation of frogs in space.
Before fertilization, each frog egg is positioned inside a sticky
membrane that holds the parts of the egg random with respect to gravity. After
the egg is fertilized, gravity aligns the lightest part of the egg (the part
with the least yolk) up and the heaviest part of the egg (with the most yolk)
In normal cases, the spermUs point of entry will become the front side
of the embryo. However, if gravity disturbs the yolk distribution inside the
fertilized egg, this may not happen. Scientists want to confirm that in space
the sperm entrance point always becomes the front side of the embryo.
Eggs of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, will be fertilized in
space, incubated and preserved during various phases of embryonic development.
A similar experiment will be performed on a centrifuge in the Spacelab that
produces the force of normal Earth gravity. Post-flight, the samples will be
compared to see if fertilization and development proceeded normally.
Effects of Space Environment on the Development of Drosophila Melanogaster
(FLY) Provided by ESA
Department of Biochemistry UAM
Institute of Biomedical Investigations CSIC
This experiment involves the study of the development of eggs of the
fly Drosophila (fruit fly) exposed to microgravity. It is presumed that
cogenesis, rather than further states of embryonic development, is sensitive to
gravity. This hypothesis will be tested by collecting eggs layed at specific
times in-flight and postflight from flies exposed to 0-g and 1-g. This portion
of the experiment is a repetition of an earlier experiment flown in Biorack
during the D1 Spacelab mission in November 1985. An added feature of the
experiment for the IML-1 mission is to study the effect of microgravity on the
life span of Drosophila male flies. In this way more information will be
gathered on the processes affected by microgravity in complex organisms.
Genetic and Molecular Dosimetry of HZE Radiation (RADIAT) Provided by NASA
Dr. Gregory A. Nelson
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
One of the major features of the space environment is the presence of
cosmic rays or HZE (high energy and charge) particles. Although they account
for only about one percent of the radiation particles in space, they constitute
about half of the total absorbed radiation dose. The experiment's purpose is
to understand the biological effects of exposure to cosmic rays to protect
space travelers on long missions. Exposure may place astronauts at risk for
certain medical problems, such as cataracts, mutations and cancers.
A microscopic soil nematode (roundworm) will be used to "capture"
mutations caused by cosmic rays, to evaluate whether certain genetic processes
occur normally in space, and to test whether development and reproduction
proceed normally in microgravity for up to three generations.
The nematode used in this experiment is a small (maximum size 1 mm),
transparent, free-living soil organism. Although small, it possesses most of
the major organ systems and tissues found in other animals, including mammals.
The worms are placed in containers with detectors that record the number of HZE
particles and the total radiation dose. After the mission, the worms are
examined for genetic mutations and development progress.
Dosimetric Mapping Inside Biorack (DOSIMTR) Provided by German Aerospace
Research Establishment (DLR)
Institute for Flight Medicine
The IML-1 experiments are done in an environment with electromagnetic
radiation, charged particles and secondary radiation. This flux is not
constant but changes with spacecraft inclination and altitude, solar activity
and Earth's magnetic field.
The purpose of this experiment is to document the radiation environment
inside the Biorack and to compare the experimental data with theoretical
predictions. It will provide documentation of the actual nature and
distribution of the radiation inside Biorack. Special emphasis is given to
measuring the radiation environment in the neighborhood of those experiments
which might be especially critical to radiation effects, and so have a way of
determining if changes to samples are caused by radiation or microgravity.
Embryogenesis and Organogenesis of Carausius (MOROSUS) Provided by DLR
Institute for Flight Medicine, DLR
Before humans can live for extended periods of time in space, the
effects of microgravity and long-term exposure to radiation on living organisms
must be known.
This experiment will study the influence of cosmic radiation,
background radiation and/or low gravity on stick insect eggs (Carausius
morosus) at early stages of development. Sandwiched between detectors, the
eggs hit by radiation can be determined precisely. Other detectors allow
scientists to determine the nature, energy and direction of the incident
Flown previously in Biorack during the D1 Spacelab mission (November
1985), this experiment has shown that the larvae from all eggs penetrated by
heavy ions under microgravity had shorter life spans and an unusually high rate
Gravity Related Behavior of the Acellular Slime Mold Physarum Polycephalum
(SLIME) Provided by DLR
Institute for Flight Medicine, DLR
Many living things, including people, perform various activities, such
as sleeping, at regular periods. Scientists are not certain whether these
activities are controlled by an internal biological clock or by external cues
such as day and night cycles or gravity. In space, these cues are absent, and
investigators can examine organisms to see if these functions occur in regular
circadian time frames.
Physarum polycephalum, a slime mold that lives on decaying trees and in
soil, has regular contractions and dilations that slowly move the cell. On
Earth, gravity modifies the direction of cell movement. Any direct effects of
microgravity should alter this movement and be evident as a change in circadian
After the mission, IML-1 data will be compared with results from the
Spacelab D1 mission. These results revealed that the frequency of the
contractions was slightly shortened at first but returned to normal as the
slime mold adapted to microgravity.
Microgravitational Effects on Chromosome Behavior (YEAST) Provided by NASA
Dr. Carlo V. Bruschi
Cell and Molecular Biology Division
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.
Scientists have measured the effects of microgravity and radiation on
DNA and chromosomes in many different organisms. They have learned that
microgravity alters chromosome structure during mitosis or normal cell division
to produce new cells. Changes in DNA structure caused by radiation are then
passed on during meiosis or cell division by reproductive cells that reduces
the number of chromosomes.
In this experiment, the effects of microgravity and radiation are
monitored separately in the same organism by measuring genetic damage during
mitosis and meiosis of common brewer's yeast. By employing both normal and
radiation- sensitive cells, scientists can monitor frequencies of chromosomal
loss, structural deformities and DNA mutation rates with a resolution
impossible in higher organisms. Because yeast chromosomes are small, sensitive
measurements can be made that can be extrapolated to higher organisms,
Post-flight genetic studies of cells incubated in space will examine
chromosome abnormalities, preference for sexual versus asexual reproduction and
viability of gametes.
Growth and Sporulation in Bacillus Subtilis Under Microgravity (SPORES)
Provided by ESA
Institute of Microbiology, University of Frankfurt
Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Cell differentiation -- the way that cells with different functions are
produced -- normally does not occur in simple organisms like bacteria.
However, some bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, wrap up part of their
cellular content into special structures called spores. Sporulation, resulting
from the distribution of a particular enzyme, is considered to represent a very
simple type of differentiation.
This experiment is aimed at measuring growth and sporulation of
Bacillus subtilis bacteria under microgravity conditions. The influence of
microgravity on enzyme distribution and the way the enzyme acts in the absence
of gravity are studied by examining the structure and biochemistry of the
spores after the mission.
Studies on Penetration of Antibiotics in Bacterial Cells in Space Conditions
(ANTIBIO) Provided by ESA
National Institute of Health and Medical Research
In space, bacteria may be more resistant to antibiotics because the
structure of their cell walls may be thicker in microgravity. This wall is a
barrier between the drug and target molecules in the cell, and a thicker wall
could be more effective in preventing antibiotics from destroying bacteria.
The increased resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, together with their
increased proliferation, is of prime importance for the future of very long
duration space flight.
This experiment will study the effects of antibiotics in bacterial
cells cultivated "in vitro" in space conditions. Proliferation rates of
bacteria exposed to antibiotics will then be compared to those that were not
exposed and to sets of bacteria grown on the ground.
Transmission of the Gravity Stimulus in Statocyte of the Lentil Root (ROOTS)
Provided by ESA
Laboratory of Cytology, Pierre et Marie Currie University
The purpose of this experiment is to study the growth of lentil
seedlings to gain understanding of that organism's mechanism of gravity
perception. On Earth, the roots of most plants can clearly perceive gravity
since they grow downward. In space, under microgravity conditions, previous
results from the D1 mission on Spacelab (November 1985) have shown that roots
loose their ability to orient themselves. Exposed to 1 g, the roots reorient
themselves in the direction of the simulated gravity.
