# Category : Science and Education

Archive : LSCAL100.ZIP

Filename : LSRGCALC.DOC

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³ÎÎ³ LS-1.00 Plus ³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³ Scientific Calculator ³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³ ³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³ PROGRAM REFERENCE ³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³ MANUAL ³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³ ³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³ Written and Developed ³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³ by ³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³ Lawrence Stone ³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³ ³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³Copyright 1990, LSRGroup.³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³ Lawrence Stone Research ³ÎÎ³

³ÎÎ³ Group ³ÎÎ³

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³

³

³

³ Published by

³

³ LSRGroup

³ P.O. Box 5715

³ Charleston, Oregon 79420

³ U.S.A.

³

³ Telephone: (503) 888-9716

³

³ Electronic Messages:

³ The Marshfield Exchange BBS 152/18

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³ Latest Program Updates:

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Copyright (C) 1990 by Lawrence Stone Research Group

All Rights Reserved

Published in the United States of America

Acknowledgement

Appreciation is extended to Dave Cleary, whose request for a TSR

calculator, motivated this author into many days and sleepless

nights, in the mad pursuit of the world's best, TSR, full function,

scientific calculator for IBM and compatible computer systems.

Further acknowledgement is extended to Bob Fetherson and Jim Copley

for their ideas, suggestions, and assistance in the development of

the LS-1.00 Plus, Scientific Calculator.

LS-1.00 Plus Copyright ii

COPYRIGHT NOTICE

LSRGCALC.EXE (c) Copyright

Lawrence Stone Research Group

1990

All Rights Reserved

PROGRAM REFERENCE MANUAL (c) Copyright

Lawrence Stone Research Group

1990

All Rights Reserved

MOUSE.COM (c) Copyright

Microsoft Corporation

1989, 1988, 1987

All Rights Reserved

No parts of LS-1.00 Plus or this document may be copied in part or

in whole, except as provided in the License in the following pages.

Disclaimer

LSRGroup makes no warranty of any kind, either express or implied,

including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability

and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to this software

and accompanying documentation.

IN NO EVENT SHALL LSRGroup BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES (INCLUDING

DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF

BUSINESS INFORMATION, OR OTHER PECUNIARY LOSS) ARISING OUT OF THE

USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THIS PROGRAM, EVEN IF LSRGroup HAS BEEN

ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

Author's Note Concerning Software Piracy

Piracy - The word conjures romantic images of Errol Flynn and swash-

buckling buccaneers. Here is another image to consider: an indepen-

ent, self-employed programmer who performs seven weeks, night and day,

laborious effort in the endeavor to produce the best program of it's

ilk. This man's time is not reimbursed through a company's vacation

pay. Time spent programming, for this man, is income lost. Further,

this programmer resides in one of America's poorest districts - Donald

Trump or Bill Gates, he is not. Do you want to know what this author

thinks of software pirates? He feels that only the scum of the Earth

would steal seven weeks of someone's time without any consideration or

thought of payment due. Shareware products are free to evaluate, not

to steal.

LS-1.00 Plus License iii

LICENSE/REGISTRATION INFORMATION

LSRGCALC.EXE is Copyright (c) 1990 by Lawrence Stone Research Group.

LSRGCALC is not, nor has ever been, public domain or free software.

The commercial, registered version of LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator

may not be duplicated other than for backup purposes. A registered copy

of LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator must be treated like a book, in

that the same registered copy of LSRGCALC may not be used in more

than one computer at the same time, just as a book can not be handled

and read by more than one person at the same time.

Users are granted a limited license to use the Shareware Edition, of

LSRGCALC for a limited evaluation period of up to 30 days, in order

to determine if it suits their needs. Any other use of LSRGCALC or

use past this period requires registration.

All users are granted a limited license to copy the Shareware Edition

of LSRGCALC only for the purpose of allowing others to try it, subject

to the above restrictions as well as these:

LSRGCALC must be distributed in absolutely unmodified form,

including ALL program, documentation, and other files.

LSRGCALC may not be included with any other product for any

reason whatsoever without a license from LSRGroup.

No charge or payment may be levied or accepted for LSRGCALC

without written permission from LSRGroup.

Bulletin Board system operators may post the unregistered, Shareware

Edition of LSRGCALC on their BBS for downloading by their users with-

out written permission only if the above conditions are met, and only

if no special fee is necessary to access the LSRGCALC files (a general

fee to access the BBS is ok).

Distributors of User Supported and Public Domain software MUST ob-

tain written permission from LSRGroup before distributing LSRGCALC

and must follow the above conditions. Permission is almost always

granted; this requirement is necessary to ensure protection for our-

selves and LSRGCALC users from unscrupulous individuals.

The following section contains information on registration and li-

censing.

LS-1.00 Plus License iv

Registration Information

Registering LSRGCALC allows you to use the product after the trial pe-

riod. Registered LSRGCALC users get the latest copy of the LS-1.00

Plus Scientific Calculator on disk and, free product support for three

months from date of registration (product telephone support is limited

to 30 minutes connect time during the hours of 10:00 am to 4:00 pm,

Pacific Time Zone, Monday through Friday). The registered version of

the calculator has instant pop up and pop down (no need to wait while

the calculator opens and closes) and also includes REMOVE.COM to remove

the calculator from memory without having to first pop it up.

LSRGCALC registration costs $39 US. The fee covers the cost of the

diskette, mailing and handling. A pre-printed LSRGCALC Program

Reference Manual (this document) is an additional $10 US. Customized

Hot Key configurations are available for an additional $5 US.

Corporate Site Licenses/Quantity Purchases

All corporate, business, government, agencies of government, or other

commercial users of the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator must be re-

gistered. Quantity discounts and corporate or site licensing is avail-

able. Call or write LSRGroup for quantity discount pricing.

Educational Institution Discounts

Educational Institutions will receive an Educational Institution

Discount Rate with their Site/Quantity purchase. Call or write

LSRGroup for details.

Developer's Licenses

Developers wishing to bundle LSRGCALC with their programs need to

write LSRGroup stating the nature of your program and the quantity of

sales you anticipate. LSRGroup will respond with a proposed agreement

stating your cost and duration of agreement.

ORDERING INFORMATION

Note: All prices and discounts are subject to change without notice.

Discounts apply only to separate orders, they are not cumulative.

To place an order, please use the order form at the end of this manual.

All orders must include check, money order, or warrant.

LS-1.00 Plus Contents v

C O N T E N T S

1 Introduction.............................................1

1.1 Program Description.................................1

1.2 The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator Philosophy...3

1.3 System Requirements.................................4

1.4 LSRGCALC Files......................................5

2 Getting Started..........................................6

2.1 Starting the Program................................7

2.1.1 Loading LSRGCALC Non-Resident...................7

2.1.2 Using the EMS Option............................7

2.1.3 Using the DISK Option...........................8

2.1.4 Using the DOS Option............................8

2.2 Hot Keys............................................9

3 Using the Calculator....................................10

3.1 Mouse Operation....................................10

3.2 Scroll Key and Spacebar Operation..................11

3.3 Immediate Key Actuation............................13

3.3.1 The Enter Key..................................14

3.3.2 The Spacebar Key...............................14

3.3.3 The BackSpace Key..............................14

3.3.4 The Esc Key....................................14

3.4 Definition of Symbols..............................14

3.5 The Rules of Algebraic Operations..................15

4 Program Features........................................17

4.1 Using the Parenthesis Buttons......................17

4.2 Immediate Functions................................18

4.3 Trigometric Function Buttons.......................20

4.4 Number Buttons A-F.................................20

4.5 n^ Exponent Button.................................21

4.6 Exp Button.........................................21

4.7 ûn Root Button.....................................22

4.8 ã Pi Button........................................22

4.9 +/- Change Sign Button.............................22

4.10 Memory Operations.................................23

4.11 Logarithm Buttons.................................23

4.12 Angular Mode Buttons..............................24

LS-1.00 Plus Contents vi

C O N T E N T S (cont.)

