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File Name | File Size | Zip Size | Zip Type |

FLA-CENT | 193 | 110 | deflated |

FLA-INC | 193 | 76 | deflated |

FLA-POP | 193 | 85 | deflated |

FLAPAN | 2929 | 695 | deflated |

GNV | 3304 | 684 | deflated |

GNV-65 | 205 | 73 | deflated |

GNV-POP | 101 | 66 | deflated |

MANUAL.DOC | 42005 | 12370 | deflated |

MM1.EXE | 83968 | 38861 | deflated |

MM2.EXE | 82560 | 38463 | deflated |

OFF-YRS | 105 | 50 | deflated |

OFFICES | 2751 | 495 | deflated |

SCREEN1.BAS | 16512 | 1252 | deflated |

SCREEN2.BAS | 16392 | 1829 | deflated |

SCREEN3.BAS | 16512 | 1823 | deflated |

SCREEN4.BAS | 16512 | 1308 | deflated |

SCREEN5.BAS | 16512 | 2137 | deflated |

USA | 10641 | 2531 | deflated |

USA-CENT | 673 | 256 | deflated |

USA-MSA | 290 | 135 | deflated |

USA-SUN | 193 | 83 | deflated |

# Download File MAPMAKER.ZIP Here

## Contents of the MANUAL.DOC file

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From the author:

I am distributing MapMaker as user-supported software. Users are

encouraged to copy and distribute the program and data sets on the

following conditions:

1. The program and its data sets are not

altered in any way.

2. No fee is charged for the copying and/or

distribution of the same.

Among the advantages of the "user-supported" approach is the ability

of users to evaluate software without large and often risky financial

investments. Obviously, the creation and support of software requires

a substantial investment of time and effort. If you find MapMaker

useful, a user's fee/registration payment of $55 is requested.

Registered users will receive the following:

1. Any program and/or manual updates.

2. $25 for submission of new and useful polygon

data sets.

3. Any or all new data sets from the library

of data sets created by or received by

the author.

I've done my best to test the program and develop a clear

and useful manual. Please read it carefully.

I welcome notifications of any program "bugs", and will gladly

and promptly respond to all questions about the program and/or

data sets.

Please direct payments, questions, or comments to:

Paul R. Stayert

3141 GPA, Univ. of Fla.

Gainesville, Fla. 32611

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M a p M a k e r - USER'S MANUAL

(C)Copyright Stayert, 1985

***********************************************************************

INTRODUCTION

MapMaker produces two common forms of quantitative maps; CHOROPLETH

(Area Coloring) and GRADUATED CIRCLE, on an IBM/PC color monitor, and

if desired, in black and white on a matrix printer. Two versions

of the program are available, requiring the following configurations:

Version 2.1 (mm1.exe) Version 2.2 (mm2.exe)

- IBM/PC with 128K RAM - IBM/PC with 128K RAM

- 1 320K Disk Drive - 1 320K Disk Drive

- DOS 2.0 - DOS 2.0

- Color Monitor - Color Monitor

w/ adapter card w/ adapter card

- Matrix Printer (optional) - Monochrome Monitor

- Matrix Printer (optional)

Any set of statistical values may be displayed for corresponding

geographical areas. Map areas must be comprised of bounded units

such as states, counties, census tracts, or areas delineated by the

user. On any given map, only one variable is shown for each map unit.

Choropleth maps display statistical variables by using a sequence of

colors (maximum of 3). Circle maps represent data with proportionately-

sized circles. Proper usage of both map forms is discussed in detail

later in the manual. MapMaker can also save and later recall screen

images without going through the create process.

Directions and suggestions are provided on the screen throughout the

program and it is possible for users who have little or no experience in

mapping to produce maps. In order to produce statistically meaningful

and visually effective displays, however, users should read the manual

thoroughly prior to creating maps.

APPLICATIONS

Given the appropriate data sets, MapMaker has a great variety of

applications, including scientific research, governmental planning,

business and education. Researchers and planners often need to display

and identify spatial patterns relating to, for example, social, economic,

and environmental data. Business decisions often are based on similar

types of information, and additionally, business analysts can map levels

of activity and/or profit for specific territories. As an educational

tool, MapMaker can be used as an exercise in the creation of quantitative

maps. An understanding of the data sets can familiarize students with

some of the fundamental aspects of computer-assisted mapping. Although

the manual was written to facilitate use of the program, it also serves

as a brief tutorial for choropleth and graduated circle mapping.

If "hardcopy" is needed, maps can be printed in monochrome on matrix

printers, or slides may be taken directly from the color screen. Some

suggestions for slide-taking are offered in Appendix C.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

This manual is organized as follows:

PART 1. discusses CHOROPLETH and CIRCLE maps and the type of data

sets that are required as input.

PART 2. discusses the steps involved in the creation of a CHOROPLETH

map. This information is supplemental, for the most part, because

directions are displayed on the monochrome screen throughout the

creation process.

PART 3. contains a similar type of information for the creation of

GRADUATED CIRCLE maps.

APPENDIX A. describes the formats for all data sets that can be used

as input to MapMaker, and the procedure used to establish them.

APPENDIX B. lists the names and descriptions of sample data sets that

are provided with MapMaker in order to demonstrate the program.

APPENDIX C. contains comments and suggestions for the running of

MapMaker.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

PART 1. PROGRAM OVERVIEW

1-1 Locational Data

MapMaker combines locational and statistical information in order

to show the distributions of quantities of some variable, throughout a

selected study area. Locational data may represent any area that is

divided into sub-regions (polygons) such as the U.S. (by states), a

state (by counties), a city (by census tracts), or even the offices in

a floor plan. The sub-regions must be bounded or "closed", and there

may be no more than 65 of them. MapMaker uses vector-type polygon

data that must be digitized and entered into diskette data sets prior

to the creation of a map. (Appendix A. discribes the format of all

data sets.)

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1-2 Statistical Data

Each map unit (polygon) must have a corresponding statistical value.

These values comprise the Statistical data set. Because the polygons

represent map AREAS, corresponding statistical values must represent

ENTIRE polygons, not merely a point or points within. For example, the

population of an entire area (county or state), is an appropriate

statistic. The population of a selected city or cities within the

area, however, is NOT appropriate.

Statistical values must be QUANTITATIVE. Each value should

represent a quantity of some variable, such as the number of persons,

the number of bushels of corn, or the average income of residents.

Statistical data sets must contain numbers, not words. The dominant

ethnic group in an area, for example, is a QUALITATIVE variable and

therefore not appropriate. However, the total number or percentage

of persons who belong to a selected ethnic group, is a QUANTITATIVE

variable and would be appropriate.

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1-3 Raw and Derived Values

Quantitative data are either of two possible types, RAW or DERIVED,

and therefore MapMaker offers two types of map display; CHOROPLETH and

GRADUATED CIRCLE. Consider a situation where the Circle map is used

to display "Total Population" for a selected area. If the polygon data

set were a state (by counties), the total number of persons living in

each county would be represented by a proportionately-sized circle that

would be positioned in the center of each county. This type of data

display is appropriate.

Consider the same map area with unemployment statistics, where the

circles would represent the percentage of the persons who were unemployed.

Again, this is appropriate.