The experiment flown on IML-1 is aimed at determining the minimum
amount of simulated 1-g exposure required for the plants to regain gravity
sensitivity and reorient roots.
Genotype Control of Graviresponse, Cell Polarity and Morphological Development
of Arabidopsis Thaliana in Microgravity (SHOOTS) Provided by ESA
Open University of Scotland
University of Nottingham
It is of high interest to determine what might be the long-term effects
of microgravity on the growth of plants. The aim of this two-part experiment
will be to quantify the structural and behavioral changes taking place in
germinating seeds of the small plant Arabidopsis thaliana. One strain of this
species, the wild type, is gravitropic. Its roots grow down and its shoots
grow up. Another strain, aux-1, is an agravitropic mutant. Its roots and
shoots grow in any direction.
One experiment will examine the differences in root and shoot
development and orientation between these two strains. The other experiment
will investigate the effects of growth in microgravity on the polarity of the
cells containing gravity sensors (statocytes). It also will investigate its
influence on the structure, orientation and distribution of their amyloplasts.
Effects of Microgravity Environment on Cell Wall Regeneration, Cell Divisions,
Growth and Differentiation of Plants From Protoplasts (PROTO) Provided by ESA
Institute of Molecular Biology and Plant Physiology,
University of Aarhus
An essential basis for prospective biological experiments in space and
for man's stay in space is the existence of a profound and exact knowledge of
how growth and development of living cells proceed under microgravity. Only in
a few cases is the influence of gravity on living cells known.
It is the aim of this study to provide basic knowledge on the
development of plant cells under microgravity conditions. This knowledge is
essential if plants are to be cultured in space to produce food, enzymes,
hormones and other products.
For this experiment, plant cells from carrots (Daucus carota) and a
fodder plant, rape (Brassica napus) are prepared to make them into protoplasts,
plant cells in which the cell walls have been removed. During the mission, a
culture of protoplasts from each gravity environment is analyzed to determine
whether the cell walls are reforming and whether the cells are dividing. They
are later compared to plants grown from protoplasts that developed on the
GRAVITATIONAL PLANT PHYSIOLOGY FACILITY EXPERIMENTS
Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility
NASA Ames Research Center
Mountain View, Calif.
The Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF), which houses the
two IML-1 plant experiments, was designed and built in 1984 by the University
of Pennsylvania. All hardware testing and payload implementation were provided
by NASA Ames Research Center. The GPPF includes four centrifuges, lights, three
videotape recorders and plant- holding compartments described below.
The control unit serves both experiments and contains a microprocessor
that controls the operation of the rotors (centrifuges), cameras, recording and
stimulus chamber (REST) and videotape recorders.
Two culture rotors operate independently at the force of gravity (1g)
to simulate Earth's gravitational field. Two variable-speed test rotors
provide accurately controlled centripetal forces from 0g to 1g. Seedlings in
plant cubes are placed in the rotors.
The REST provides the capability for time-lapse infrared video
recording of plant positions in four FOTRAN cubes, both before and after
exposure to blue light.
The Mesocotyl Suppression Box (MSB) is located in the upper left of the
GPPF double rack. It is used only for oat seedlings in the Gravity Threshold
experiment. The MSB exposes the seedlings to red light, which suppresses the
growth of the plant mesocotyl and makes them grow straight.
The Plant Carry-on Container will hold 36 cubes, cushioned in foam for
launch, plus soil trays for in-flight plantings.
Gravity Threshold (GTHRES)
Dr. Allan H. Brown
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
This experiment investigates the changes that occur when oat plants are
exposed to different levels and durations of gravity. It studies how a growing
plant responds to altered gravitational fields and how microgravity affects a
plant's structure. Four centrifuges in the Gravitational Plant Physiology
Facility are used to determine the sensitivity and threshold of the
gravity-detecting mechanism of oat plants. Seedlings used early in the
experiment germinate on the ground. For specimens used later in the mission, a
crew member plants seeds in soil supplied with the right amount of water, and
germination occurs in space.
Once in flight, some of the plants, in light-tight plant cubes, are
transferred to one of two centrifuges that produce a force equivalent to the
force of normal Earth gravity (1g). These plants continue to develop normally
under the 1g force until they are ready to be used in the experiment. Others
are maintained in microgravity until ready to be used in the experiment.
The plant cubes then are placed on either of two other centrifuges to
expose them to various combinations of acceleration durations. This allows
scientists to study gravitational forces from 0.1g to 1g without interference
from the constant 1g force present on Earth.
Plant images are recorded by two time-lapse video cameras using
infrared radiation. The video, plant samples and other data are stored for
post-flight analyses. Some plants will be fixed, or preserved, during the
mission for comparison with seedlings grown on the ground.
Response to Light Stimulation: Phototropic Transients (FOTRAN)
Dr. David G. Heathcote
University City Science Center, Philadelphia, Pa.
This experiment investigates how plants respond to light (phototropism)
in microgravity and the impact of microgravity on two other types of plant
behavior. The first, nutation, is the rhythmic curving movement of plants
caused by irregular growth rates of plant parts. The second, autotropism, is
the straightening often observed in plants that were curved during tropic or
nutational movements. These growth patterns occur naturally on Earth.
Scientists want to learn details of how the movements change in microgravity.
The experiment uses wheat seedlings planted both before and during the
mission. When they have reached the appropriate size, the seedlings are
exposed to a pulse of blue light. Ground studies have shown blue light to be
an effective way to evoke a phototropic response. Different groups of
seedlings receive different durations of exposure to light.
The seedlings' responses are monitored by an infrared- sensitive,
time-lapse video camera and recorded for later analysis. Some samples are
preserved chemically for study after the mission ends. Gas samples are taken
from the plant cubes for post-flight analysis of the environmental conditions
during the plants' growth.
MICROGRAVITY VESTIBULAR INVESTIGATIONS
Twenty investigators representing major universities and research
facilities from five countries have joined forces to better examine the effects
of spaceflight on the human orientation system with the Microgravity Vestibular
The vestibular system, using the stimulus of gravity and
motion-detecting organs in the inner ear, provides input to the brain for
orientation. When environmental conditions change so the body receives new
stimuli, the nervous system responds by interpreting the sensory information.
In the absence of gravity, however, input from the sensors is changed,
prompting the nervous system to develop a new interpretation of the stimuli.
MVI, led by Dr. Millard F. Reschke, senior scientist at the Johnson
Space Center, examines the effects of microgravity on the vestibular system.
By provoking interactions among the vestibular, visual and proprioceptive
systems and measuring the perceptual and sensorimotor reactions, scientists can
study the changes that are integral for the adaptive process.
For the investigations, STS-42 crew members will be placed in a
rotating chair with a helmet assembly outfitted with accelerometers to measure
head movements and visors that fit over each eye independently to provide
visual stimuli. The chair can be configured so that the subject can be sitting
upright, lying on his side or lying on his back. The chair system has three
movement patterns: "sinusoidal" or travelling predictably back and forth over
the same distance at a constant speed, "pseudorandom" or moving back and forth
over the varying distances and "stepped" or varying speeds and beginning and
The test sequences will study the effect of microgravity on six
physiological responses, including the eye's ability to track an object, the
perception of rotation during and after spinning, function of the motion and
gravity sensing organs in the inner ear, the interaction between visual cues
and vestibular responses and sensory perception. Crew members will be tested
both pre- and post-flight to establish a comparison for the in-flight
Results from the MVI experiments will aid in designing appropriate
measures to counteract neurosensory and motion sickness problems on future
MENTAL WORKLOAD AND PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENT
The Mental Workload and Performance Experiment will study the
influences of microgravity on crew members performing tasks with a computer
The STS-42 crew will use a redesigned workstation with an adjustable
surface for their daily planning sessions and record keeping. Cameras will
record the crew's range of motion and variety of positions while at the
workstation. During tests of mental function, reaction times and physiological
responses, crew members will evaluate a portable microcomputer. The
microcomputer with its display monitor and keyboard is attached to a Spacelab
handrail and positioned in the most convenient location. The crew member will
memorize a sequence of characters, then move the cursor to the target with
keyboard cursor keys, a two-axis joystick and a track ball. The crew will
perform the activities several times before and after the mission to provide a
comparison for the in-flight experiments.