4.13 Number Mode Buttons...............................24

4.13.1 Float Floating Point Operations..............24

4.13.2 Bin Binary Numbers...........................24

4.13.3 Oct Octal Numbers............................25

4.13.4 Dec Decimal Numbers..........................25

4.13.5 Hex Hexidecimal Numbers......................25

4.13.6 Fix Fixed Decimal Point Operations...........25

4.13.7 Compx Complex Numbers........................26

4.13.8 Stats Statistical Operations.................26

4.13.9 Date Date Calculations.......................26

4.13.10 Time Time Calculations......................27

4.14 Statistical Functions.............................28

4.14.1 n! Factorial Function........................28

4.14.2 ä+ Stat summations/standard deviations.......28

4.14.3 än Add or delete from stat array.............28

4.14.4 Perm Permutations............................29

4.14.5 Comb Combinations............................29

4.14.6 Rand Random Number Functions.................29

4.14.7 Ari ¤ Arithmetic Mean........................31

4.14.8 Qua ¤ Quadratic Mean.........................31

4.14.9 Har ¤ Harmonic Mean..........................31

4.14.10 Geo ¤ Geometric Mean........................31

4.15 Control Buttons...................................32

4.15.1 CE/CL Clear Functions........................32

4.15.2 Sleep Put TSR to Sleep.......................32

4.15.3 End End The Program - Terminate TSR..........32

4.15.4 Stuff Stuff The Keyboard.....................33

4.16 Special Buttons...................................33

4.16.1 Hist History Log.............................33

4.16.2 Lpt Printer..................................34

4.16.3 File Disk File...............................34

4.16.4 Table Look-up Table..........................34

4.16.4.1 Appending the Look-up Table...............36

5 ORDER FORM..............................................37

LS-1.00 Plus Introduction 1

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Program Description

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator is a full-featured terminate

and stay resident (TSR) program for PCs running under the PC/MS-DOS

operating system. LSRGCALC features include:

- seventy two "buttons" provide ninety two functions.

- mouse support (MS mouse compatible), scroll keys and

spacebar actuation, immediate keys, and/or any combination

of mouse, scroll and immediate key control.

- backspace key for minor fixes, CE/CL key to clear entry

and clear all.

- three ways in which to become RAM resident; EMS and DISK

reduce the LSRGCALC DOS memory requirement from approximately

204,000 bytes to 11,000 bytes, while "popped down". This means

around 193,000 bytes of DOS are freed to run other programs

with. Use the "Sleep" key to "pop down" the memory resident

calculator or the "End" key to entirely remove it from memory.

Or, run the program without going memory resident. The

choice is yours.

- five hundred and twelve line, user configurable, fully

scrollable, look-up table for holding information such as:

values of constants, conversion formulas, laws of mathematics,

crib sheets, or those special proprietary formulas, you or

your company's business must have at hand, for immediate

calculations.

- five hundred element statistical array!

- automatic summations and standard deviations, arithmetic

means, quadratic means, harmonic means, and geometric means

calculated from the numbers entered into the statistical

array.

- permutations and combinations. You tell LSRGCALC the number

of items and the rate, and LSRGCALC immediately displays the

answer.

LS-1.00 Plus Program Description 2

- factorials for any real number (whole integer) from 1 to 170.

- random number generator offers "Defined Range" randoms (you

define the range for the random number), "Exp Distributed"

randoms (returns a real value with an exponential distribu-

tion defined by your mean), "Normal Curve" randoms (returns

a real value with a normal curve defined by your mean and

your standard deviation).

- scrollable history log. Review the last 100 operations

entered into the calculator.

- toggle printer on and off. Keep a written record of every

keystroke in a similar manner as a desk-top adding machine.

- toggle disk file on and off. Send every keystroke to a disk

file for later review. The disk file will be created in the

active path were the calculator "popped up".

- the stuff key button places the displayed number into the

keyboard buffer. This will automatically transfer the number

displayed back to the program in which the calculator "popped

up" over.

- date difference calculations and date mathematics determine

the number of days between two dates or, add and/or subtract

a specified number of years, months, and days from a given

date.

- time difference calculations and time mathematics determine

the difference between one time of day from another time of

day or, add and/or subtract a specified number of hours,

minutes, and seconds from a time of day.

- calculate sines, cosines, tangents, arc or hyp functions or

inverse hyperbolic functions in degree, radian, or gradian

modes.

- calculate numbers with fixed or floating decimals. Allows

fixed decimals from zero to 15 places.

- perform calculations in real, binary, octal, hexidecimal, or

complex number modes.

LS-1.00 Plus Program Description 3

- calculate Log base e, Log base 10, or Log base n. Use the

Log e button to compute the log of a complex number.

- calculate nth root of any real number, real number roots of

complex numbers or complex roots of complex numbers.

- calculate nth power of any real number or the complex power

of any complex number.

- use the Exp button to work with scientific notation for any

real number or, calculate the exponential function for any

complex number with the Exp button (create complex numbers

to powers of ten with the "E" key).

- determine the reciprocal of any real or complex number with

the "1/n" button.

- determine the exact order in which algebraic expression are

evaluated with the parenthesis keys. You can have up to

eight pending parenthesis operations at any one time.

- work with any real number in the range of -2,147,483,648 to

+2,147,483,647. Real numbers greater than this range are

automatically forced into scientific notation with a range

of -1.79 x 10^308 to +1.79 x 10^308.

- work with any hexidecimal number in the range of zero to

7FFFFFFF, any octal number in the range of 0 to 17777777777,

or any binary from 1000000000000000 to 0111111111111111.

Complex numbers can range from (-3.40x10^38 -3.40x10^38i) to

(+3.40x10^38 +3.40x10^38i).

1.2 The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator Philosophy

When LSRGCALC was written, one basic idea was kept in mind. It was

felt that a powerful, interactive calculator program could be as

easy to operate, or easier, as the hand-held calculator resting on

top of the desk, along-side your computer. Couple this power with

versatility, functionality and blazing speed.

We believe, after trying LSRGCALC, that you will end up placing that

hand-held pocket calculator, presently at rest beside your computer,

into your briefcase where it belongs.

LS-1.00 Plus System Requirements 4

1.3 System Requirements

- IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, or close compatible.

- PC/MS DOS version 3.0 or newer.

- 80 column monitor in 80 x 25, 80 x 43 or 80 x 50 text mode.

LSRGCALC will refuse to "pop up" over a graphics screen mode.

- Hard disk or floppy with 640 Kbytes available for program

file space (minimum disk space required can be as low as

162,000 bytes if you are not using the DISK option).

- 204,000 bytes of free DOS memory to initially load LSRGCALC

as RAM resident (or as a "normal", non-resident program).

When LSRGCALC is loaded as TSR (RAM resident) and "asleep",

it will free up all but around 11,000 bytes of it's DOS

memory for use by other programs. If you make it RAM resident

in DOS, then all 204,000 bytes will remain in DOS.

- LSRGCALC's EMS option requires 212,992 bytes available LIM

(Lotus-Intel-Microsoft) EMS (Expanded Memory System) version

4.0 or newer. LIM EMS is highly desirable but not necessary.

Although LSRGCALC can perform the DISK option from a floppy drive

(with sufficient free disk space), we don't recommend this because

"pop up" and "pop down" time from floppy drives will take several

seconds.

1.4 LSRGCALC Files

LSRGCALC comes with a number of files and may create more in its

normal operation. Files included in the LSRGCALC package are:

LSRGCALC.EXE - The LSRGCALC program itself

LSRGCALC.DOC - The LSRGCALC program reference manual

CALCSCRN.MON - The LSRGCALC screen file for monochrome systems

CALCSCRN.CLR - The LSRGCALC screen file for color systems

LSRGCALC.TBL - The LSRGCALC, user configurable look-up table

README.NOW - File containing information relating to any

changes or other details not covered in this

manual.