In the case of Choropleth maps, however, each entire polygon is

colored according to the quantity of a selected variable and therefore

the SIZE, in addition to the COLOR of the polygon, comprise the visual

message. One would expect a larger area to have more of any variable

(all other things being equal). Smaller areas would tend to have fewer

of a variable. Coloring polygons a "higher" or "lower" color because

they are of a particular size to begin with, is a redundancy, resulting

in a distorted visual message to the map reader.

The use of DERIVED values, such as "Persons Per Square Mile"

(statistic per area), eliminates the effect of the relative sizes of map

areas, and provides a truer representation of the distribution of a

variable throughout a study area.

To summarize, Choropleth maps usually require DERIVED values, while

Circle maps can show either type of data, although RAW values may be

preferred. MapMaker can perform the conversion for Choropleth maps if

the digitizing unit and scale of the original map are known. NOTE: If

statistical values are already derived, such as percentages, then they

should be treated as RAW values so that no further manipulation is done.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1-4 Center Points of Polygons

In order to color map areas and position circles, MapMaker includes

a function that calculates the center point (centroid) of each polygon.

Occasionally, the calculated centroids are unusable because the shapes

of some polygons cause the centroids to fall outside of the actual polygon

areas. Consider the state of Florida, for example. The center point of

the entire state would fall to the south of the panhandle and to the west

of the peninsula, and therefore outside of the actual state boundaries.

This results in errant coloring on Choropleth maps and misplaced circles

on Graduated Circle maps. The alternative is the usage of a separate

centroid data set. In addition to the correct coloring of map areas,

for Choropleth purposes, it allows the preferred positioning of circles

on Circle maps. (Appendix A. describes the exact format of all data sets.)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1-5 Map Size and Orientation

MapMaker scales all maps to fit the available screen space, regardless

of the size of the original map. Therefore, the more numerous the

polygons, the smaller they will appear on the screen, and vice-versa.

In order to maximize the size of maps on the color screen, two formats

are used; Horizontal and Square. If the polygon data set is much longer

in the horizontal dimension (the state of Tennessee, for example), the

horizontal format is used, otherwise a more "squared" format is chosen.

The decision is made internally and is not affected by the user-supplied

directives. In addition to the altered position of the legend, the only

difference between the two formats is the possibility of a longer legend

caption in the horizontal format.

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PART 2. CREATING CHOROPLETH MAPS

2-1 Starting MapMaker

If a matrix printer is to be used for printing maps, be sure to

initialize the graphics printing mode by typing "graphics" while in

DOS 2.0.

Insert the MapMaker diskette and type "mm1" for a 1-monitor

system, or "mm2" for a 2-monitor system.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-2 Polygon Data Set

Enter the name of the polygon data set to be used. Include the

diskette drive designation if the diskette is not in the default drive.

For example: b:flapan

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2-3 Number of Polygons

Enter the number of polygons in the polygon data set. This is

the number of areal units (states, counties, census tracts, for example).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-4 Origin of Digitizer

The origin of polygon data sets (in terms of X and Y coordinates),

may be either the upper left or lower left corner. If the origin

is in the lower left corner, an inversion of the Y coordinate is

performed by entering a "2".

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-5 Centroids

Center points (centroids) may be either calculated or entered as

a separate data set. (See section 1-4 for a complete explanation.)

Include drive designation if necessary.

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2-6 Statistical Data Set

Enter name of statistical data set and drive designation, if needed.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-7 Raw or Derived Statistical Values

Choropleth maps usually require DERIVED values in order to be

meaningful. If the statistical data set contains RAW (non-derived)

values, MapMaker can perform the conversion if the digitizing unit

and scale of the original map are known. (See section 1-3 for a

complete explanation.) If the conversion is desired, (d is entered),

then the following information is requested:

a. A choice of either "Statistic divided by Area" or "Area

divided by Statistic". Depending on the magnitude of statistical

values and the actual size of the polygons, either choice may be

practical. For example, in a sparcely-populated area, a map of

"Square Miles per Person" (Area/Statistic) may avoid the very small

numbers that would appear on a map of "Persons per Square Mile"

(Statistic/Area). For most purposes, "Statistic/Area" data is preferable.

b. The map scale. Enter the scale of the map that was used to

create the polygon data set.

c. The digitizing unit. Most digitizers use either "inches" or

"centimeters".

d. The map unit. This is the areal unit desired for the created

map. For example, in the case of census tracts, "Acres" or "Hectares"

may be more reasonable than "Sq. Miles" or "Sq. Kilometers".

After the information is entered and calculated, the minimum and

maximum derived values are shown. There is an option to respecify

some of the information, in the event the magnitude of these numbers is

not acceptable (usually because the numbers are too small). Obviously,

the map scale and digitizing unit (b. and c.) should not be altered.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-8 Legend Numbers

The physical length of numbers used in Choropleth legends is

limited to four spaces. If the maximum statistical value (whether

Derived or Raw) is 9999 or less, there is no problem. If the maximum

value were 23456, for example, a multiplication factor would be used.

In this case, a "10 X" factor would reduce the maximum value to 2345

which would then fit as a legend number. Any factor used to reduce

the magnitude of statistical values MUST be indicated in the map title

or legend caption.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-9 Number of Map Classes

Choropleth map classes are the categories into which the statistical

values are divided. Screen resolution and the number of colors available

limit the maximum number of classes to three. If selected properly,

three divisions of data can produce an effective display.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-10 Selection of classes

A Bar Graph on the color screen illustrates the values associated

with all polygons, arranged in ascending order. When selecting class

intervals, the following points should be considered:

a. The minimum of class 1 should be equal to or lower than the

minimum statistical value. The maximum of the highest class should

be equal to or higher than the maximum statistical value.

b. There should be no gaps between the maximum values of

classes and the minimum values of following classes.

c. Even or "rounded" numbers should be used for class minimums

and uneven or "extended" numbers used for class maximums.

Poorly selected legend values can by annoying and may complicate

the use of legend information when interpreting map content. In the

following example, the above mentioned rules are followed:

----------------------------

The minimum value is 6.4

The maximum value is 94.6

----------------------------

Class 1 min? 6.0 Class 1 max? 29.9

Class 2 min? 30.0 Class 2 max? 59.9

Class 3 min? 60.0 Class 3 max? 94.9

------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTE: Any values that fall outside of specified class ranges will

not be assigned a class and the corresponding polygons will

not be colored on the map. The non-coloring of areas that

have low values (or values of 0) may be preferable at times.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-11 Map Title and Legend Caption

The title usually describes the map area and the statistical

variable or "map theme". The title, along with an optional legend

caption, may include the following information:

1. Map Area

2. Description of Statistical Data

3. Type of Derived Values (if values are derived)

4. Date of Statistical Data

5. Data Factor (if any)

A legend caption may be used to provide additional information about

legend values. If a data factor is used, it should be indicated in the

legend caption, such as "(X 1000)". If no factor is used, the caption

may contain the date or perhaps the type of derived statistical values,

such as "1970-1980", or "1982 Data", or "Pers/Acre". The legend caption

in the square map format (see section 1-5) is limited to nine spaces,

but can be much longer in the horizontal format.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-12 Selection of Map Colors

Choropleth map classes can be represented by two sets of three

foreground colors. Only one set can be used on any map and therefore

up to three classes are possible. Either set or "palette" may be

used with any of eight background colors. Most map readers are

accustomed to the notion that "lighter means less" and "darker means

more". Because map classes correspond to a numerical progression, an

effective color scheme contains a visual progression of color.

Palette 1 usually offers a good progression of color with White, Cyan,

and Magenta used to color low, middle, and high classes, respectively.