CANADA'S PARTICIPATION IN IML-1
Canadian astronauts Drs. Roberta Bondar and Ken Money are the Canadian
prime and alternate payload specialists, respectively, for the first
International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission.
The Canadian Space Physiology Experiments (SPE) on IML-1 will
investigate human adaptation to weightlessness and other phenomena. The human
vestibular and proprioceptive (sense of body position) systems, energy
expenditure, cardiovascular adaptation, nystagmus (oscillating eye movement)
and back pain in astronauts will be studied.
SPACE PHYSIOLOGY EXPERIMENTS
Space Adaptation Syndrome Experiments (SASE)
Douglas G. D. Watt, Ph.D.
Many astronauts experience space adaptation syndrome, which may include
illusions, loss of knowledge of limb position, nausea and vomiting. These
symptoms may occur because of conflicting messages about body position and
movement which the brain receives from the eyes, the balance organs of the
inner ear and gravity sensing receptors in the muscles, tendons, and joints.
Seven investigations to study the nervous system's adaptation to microgravity
have been developed.
This investigation measures changes in the gravity sensing part of the
inner ear, the otolith organ. Normally, this organ provides a sense of up and
down and helps us stand upright by means of reflexes leading to muscles in the
body. In microgravity, the otolith organ produces modified signals and the
nervous system must either learn to reinterpret this information or ignore it
Subjects are strapped into a seat on a device known as the mini-sled.
The seat glides gently back and forth, providing a stimulus to the otolith
organ. Audio and visual stimuli are eliminated, and small electric impulses
are applied to the subject's leg with an electrode. Responses to these
impulses are measured.
The stimulus to the inner ear affects the response to the electric
impulses. Measurements of the modulations of the responses are gathered to
determine whether the nervous system learns to reinterpret the different
signals or learns to ignore them.
The semicircular canals are the rotation-sensing part of the inner ear
and provide the nervous system with information used to stabilize gaze and
vision despite rapid or random head movements. In microgravity, this
vestibulo-ocular reflex may be less effective due to the interaction between
the semicircular canals and the otolith organ.
Head and eye movements are recorded as the subject sits strapped onto
the stationary mini-sled. Two tests are conducted involving the subject's
ability to keep closed eyes fixed on a predetermined target while either
rotating the head or moving it up and down. A third test requires subjects to
shift their gaze to a series of targets projected onto a screen. This studies
coordination between eye and head movements.
Visual Stimulator Experiment
This investigation measures the relative importance of visual and
balance organ information in determining body orientation. In space, exposure
to a rotating visual field results in a sensation of self-rotation known as
"circularvection." On Earth, the otolith organ acts to limit this sensation.
The subject stares into an umbrella-shaped device with a pattern of
colored dots while strapped onto a stationary mini-sled. The visual stimulator
turns in either direction at three different speeds. The subject's
self-perceived body motion is tracked. The greater the false sense of
circularvection, the more the subject is relying on visual information instead
of otolith information.
These four experiments will investigate the effect of microgravity on
the proprioceptive system which provides the sense of position and movement of
the body and the limbs. A variety of receptors located in the muscles, tendons
and joints contribute information.
Previous spaceflights suggest that crew members experience a decreased
knowledge of limb position and while performing certain movements, experience
illusions such as the floor moving up and down. It also has been shown that
the vertebrae in the spine spread apart, possibly leading to partial nerve
block. Closer investigations of these phenomena form the basis of these
Two of the proprioceptive experiments involve measuring knowledge of
limb position and determining the ability to point at a target in
weightlessness. Subjects are blindfolded in both experiments. A third
experiment investigates how visual and tactile stimuli may affect illusions,
while the fourth experiment measures tactile sensitivity in a finger and a toe
to determine if any sensory nerve block develops during spaceflight.
Energy Expenditure in Spaceflight (EES)
Dr. Howard G. Parsons
University of Calgary
It is necessary to have accurate information on the amount of energy
expended in spaceflight to design proper fitness and nutrition programs for
astronauts. A new technique has been developed which requires analysis of
urine samples taken during the test period and measurement of the amount of
carbon dioxide produced by the body. Energy expenditure then can be calculated
and changes in body composition such as fat content and muscle mass can be
Subjects drink water enriched with stable, non- radioactive isotopes of
oxygen and hydrogen both at the start of the mission and immediately
post-flight. The isotopes can be traced in the urine and then measured to
determine energy expenditure. Amount of body water and therefore body
composition is calculated by dilution of the stable oxygen isotope.
Position and Spontaneous Nystagmus (PSN)
Dr. Joseph A. McClure
London Ear Clinic
Nystagmus is the normal oscillatory scanning motion of the eye. The
vestibular system of the inner ear is closely related to nystagmus. When the
inner ear is dysfunctional, it no longer gives the right signals to the eye,
resulting in a different type of eye movement which could be accompanied by
dizziness and blurred vision. Analysis of the nystagmus is a powerful tool in
diagnosing problems of the inner ear.
Two types of nystagmus will be investigated: spontaneous, where the eye
oscillates at the same rate regardless of head position, and positional, where
the oscillation varies according to head position. The goal is to determine
whether it is possible for both types to occur simultaneously in the same
individual. The ultimate aim is to improve detection and treatment of inner
Gravity is the determining factor in positional nystagmus. Eye
movement is measured in microgravity. If a subject who has positional
nystagmus on Earth shows no sign of it in space, it proves the two types of
nystagmus are superimposed on one another. This information will improve
diagnosis of inner ear disorders on Earth.
Measurement of Venous Compliance & Evaluation of an Experimental Anti-Gravity
Dr. Robert B. Thirsk
Canadian Space Agency
A loss of blood volume and other body fluids during spaceflight has
been suggested as the primary cause of the lowering of the cardiovascular
system's ability to withstand Earth's gravitational force field. Unprotected
astronauts may feel tired and dizzy, lose peripheral vision or faint upon
returning to Earth. Drinking salt solutions and wearing anti-gravity suits
which are inflated during re-entry through the atmosphere have been shown to
combat this after-effect of spaceflight.
One feature of this experiment will measure the venous compliance (tone
of the veins) before, during and after the mission. Being able to determine
how veins adapt to microgravity will be useful to engineers who design anti-
gravity suits. Veins in the lower leg are measured using an electronic monitor
and two large blood pressure cuffs that encircle the thigh and calf, altering
the pressure by inflating the cuffs. Ensuing changes in blood volume in the
veins are determined.
The evaluation of an experimental anti-gravity suit is another goal of
this experiment. The suit employs 11 pressurized sections and is able to apply
pressure to the legs and lower abdomen in may different ways. Effectiveness of
the suit will be determined and compared to a conventional anti-gravity suit
and to wearing no suit at all. Blood pressure and blood flow readings, and
subjective impressions of the astronauts, will contribute to the results.
Assessment of Back Pain in Astronauts (BPA)
Dr. Peter C. Wing
University of British Columbia, University Hospital
Vancouver, British Columbia
In microgravity, the spine elongates by as much as 2.76 inches due to
the vertebrae in the back spreading slightly apart. This elongation causes
painful tension and possibly affects tactile acuity. More than two thirds of
astronauts and cosmonauts have experienced back pain during space flight. The
aim of this experiment is to develop techniques to alleviate this condition by
studying its causes.
Subjects will daily record the precise location and intensity of any
back pain. Stereo photographs of the astronauts' backs will be taken to record
physical changes in shape and mobility during spaceflight. Immediately after
the mission, back examinations and more stereo photographs will be used to
obtain precise knowledge of changes in spinal dimension and shape. Earthbound
spinoffs are expected as a result of the increased understanding of back pain.
Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE)
Dr. Donald E. Brooks
University of British Columbia
Phase partitioning is a process used to separate different kinds of
molecules and cells out of complex mixtures of substances. It involves using
two polymer solutions dissolved in water. These solutions separate from each
other (like oil separates from water) and particles in the mixture will attach
to one or the other of the solutions and separate with them. The solution then
is poured off to gather the attached particles. The objective is to increase
the purity of the separated cells. On Earth, gravity induces fluid flow and
inhibits effective separation and purification.
The experiment involves shaking a container including a number of
chambers with different solutions. The container will be observed and
photographed as phase partitioning occurs. The effects of applying an electric
field on the process are observable in microgravity and also will be studied.
Phase partitioning is used to separate biological materials such as
bone marrow cells for cancer treatment. It is of interest to medical
researchers as it applies to separation and purification of cells for use in
transplants and treatment of disease.
Biostack Provided by DLR
Dr. H. Buecker
Institute for Flight Medicine, DLR
Four Biostack packages, located in a Spacelab rack under the module
floor, will gather data to be used in calculating potential effects of exposure
to cosmic radiation in space. The packages contain single layers of bacteria
and fungus spores, thale cress seeds and shrimp eggs sandwiched between sheets
of nuclear emulsion and plastic radiation detectors. Scientists will analyze
the resulting data to track the path an energized particle takes through
Biostack and then determine the level of radiation damage to the organisms.
Findings from this investigation also will be studied to see if better
radiation protection is needed in certain areas of Spacelab.
Radiation Monitoring Container Device (RMCD) Provided by National Space
Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)
Dr. S. Nagaoka
National Space Development Agency of Japan
In the Radiation Monitoring Container Device, mounted in the aft end of
the Spacelab, layers of cosmic ray detectors and bacteria spores, maize seeds
and shrimp eggs are sandwiched together and enclosed on all sides by gauges
that measure radiation doses. After being exposed to cosmic radiation for the
duration of the mission, the plastic detectors will be chemically treated to
reveal the three- dimensional radiation tracks showing the path the radiation
traveled after entering the container. The specimens will be examined by
biological and biochemical methods to determine the effects of radiation on the
enclosed organisms. The results of this investigation will be used in
developing a sensitive solid-state nuclear detector for future spaceflights and
to improve basic understanding of radiation biology.
IML-1 MATERIALS SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS
Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Provided by NASA
Dr. Charles E. Bugg
University of Alabama at Birmingham
The Protein Crystal Growth investigation is made up of 120 individual
experiments designed for the low-gravity environment of space. Located in two
refrigerator/incubator modules carried in the orbiter mid-deck, these
experiments operate by the vapor diffusion method of crystal growth. For each
experiment, liquids from a double-barrelled syringe are released and suspended
as droplets on the ends of the syringes. Water vapor then moves out of the
droplets in each growth chamber and into a reservoir, stimulating growth of the
protein crystal. After the mission, the crystals are returned to the
laboratory where scientists hope to find larger, less-flawed crystals than
those produced on Earth.
CRYOSTAT Provided by German Space Agency (DARA)
The Cryostat provides a temperature-controlled environment for growing
protein crystals by liquid diffusion under two different thermal conditions.
The facility can operate in either the stabilizer mode with a constant
temperature between 59 and 77 degrees Fahrenheit or the freezer mode where
temperatures can be varied from 17.6 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperatures are
controlled by preprogrammed commands, but crew members can reprogram the
computer if necessary. When the experiments are started, solutions of a
protein, a salt and a buffer mix via diffusion to initiate crystal growth.
Single Crystal Growth of Beta-Galactosidase and Beta- Galactosidase/Inhibiter
Complex Provided by DARA
Dr. W. Littke
University of Freiburg
Beta-galactosidase, an enzyme found in the intestines of human and
animal babies, as well as in E. coli bacteria, aids in the digestion of milk
and milk products. It is a key enzyme in modern genetics, and scientists want
to determine its three-dimensional molecular makeup to find out how the
structure affects its function. Beta-galactosidase was the first protein
crystallized in space using the Cryostat on Spacelab 1 in 1983. For IML-1,
scientists will attempt to grow higher quality crystals. Cryostat will be used
in the freezer mode, at temperatures ranging from 24.8 to 68 degrees
Fahrenheit, for this investigation.
Crystal Growth of the Electrogenic Membrane Protein Bacteriorhodopsin Provided
Dr. G. Wagner
University of Giessen
Plant Biology Institute 1
This experiment uses the Cryostat in the stabilizer mode, with the
temperature being maintained at 68 degrees Fahrenheit. The protein to be
crystallized is bacteriorhodopsin, a well-known membrane protein that converts
light energy to voltages in the membranes of certain primitive microorganisms.
Resolution of the three- dimensional structure, which will help biologists
understand how bacteriorhodopsin works, depends on the availability of large,
high quality crystals.
Crystallization of Proteins and Viruses in Microgravity by Liquid-Liquid
Diffusion Provided by NASA
Dr. Alexander McPherson
University of California at Riverside
One protein, canavalin, and one virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus,
will be crystallized in this investigation. Three samples of each substance
will be crystallized during the mission. One sample of each will be placed in
the freezer mode with the temperature being varied from 28.4 to 68 degrees
Fahrenheit and the other sample will be grown in the stabilizer mode with a
temperature of 68 degrees Fahrenheit. The crystals will be analyzed to
determine the potential benefits of microgravity along with the effects of
diverse temperature conditions. Another objective of this experiment is to
compare crystals grown in the Cryostat using the liquid diffusion method with
those grown in the Protein Crystal Growth hardware using the vapor diffusion
FLUIDS EXPERIMENT SYSTEM (FES)
The Fluids Experiment System is a facility with a sophisticated optical
system for showing how fluids flow during crystal growth. The optical system
includes a laser for producing three-dimensional holograms of samples and a
video camera for recording images of fluid flows in and around the samples.
Study of Solution Crystal Growth in Low-Gravity (TGS) Provided by NASA
Dr. Ravindra B. Lal
Alabama A & M University
This experiment uses the Fluids Experiment System to grow crystals from
a seed immersed in a solution of triglycine sulfate. The original seed is a
slice from the face of a larger crystal grown on Earth. In space, it is
immersed in a solution of triglycine sulfate, which is initially heated
slightly to remove any surface imperfections from the seed. As the seed is
cooled, dissolved triglycine sulfate incorporates around the seed, forming new
layers of growth. Video is returned to Earth during the experiment, allowing
scientists to monitor the growth of the crystal and if necessary, instruct the
crew to adjust the temperature. Triglycine sulfate crystals have potential for
use as room- temperature infrared detectors with applications for military
systems, astronomical telescopes, Earth observation cameras and environmental
An Optical Study of Grain Formation: Casting and Solidification Technology
(CAST) Provided by NASA
Dr. Mary H. McCay
University of Tennessee Space Institute
Advanced alloys, which are made by combining two or more metals or a
metal and a nonmetal, are essential for such products as jet engines, nuclear
power plant turbines and future spacecraft. As alloys solidify, the components
redistribute themselves through the liquid and in the solid. To study this
solidification process, scientists will use three experiment samples of a salt
(ammonium chloride) which, in water solution, models the freezing of alloys.
The salt solution is transparent, which makes it ideal for observations of
fluid flow and crystallization. Up to 11 experiments may be run, using the
samples repetitively. Using the sophisticated FES optical equipment,
scientists are able to monitor the experiment from the ground and if necessary,
request that the crew make changes to experiment procedures during the present
or future runs.
Mercuric iodide crystals have practical uses as sensitive X-ray and
gamma-ray detectors. In addition to their exceptional electronic properties,
these crystals can operate at room temperature. This makes them potentially
useful in portable detector devices for nuclear power plant monitoring, natural
resource prospecting, biomedical applications and astronomical observing.
Although mercury iodide has greater potential than existing detectors, problems
in the growth process cause crystal defects. For instance, the crystal is
fragile and can be deformed by its own weight. Scientists believe the growth
process can be controlled better in a microgravity environment and that such
problems can be reduced or eliminated. Two facilities will be used to grow
mercury iodide crystals during IML-1.