MOUSE.COM - Microsoft mouse driver.

REMOVE.COM - Registered versions of the calculator only.

LS-1.00 Plus LSRGCALC Files 5

Files that LSRGCALC may create during it's normal operation are:

LSRGCALC.FIL - The file created in the default path when you

choose the "File" button.

C100 & C101 - The files created by LSRGCALC when it goes RAM

resident with the DISK option. These files are

automatically removed by LSRGCALC when you "END"

it from memory (terminate).

LS-1.00 Plus Getting Started 6

2. Getting Started

First, before you do anything else, make a backup copy of your

LSRGCALC diskette.

Although you can run LSRGCALC from a floppy drive (with sufficient

free disk space), it is not recommended. If you do so, and if you

install LSRGCALC RAM resident with the DISK option, then you must

keep the LSRGCALC diskette in the drive so that LSRGCALC can read

and write two "C1" files.

A more practical method for loading and running LSRGCALC is from a

hard drive. Create a free directory for LSRGCALC and its files.

You create the new directory by first, checking into the appropriate

drive with a command such as:

C: (then press Enter)

Next, tell DOS to make a new directory. We suggest you call your

new directory "CALC". Issue the command:

md \CALC (then press Enter)

Now, have your computer reference itself from within your new

directory by typing the command:

cd \CALC (then press Enter)

Finally, place the LSRGCALC diskette into a floppy drive, such as

A: drive, and copy all the LSRGCALC files with the command:

copy a:*.* (then press Enter)

The LSRGCALC files that you must have, in order to run the LS-1.00

Plus Scientific Calculator are:

LSRGCALC.EXE

CALCSCRN.MON (if you have a monochrome video card)

CALCSCRN.CLR (if you have a color video card)

LSRGCALC.TBL (not necessary but highly recommended)

LS-1.00 Plus Starting the Program 7

2.1 Starting the Program

To run the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator, your computer must

first reference itself to the drive and path in which the LSRGCALC

files are located. This means that if the LSRGCALC files reside

in another drive OR another directory, you must first issue the

DOS command to change to the appropriate drive and/or directory

before you tell LSRGCALC to load and run. If you are working from

within, let's say, drive D: and the LSRGCALC are in C:\CALC then

type the following commands:

C: (then press Enter)

cd \CALC (then press Enter)

You can run the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator four different

ways, by typing the following commands:

2.1.1 Loading LSRGCALC Non-Resident

Type the command:

LSRGCALC (then press Enter)

This will make LSRGCALC load and run as a normal, non-RAM resident

program. That is to say, when you exit the program with the "End"

or "Sleep" buttons (or the Esc key), LSRGCALC will 100% free it-

self from memory, returning all of the memory it used to DOS and

any other program that may need it.

2.1.2 Using the EMS Option

Type the command:

LSRGCALC ems (then press Enter)

The above command will install LSRGCALC as RAM resident using your

expanded memory system (note - expanded memory is NOT the same as

extended memory). If you issue the above command and EMS memory

is not available, or insufficient EMS is available, or your system

has an EMS hardware problem, LSRGCALC will then load itself RAM

resident within DOS memory. When this option is used, LSRGCALC

moves all of it's memory "image" to EMS memory except for a small

11 Kbyte DOS kernel. This means that approximately 193,000 bytes

of DOS memory is freed for use by other programs.

LS-1.00 Plus Using the DISK Option 8

2.1.3 Using the DISK Option

Type the command:

LSRGCALC disk (then press Enter)

The above command will install LSRGCALC as RAM resident using your

disk to temporarily store it's memory "image". If you issue the

above command and there is insufficient disk space or a disk hard-

ware problem, LSRGCALC will attempt to terminate and remove itself

from your system's memory. When this option is used, LSRGCALC

will write all of it's memory "image" (except for a small 11 K-

byte kernel) as two files to your disk in the same location that

the LSRGCALC.EXE resides. These files will be named, "C100" and

"C101" and will initially be zero bytes and approx. 194,768 bytes,

respectively. After you have "popped up" the calculator, these

files will be about the same size, approximately 194,768 bytes

each (or somewhat less).

When you un-install the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator from

your system's memory with the "End" button, the last two "C1"

files created by LSRGCALC will be automatically deleted from your

disk. (Registered versions of the calculator can use REMOVE.COM

to un-install the calculator directly from the DOS prompt).

2.1.4 Using the DOS Option

Type the command:

LSRGCALC dos (then press Enter)

The above command will install LSRGCALC as RAM resident using your

system's DOS memory. This option leaves the LSRGCALC memory

"image" entirely in DOS leaving approximately 204,000 bytes less

memory available for other programs to use.

LS-1.00 Plus Hot Keys 9

2.2 Hot Keys

When LSRGCALC successfully becomes RAM resident, it will display the

messages:

"LSRGCALC is Loaded into Memory and is Going to Sleep."

"Use

Now, to "pop up" the calculator, at any time, simply press and

hold down the Right Shift key then, tap the Spacebar key. If

the calculator is RAM resident using DOS or EMS memory, the

calculator will immediately "pop up" over the current program.

If you have made the calculator RAM resident using the DISK option

then, the calculator will take a second or so to "pop up". If

your system is using a slow disk drive, it may take two or three

seconds to "pop up". To let you know that something is, indeed,

happening, you will notice that there will be a square, blinking,

green cursor at the upper-left most corner of the monitor.

You may only have one copy of the calculator RAM resident at a

time. If you try to load a second copy as RAM resident, you will

be informed:

"LSRGCALC Already Installed in Memory!"

"Use

You are, however, allowed to install one copy of the calculator

as RAM resident, then load and run a second copy of the calculator

as a "normal", non-resident program. This would serve no useful

purpose except to allow you to perform two calculations on two

copies of the calculator, from within one computer system.

LS-1.00 Plus Using the Calculator 10

3. Using the Calculator

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3.1 Mouse Operation

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator will make use of a

MS mouse (or compatible), if installed. Simply position the

mouse cursor over a calculator button and click with either the

right or left mouse keys. The experienced mouse user will want

to click and drag while using the Hist or Table functions. This

will not work. Scrolling these functions require positioning

the mouse cursor over the "+" or "-" button and clicking the

right or left mouse key (refer to chapter 4.16.4). This was

done to make all functions, whether mouse or keyboard, operate

in a manner similar to a pocket calculator. With a pocket cal-

culator, you would move a finger over the appropriate button and

press it down. Use your mouse as an extension of your finger.

LSRGCALC.EXE is programmed for the Microsoft mouse or 100%

compatables. If you are experiencing problems with your mouse,

try loading MOUSE.COM supplied with this program.

LS-1.00 Plus Scroll Key and Spacebar Operation 11

3.2 Scroll Key and Spacebar Operation

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator was designed to be used

in a manner similar to a pocket calculator. With a pocket

calculator, you move a finger over the appropriate button and

then press the button. With LSRGCALC, you move the highlight

over the appropriate button and press the spacebar key. The

philosophy for operating the calculator in this manner is, "if

you already know how to operate a typical pocket calculator then

your learning time required to become proficient with the LS-1.00

Plus Scientific Calculator is almost zero."

The following keys will scroll the calculator's highlight:

Up Arrow: Moves the highlight up one button at a time.

Wraps at the top button to the bottom button

on the same column of buttons.

Down Arrow: Moves the highlight down one button at a time.

Wraps at the bottom button to the top button

on the same column of buttons.

Right Arrow: Moves the highlight right one button at a time.

Wraps at the right-most button of the row to

the corresponding row's left-most button.

Left Arrow: Moves the highlight left one button at a time.