Palette 0 colors can also be effective. NOTE: An effective color

scheme enables map readers to perceive the general distribution of

data without constant reference to the legend.

At first, it is probably a good idea to go through the viewing

routine to see how the colors look in various combinations. When

users become familiar with the colors, the viewing routine may be

unnecessary, and colors can be selected immediately.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

2-13 Class Color Selection

After selecting the palette and background colors, colors must

be chosen for the individual map classes. When prompted for the color

of each class, enter the number of the color (1, 2, or 3) from the

palette that has been chosen.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

2-14 Table of Data

Prior to the display of the map, a table of data is shown on the

monochrome screen. Values for all polygons, whether derived or raw,

are shown along with the classes into which they fall. The table may

be printed on the matrix printer by pressing the SHIFT and PRTSC keys

simultaneously. Pressing any other key produces the map.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-15 The Sub-Menu

After a map has been drawn on the color screen, it can be modified

by the usage of a sub-menu that is accessed by pressing any key. It is

unlikely that the first run of any map will be perfect and it is often

preferable to alter some aspects of the map. The options include:

1. Change of color scheme

2. Change of class intervals

3. Change title/caption

4. Save map to file on diskette

5. Return to main menu

6. Exit program

If a modification is needed that is not offered by the sub-menu, the

create process must be redone by returning to the main menu.

When the desired version of a map is produced, it can be recorded

in two ways:

1. It may be saved as a screen file to a diskette (Sub-Menu #4).

A filename must be specified, along with a drive designation,

if necessary. The file can later be recalled and the saved

map image can be displayed on the color screen without going

through the create process.

2. It may be printed on a matrix printer. This may be done by

pressing SHIFT and PRTSC immediately following the drawing of

the map on the color screen (before going to the sub-menu).

IMPORTANT: To print a map on the matrix printer, it is necessary

to initialize the graphics printing mode. This is

done by typing GRAPHICS while in DOS (before running

the program). GRAPHICS is the name of a file on the

DOS 2.0 disk. The file will be read but nothing visible

will happen. The program can then be run and images on

the color monitor can be printed on the matrix printer.

(The GRAPHICS command may be included in an AUTOEXEC.BAT

file.)

NOTE: For Choropleth maps, the matrix printer produces images only

in black and white. Choropleth classes may, however, be

represented by a progression of grey tones. The grey tones

correspond to particular colors used on the color screen,

but the colors that make an effective color progression do

not correspond to grey tones that are effective on matrix

printer maps. In order to produce an effective grey

tone progression on the printer, the colors of map classes

must be respecified (sub-menu #1). The choice of background

and palette is unimportant. However, the COLORS for map

classes 1, 2, and 3, must be 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

This produces a poor color progression on the color screen,

but produces an effective sequence on the matrix printer.

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PART 3. CREATING GRADUATED CIRCLE MAPS

3-1 Starting MapMaker (see section 2-1)

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3-2 Polygon Data Set (see section 2-2)

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3-3 Number of Polygons (see section 2-3)

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3-4 Origin of Digitizer (see section 2-4)

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3-5 Centroids (see section 2-5)

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3-6 Statistical Data Set (see section 2-6)

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3-7 Legend Circles

The legend on circle maps contains three circles that are used as

references for estimating the values of circles on the map. Legend

circles should range in size from a value at or near the minimum

statistical value, to a value at or near the maximum statistical value.

Values for legend circles should be even or "rounded".

For example:

-------------------------------------------

The minimum statistical value is 113

The maximum statistical value is 1464

Enter the value for the smallest circle 100

Enter the value for the middle circle 750

Enter the value for the largest circle 1500

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-8 Circle Size (diameter)

Circle size is often a matter of individual preference. Maps

with fewer polygons are able to have larger circles without the severe

overlapping that occurs on a map that has many (and therefore smaller)

polygons. The best strategy is to try a size and later modify it if

it is not appropriate. Overlapping may cause problems with some circles.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-9 Circle Calculation (square root vs. other)

The standard formula for calculating the area of circles involves

square roots. Research in visual perception indicates that map readers

tend to underestimate the area of large circles, relative to smaller

ones. Use of a 1.75 root is a common alternative to using the square

root. This has the effect of exaggerating the sizes of larger circles.

Because the maximum diameter has already been specified, the exaggeration

is accomplished by reducing the sizes of smaller circles. Obviously,

this decision is very subjective and the use of any root between 1.7

and 2.0 may be considered reasonable. Experimentation is recommended.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-10 Map Title and Legend Caption

The map title should describe the map area and the nature of the

statistical data. A legend caption may be used to describe further

the statistical values or perhaps to indicate the date. The legend

caption in the square format (see section 1-5) is limited to nine

spaces, but can be longer in the horizontal map format.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-11 Selection of Circle/Map Colors

Unlike the selection of color for choropleth maps, colors for circle

maps cannot be selected without going through the viewing routine.

As with choropleth maps, any of eight background colors may be selected,

but on circle maps, each of the two-color sets (palettes) is capable of

four color combinations. Users are urged to follow the directions on

the monochrome screen when selecting circle colors.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-12 Table of Data

A listing of polygons and associated values is shown on the

monochrome screen prior to the display of a map. The table may be

printed on the matrix printer by pressing the SHIFT and PRTSC keys

simultaneously. Pressing any other key produces the map.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-13 The Sub-Menu

The sub-menu can be used to modify some elements of the map. It can

be accessed by pressing any key after the map has been drawn. The map

modification options include:

1. Change color scheme

2. Change circle size

3. Change legend values

4. Change title/caption

5. Save map to file on diskette

6. Return to main menu

7. Exit program

If a modification is needed that is not offered by the sub-menu,

the create process must be redone by returning to the main menu. As

with Choropleth maps, circle maps may be saved as screen files or

printed on a matrix printer (see section 2-15).

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APPENDIX A. FORMAT AND CREATION OF DATA SETS

A-1 Format of Polygon Data Sets

All data sets required by MapMaker are comprised of a sequence of

data lines. The Polygon data set is by far the largest and most complex

because it contains the entire framework of the map. Polygon data sets

consist of points that form the boundaries of map areas, and are expressed

in terms of X and Y coordinates. The conversion of map points to two-

dimensional coordinates is called DIGITIZING. A reference point (origin)

is established for X and Y measurements and when the map is positioned

properly, each point can be referenced by a coordinate pair. The

digitizer origin may be in the upper left or lower left corner.

The measurement units usually are either inches or centimeters. A

digitizing instrument or even an underlay of graph paper can be used

to obtain coordinate measurements. The X coordinate measurement always

increases from left to right, but the Y coordinate is inverted from

one digitizer format to the other. MapMaker can use either orientation

by performing a conversion when necessary.

Boundaries of polygons that comprise maps are expressed by sequences of

coordinate pairs, where each pair represents a point along the boundary.

Points are determined by the person doing the digitizing and commonly are

located in places where the boundary changes direction, or are spaced

evenly in order to simulate a curved line. It is important to realize

that the computer draws only straight lines and the curvature of map

lines must be simulated by the use of small segments of straight lines.

The number of points used to represent map lines is the result of a

subjective decision, although to simulate curved lines, the use of

a large number of points will result in a more accurate line than one

that is simulated by only a few points.