Vapor Crystal Growth System (VCGS) Provided by NASA
Vapor Crystal Growth Studies of Single Mercury Iodide Crystals
Dr. Lodewijk van den Berg
Before the mission, the principal investigator grows a tiny seed
crystal inside a sealed glass container called an ampoule. The ampoule is
installed in a bell-jar shaped container which will be placed in the Vapor
Crystal Growth System.
In space, heaters are started and the ampoule is warmed to around 212
degrees Fahrenheit. Once the ideal growth temperature is established, mercury
iodide source material evaporates and then condenses on the seed, which is
maintained at a temperature around 104 degrees F. The vapor molecules deposit
on the seed for approximately 100 hours to produce a larger crystal.
At the end of the experiment, the ampoule is cooled, and the module is
removed and stowed for later analysis. This experiment builds on results from
the Spacelab 3 mission, where the principal investigator was the payload
specialist who operated it in orbit.
Mercury Idodide Crystal Growth (MICG) Provided by French National Center for
Space Studies (CNES)
Mercury Iodide Nucleations and Crystal Growth in Vapor Phase
Dr. Robert Cadoret
University of Clermont-Ferrand
Efforts to grow high-quality mercury iodide crystals on Earth are
hampered by gravity-related convection. This causes an uneven concentration of
mercury iodide on the seed crystal because material settles only on certain
parts of the seed. There are usually defects where the seed and the new growth
meet. In space, investigators hope to produce larger, nearly flawless
This IML-1 investigation uses six single-seed crystals placed in
separate containers to grow large crystals under controlled conditions. The
furnace for this experiment will hold three ampoules simultaneously. One end
of each ampoule is heated, while the other end is kept cooler. The higher
temperature at the source-end of each ampoule will cause mercury iodide to
evaporate, then condense on the seed crystal at the ampoule's cooler end. Any
excess source material will be deposited in a "sink" area behind the growing
crystal. The crystals are cooled for 4 hours before being removed by the
payload specialist. A second experiment run will be performed with the other
three seed crystals if time permits.
ORGANIC CRYSTAL GROWTH FACILITY (OCGF) Provided by NASDA
Dr. A. Kanbayashi
National Space Development Agency of Japan
The Organic Crystal Growth Facility is designed to grow high-quality
superconductor crystals from a complex organic compound. Researchers are
interested in this compound because it can P- at certain temperatures P-
transfer electric current with no resistance, just like a metal superconductor.
Because of the potential technological value, scientists want to grow a single
crystal 10 times larger than ground-based ones to study its natural physical
properties. Superconductors are key components of computers, communication
satellites and many other electrical devices.
The facility has one chamber for growing a large crystal and a small
chamber with a window for observing the growth of a smaller crystal. A seed
crystal is mounted on a gold wire in the center section of each chamber. When
the experiment is started, valves are opened, allowing donor and accepter
solutions to diffuse into the crystal-growth chamber in which a seed crystal is
suspended in an acetone solvent solution. Near the end of the mission, a crew
member raises the crystal into a protective chamber for later analysis.
CRITICAL POINT FACILITY (CPF)
ESA's Critical Point Facility is designed for the optical study of
fluids at their "critical point," where a precise combination of temperature
and pressure makes the vapor and liquid states indistinguishable. Scientists
are interested in what happens to materials at their critical points because
critical point phenomena are universally common to many different materials.
Physically different systems act very similarly near their critical points.
Observations such as these are hampered on Earth, since as soon as vapor begins
to liquefy and form droplets, gravity pulls the drops down. IML-1 will be the
first Space Shuttle flight for the Critical Point Facility, so results gained
during this mission are expected to provide new insights on fundamental
questions about the basic physics of substances undergoing phase changes.
Study of Density Distribution in a Near-Critical Simple Fluid Provided by ESA
Dr. Antonius C. Michels
Van der Waals Laboratory
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Planned for a duration of 60 hours, this experiment will use visual
observation, an ultra-sensitive optical measurement technique known as
interferometry and light- scattering techniques to reveal the density profile
distribution in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) above and below the critical point.
This fluid is used because its critical temperature is near room temperature,
avoiding the need for large amounts of power to heat or cool the fluid.
Heat and Mass Transport in a Pure Fluid in the Vicinity of a Critical Point
Provided by ESA
Dr. Daniel Beysens, C.E.N.
This experiment will focus on mechanisms of heat and mass transport in
sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a gas of technological interest that can be obtained
in a very pure form. Here scientists will examine heat and mass transport when
temperature is increased from the two-phase region to the one-phase region,
when it is varied in the one-phase region and when it is lowered from the
one-phase region to the two-phase region.
Phase Separation of an Off-Critical Binary Mixture Provided by ESA
Dr. Daniel Beysens, C.E.N.
During this experiment, scientists will investigate how a fluid at the
critical point separates from a single phase to form two phases. They are
interested in how changes in temperature affect formation of the two phases.
Small-angle light scattering and direct observation will be used to study phase
separation at various temperatures.
Critical Fluid Thermal Equilibration Experiment Provided by NASA
Dr. Allen Wilkinson
NASA Lewis Research Center
In this experiment the temperature and density changes of sulfur
hexafluoride, a fluid with a critical point just above room temperature will be
measured with a resolution not possible on Earth (at the critical point gas and
liquid become indistinguishable). The cells are integrated into the ESA
Critical Point Facility and will be observed via interferometry, visualization
and transmission under various conditions.
During the full experiment, accelerometry time correlated with the
video records will identify the compressible fluid dynamics associated with
Space Shuttle acceleration events and provide the investigators with insight
concerning gravity effects on fluids in a non- vibration isolated Shuttle
SPACE ACCELERATION MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
NASA Lewis Research Center
The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) is designed to measure
and record low-level acceleration that the Spacelab experiences during typical
on-orbit activities. The three SAMS sensor heads are mounted on or near
experiments to measure the acceleration environment experienced by the research
package. The signals from these sensors are amplified, filtered and converted
to digital data before being stored on optical disks.
On STS-42, the SAMS main unit is mounted in the Spacelab's center
aisle. The unit contains the data processing electronics, two optical disk
drives and the control panel for crew interaction. A sensor head is mounted
under the floor at the Microgravity Vestibular Investigation rotating chair
which also is located in the Spacelab center aisle.
SAMS primary support on STS-42 will be for experiments conducted in the
Fluid Experiment Systems rack and the Vapor Crystal Growth System rack.
Typically, crystal growth experiments conducted in these racks take several
days to grow and are sensitive to low-frequency acceleration. Therefore, it is
important to understand how movement affects the development of the crystal
during the growth period. Two sensor heads are mounted in the Fluid Experiment
Data obtained from SAMS will enable engineers and scientists to study
how vibrations or movements caused by crew members, equipment or other
activities are transferred through the vehicle to the experiment racks.
The first two SAMS units were flown on the first Spacelab Life Sciences
mission on STS-40 in June 1991 and on the middeck in STS-43 in August 1991.
The flight hardware was designed and developed in-house by the NASA Lewis
GELATION OF SOLS: APPLIED MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH
The Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR) is a
middeck materials processing experiment flown under the sponsorship of a Joint
Endeavor Agreement between NASA's Office of Commercial Programs and 3M's
Science Research Laboratories, St. Paul, Minn.
The objective of GOSAMR-01 is to investigate the influence of
microgravity on the processing of gelled sols -- or dispersions of solid
particles in a liquid often referred to as colloids. Stoke's law predicts that
there will be more settling of the denser and larger-sized particulates in
Earth's unit gravity as compared to the differentiation that should occur in a
microgravity environment. In particular, GOSAMR will attempt to determine
whether composite ceramic precursors composed of large particulates and small
colloidal sols can be produced in space with more structural uniformity and to
show that this improved uniformity will result in finer matrix grain sizes and
superior physical properties.