Wraps at the left-most button of the row to the

corresponding row's right-most button.

PgUp: Moves the highlight to the top-most button of

the column. Does not wrap.

PgDn: Moves the highlight to the bottom-most button

of the column. Does not wrap.

Home: The Home key moves the highlight to the left-

most button on the side of the calculator it is

on. If the highlight is positioned on the right

side of the calculator, the second tap on the

key will move it to the right-most button on the

left side, and the third tap of the Home key will

move the highlight to the far left.

LS-1.00 Plus Scroll Key and Spacebar Operation 12

This facilitates moving to the beginning column

of buttons for the side of the calculator you are

working with. The Home key will not wrap.

End: The End key moves the highlight to the right-

most button on the side of the calculator it is

on. If the highlight is positioned on the left

side of the calculator, the second tap on the

key will move it to the left-most button on the

right side, and the third tap of the End key will

move the highlight to the far right.

This facilitates moving to the ending column

of buttons for the side of the calculator you are

working with. The End key will not wrap.

To "press" a button, move the highlight over it using one or

more of the scroll keys, then tap your spacebar key. DO NOT

USE THE ENTER KEY. The Enter key is reserved by LSRGCALC for

use as an equal button (refer to the following chapter entitled,

"Immediate Key Actuation").

To facilitate cursor movement, LSRGCALC dramatically reduces your

computer's cursor delay rate. The effect is a tremendous increase

in your cursor response time. However, whenever you End or put

the calculator to Sleep, LSRGCALC will re-set the cursor's delay

rate to it's original state (Well behaved computer program's must

always restore EVERYTHING to their original conditions before

they terminate control!). In other words, if your cursor is

sluggish, it will speed up when you "pop up" the calculator and

slow down when you "pop down" the calculator.

LS-1.00 Plus Immediate Key Actuation 13

3.3 Immediate Key Actuation

Please note: "button" refers to any of the 72, rectangular areas

of the calculator that perform computations. "Key" refers to any

of the keys on your computer's keyboard.

To help non-mouse users operate the calculator with almost the

same speed that can be achieved with a mouse, the LS-1.00

Plus Scientific Calculator allows direct key correlation between

your keyboard and 27 of it's buttons. The following keys on your

computer's keyboard will immediately active the listed buttons:

Immediate Key Button Selected

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ

0 through 9 0 through 9

A through F {shift key ignored} A through F

. or Del .

( {use shift + 9} or [ (

) {use shift + 0} or ] )

\ or / ö

* x

- -

+ +

= or Enter =

^ {use shift + 6} ^

@ {use shift + 2} ûn

! {use shift + 1} 1/n

Using any of the above listed keys will immediately actuate the

appropriate calculator button. You do not need to use the space-

bar with Immediate Keys.

To maximize operation speed of your calculator, place your right

hand at the separate number pad on the right side of the keyboard

and your left hand near the spacebar. Your right hand then

controls the selection of math operators (grey keys), as well as,

controls movement of the highlight with appropriate scroll keys.

Your left hand handles all non-shifted immediate keys, as well

as, the spacebar.

REMEMBER: THE ENTER KEY IS YOUR EQUAL KEY - IT WILL NOT WORK AS

YOUR SPACEBAR. To actuate a highlighted button, use the spacebar

not the Enter key - your Enter key only actuates the "=" button.

LS-1.00 Plus The Backspace Key 14

3.3.1 The Enter Key

The Enter key only actuates the equal button (=). Use the

spacebar key to actuate any other button while highlighted.

3.3.2 The Spacebar Key

The spacebar actuates any button currently highlighted.

3.3.3 The BackSpace Key

Unlike your pocket calculator, the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific

Calculator will make use of your computer's backspace key.

Each press of the backspace key will delete the right-most

digit of the number shown in the Primary Display Window.

The backspace key is inactive in the Date or Time Number

Modes, as well as, whenever you are entering a number re-

quired by any Immediate Function button.

When working with complex numbers, the backspace key will not

delete the right-most digit of the real component if you have

informed the calculator that you are entering the imaginary

component. Once you have informed the calculator that you

are entering the imaginary component, the backspace key will

only delete the right-most digits of the imaginary component.

3.3.4 The Esc Key

If you have loaded LSRGCALC without any options, the Esc key

will terminate the program, removing all of it's memory for

use by other programs.

If you have loaded LSRGCALC with either the EMS, DISK, or DOS

options, the Esc key will "pop down" the calculator and put

it to Sleep.

The Esc key can be used to exit the History Log, as well as,

to exit the Look Up Table.

3.4 Definition of Symbols

Because of the nature of a computers non-graphics screen display

and because of the limitations of the typical keyboard, many

mathematical symbols are difficult (and sometime impossible) to

replicate on your monitor. Therefore, the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific

Calculator may use some unfamiliar symbols. For example, 4ý or

4 squared is relatively easy to display - even many typewriters

can handle that one. But, how do we display 4 to the power of 16?

ýû for the square root is easy but how about the cubed root?

LS-1.00 Plus Definition of Symbols 15

The calculator, as well as, this manual will use the following

symbols (among others):

^ exponent, such as 3^5 meaning 3 to the power of 5

û root, such as û3 for the cubed root

ö or / division, such as 5 / 4 for 5 divided by 4

1/n reciprocal, a number divided into 1

sd standard deviation, used with statistical functions

¤ mean (average), used with statistical functions

x or * multiplication, such as 5 * 4 for 5 times 4

rû real number root of a complex number (ýû, etc.)

jû complex root of a complex number

The n^ ûn and 1/n buttons are defined as: n to the power of,

the nth root, and the reciprocal of n, respectively.

Scientific notation is a form for expressing numbers (called the

mantissa) multiplied by 10 raised to a power (the exponent). This

is a very useful method to work with very large or very small num-

bers. The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator will use a capital

"D" to show scientific notation for any real number, whereas,

complex numbers will use a capital "E". For example:

7.56987345 x 10^199 is expressed as 7.56987345D+199

7.56987345 x 10^-98 is expressed as 7.56987345D-98

(3.45x10^23 -4.5x10^19i) is expressed as (3.45E+23 -4.5E+19i)

3.5 The Rules of Algebraic Operations

Mathematics is a science with some concrete rules. One of it's

most basic rule is to never allow two different answers to the

same series of calculations. Because of this, mathematics has

a universal set of rules for performing calculations employing

mixed operations. For example, what is the correct answer to

the following problem:

3 + 7 - 2 x 24 ö 12 = ?

There is only one correct answer, and the answer is 6, not 16.

"Whoa, just a second", you say. "My adding machine just did

the above calculation and it printed out 16, not 6 as you say."

LS-1.00 Plus The Rules of Algebraic Operations 16

Well, your adding machine is correct if we consider each subset

of operations, in the above example, as separate problems, with

the result of each previous operation applied to the next subset.

In other words:

3

+ 7 = 10

- 2 = 8

x 24 = 192

ö 12 = 16

However, the example equation above is not composed of a separate

subset of problems, but rather, is one problem, represented by

one equation, and, therefore, only has one correct answer and

that answer is 6, due to the rules of algebraic operations.

The universal rule for determining which operation has priority

over the other operators and, hence is performed first is:

Priority Operations

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ

1 (highest) parenthesis, hyperbolic, trigometric,

factorial, reciprocal, angle conversion,

combinations, permutations, logarithms

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

2 powers and roots

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

3 multiplication and division

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

4 (lowest) addition and subtraction

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator does NOT use the rules

of Algebraic Operations. Rather, like your adding machine,

it applies each operator to the result of the previous operation.

However, the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator can be instructed

to calculate a subset of data as a separate operation then, apply

the results of the subset to the rest of the calculation. You

instruct it to do so by placing parenthesis around the set of

operators and numbers that have "priority".