The starting point in a polygon sequence may be selected arbitrarily

but the ending point must be identical to the starting point, so that

the polygon is closed. Therefore, the starting coordinate pair will

always be the same as the ending pair, and the number of coordinate

pairs for any polygon will be one more than the actual number of points

that have been defined for that polygon (because one pair is listed twice).

Each set of coordinate pairs that comprise a polygon must be preceeded

by a HEADER line of information that contains:

1. a 3-character (or number) polygon identifier

2. a separating COMMA

3. the number of coordinate pairs that comprise the polygon

The following is an example of a simple 2-polygon data set:

Bak , 5 The order of polygon coordinate SETS is

2.0 1.0 unimportant, as long as the same sequence is

4.0 1.0 used in the Statistical and Centroid (if any)

4.0 4.0 data sets. For counties, an alphabetical order

1.0 4.0 is useful, and a numerical order can be used

2.0 1.0 for units such as census tracts.

Mar , 7

4.5 3.0 Note that the header lines contain the polygon

6.5 3.0 identifier (Bak for Baker, Mar for Marion), a

6.5 4.5 comma, and the # of coordinate pairs that follow.

6.0 5.0

5.5 6.0 The first coordinate is the X coordinate and

4.0 5.0 the second is the Y coordinate. Note also that

4.5 3.0 the first coordinate pair is identical to the

last one, thus closing the polygon.

There is no limit to the number of coordinate pairs that comprise any

polygon, although there may be no more than 65 polygons. Neighboring

polygons (map areas) contain identical coordinates along common boundaries

because each polygon must be a separate, closed, coordinate set. Polygons

do not have to be connected to each other.

Although the creation of a polygon data set can be tedious, once it

is established, it can serve as a base map for an infinite number of

statistical displays, thus justifying the effort or expense.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

A-2 Format of Statistical Data Sets

Statistical data sets are comprised of a sequence of lines, each

containing a value that corresponds to a particular polygon. The order

of values MUST be identical to the order of polygons in the polygon data

set. If a map has 15 polygons (counties, etc.), then a statistical data

set for that map should contain 15 statistical values, in the appropriate

order. Of course, for each polygon data set, there may be an infinite

number of statistical data sets, although only one is used per map.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

A-3 Format of Centroid Data Sets

Section 1-4 discusses the need or preference for a separate centroid

data set (instead of having the program calculate the centroids). Centroid

data sets consist of X,Y coordinate pairs, one for each map unit, or

polygon. Aside from being located INSIDE the boundary of each polygon,

the location of centroids is a subjective decision made by the person who

does the digitizing. Choropleth maps require only that the centroids be

located within polygon boundaries, and the more important issue is that

of where circles would be best located. This could be in a particularly

"open" part of the polygon, although not necessarily in the middle. A

data set of such locations would be acceptable for Choropleth maps and

ideal for Circle maps.

Remember, for a 15 unit polygon data set, an appropriate Centroid

data set would contain 15 lines, each having 1 coordinate pair. Only

the polygon data set contains more lines than there are polygons.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

A-4 Creation of Data Sets

All data sets required by MapMaker are simply sequential lines of

either coordinate pairs or statistical values. Any line editor or word-

processing routine may be used to create and store such data sets. The

EDLIN line editor provided with IBM/DOS can be used to create and

modify data sets. A newly-created polygon data set would probably

require editing because it is difficult to digitize and key such a

large set of numbers without errors.

NOTE:

** Arrangements may be made with the program's author to create and

test customized polygon data sets.

** The author will pay $25.00 for the donation of any new and useful

polygon data set. (data set must be of potential interest to others)

** Registered users may receive, free of charge, copies of new data

sets existing in author's library.

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APPENDIX B. SAMPLE DATA SETS

The following is a list of sample data sets that are provided with

MapMaker for purposes of demonstration. Complete descriptions are

given so that each may be used properly. (Appendix A describes the

format of all data sets used with MapMaker.)

B-1 Sample Data Sets

Polygon Data Sets Descriptions

---------------- -------------------------------

flapan ------------ N.W. Florida (by counties, alphabetically)

- 16 polygons

- UPPER LEFT digitizer origin

- digitized in INCHES

- scale 1 : 950,000

**** - SEPARATE centroid file needed (fla-cent)

gnv ------------ Gainesville, Florida (by C.Tracts, numerically)

- 17 polygons

- UPPER LEFT digitizer origin

- digitized in INCHES

- scale 1 : 4,000

- NO separate centroid file needed (calculate)

offices ------------ Sample floor plan (by offices, numerically)

- 34 polygons

- LOWER LEFT digitizer origin

- scale and unit not needed

(derived values NOT needed-not geog.area)

usa ------------ Contiguous U.S. (by states, alphabetically)

- 48 polygons

- LOWER LEFT digitizer origin

- digitized in INCHES

- scale 1 : 10,000,000

**** - SEPARATE centroid file needed (usa-cent)

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Statistical Data Description

---------------- -------------------------------------------------

fla-pop (flapan) # of residents in each county in 1970 (raw)

fla-inc (flapan) per capita income (dollars) in 1975 (derived)

off-yrs (offices) # years of occupancy by present occupant

gnv-65 (gnv) % of residents 65 yrs and older in 1970 (derived)

gnv-pop (gnv) # of residents in 1970 (raw)

usa-sun (usa) Percent sunny days during an ave. year (derived)

usa-msa (usa) Percentage of Population Living in Urban Areas in

1980 (derived)

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Centroid Data Sets Corresponding Polygon Data

------------------ -----------------------------

fla-cent flapan

usa-cent usa

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

B-2 Screen Files

A few files of saved screen images are provided so that examples of

previously created maps may be seen. The screen files may be accessed

by going through routine #3 from the main menu. When prompted for the

name of a saved screen file, enter one of the following, with the

appropriate drive designation, if necessary:

Screen1 (Choropleth - Office Residency)

Screen2 (Circle - Gainesville Population)

Screen3 (Circle - N.W. Florida Population)

Screen4 (Choropleth - Gainesville Elderly)

Screen5 (Choropleth - U.S. Sunny Days)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

APPENDIX C. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS

MapMaker does not offer many opportunities for respecifying map

elements during the create process. Even with the best conceived plan

and careful specification, resulting maps usually require some

alteration that is not apparent until the map is produced. Users are

encouraged to continue the create process, even though a directive may

not have been specified perfectly. Most errors can be corrected by

using sub-menu modifications.

- Make a backup copy of the MapMaker diskette. The DISKCOPY function

provided with DOS can do this easily.

- MapMaker was written in BASIC and is presented in compiled form. In

addition to allowing the program to run faster, this protects the code.

- MapMaker and its sample data sets fill up much of one diskette.

Additional diskettes will be needed to store new data sets, including

saved screen files. Always make a backup copy of important data sets.

- To print maps on a matrix printer, it is necessary to initialize

GRAPHICS while in DOS (BEFORE running program). See section 2-15.

**Be sure to respecify color sequence when printing Choropleth maps.

- The program may be interrupted at any time by pressing the CTRL

and BREAK keys simultaneously.

- For EXTREMELY small-scale polygon data sets, such as the "usa" data

set, it may be preferable to enter pre-derived statistical values for

Choropleth mapping. The area calculating routine within MapMaker

will exaggerate digitizing imperfections, and thus yield imperfectly

derived statistics.

- If messages such as "Division by zero", or "Overflow" appear during

program execution, there is probably an error in one or more of the

data sets. Check the polygon data set for unclosed polygons and/or

incorrect number of coordinates specified in headers. Check other

data sets for proper number of data lines.