Researchers believe that microgravity-produced ceramic composite
precursors will have more uniform structures than their ground-based
counterparts. The degree to which this is realized will indicate the value of
developing enhanced processing techniques for ground-based production of
The potential commercial impact of GOSAMR applied research on enhanced
ceramic composite materials will be in the areas of abrasives and
fracture-resistant materials. 3M currently sells film coated with
diamond-loaded silica beads for polishing computer disk drive heads and VCR
heads. Zirconia-toughened alumina is a premium perforance abrasive grit and
functions extremely well as a cutting tool for the machining of metals. The
performance of these materials may be enhanced by improving their structural
uniformity through processing in space.
The GOSAMR experiment will attempt to form precursors for advanced
ceramic materials by using chemical gelation. Chemical gelation involves
disrupting the stability of a sol and forming a gel (semi-solid material).
These precursor gels will be returned to 3M, dried and fired to temperatures
ranging from 900 to 2,900 degrees F. to complete the fabrication of the ceramic
composites. These composites then will be evaluated to determine if processing
in space has indeed resulted in better structural uniformity and superior
On STS-42, 80 samples (5 cc each) will be generated by varying the
particle sizes and loadings, the length of gelation times and the sol sizes.
The chemical components will consist of either colloidal silica sols doped with
diamond particles or colloidal alumina sols doped with zirconia particulates.
Both sols also will be mixed with a gelling agent of aqueous ammonium acetate.
About a month before launch, the GOSAMR payload is pre- packed into a
middeck stowage locker and surrounded with half an inch of isolator material.
The experiment contains an internal battery source and uses no power from the
Shuttle orbiter. Designed to operate at ambient cabin temperature and pressure
to insure scientific success of the experiment, the payload must maintain
temperatures above 40 degrees F. and below 120 degrees F. at all times prior
to, during or after the mission.
The GOSAMR container consists of a back cover, five identical and
independent apparatus modules holding 10 mixing systems and a front cover. The
modules and covers comprise a common sealed apparatus container which provides
an outermost level of chemical containment. The front cover contains two
ambient temperature-logging devices, two purge ports for venting and
backfilling the container with inert gas and the electrical feedthrough between
the sealed apparatus and the control housing. The control housing at the front
of the payload contains power switches for payload activation, indicator lights
for payload status and a test connector used during ground- based checkout.
Once the payload is installed in the locker, the control housing will be the
only portion of the payload accessible to the flight crew.
Each of GOSAMR-01's five modules has two mixing systems with eight
double syringes (5 cc each) containing one of two chemical components. Prior
to on-orbit activation, the two components (either colloidal silica sols doped
with diamond particles or colloidal alumina sols doped with zirconia
particulates) will be kept isolated from each other by a seal between the
syringe couplers. The coupled syringes in each assembly will contain a gelling
agent (either aqueous ammonium acetate or nitric acid) in one syringe and one
of the two chemical components in the other.
Once on orbit, a crewmember will sequentially activate the five power
switches on the control housing. When the payload is activated, a pilot light
for each module will illuminate, indicating that mixing has begun and that the
syringe-to-syringe seal has been broken. The sample mixing process for each
system will last about 10 to 20 seconds and once the mixing cycle is complete,
an internal limit switch will automatically stop each mixing system.
The flight crew will monitor the experiment status by observing the
control-housing indicator lights, which will be illuminated during the motor-
driven mixing of each system. The pilot lights will extinguish once the mixing
is complete, and a crewmember will deactivate each module. The payload will
require no further crew interaction. However, physical changes in the samples
will continue passively and unattended for a minimum of 24 hours in the
microgravity environment. Total crew interaction will be less than 1 hour, and
only during this period will the locker door be open.
After landing the payload will be removed from the orbiter during
normal destowage operations and returned to 3M within 24 hours where
post-flight processing and analyses will be conducted on space- and
ground-processed samples to ascertain the differences in physical structure and
The 3M GOSAMR management team includes Dr. Theodore F. Bolles,
Technical Director; Dr. Earl L. Cook, Program Manager; and Dr. Bruce A. Nerad,
GET AWAY SPECIAL EXPERIMENTS
Since its inception in 1982, hundreds of nonprofessional and
professional experimenters have gained access to space through NASA's Get Away
Special (GAS) program. The GAS program, managed by Goddard Space Flight
Center, Greenbelt, Md., provides individuals and organizations of all countries
the opportunity to send scientific research and development experiments on
board a Space Shuttle for a nominal fee on a space-available basis. Clarke
Prouty is the GAS Mission Manager and Larry Thomas is Technical Liaison
The GAS bridge, capable of holding a maximum of 12 canisters (or cans),
fits across the payload bay of the orbiter and offers a convenient and
economical way of flying several canisters simultaneously. Twelve GAS payloads
were originally scheduled to fly on this mission. However, two GAS payloads
dropped out because of technical difficulties. In their place, two GAS ballast
payloads were adjusted to match the weight of the payload it replaced.
On STS-42 will be GAS payloads from six countries: Australia, China,
Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden and the United States. This is the
first time a payload from China will be carried aboard a Space Shuttle. GAS
payloads most recently flew on STS-40 in June 1991. To date, 67 GAS cans have
flown on 16 missions. The 10 GAS payloads on STS- 42 are:
(G-086) Brine Shrimp/Air Bubbles in Microgravity
Sponsor: Booker T. Washington Senior High School, Houston, Texas
This payload involves two experiments: the artemia (brine shrimp)
experiment that will attempt to hatch and grow shrimp in microgravity, and the
air/water chamber of the fluid physics experiment, in which measured amounts of
air are injected into a chamber filled with distilled water resulting in air
bubbles of different sizes. Research indicates the direction and speed of
bubble movements should depend on both bubble size and temperature. The NASA
Technical Manager (NTM) is Tom Dixon.
(G-140) Marangoni Convection in a Floating Zone and (G-143) Glass Fining
Sponsor: German Space Agency (DARA), Bonn, Germany
G-140 and G-143 are Material Science Autonomous Experiments (MAUS)
developed by scientists of the German Aerospace Research Establishment
(DLR)/Gottingen and the Technical University Clausthal. The MAUS project is
managed by the German Space Agency (DARA) representing Germany for space
In the G-140 experiment, the influence of rotation on the steady and
the oscillatory Marangoni convection induced through surface tension gradients
will be investigated.
Glass fining is the removal of all visible gaseous inhomogeneities from
a glass melt. In G-143, a glass sample with an artificial helium bubble at its
center will be heated to 1300 degrees Celsius and kept at this temperature for
about 2 hours. The glass melts and the helium dissolves in the melt, causing
the bubble to shrink. The NTM is Tom Dixon.
(G-329) The Effect of Gravity on the Solidification Process of Alloys
Sponsor: Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), Solna, Sweden
The purpose of this experiment is to improve understanding of the
effect of gravity on the solidification process of alloys. The payload
includes three experimental furnaces and an energy buffer, which protects the
payload from excessive temperatures. The NTM is Tom Dixon.
(G-336) Visual Photometric Experiment (VIPER)
Sponsor: U.S. Air Force, Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass.
VIPER is designed to measure the visible light reflected by
intergalactic dust. The data from these measurements will be used to validate
and update existing data collected in earlier experiments and will help provide
background measurements of visible light for use in space surveillance. The
NTM is Tom Dixon.
(G-337) Space Thermoacoustic Refrigerator (STAR)
Sponsor: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif.
This experiment is the first autonomous application of an entirely new
refrigeration cycle which uses sound to pump heat and does so with only one
moving part. Unlike conventional refrigerators which use compressors and
ozone- depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the thermoacoustic refrigerator
uses standing sound waves and inert gas to produce refrigeration.
The experiment is a joint effort of the Physics Department and Space
Systems Academic Group at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. Financial and
material support was supplied by the Naval Research Laboratory. The NTM is Tom
(G-457) Separation of Gas Bubbles From Liquid
Sponsor: The Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, Inc. (SJAC)
In this experiment, modes of bubble movement in liquid under
microgravity conditions will be examined. Gas bubbles will be separated out of
a liquid by artificial gravity. After separation, the gas is circulated by a
pump and injected into liquid again in a mixing box. The NTM is Herb Foster.