LS-1.00 Plus Program Features 17

4. Program Features

4.1 Using the Parenthesis Buttons

Because the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator will compute a

formula composed of mixed operators in the same manner as a add-

ing machine, you must inform the program which operators have

priority within the formula being calculated. In the example

discussed in chapter 3.5, we desired to have our computation

conform to the rules of Algebraic operations. The formula

3 + 7 - 2 x 24 ö 12 = ?

would need to be expressed as

3 + 7 - (2 x 24 ö 12) = 6

One result of using the parenthesis buttons is clarity. The

expression above is, at a glance, very clear as to what oper-

ations have priority. Clarity promotes good math. Another

result of effective use of parenthesis is that it allows you to

define which operations are to be performed ahead of the others.

The formula above could be re-entered as:

(3 + 7 - (2 x 24)) ö 12 = -3.16666666666667

Notice that this use of the parenthesis forced a different pri-

ority of operations which produced a radically different result.

Also note that although the result is radically different, it

is completely valid because we did not break the rules of alge-

braic operations - parenthesis are of the highest priority.

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator allows up to eight pending

parenthesis operations at one time. The calculator will inform

you of pending parenthesis operations in it's Indicator Window

by displaying (1) for one pending operation, (2) for two, etc.

The calculator will not work a computation, such as, implied

multiplication, i.e, (a + 1)(b - 1). You must explicitly place

the operator between the two sets of parenthesis. In other words,

(a + 1) * (b - 1) is valid

(a + 1)(b - 1) is not valid.

Also, the calculator will not allow parenthesis to be used within

Immediate Functions, e.g., a^(x + y) must be entered using the

appropriate Law of Exponents.

LS-1.00 Plus Immediate Functions 18

4.2 Immediate Functions

Immediate Functions are operators that immediately affect the

number displayed in the Primary Display Window (the display

window at the top-left side of the calculator). Immediate

Functions include SIN, COS, TAN, or their inverse and/or hyper-

bolic functions - ARC and HYP, n^, ûn, 1/n, Deg, Rad, Grad, Bin

Dec, Float, Oct, Hex, n!, Fix, or, any Log button.

Certain Immediate Functions will require additional keystrokes.

For example, ûn asks for the nth root. You must supply this

number and inform the calculator to continue with either a press

of the equal button or, any other algebraic operator button or

parenthesis button.

You cannot use parenthesis within any Immediate Function. For

example, the expression, a^(x + y) would require the use of

the power button, n^ which is an Immediate Function.

Although LSRGCALC will not allow parenthesis within Immediate

Functions, it will allow Immediate Functions within a set of

parenthesis. In other words, (a^x)^y is perfectly valid. You

can also use one Immediate Function to affect another. For

instance, you can calculate 125 to the power of the reciprocal

of 3 (the cubed root) with the following buttons:

125 n^ 3 1/n =

"OK, great", you say. But, you have a classroom assignment and

need to calculate a^(x + y). Well, one of the beautiful features

of mathematics is, "there is more than one way to skin the cat"

(maybe you have to be a mathematician to appreciate the beauty).

At any rate, the formula above can be re-stated with the Laws of

Exponents: a^(x + y) = a^x * a^y

Below are a few Laws of Exponents you may find useful.

Laws of Exponents

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ

Expression You Use

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

a^(x + y) a^x * a^y

a^(x - y) a^x / a^y

a^(x * y) (a^x)^y

LS-1.00 Plus Immediate Functions 19

The calculator can use Laws of Logarithms as well:

Laws of Logarithms

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ

Expression You Use

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

Log(a^b) b * a LogE

Log(a * b) a LogE + b LogE

Log(a / b) a LogE - b LogE

Other laws, such as, Laws of Cosines are expressed as:

Laws of Cosines

ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ

Expression You Use

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

____________________

a = ýû bý + cý -2bc cos Aø b^2 + c^2 - (2 * b * c * Aø COS) û2 =

____________________

b = ýû aý + cý -2ac cos Bø a^2 + c^2 - (2 * a * c * Bø COS) û2 =

____________________

c = ýû aý + bý -2ab cos Cø a^2 + b^2 - (2 * a * b * Cø COS) û2 =

The above examples of the Laws of Cosines clearly illustrate how

Immediate Functions affect the preceding number, as well as, when

parenthesis are needed and, when they are not. The quantity,

2ab, according to algebraic rules, has priority over the other

operators within the square root function. Consequently, we

show this within a set of parenthesis. The COS function is an

Immediate Function, directly changing the value of Cø and, thus,

does not need to be enclosed within it's own set of parenthesis.

Nor, does the interim result of the computation need to have it's

own set of parenthesis because, the closing parenthesis that fol-

lows the cosine will complete the calculation to that point. This

produces an interim result that is immediately acted upon by the

ûn button (you define the root 2 by pressing the ûn button, then

the 2 button and then press the equal button).

LS-1.00 Plus Trigometric Function Buttons 20

4.3 Trigometric Function Buttons

Trigometric Function Buttons are SIN, COS, TAN, their inverse

function button, ARC, and their hyperbolic function button, HYP.

Trigometric Function Buttons are Immediate Functions, which

immediately act upon the number displayed in the Primary Display

Window. The following illustrate the button sequence employed

with Trigometric Function buttons and their results while in the

degree Angular Mode:

Buttons Pressed Number Displayed

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

12 SIN .207911690817708

.567 ARC SIN 34.541290458534

21 HYP SIN 37781287770.667

15 ARC HYP SIN 194.937811395351

One very important note regarding trigometric functions. The

LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator defaults to the degree mode.

Many trigometric calculations are often performed in the radian

mode, such as, inverse hyperbolic functions.

Computing a SIN, COS, or TAN function in the Deg Angular Mode,

then pressing the Rad or Grad button, will produce a very dif-

ferent result than one produced by first pressing the Rad or Grad

buttons, then computing the SIN, COS, or TAN. However, the

calculator will consistently convert inverse, hyperbolic, or

inverse hyperbolic functions whether the Angular Mode was set

before or after the computation.

The rational for constructing the calculator this way is this:

the sin, cos, or tan of, let's say, 12ø is not the same as the

sin, cos, or tan of 12 radians, and, therefore, the computation

should reflect this difference. However, many computations util-

izing the inverse and/or the hyperbolic functions require radian

angular measurements. What we have done is to try to anticipate

a possible mistake with establishing the proper Angular Mode

while performing inverse and/or hyperbolic computations.

4.4 Number Buttons A-F

The number buttons, A through F, have no effect unless you have

established the Number Mode as either Hex (hexidecimal) or Compx

(complex).

LS-1.00 Plus Number Buttons A-F 21

When computing in the Compx Number Mode, the only letter buttons

that are active are "B" and "E". The "B" button informs the

calculator that the real component of the complex number has

been entered and you are now entering the imaginary component.

When you press the "B" button, the calculator will post a small

case letter "i" at the right-most side of the Primary Display

Window. When you see this, the calculator is awaiting you to

enter the imaginary component of the number.

The "E" button is used to force either the real component and/or

the imaginary component of a complex number into their scientific

notation form. Use the "E" button after the mantissa has been

entered.

4.5 n^ Exponent Button

The Exponent Button is used to raise the number displayed in the

Primary Display Window to an exponent value. The n^ button only

works with real (Float or Dec) or complex numbers (not Hex, Bin,

or Oct). When using this button with real numbers, the exponent

can be a positive, negative, or decimal value. This button can

also be used in conjunction with the 1/n button to raise a number

to a reciprocal power.

If an integer number (whole number) is raised to an exponent and

the number is less than 2,147,483,647 or, the number is greater

than -2,147,483,648, then, as soon as you press any operation

button, the calculator will convert it to a number within this

range, e.g., 1D+3 + 1 = 1001 or, 1D+3 = 1000. Also, any compu-

tation that results in a number outside of the ñ2.147 billion

range will be automatically displayed in scientific notation.