- For purposes of convenience, system files (from DOS) may be

added to the diskette containing MapMaker.

- Slides taken from the color monitor can be very effective for

presentation purposes. Camera lenses with relatively long focal

lengths (135mm or longer) tend to reduce the curvature of the

screen. Shutter speeds faster than 1/8 of a second should NOT

be used. The following is a reference exposure setting:

250mm lens, 200ISO film, f/8 at 1 second

Be sure to eliminate any room lighting in order to avoid reflection

by the screen. Always bracket exposures.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

***********************************************************************

From the author:

I am distributing MapMaker as user-supported software. Users are

encouraged to copy and distribute the program and data sets on the

following conditions:

1. The program and its data sets are not

altered in any way.

2. No fee is charged for the copying and/or

distribution of the same.

Among the advantages of the "user-supported" approach is the ability

of users to evaluate software without large and often risky financial

investments. Obviously, the creation and support of software requires

a substantial investment of time and effort. If you find MapMaker

useful, a user's fee/registration payment of $55 is requested.

Registered users will receive the following:

1. Any program and/or manual updates.

2. $25 for submission of new and useful polygon

data sets.

3. Any or all new data sets from the library

of data sets created by or received by

the author.

I've done my best to test the program and develop a clear

and useful manual. Please read it carefully.

I welcome notifications of any program "bugs", and will gladly

and promptly respond to all questions about the program and/or

data sets.

Please direct payments, questions, or comments to:

Paul R. Stayert

3141 GPA, Univ. of Fla.

Gainesville, Fla. 32611

************************************************************************

************************************************************************

***********************************************************************

M a p M a k e r - USER'S MANUAL

(C)Copyright Stayert, 1985

***********************************************************************

INTRODUCTION

MapMaker produces two common forms of quantitative maps; CHOROPLETH

(Area Coloring) and GRADUATED CIRCLE, on an IBM/PC color monitor, and

if desired, in black and white on a matrix printer. Two versions

of the program are available, requiring the following configurations:

Version 2.1 (mm1.exe) Version 2.2 (mm2.exe)

- IBM/PC with 128K RAM - IBM/PC with 128K RAM

- 1 320K Disk Drive - 1 320K Disk Drive

- DOS 2.0 - DOS 2.0

- Color Monitor - Color Monitor

w/ adapter card w/ adapter card

- Matrix Printer (optional) - Monochrome Monitor

- Matrix Printer (optional)

Any set of statistical values may be displayed for corresponding

geographical areas. Map areas must be comprised of bounded units

such as states, counties, census tracts, or areas delineated by the

user. On any given map, only one variable is shown for each map unit.

Choropleth maps display statistical variables by using a sequence of

colors (maximum of 3). Circle maps represent data with proportionately-

sized circles. Proper usage of both map forms is discussed in detail

later in the manual. MapMaker can also save and later recall screen

images without going through the create process.

Directions and suggestions are provided on the screen throughout the

program and it is possible for users who have little or no experience in

mapping to produce maps. In order to produce statistically meaningful

and visually effective displays, however, users should read the manual

thoroughly prior to creating maps.

APPLICATIONS

Given the appropriate data sets, MapMaker has a great variety of

applications, including scientific research, governmental planning,

business and education. Researchers and planners often need to display

and identify spatial patterns relating to, for example, social, economic,

and environmental data. Business decisions often are based on similar

types of information, and additionally, business analysts can map levels

of activity and/or profit for specific territories. As an educational

tool, MapMaker can be used as an exercise in the creation of quantitative

maps. An understanding of the data sets can familiarize students with

some of the fundamental aspects of computer-assisted mapping. Although

the manual was written to facilitate use of the program, it also serves

as a brief tutorial for choropleth and graduated circle mapping.

If "hardcopy" is needed, maps can be printed in monochrome on matrix

printers, or slides may be taken directly from the color screen. Some

suggestions for slide-taking are offered in Appendix C.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

This manual is organized as follows:

PART 1. discusses CHOROPLETH and CIRCLE maps and the type of data

sets that are required as input.

PART 2. discusses the steps involved in the creation of a CHOROPLETH

map. This information is supplemental, for the most part, because

directions are displayed on the monochrome screen throughout the

creation process.

PART 3. contains a similar type of information for the creation of

GRADUATED CIRCLE maps.

APPENDIX A. describes the formats for all data sets that can be used

as input to MapMaker, and the procedure used to establish them.

APPENDIX B. lists the names and descriptions of sample data sets that

are provided with MapMaker in order to demonstrate the program.

APPENDIX C. contains comments and suggestions for the running of

MapMaker.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

PART 1. PROGRAM OVERVIEW

1-1 Locational Data

MapMaker combines locational and statistical information in order

to show the distributions of quantities of some variable, throughout a

selected study area. Locational data may represent any area that is

divided into sub-regions (polygons) such as the U.S. (by states), a

state (by counties), a city (by census tracts), or even the offices in

a floor plan. The sub-regions must be bounded or "closed", and there

may be no more than 65 of them. MapMaker uses vector-type polygon

data that must be digitized and entered into diskette data sets prior

to the creation of a map. (Appendix A. discribes the format of all

data sets.)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1-2 Statistical Data

Each map unit (polygon) must have a corresponding statistical value.

These values comprise the Statistical data set. Because the polygons

represent map AREAS, corresponding statistical values must represent

ENTIRE polygons, not merely a point or points within. For example, the

population of an entire area (county or state), is an appropriate

statistic. The population of a selected city or cities within the

area, however, is NOT appropriate.

Statistical values must be QUANTITATIVE. Each value should

represent a quantity of some variable, such as the number of persons,

the number of bushels of corn, or the average income of residents.

Statistical data sets must contain numbers, not words. The dominant

ethnic group in an area, for example, is a QUALITATIVE variable and

therefore not appropriate. However, the total number or percentage

of persons who belong to a selected ethnic group, is a QUANTITATIVE

variable and would be appropriate.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1-3 Raw and Derived Values

Quantitative data are either of two possible types, RAW or DERIVED,

and therefore MapMaker offers two types of map display; CHOROPLETH and

GRADUATED CIRCLE. Consider a situation where the Circle map is used

to display "Total Population" for a selected area. If the polygon data

set were a state (by counties), the total number of persons living in

each county would be represented by a proportionately-sized circle that

would be positioned in the center of each county. This type of data

display is appropriate.

Consider the same map area with unemployment statistics, where the

circles would represent the percentage of the persons who were unemployed.

Again, this is appropriate.

In the case of Choropleth maps, however, each entire polygon is

colored according to the quantity of a selected variable and therefore

the SIZE, in addition to the COLOR of the polygon, comprise the visual

message. One would expect a larger area to have more of any variable

(all other things being equal). Smaller areas would tend to have fewer

of a variable. Coloring polygons a "higher" or "lower" color because

they are of a particular size to begin with, is a redundancy, resulting

in a distorted visual message to the map reader.

The use of DERIVED values, such as "Persons Per Square Mile"

(statistic per area), eliminates the effect of the relative sizes of map

areas, and provides a truer representation of the distribution of a

variable throughout a study area.