(G-609 & G-610) Endeavor, the Australian Space Telescope
Sponsor: Australian Space Office, Canberra, Australia
The Endeavor payload is an Australian ultraviolet light telescope
designed and built by Auspace Limited for the Australian Space Office. It will
obtain ultraviolet images of violent events in nearby galaxies of interest to
Two interconnected GAS cans will house the components of the payload.
One canister contains the optical elements, a large format photon counting
array detector and a control computer. The other GAS can contains a flight
battery and two tape recorders for recording data produced by the detector.
(G-614) A Study of Motion of Debris in Microgravity and Investigation of Mixing
of Low Melting Point Materials in Microgravity
Sponsor: American Association for Promotion of Science in China and the Chinese
Society of Astronautics
This payload consists of two experiments. For the first experiment,
small lumps of different materials will be stored in a container which has a
side wall covered with a sheet of adhesive paper. A movie camera is mounted in
the container to photograph the motion of debris upon their release in the
microgravity environment. In the second experiment, two low melt-point
materials will be premixed in various ratios in solid form on Earth and
remelted in space, then left to cool and resolidify.
The experiments were designed by students selected in 1986 from more
than 7,000 proposals. The experiments represent the first time a payload from
China will be carried aboard a space shuttle.
INVESTIGATIONS INTO POLYMER MEMBRANE PROCESSING
The Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), a middeck
payload, will make its fifth Space Shuttle flight for the Columbus, Ohio-based
Battelle Advanced Materials Center, a NASA Center for the Commercial
Development of Space (CCDS), sponsored in part by the Office of Commercial
The objective of the IPMP is to investigate the physical and chemical
processes that occur during the formation of polymer membranes in microgravity
such that the improved knowledge base can be applied to commercial membrane
processing techniques. Supporting the overall program objective, the STS-42
mission will provide additional data on the polymer precipitation process.
Polymer membranes have been used by industry in separations processes for
many years. Typical applications include enriching the oxygen content of air,
desalination of water and kidney dialysis.
Polymer membranes frequently are made using a two-step process. A sample
mixture of polymer and solvents is applied to a casting surface. The first
step involves the evaporation of solvents from the mixture. In the second
step, the remaining sample is immersed in a fluid bath (typically water) to
precipitate the membrane from the solution and complete the process.
On the STS-42 mission, Commander Ron Grabe and Mission Specialist Bill
Readdy, will operate the IPMP experiment. They will begin by accessing the
units in their stowage location in a middeck locker. By turning the unit's
valve to the first stop, the evaporation process is initiated. On this flight,
the effects of varying the time between initiation of solvent evaporation and
quenching will be studied -- 1 unit at 5 minutes, the other at approximately 8
hours. Then, a quench procedure will be initiated. The quench consists of
introducing a humid atmosphere which will allow the polymer membrane to
precipitate out. Ground-based research indicates that the precipitation
process should be complete after approximately 10 minutes, and the entire
procedure is at that point effectively quenched.
Following the flight, the samples will be retrieved and returned to
Battelle for testing. Portions of the samples will be sent to the CCDS's
industry partners for quantitative evaluation consisting of comparisons of the
membranes' permeability and selectivity characteristics with those of
Lisa A. McCauley, Associate Director of the Battelle CCDS, is the Program
Manager for IPMP. Dr. Vince McGinness of Battelle is Principal Investigator.
The IMAX project is a collaboration between NASA and the Smithsonian
Institution's National Air and Space Museum to document significant space
activities using the IMAX film medium. This system, developed by IMAX systems
Corp., Toronto, Canada, uses specially designed 70mm film cameras and
projectors to record and display very high definition large-screen pictures.
During STS-42, the crew will use the camera to film activities in the
Spacelab module and the crew compartment, with particular emphasis on the space
physiology experiments that have a bearing on future long duration human
presence in space. It also will take advantage of the high inclination of the
STS-42 orbit to film Earth features at latitudes not overflown by most Shuttle
flights. These scenes will be used in an IMAX film now in production which
will deal with mankind's future in space.
IMAX cameras previously have flown on Space Shuttle missions 41-C, 41-D
and 41-G to document crew operations in the payload bay and the orbiter's mid
deck and flight deck along with spectacular views of Earth. Film from those
missions formed the basis for the IMAX production, The Dream is Alive. The IMAX
camera also flew on Shuttle missions STS- 29, STS-34 and STS-32. During those
missions, the camera was used to gather material for the IMAX film, The Blue
(SE81-09) Convection in Zero Gravity
Scott Thomas, formerly of Richland High School, Johnstown, Penn., created
an experiment to study surface tension convection in microgravity. The
experiment, selected in 1981, will study the effects of boundary layer
conditions and geometries on the onset and character of the convection. The
experiment consists of a frame holding six pans with hinged lids and heaters
imbedded in the bottom and sides.
A crew member removes and secures the experiment from the mid-deck locker,
sets up a television camera, injects a pan with oil and activates the heater
and camera. The heater will run for 10 minutes, ample time for convection to
occur. The camera will observe the flow patterns produced by aluminum powder
in Krytox oil. After six cycles, the experiment is concluded and returned to
Thomas' experiment, which flew on STS-5, is being reflown because a safety
shield interfered with the initial operation of the experiment.
Thomas is a doctoral candidate of physics at University of Texas, Austin.
After high school, he attended Utah State University, majoring in physics. His
teacher advisor is Wayne E. Lehman, (formerly with Richland High School). The
experiment is sponsored by Thiokol Corp. Dr. Lee Davis, Thiokol Corp., and R.
Gilbert Moore, Utah State University, are the science advisors of the
(SE83-02) Zero-G Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular Media
Constantine N. Costes, formerly of Randolph High School, Huntsville,
Ala., created an experiment to study and measure capillary flow of liquids
through densely-packed course granular media in microgravity.
Knowledge of the mechanisms of capillary liquid transport through
porous media is of primary importance to many disciplines, including soil
physics, agriculture, ground hydrology, petroleum engineering and water
The experiment consists of hardware containing three glass tubes 2
inches in diameter and 15 inches long. The tubes will be filled with one of
the three diameter-sized glass beads -- 1/4mm, 1mm, and 3mm. The fluid is
blue- colored water. Astronauts will videotape the timed progression of the
liquid through beads.
Costes is a doctoral candidate of mathematics at Harvard. He received
his undergraduate degree from Oxford. The experiment is sponsored by USBI,
Inc., Huntsville. Jeff Fisher, a design engineer at USBI, is the science
advisor for the experiment.
RADIATION MONITORING EQUIPMENT-III
The Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III measures ionizing radiation
exposure to the crew within the orbiter cabin. RME-III measures gamma ray,
electron, neutron and proton radiation and calculates in real time the exposure
in RADS- tissue equivalent. The information is stored in memory modules for
The hand-held instrument will be stored in a middeck locker during flight
except for activation and memory module replacement every two days. RME-III
will be activated by the crew as soon as possible after reaching orbit and
operated throughout the mission. A crew member will enter the correct mission
elapsed time upon activation.
RME-III is the current configuration, replacing the earlier RME-I and
RME-II units. RME-III last flew on STS-31. The experiment has four zinc-air
batteries and five AA batteries in each replaceable memory module. RME-III is
sponsored by the Department of Defense in cooperation with NASA.
STS-42 CREW BIOGRAPHIES
Ronald J. Grabe, 46, Col., USAF, will serve as Commander. Selected as an
astronaut in August 1981, Grabe was born in New York, N.Y. Grabe was pilot for
STS 51-J, the second Space Shuttle Department of Defense-dedicated mission in
1985. He next flew as pilot for STS-30 in 1989.
Grabe graduated from Stuyvesant High School in 1962, received a bachelor's
degree in engineering science from the Air Force Academy in 1966 and studied
aeronautics as a Fulbright Scholar at the Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt,
West Germany, in 1967.