Use the n^ button to raise a complex number to a complex value.

4.6 Exp Button

The Exp button is used to enter a real number (Float or Dec) as

scientific notation. Use it after the mantissa has been entered.

The Exp button is also used for raising a complex number to it's

exponential function. To raise a complex number to a complex

power, use the n^ button.

LS-1.00 Plus ûn Root Button 22

4.7 ûn Root Button

The Root Button is used to compute the number displayed in the

Primary Display Window to it's nth root. The ûn button only

works with real (Float or Dec) or complex numbers (not Hex, Bin,

or Oct). When using this button with real numbers, the root

can be a positive, negative, or decimal value. This button can

also be used in conjunction with the 1/n button to compute a root

to a reciprocal value.

Use the ûn button to compute a complex number to either a real

value root or a complex root. To compute a real root of a complex

number, enter the complex number, press the ûn button once. You

will see displayed rû = which informs you that the calculator is

awaiting you to enter a real number. Enter the number then press

the equal button. To compute a complex root of a complex number,

press the ûn button twice. You will see displayed jû which is to

inform you that the calculator is awaiting another complex number.

Enter the complex number and press the equal button.

4.8 ã Pi Button

The ã button acts as any other number button. If you are in a

real number mode (Float or Dec), pi is displayed and calculated

to 14 significant digits (12 decimal digits) which, for your

information, is 3.141592653589. If you are computing in the

complex number mode then the ã button will, for both the real

component or imaginary component, display and compute pi to eight

significant digits = 3.141593.

Using the ã button while in either octal or hexidecimal number

modes will result in a display and subsequent computations where

pi = 3. The ã button is not operative while in binary mode.

4.9 +/- Change Sign Button

The +/- button is used to change the sign or signs of any real

or complex number. When using it to change the sign, you must

first have, at least, one digit of the number entered. For

example, enter the number 2.567 then press the +/- button to make

the number negative. Then press the Exp button, press the +/-

button, then enter 199. The result will be -2.567D-199. You

can use the +/- button within any Immediate Function except LogN

(you cannot compute a logarithm to the base of a negative number).

LS-1.00 Plus +/- Change Sign Button 23

The +/- button also allows you to change the signs within a

complex number. For example, enter the number 3.45 then press

the +/- button to make it negative. Then press the "E" button

to raise it to an exponent. Enter the exponent 12 then press the

+/- button to make the exponent negative. Press the "B" button

to continue with the imaginary component of the number. Enter

the number 5.4, press the +/- button, press the "E" button, then

enter 8 and, again press the +/- button. The resulting complex

number will be (-3.45E-12 -5.4E-8i).

4.10 Memory Operations

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator has three buttons for use

with memory operations. The memory operations are active in all

number mode computations except for Date or Time operations. You

can store a number while in one number mode, change to another

number mode then, when you recall or exchange it, it will auto-

matically be converted to the present number mode. The only

exception is complex numbers, which do not convert from one mode

to another.

The Sto button is used to copy the number from the Primary Display

Window to memory. If the number is non-zero, then the number is

stored and the calculator will indicate such with a "M" in the

Operation Indicators Window. If the number is zero or the Primary

Display Window is blank (or displays a Clear message) then, the

memory is cleared and the "M" is removed from the Operation

Indicators Window.

To recall the number stored in memory, press the Rcl button. To

exchange a number with the number stored in memory, press the

Exc button. You can exchange a zero with a non-zero without

clearing the memory.

4.11 Logarithm Buttons

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator offers three types of

logarithm computations: Log base 10, Log base e, and Log base n.

Logarithm functions act immediately upon the displayed number.

The Log10 button computes the log of the displayed number to the

base 10.

The Log e button computes the log of the displayed number to the

base e, or use it to compute the log of a complex number.

LS-1.00 Plus Logarithm Buttons 24

The Log n button computes the log of the displayed number to the

base n. When you choose this option, the calculator will ask you

to enter a number for base n. Enter the number then press the

equal button or another operation button to continue.

4.12 Angular Mode Buttons

The Angular Mode buttons are Immediate Functions. Any number

displayed in the Primary Display Window will immediately be

converted to the appropriate angular mode. Angular Mode buttons

are Deg, Rad, and Grad for conversion to degrees, radians, and

gradians, respectively. The default mode for the calculator is

degrees. The current angular mode will be displayed in the

Operations Indicator Window. Refer to chapter 4.3 for infor-

mation pertaining to Angular Modes and Trigometric buttons.

4.13 Number Mode Buttons

4.13.1 Float Floating Point Operations

The Float button will force the calculator into the degree

Angular Mode (Deg) and in the decimal number mode. It will

float any decimal operations up to 16 significant digits. If

the number has more than 16 significant digits the calculator

will the force the results of the computation into scientific

notation. Numbers in this mode can range from -1.79D+308 to

+1.79D+308. When the Float button is selected, the Operations

Indicator Window will display the words, "Deg" and "Float".

4.13.2 Bin Binary Numbers

The Bin button will force the calculator into the binary

number mode. Binary numbers can range from a decimal value

of -32,768 to +32,767. When the Bin button is selected, the

Operations Indicator Window will display the words, "Bin" and

"Fix". You cannot use decimal operations in the binary mode.

Binary numbers are not handled, by the calculator, in the same

manner as other number systems. The effect of this is that

when you first enter into the binary mode, you will need to

press the equal button to actuate acceptance of the number(s)

you wish to enter.

LS-1.00 Plus Octal Numbers 25

4.13.3 Oct Octal Numbers

The Oct button will force the calculator into the octal

number mode. Octal numbers can range from a decimal value

of 0 to +2,147,483,647. When the Oct button is selected, the

Operations Indicator Window will display the words, "Oct" and

"Fix". You cannot use decimal operations nor negative numbers

in the octal number mode.

4.13.4 Dec Decimal Numbers

The Dec button will force the calculator into the decimal

number mode. It works exactly as the Float button except if

you have previously selected a fixed decimal position then

the number of "Fixed" remains the same. Note - binary,

octal and hexidecimal will force "Fixed" to equal zero. If

you are changing from one of these number modes to the decimal

number mode and want your numbers to use fractional components

then, either press the Fix button and instruct the calculator

how many decimal positions to carry or, select the Float

button. When Dec is selected, the Operations Indicator Window

will display the words, "Deg" and either "Float" or "Fix".

4.13.5 Hex Hexidecimal Numbers

The Hex button will force the calculator into the hexidecimal

number mode. Hexidecimal numbers can range from a decimal

value of 0 to +2,147,483,647. When the Hex button is selected,

the Operations Indicator Window will display the words, "Hex"

and "Fix". You cannot use decimal operations nor negative num-

bers in the hexidecimal number mode.

4.13.6 Fix Fixed Decimal Point Operations

The Fix button will force the calculator to fix the number

of digits to carry as the fractional component of any real

number. The Fix button is inactive for all number modes

except for the decimal number mode. When you press the Fix

button, it will display the message, "Fixed = 0". This is

it's default. If you press the equal key at this time, you

will have set fixed decimal point operations to zero. The

Fix button allows you to fix the decimal count from zero to

15 positions. Enter the number of digits you wish to fix then

press the equal button. When the Fix button is selected, the

Operations Indicator Window will display the word, "Fix".

LS-1.00 Plus Complex Numbers 26

4.13.7 Compx Complex Numbers

The Compx button will force the calculator into the complex

number mode. Complex numbers can range from a low value of

(-3.40E+38 -3.40E+38i) to a high of (3.40E+38 +3.40E+38i).

Because the Primary Display Window allows a maximum of 25

digits, complex numbers are displayed without parenthesis.