To summarize, Choropleth maps usually require DERIVED values, while

Circle maps can show either type of data, although RAW values may be

preferred. MapMaker can perform the conversion for Choropleth maps if

the digitizing unit and scale of the original map are known. NOTE: If

statistical values are already derived, such as percentages, then they

should be treated as RAW values so that no further manipulation is done.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1-4 Center Points of Polygons

In order to color map areas and position circles, MapMaker includes

a function that calculates the center point (centroid) of each polygon.

Occasionally, the calculated centroids are unusable because the shapes

of some polygons cause the centroids to fall outside of the actual polygon

areas. Consider the state of Florida, for example. The center point of

the entire state would fall to the south of the panhandle and to the west

of the peninsula, and therefore outside of the actual state boundaries.

This results in errant coloring on Choropleth maps and misplaced circles

on Graduated Circle maps. The alternative is the usage of a separate

centroid data set. In addition to the correct coloring of map areas,

for Choropleth purposes, it allows the preferred positioning of circles

on Circle maps. (Appendix A. describes the exact format of all data sets.)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1-5 Map Size and Orientation

MapMaker scales all maps to fit the available screen space, regardless

of the size of the original map. Therefore, the more numerous the

polygons, the smaller they will appear on the screen, and vice-versa.

In order to maximize the size of maps on the color screen, two formats

are used; Horizontal and Square. If the polygon data set is much longer

in the horizontal dimension (the state of Tennessee, for example), the

horizontal format is used, otherwise a more "squared" format is chosen.

The decision is made internally and is not affected by the user-supplied

directives. In addition to the altered position of the legend, the only

difference between the two formats is the possibility of a longer legend

caption in the horizontal format.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

PART 2. CREATING CHOROPLETH MAPS

2-1 Starting MapMaker

If a matrix printer is to be used for printing maps, be sure to

initialize the graphics printing mode by typing "graphics" while in

DOS 2.0.

Insert the MapMaker diskette and type "mm1" for a 1-monitor

system, or "mm2" for a 2-monitor system.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-2 Polygon Data Set

Enter the name of the polygon data set to be used. Include the

diskette drive designation if the diskette is not in the default drive.

For example: b:flapan

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-3 Number of Polygons

Enter the number of polygons in the polygon data set. This is

the number of areal units (states, counties, census tracts, for example).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-4 Origin of Digitizer

The origin of polygon data sets (in terms of X and Y coordinates),

may be either the upper left or lower left corner. If the origin

is in the lower left corner, an inversion of the Y coordinate is

performed by entering a "2".

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-5 Centroids

Center points (centroids) may be either calculated or entered as

a separate data set. (See section 1-4 for a complete explanation.)

Include drive designation if necessary.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-6 Statistical Data Set

Enter name of statistical data set and drive designation, if needed.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-7 Raw or Derived Statistical Values

Choropleth maps usually require DERIVED values in order to be

meaningful. If the statistical data set contains RAW (non-derived)

values, MapMaker can perform the conversion if the digitizing unit

and scale of the original map are known. (See section 1-3 for a

complete explanation.) If the conversion is desired, (d is entered),

then the following information is requested:

a. A choice of either "Statistic divided by Area" or "Area

divided by Statistic". Depending on the magnitude of statistical

values and the actual size of the polygons, either choice may be

practical. For example, in a sparcely-populated area, a map of

"Square Miles per Person" (Area/Statistic) may avoid the very small

numbers that would appear on a map of "Persons per Square Mile"

(Statistic/Area). For most purposes, "Statistic/Area" data is preferable.

b. The map scale. Enter the scale of the map that was used to

create the polygon data set.

c. The digitizing unit. Most digitizers use either "inches" or

"centimeters".

d. The map unit. This is the areal unit desired for the created

map. For example, in the case of census tracts, "Acres" or "Hectares"

may be more reasonable than "Sq. Miles" or "Sq. Kilometers".

After the information is entered and calculated, the minimum and

maximum derived values are shown. There is an option to respecify

some of the information, in the event the magnitude of these numbers is

not acceptable (usually because the numbers are too small). Obviously,

the map scale and digitizing unit (b. and c.) should not be altered.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-8 Legend Numbers

The physical length of numbers used in Choropleth legends is

limited to four spaces. If the maximum statistical value (whether

Derived or Raw) is 9999 or less, there is no problem. If the maximum

value were 23456, for example, a multiplication factor would be used.

In this case, a "10 X" factor would reduce the maximum value to 2345

which would then fit as a legend number. Any factor used to reduce

the magnitude of statistical values MUST be indicated in the map title

or legend caption.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-9 Number of Map Classes

Choropleth map classes are the categories into which the statistical

values are divided. Screen resolution and the number of colors available

limit the maximum number of classes to three. If selected properly,

three divisions of data can produce an effective display.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-10 Selection of classes

A Bar Graph on the color screen illustrates the values associated

with all polygons, arranged in ascending order. When selecting class

intervals, the following points should be considered:

a. The minimum of class 1 should be equal to or lower than the

minimum statistical value. The maximum of the highest class should

be equal to or higher than the maximum statistical value.

b. There should be no gaps between the maximum values of

classes and the minimum values of following classes.

c. Even or "rounded" numbers should be used for class minimums

and uneven or "extended" numbers used for class maximums.

Poorly selected legend values can by annoying and may complicate

the use of legend information when interpreting map content. In the

following example, the above mentioned rules are followed:

----------------------------

The minimum value is 6.4

The maximum value is 94.6

----------------------------

Class 1 min? 6.0 Class 1 max? 29.9

Class 2 min? 30.0 Class 2 max? 59.9

Class 3 min? 60.0 Class 3 max? 94.9

------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTE: Any values that fall outside of specified class ranges will

not be assigned a class and the corresponding polygons will

not be colored on the map. The non-coloring of areas that

have low values (or values of 0) may be preferable at times.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-11 Map Title and Legend Caption

The title usually describes the map area and the statistical

variable or "map theme". The title, along with an optional legend

caption, may include the following information:

1. Map Area

2. Description of Statistical Data

3. Type of Derived Values (if values are derived)

4. Date of Statistical Data

5. Data Factor (if any)

A legend caption may be used to provide additional information about

legend values. If a data factor is used, it should be indicated in the

legend caption, such as "(X 1000)". If no factor is used, the caption

may contain the date or perhaps the type of derived statistical values,

such as "1970-1980", or "1982 Data", or "Pers/Acre". The legend caption

in the square map format (see section 1-5) is limited to nine spaces,

but can be much longer in the horizontal format.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-12 Selection of Map Colors

Choropleth map classes can be represented by two sets of three

foreground colors. Only one set can be used on any map and therefore

up to three classes are possible. Either set or "palette" may be

used with any of eight background colors. Most map readers are

accustomed to the notion that "lighter means less" and "darker means

more". Because map classes correspond to a numerical progression, an

effective color scheme contains a visual progression of color.

Palette 1 usually offers a good progression of color with White, Cyan,

and Magenta used to color low, middle, and high classes, respectively.

Palette 0 colors can also be effective. NOTE: An effective color

scheme enables map readers to perceive the general distribution of

data without constant reference to the legend.