As an Air Force F-100 pilot, he flew 200 combat missions in Vietnam. Grabe
later was a test pilot for the A-7 and F- 111 at the Air Force Flight Test
Center and from 1976 to 1979, an exchange test pilot for the Harrier with the
Royal Air Force at Boscombe Down, United Kingdom. Grabe has logged more than
4,500 hours flying time in various aircraft.
Stephen S. Oswald, 40, will serve as Pilot. Selected as an astronaut in
June 1985, he was born in Seattle, Wash., but considers Bellingham, Wash., his
hometown. He will be making his first space flight.
Oswald graduated from Bellingham High School in 1969 and received a
bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering from the Naval Academy in 1973. He
was designated a naval aviator in September 1974 and flew the Corsair II aboard
the USS Midway in the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans from 1975 through 1977.
In 1978, Oswald attended the Naval Test Pilot School.
After leaving the Navy, he joined Westinghouse Electric Corp. as a test
pilot in developmental flight testing of various airborne weapons systems for
Westinghouse, including the F-16C and B-1B radars. Oswald remains active in
the U.S. Naval Reserve, currently assigned as Commanding Officer of the Naval
Space Command Reserve Unit, Dahlgren, Va. Oswald has logged more than 4,700
flying hours in 38 different aircraft.
Norman E. Thagard, M.D., 48, will serve as Payload Commander and Mission
Specialist 1, making his third space flight. Although born in Marianna, Fla.,
Thagard considers Jacksonville, Fla., his hometown and was selected as an
astronaut in 1978.
Thagard first flew as a mission specialist on STS-7 in 1983. He next flew
on STS-51B, the Spacelab-3 science mission in 1985. Thagard's third flight was
on STS-30 in 1989.
Thagard received a bachelor's degree and a master's degree in engineering
science from Florida State University in 1965 and 1966, respectively, and a
doctor of medicine degree from Texas Southwestern Medical School in 1977.
William F. Readdy, 39, will serve as Mission Specialist 2. Selected as an
astronaut in June 1987, Readdy was born in Quonset Point, R.I., but considers
McLean, Va., his hometown and will be making his first space flight.
Readdy graduated from McLean High School in 1970 and received a bachelor's
degree in aeronautical engineering from the Naval Academy in 1974. Readdy
joined NASA in 1986 as an aerospace engineer and instructor pilot at Ellington
Field, Houston. When he was selected as an astronaut, he was serving as Program
Manager for the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft.
David C. Hilmers, 41, Lt. Col., USMC, will serve as Mission Specialist 3.
Selected as an astronaut in 1980, Hilmers was born in Clinton, Iowa, but
considers DeWitt, Iowa, his hometown.
Hilmers first flew as a mission specialist on STS-51J in 1985. His next
flight was on STS-26 in 1988, the first flight to be flown after the Challenger
accident. His third flight was on STS-36 in 1990.
Hilmers received a bachelor's degree in mathematics from Cornell College
in 1972; a master's degree in electrical engineering from Cornell in 1977; and
a degree in electrical engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1978.
Roberta L. Bondar, 46, Ph.D., M.D., will serve as Payload Specialist 1.
Bondar was born in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, and joined the Canadian
Space Agency in 1984.
Bondar received a bachelor's degree in zoology and agriculture from the
University of Guelph in 1968; a master's degree in experimental pathology from
the University of Western Ontario in 1971; a doctorate in neurobiology from the
University of Toronto in 1974; and a doctor of medicine degree from McMaster
University in 1977. She was admitted as a Fellow of the Royal College of
Physicians and Surgeons of Canada in neurology in 1981.
Bondar is a neurologist and clinical and basic science researcher in the
nervous system and was appointed Assistant Professor of Medicine and Director
of the Multiple Sclerosis Clinic for the Hamilton-Wentworth Region at McMaster
University in 1982.
She was named chairperson of the Canadian Lifesciences Subcommittee for
Space Station Freedom in 1985. She is a civil aviation medical examiner and
member of the scientific staff at Sunnybrook Hospital where she is conducting
research into blood flow in the brain in stroke patients and in subjects in
microgravity on board NASA's KC-135.
Ulf Merbold, 50, will serve as Payload Specialist 2. Merbold was born in
Greiz, Germany, and will be making his second space flight for the European
Space Agency. Merbold first flew on STS-9, the Spacelab-1 flight, in 1983.
Merbold attended various schools in Greiz, Germany. From 1961-1968, he was
a student of physics at Stuttgart University and received a bachelor's degree
in 1968. In 1976, he received a doctorate in science from Stuttgart. Following
graduation, Merbold joined the Max-Planck Institute for Metals Research in
Stuttgart. In 1987, Merbold was appointed as Head of the DLR Astronaut Office.
STS-42 MISSION MANAGEMENT
NASA HEADQUARTERS, WASHINGTON, D.C.
Richard H. Truly - NASA Administrator
Office of Space Flight
Dr. William Lenoir Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight
Office of Space Science
Dr. Lennard A. Fisk Associate Administrator, Space Science and
Alphonso V. Diaz Deputy Associate Administrator, Space Science
Dr. Arnauld Nicogossian Director, Life Sciences Division
Dr. Ronald J. White Program Scientist
Robert C. Rhome Director, Microgravity Science and Applications
Dr. Robert Sokolowski Program Scientist (Microgravity)
Robert H. Benson Director, Flight Systems Division
Wayne R. Richie Program Manager
Office of Commercial Programs
John G. Mannix Assistant Administrator for Commercial Programs
Richard H. Ott Director, Commercial Development Division
Garland C. Misener Chief, Flight Requirements and Accommodations
Ana M. Villamil Program Manager, Centers for the Commercial
Development of Space
Office of Safety and Mission Quality
George A. Rodney Associate Administrator for the Office of Safety
and Mission Quality
Richard U. Perry Director Quality Assurance Division
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA.
Robert L. Crippen Director
Leonard S. Nicholson Director, Space Shuttle
Brewster H. Shaw Deputy Director, Space Shuttle (Operations)
Jay Honeycutt Director, Shuttle Management and Operations
Robert B. Sieck Launch Director
John C. "Chris" Fairey Discovery Flow Manager
John T. Conway Director, Payload Management and Operations
P. Thomas Breakfield Director, STS Payload Operations
Joanne H. Morgan Director, Payload Project Management
Glenn E. Snyder STS-42 Payload Manager
MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, ALA.
Thomas J. Lee Director
Dr. J. Wayne Littles Deputy Director
Harry G. Craft, Jr. Manager, Payload Projects Office
Robert O. McBrayer International Microgravity Laboratory-1
Dr. Robert S. Snyder Mission Scientist
Alexander A. McCool Manager, Shuttle Projects Office
Dr. George McDonough Director, Science and Engineering
James H. Ehl Director, Safety and Mission Assurance
James N. Strickland Acting Manager, Space Shuttle Main Engine
Victor Keith Henson Manager, Solid Rocket Motor Project
Cary H. Rutland Manager, Solid Rocket Booster Project
Gerald C. LadnerManager, External Tank Project
JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSTON, TEX.
Paul J. Weitz Deputy Director
Daniel Germany Manager, Orbiter and GFE Projects
Paul J. Weitz Acting Director, Flight Crew Operations
Eugene F. Kranz Director, Mission Operations
Henry O. Pohl Director, Engineering
Charles S. Harlan Director - Safety, Reliability and
STENNIS SPACE CENTER, BAY ST. LOUIS, MISS.
Roy S. Estess Director
Gerald W. Smith Deputy Director
J. Harry Guin Director, Propulsion Test Operations
AMES-DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH FACILITY, EDWARDS, CALIF.
Kenneth J. Szalai Director
T. G. AyersDeputy Director
James R. Phelps Chief, Shuttle Support Office
AMES RESEARCH CENTER, MOFFETT FIELD, CALIF.
Dr. Dale L. ComptonDirector
Victor L. PetersonDeputy Director
Dr. Steven A. HawleyAssociate Director
Dr. Joseph C. SharpDirector, Space Research
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, GREENBELT, MD.
Dr. John M. Klineberg Director
Clarke Prouty GAS Mission Manager
Larry Thomas Technical Liaison Officer