Also, the range of complex numbers is great enough to display

a number 27 digits long. In the event that the complex num-

ber exceeds the 25 digit limitation of the Primary Display

Window, LSRGCALC will truncate either the real and/or the

imaginary component to 12 digits. Although your display will

show the truncated number, LSRGCALC will continue to work

with the entire number. When Compx is selected, the Operations

Indicator Window will display the words, "Complex" and "Float".

4.13.8 Stats Statistical Operations

The Stats button will force the calculator into the decimal

number mode and allow the use of all statistical buttons.

When the Stats button is selected, the Operations Indicator

Window will display the words, "Stats" and "Float". You can-

not use then "Fix" button while in statistical mode. If you

wish to use the Fix button, do so after you have completed your

statistical computations; first press the Float button then,

press the Fix button.

Statistical function buttons that become active, once in the

Stats mode, are: n!, ä+, än, Perm, Comb, Rand, Ari ¤, Qua ¤,

Har ¤, and Geo ¤.

4.13.9 Date Date Calculations

The Date button toggles between date difference calculations

and date math computations. When Date is selected, the

Operations Indicator Window will display the word, "Date" and

the History Window will display the word, "DateDiff" or

"DateMath", depending which mode is chosen. The default mode

for Date computations is DateDiff. Press the Date button

a second time to cycle to DateMath. All date entries must

be entered in the format mm/dd/yyyy where "mm" requires two

digits for the month, "dd" requires two digits for the day,

and "yyyy" requires four digits for the year. Do not attempt

to enter the slash marks - LSRGCALC will automatically enter

them in the appropriate places.

LS-1.00 Plus Date Calculations 27

Results of DateDiff calculations are displayed in the Primary

Display Window as the exact number of days between two dates,

and results are also displayed in the History Window as an

approximate number of years, months and days.

Because of the conversion from the Gregorian calendar to the

Julian calendar, October 15, 1582, and because the days be-

tween October 1, 1582 and October 14, 1582 were removed from

the calendar, the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator can only

be considered reliable for the period from October 15, 1582

through December 31, 9999.

DateMath calculations adds and/or subtracts a specified number

of years, months and days to/from a date and displays the re-

sult in the Primary Display Window in the form month/day/year,

and the results are also displayed in the History Window using

a three letter abbreviation for the day of week, followed by the

full month name, day and year; e.g., "Wed August 15, 1990".

Because of the manner in which the name for the day of the

week is calculated, the weekday name can only be considered

reliable from 01/01/1901 through 12/31/2099.

4.13.10 Time Time Calculations

The Time button toggles between time difference calculations

and time math computations. When Time is selected, the

Operations Indicator Window will display the word, "Time" and

the History Window will display the word, "TimeDiff" or

"TimeMath", depending which mode is chosen. The default mode

for Time computations is TimeDiff. Press the Time button

a second time to cycle to TimeMath. All time entries must

be entered in the format hh:mm:ss where "hh" requires two

digits for the hour, "mm" requires two digits for the minute,

and "ss" requires two digits for the second. Do not attempt

to enter the colons - LSRGCALC will automatically enter them

in the appropriate places.

Time difference calculations are the difference between one

time of day from another time of day and are displayed in the

Primary Display Window in the format, hh:mm:ss.

Time math calculations add and/or subtract a specified number

of hours, minutes and seconds to/from a time of day and dis-

plays the resulting time of day in the Primary Display Window

in the format, hh:mm:ss.

LS-1.00 Plus Statistical Functions 28

4.14 Statistical Functions

All statistical functions are inoperative unless the Stats number

mode has first been selected.

4.14.1 n! Factorial Function

The n! button calculates the factorial of any whole integer

from 1 to 170.

4.14.2 ä+ Stat summations/standard deviations

This button toggles between two functions: summation of the

numbers entered into the statistical array or, computation of

the standard deviation of the numbers entered into the statis-

tical array. This button is inoperative unless at least one

number is entered into the statistical array. The History

Window will display the words, "summation" or "standard

deviation", depending which mode was selected. Press the

ä+ button once for summations, press it again for standard

deviations, and the third press to cycle the ä+ button off.

4.14.3 än Add or delete from stat array

This button toggles between three functions: add numbers to

the statistical array, delete the last entry from the sta-

tistical array or, delete all numbers from the statistical

array. If there is not at least one number in the statistical

array then the options to delete are inoperative.

To add numbers to the statistical array, press the än button

then, enter a number and press the equal key. The calculator

will respond by displaying, within the History Window, the

number just entered preceded by <ä()>. Within the parenthesis

is a number representing the array element. If you were to

enter 12 numbers into the array, the display would show <ä(12)>

as your last entry. While this option is active, the

Operations Indicator Window will display the message, "Add

Numbers to Stat Array". When you have finished adding numbers

to the statistical array, press the än button THREE more times.

The statistical array can accept up to 500 numbers.

LS-1.00 Plus Add or delete from stat array 29

To delete the last number(s) entered into the statistical array

press the än button a second time. A message at the top of the

Operations Indicator Window will state, "Delete #'s from Stat

Array". Move the highlight to the CE/CL button and tap the

spacebar (or click with the mouse). The calculator will

respond by displaying within the History Window a message such

as, <ä(12)>Clear Entry. The next presse of the CE/CL button would

delete the eleventh number, and the next press of the CE/CL button

would delete the tenth number, etc. When you have finished delet-

ing numbers from the statistical array, press the än button two

more times - the Indicator Window will display normal indicators.

To delete all of the numbers from the statistical array, press

the än button a third time. A message at the top of the

Operations Indicator Window will state, "Delete All from Stat

Array". Move the highlight to the CE/CL button and tap the

spacebar (or click with the mouse).

4.14.4 Perm Permutations

The Perm button computes permutations. Enter a number into

the Primary Display Window then press the Perm button. The

calculator will respond by displaying, in the History Window,

the words, "Items = " followed by your number. The Primary

Display Window will have the words, "Rate =". Enter a rate

and press the equal button or any operation button.

4.14.5 Comb Combinations

The Comb button computes combinations. Enter a number into

the Primary Display Window then press the Comb button. The

calculator will respond by displaying, in the History Window,

the words, "Items = " followed by your number. The Primary

Display Window will have the words, "Rate =". Enter a rate

and press the equal button or any operation button.

4.14.6 Rand Random Number Functions

The Rand button toggles between three functions; Defined Range

randoms, Exp Distributed randoms, and Normal Curve randoms.

Enter a number into the Primary Display Window. Then press

the Rand button once for Defined Range randoms, again for

Exp Distributed randoms, again for Normal Curve randoms, and

again to turn off the random generator.

LS-1.00 Plus Random Number Functions 30

When you select Defined Range randoms, the History Window will

show, "Defined Range Random", and the number in the Primary

Display Window will be accepted as the minimum for the defined

range, and will show the message, "Min =". If this is not

acceptable, cycle through the Rand choices with the spacebar

(or mouse click) until the message, "Random Generator Off" is

displayed in the History Window. If acceptable, press the

equal button. The calculator will display, "Max =" in the

Primary Display Window. Enter a number for the maximum range,

then press the equal button.

When you select Exp Distributed randoms, the History Window

will show, "Exp Distributed Random", and the number in the

Primary Display Window will be accepted as the mean used to

define a random number with an exponential distribution. The

Primary Display Window will show "¤ =". If this is not accep-

table, cycle through the Rand choices with the spacebar (or

mouse click) until the message, "Random Generator Off" is dis-

played in the History Window. If acceptable, press the equal

button. The calculator will immediately calculate a random

number with an exponential distribution based upon the mean.

Note that the mean can first be generated with one of the

calculator's mean buttons, such as the Ari ¤ button.