At first, it is probably a good idea to go through the viewing

routine to see how the colors look in various combinations. When

users become familiar with the colors, the viewing routine may be

unnecessary, and colors can be selected immediately.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

2-13 Class Color Selection

After selecting the palette and background colors, colors must

be chosen for the individual map classes. When prompted for the color

of each class, enter the number of the color (1, 2, or 3) from the

palette that has been chosen.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

2-14 Table of Data

Prior to the display of the map, a table of data is shown on the

monochrome screen. Values for all polygons, whether derived or raw,

are shown along with the classes into which they fall. The table may

be printed on the matrix printer by pressing the SHIFT and PRTSC keys

simultaneously. Pressing any other key produces the map.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

2-15 The Sub-Menu

After a map has been drawn on the color screen, it can be modified

by the usage of a sub-menu that is accessed by pressing any key. It is

unlikely that the first run of any map will be perfect and it is often

preferable to alter some aspects of the map. The options include:

1. Change of color scheme

2. Change of class intervals

3. Change title/caption

4. Save map to file on diskette

5. Return to main menu

6. Exit program

If a modification is needed that is not offered by the sub-menu, the

create process must be redone by returning to the main menu.

When the desired version of a map is produced, it can be recorded

in two ways:

1. It may be saved as a screen file to a diskette (Sub-Menu #4).

A filename must be specified, along with a drive designation,

if necessary. The file can later be recalled and the saved

map image can be displayed on the color screen without going

through the create process.

2. It may be printed on a matrix printer. This may be done by

pressing SHIFT and PRTSC immediately following the drawing of

the map on the color screen (before going to the sub-menu).

IMPORTANT: To print a map on the matrix printer, it is necessary

to initialize the graphics printing mode. This is

done by typing GRAPHICS while in DOS (before running

the program). GRAPHICS is the name of a file on the

DOS 2.0 disk. The file will be read but nothing visible

will happen. The program can then be run and images on

the color monitor can be printed on the matrix printer.

(The GRAPHICS command may be included in an AUTOEXEC.BAT

file.)

NOTE: For Choropleth maps, the matrix printer produces images only

in black and white. Choropleth classes may, however, be

represented by a progression of grey tones. The grey tones

correspond to particular colors used on the color screen,

but the colors that make an effective color progression do

not correspond to grey tones that are effective on matrix

printer maps. In order to produce an effective grey

tone progression on the printer, the colors of map classes

must be respecified (sub-menu #1). The choice of background

and palette is unimportant. However, the COLORS for map

classes 1, 2, and 3, must be 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

This produces a poor color progression on the color screen,

but produces an effective sequence on the matrix printer.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

PART 3. CREATING GRADUATED CIRCLE MAPS

3-1 Starting MapMaker (see section 2-1)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

3-2 Polygon Data Set (see section 2-2)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

3-3 Number of Polygons (see section 2-3)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

3-4 Origin of Digitizer (see section 2-4)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

3-5 Centroids (see section 2-5)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

3-6 Statistical Data Set (see section 2-6)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

3-7 Legend Circles

The legend on circle maps contains three circles that are used as

references for estimating the values of circles on the map. Legend

circles should range in size from a value at or near the minimum

statistical value, to a value at or near the maximum statistical value.

Values for legend circles should be even or "rounded".

For example:

-------------------------------------------

The minimum statistical value is 113

The maximum statistical value is 1464

Enter the value for the smallest circle 100

Enter the value for the middle circle 750

Enter the value for the largest circle 1500

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-8 Circle Size (diameter)

Circle size is often a matter of individual preference. Maps

with fewer polygons are able to have larger circles without the severe

overlapping that occurs on a map that has many (and therefore smaller)

polygons. The best strategy is to try a size and later modify it if

it is not appropriate. Overlapping may cause problems with some circles.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-9 Circle Calculation (square root vs. other)

The standard formula for calculating the area of circles involves

square roots. Research in visual perception indicates that map readers

tend to underestimate the area of large circles, relative to smaller

ones. Use of a 1.75 root is a common alternative to using the square

root. This has the effect of exaggerating the sizes of larger circles.

Because the maximum diameter has already been specified, the exaggeration

is accomplished by reducing the sizes of smaller circles. Obviously,

this decision is very subjective and the use of any root between 1.7

and 2.0 may be considered reasonable. Experimentation is recommended.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-10 Map Title and Legend Caption

The map title should describe the map area and the nature of the

statistical data. A legend caption may be used to describe further

the statistical values or perhaps to indicate the date. The legend

caption in the square format (see section 1-5) is limited to nine

spaces, but can be longer in the horizontal map format.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-11 Selection of Circle/Map Colors

Unlike the selection of color for choropleth maps, colors for circle

maps cannot be selected without going through the viewing routine.

As with choropleth maps, any of eight background colors may be selected,

but on circle maps, each of the two-color sets (palettes) is capable of

four color combinations. Users are urged to follow the directions on

the monochrome screen when selecting circle colors.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-12 Table of Data

A listing of polygons and associated values is shown on the

monochrome screen prior to the display of a map. The table may be

printed on the matrix printer by pressing the SHIFT and PRTSC keys

simultaneously. Pressing any other key produces the map.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3-13 The Sub-Menu

The sub-menu can be used to modify some elements of the map. It can

be accessed by pressing any key after the map has been drawn. The map

modification options include:

1. Change color scheme

2. Change circle size

3. Change legend values

4. Change title/caption

5. Save map to file on diskette

6. Return to main menu

7. Exit program

If a modification is needed that is not offered by the sub-menu,

the create process must be redone by returning to the main menu. As

with Choropleth maps, circle maps may be saved as screen files or

printed on a matrix printer (see section 2-15).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

APPENDIX A. FORMAT AND CREATION OF DATA SETS

A-1 Format of Polygon Data Sets

All data sets required by MapMaker are comprised of a sequence of

data lines. The Polygon data set is by far the largest and most complex

because it contains the entire framework of the map. Polygon data sets

consist of points that form the boundaries of map areas, and are expressed

in terms of X and Y coordinates. The conversion of map points to two-

dimensional coordinates is called DIGITIZING. A reference point (origin)

is established for X and Y measurements and when the map is positioned

properly, each point can be referenced by a coordinate pair. The

digitizer origin may be in the upper left or lower left corner.

The measurement units usually are either inches or centimeters. A

digitizing instrument or even an underlay of graph paper can be used

to obtain coordinate measurements. The X coordinate measurement always

increases from left to right, but the Y coordinate is inverted from

one digitizer format to the other. MapMaker can use either orientation

by performing a conversion when necessary.

Boundaries of polygons that comprise maps are expressed by sequences of

coordinate pairs, where each pair represents a point along the boundary.

Points are determined by the person doing the digitizing and commonly are

located in places where the boundary changes direction, or are spaced

evenly in order to simulate a curved line. It is important to realize

that the computer draws only straight lines and the curvature of map

lines must be simulated by the use of small segments of straight lines.

The number of points used to represent map lines is the result of a

subjective decision, although to simulate curved lines, the use of

a large number of points will result in a more accurate line than one

that is simulated by only a few points.

The starting point in a polygon sequence may be selected arbitrarily

but the ending point must be identical to the starting point, so that

the polygon is closed. Therefore, the starting coordinate pair will

always be the same as the ending pair, and the number of coordinate

pairs for any polygon will be one more than the actual number of points

that have been defined for that polygon (because one pair is listed twice).

Each set of coordinate pairs that comprise a polygon must be preceeded

by a HEADER line of information that contains:

1. a 3-character (or number) polygon identifier

2. a separating COMMA

3. the number of coordinate pairs that comprise the polygon

The following is an example of a simple 2-polygon data set:

Bak , 5 The order of polygon coordinate SETS is

2.0 1.0 unimportant, as long as the same sequence is

4.0 1.0 used in the Statistical and Centroid (if any)

4.0 4.0 data sets. For counties, an alphabetical order

1.0 4.0 is useful, and a numerical order can be used

2.0 1.0 for units such as census tracts.

Mar , 7

4.5 3.0 Note that the header lines contain the polygon

6.5 3.0 identifier (Bak for Baker, Mar for Marion), a

6.5 4.5 comma, and the # of coordinate pairs that follow.

6.0 5.0

5.5 6.0 The first coordinate is the X coordinate and

4.0 5.0 the second is the Y coordinate. Note also that

4.5 3.0 the first coordinate pair is identical to the

last one, thus closing the polygon.

There is no limit to the number of coordinate pairs that comprise any

polygon, although there may be no more than 65 polygons. Neighboring

polygons (map areas) contain identical coordinates along common boundaries

because each polygon must be a separate, closed, coordinate set. Polygons

do not have to be connected to each other.

Although the creation of a polygon data set can be tedious, once it

is established, it can serve as a base map for an infinite number of

statistical displays, thus justifying the effort or expense.

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A-2 Format of Statistical Data Sets

Statistical data sets are comprised of a sequence of lines, each

containing a value that corresponds to a particular polygon. The order

of values MUST be identical to the order of polygons in the polygon data

set. If a map has 15 polygons (counties, etc.), then a statistical data

set for that map should contain 15 statistical values, in the appropriate

order. Of course, for each polygon data set, there may be an infinite

number of statistical data sets, although only one is used per map.

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A-3 Format of Centroid Data Sets

Section 1-4 discusses the need or preference for a separate centroid

data set (instead of having the program calculate the centroids). Centroid

data sets consist of X,Y coordinate pairs, one for each map unit, or

polygon. Aside from being located INSIDE the boundary of each polygon,

the location of centroids is a subjective decision made by the person who

does the digitizing. Choropleth maps require only that the centroids be

located within polygon boundaries, and the more important issue is that

of where circles would be best located. This could be in a particularly

"open" part of the polygon, although not necessarily in the middle. A

data set of such locations would be acceptable for Choropleth maps and

ideal for Circle maps.

Remember, for a 15 unit polygon data set, an appropriate Centroid

data set would contain 15 lines, each having 1 coordinate pair. Only

the polygon data set contains more lines than there are polygons.

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A-4 Creation of Data Sets

All data sets required by MapMaker are simply sequential lines of

either coordinate pairs or statistical values. Any line editor or word-

processing routine may be used to create and store such data sets. The

EDLIN line editor provided with IBM/DOS can be used to create and

modify data sets. A newly-created polygon data set would probably

require editing because it is difficult to digitize and key such a

large set of numbers without errors.

NOTE:

** Arrangements may be made with the program's author to create and

test customized polygon data sets.

** The author will pay $25.00 for the donation of any new and useful

polygon data set. (data set must be of potential interest to others)

** Registered users may receive, free of charge, copies of new data

sets existing in author's library.

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APPENDIX B. SAMPLE DATA SETS

The following is a list of sample data sets that are provided with

MapMaker for purposes of demonstration. Complete descriptions are

given so that each may be used properly. (Appendix A describes the

format of all data sets used with MapMaker.)

B-1 Sample Data Sets

Polygon Data Sets Descriptions

---------------- -------------------------------

flapan ------------ N.W. Florida (by counties, alphabetically)

- 16 polygons

- UPPER LEFT digitizer origin

- digitized in INCHES

- scale 1 : 950,000

**** - SEPARATE centroid file needed (fla-cent)

gnv ------------ Gainesville, Florida (by C.Tracts, numerically)

- 17 polygons

- UPPER LEFT digitizer origin

- digitized in INCHES

- scale 1 : 4,000

- NO separate centroid file needed (calculate)

offices ------------ Sample floor plan (by offices, numerically)

- 34 polygons

- LOWER LEFT digitizer origin

- scale and unit not needed

(derived values NOT needed-not geog.area)

usa ------------ Contiguous U.S. (by states, alphabetically)

- 48 polygons

- LOWER LEFT digitizer origin

- digitized in INCHES

- scale 1 : 10,000,000

**** - SEPARATE centroid file needed (usa-cent)

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Statistical Data Description

---------------- -------------------------------------------------

fla-pop (flapan) # of residents in each county in 1970 (raw)

fla-inc (flapan) per capita income (dollars) in 1975 (derived)

off-yrs (offices) # years of occupancy by present occupant

gnv-65 (gnv) % of residents 65 yrs and older in 1970 (derived)

gnv-pop (gnv) # of residents in 1970 (raw)

usa-sun (usa) Percent sunny days during an ave. year (derived)

usa-msa (usa) Percentage of Population Living in Urban Areas in

1980 (derived)

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Centroid Data Sets Corresponding Polygon Data

------------------ -----------------------------

fla-cent flapan

usa-cent usa

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B-2 Screen Files

A few files of saved screen images are provided so that examples of

previously created maps may be seen. The screen files may be accessed

by going through routine #3 from the main menu. When prompted for the

name of a saved screen file, enter one of the following, with the

appropriate drive designation, if necessary:

Screen1 (Choropleth - Office Residency)

Screen2 (Circle - Gainesville Population)

Screen3 (Circle - N.W. Florida Population)

Screen4 (Choropleth - Gainesville Elderly)

Screen5 (Choropleth - U.S. Sunny Days)

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APPENDIX C. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS

MapMaker does not offer many opportunities for respecifying map

elements during the create process. Even with the best conceived plan

and careful specification, resulting maps usually require some

alteration that is not apparent until the map is produced. Users are

encouraged to continue the create process, even though a directive may

not have been specified perfectly. Most errors can be corrected by

using sub-menu modifications.

- Make a backup copy of the MapMaker diskette. The DISKCOPY function

provided with DOS can do this easily.

- MapMaker was written in BASIC and is presented in compiled form. In

addition to allowing the program to run faster, this protects the code.

- MapMaker and its sample data sets fill up much of one diskette.

Additional diskettes will be needed to store new data sets, including

saved screen files. Always make a backup copy of important data sets.

- To print maps on a matrix printer, it is necessary to initialize

GRAPHICS while in DOS (BEFORE running program). See section 2-15.

**Be sure to respecify color sequence when printing Choropleth maps.

- The program may be interrupted at any time by pressing the CTRL

and BREAK keys simultaneously.

- For EXTREMELY small-scale polygon data sets, such as the "usa" data

set, it may be preferable to enter pre-derived statistical values for

Choropleth mapping. The area calculating routine within MapMaker

will exaggerate digitizing imperfections, and thus yield imperfectly

derived statistics.

- If messages such as "Division by zero", or "Overflow" appear during

program execution, there is probably an error in one or more of the

data sets. Check the polygon data set for unclosed polygons and/or

incorrect number of coordinates specified in headers. Check other

data sets for proper number of data lines.

- For purposes of convenience, system files (from DOS) may be

added to the diskette containing MapMaker.

- Slides taken from the color monitor can be very effective for

presentation purposes. Camera lenses with relatively long focal

lengths (135mm or longer) tend to reduce the curvature of the

screen. Shutter speeds faster than 1/8 of a second should NOT

be used. The following is a reference exposure setting:

250mm lens, 200ISO film, f/8 at 1 second

Be sure to eliminate any room lighting in order to avoid reflection

by the screen. Always bracket exposures.

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December 31, 2017
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