When you select Normal Curve randoms, the History Window will

show, "Normal Curve Random", and the number in the Primary

Display Window will be accepted as the mean used to define a

random number with a normal distribution based upon that

mean and a standard deviation. The Primary Display Window

will show the message, "¤ =". If this is not acceptable, cycle

through the Rand choices with the spacebar (or mouse click)

until the message, "Random Generator Off" is displayed in the

History Window. If acceptable, press the equal button. The

calculator will display, "sd =" in the Primary Display Window.

Enter a number for the standard deviation (sd), then press

the equal button. Note, the mean can first be generated with

one of the calculator's mean buttons, such as the Ari ¤ but-

ton, and the standard deviation can be supplied with the

calculator's ä+ button's standard deviation function.

LS-1.00 Plus Random Number Functions 31

It is noteworthy to point out the process employed by the

calculator to generate random numbers. Each random number and

each digit within the random is created through a "shuffle"

process providing a random table whose sequence length is over

3.6028797018964 x 10^16. Further, when you first load the

calculator, the "seed" used to generate the random table is

determined by the system date plus the system time plus the

tick of the system clock plus a special "key". This means

that the random table used by LSRGCALC is uniquely different

each and every time you load the program. If time and date

are not set on your computer system, then the sequence of

possible random tables that the calculator can generate is in

excess of 7.6545051729021 x 10^199. It's safe to say you'll

never run out of random numbers!

4.14.7 Ari ¤ Arithmetic Mean

The Ari ¤ button computes the arithmetic mean of the numbers

entered into the statistical array.

4.14.8 Qua ¤ Quadratic Mean

The Qua ¤ button computes the quadratic mean of the numbers

entered into the statistical array.

4.14.9 Har ¤ Harmonic Mean

The Har ¤ button computes the harmonic mean of the numbers

entered into the statistical array.

4.14.10 Geo ¤ Geometric Mean

The Geo ¤ button computes the geometric mean of the numbers

entered into the statistical array.

LS-1.00 Plus Control Buttons 32

4.15 Control Buttons

4.15.1 CE/CL Clear Functions

The CE/CL button is a dual function button. The first press

of this button clears the entry from the Primary Display

Window. Press the CE/CL button twice in a row clears all

numbers except for those numbers held in the memory storage

or those numbers in the statistical array. Refer to chapter

4.14.3 for information regarding how to use this key to

delete numbers from the statistical array. Refer to chapter

4.10 for information regarding how to clear memory storage.

4.15.2 Sleep Put TSR to Sleep

If the calculator is RAM resident, this button will allow it

to "pop down". If the calculator is not RAM resident, this

button will terminate the program and remove it from memory.

4.15.3 End End The Program - Terminate TSR

If the calculator is RAM resident, this button will allow it

to terminate and remove itself from the system's memory. If

the End button is pressed while "popped up" over any program,

other than the DOS command line, the calculator will attempt

to terminate, display a message, "Go to the DOS Command Line.

Try again later." It will then "pop up" again, allowing you

to use the Sleep button. You are NOT allowed to terminate

any RAM resident program from within another application!

Be advised that if you have loaded another RAM resident pro-

gram after this program went memory resident, then remove this

program from memory with the End button, a hole will be created

in the DOS memory allocation system. This will probably cause

a system "hang", forcing you to reboot. A general rule for

removing ANY memory resident program is: LAST IN - FIRST OUT.

In other words, the last RAM resident program installed must

be the first program released from memory. The next to the

last loaded as RAM resident is the second one you can safely

remove, etc.

Registered versions of the calculator can use REMOVE.COM to

remove the calculator from memory directly from the DOS prompt.

At the DOS command line, simply type the command,

remove lsrgcalc (then press Enter)

LS-1.00 Plus Stuff The Keyboard 33

4.15.4 Stuff Stuff The Keyboard

The Stuff button stuffs the displayed number into the keyboard.

This facilitates transferring the number from the calculator to

the program it "popped up" over. In other words, if, let's

say, you are in a spreadsheet program and need to compute a

number, you would press your Hot Keys to awaken the calculator,

perform the calculations needed then, press the Stuff key but-

ton. LSRGCALC will stuff the keyboard with the displayed num-

ber then go to sleep. As soon as control is returned to your

spreadsheet program, the number that you stuffed will appear

in it (assuming the spreadsheet program is in a keyboard data

entry mode).

Before LSRGCALC stuffs the keyboard, it checks the length of

the number because the keyboard buffer can only hold 16 digits.

If the length of the number is greater than 15 digits, LSRGCALC

will do one of three things. If the number is a real number

in scientific notation, it will strip the mantissa to the

first ten digits, leaving the exponent unchanged. If the

number is in binary, it stuffs only the right 15 digits. Any

other number type will have only the left 15 digits stuffed

into the keyboard buffer.

4.16 Special Buttons

4.16.1 Hist History Log

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator will display your pre-

vious two operations in the History Window. It also remembers

the last 100 operations you performed. To review the last

100 operations, press the Hist button. LSRGCALC will respond

with a message in the Operations Indicator Window that states,

"Scroll History: <+> or <->". Use the plus button to move

forward through the history log. Use the minus button to move

backwards through the log. When you reach the beginning of

the log, LSRGCALC will display, in the History Window, the

message, "*** Top of History Log ***". When you reach the end

of the log, the message states, "*** Bottom of History Log ***"

and, if there has not been any operations recorded, it states,

"*** No History in Log ***". The Esc key will exit the review

of the History Log, returning you to normal calculator operation.

LS-1.00 Plus History Log 34

If there has been more than 100 operations entered, then LSRGCALC

will not display these messages. Instead, the history log will

loop from the last entry to the recorded entry that occurred 100

operation prior and back, depending whether you are moving forward

or backward through the log. Press the Hist button again to exit

the History Log.

4.16.2 Lpt Printer

The Lpt button toggles the printer (LPT1) on or off. Keep

a printed record of every operation entered into the LS-1.00

Plus Scientific Calculator. When the printer has been toggled

on, the calculator will display, "Lpt" in the Operations

Indicator Window.

4.16.3 File Disk File

The File button works exactly as the Lpt button except it

sends the output to a disk file called, "LSRGCALC.FIL". The

disk file is always created on the drive and path in which the

calculator "popped up". The file is in ASCII and easily read

by any editor or word processor. When this option is active,

LSRGCALC will display the word, "File" in the Operations

Indicator Window. The calculator can send data to the printer

and to a file at the same time. Press the File button again

to toggle it off.

4.16.4 Table Look-up Table

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator has a special feature

not found in any other calculator - a user configuarable lookup

table. The table can contain up to five hundred and twelve

lines of information, such as: values of constants, conversion

formulas, laws of mathematics, crib sheets, or those special

proprietary formulas, you or your company's business must have

at hand, for immediate calculations. The table is fully

scrollable.

Pressing the Table button actuates the lookup table. The

calculator immediately responds by extending the breadth of

the History Window to the full length of the calculator and

by displaying, in the Operations Indicator Window the message:

"Scroll: <+> <-> Select: <=>".

LS-1.00 Plus Look-up Table 35

ÂÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ¿

³ Operation Indicators ³

³ÉÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ»³

³ºScroll: <+> <-> Select: <=> º³

³ÌÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ¹³

³º------------------- º³

³ºa^(b function c) is invalid! º³

³º º³

³º a^(x+y) = a^x * a^y º³

³º a^(x-y) = a^x / a^y º³

³º a^(x*y) = (a^x)^y º³

³º º³

³ºInverse Hyperbolic Functions:º³

³º-----------------------------º³

³º º³

³ºsinh^-1n = Rad n ARC HYP SIN º³

³ºsinh^-1n = n+((n^2+1)û2) LogEº³

³º º³

³ºcosh^-1n = Rad n ARC HYP COS º³

³ºcosh^-1n = n+((n^2-1)û2) LogEº³

³º º³

³ºtanh^-1n = Rad n ARC HYP TAN º³

³ÈÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ¼³

ÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÙ

The plus button will scroll the highlight down one line at

a time. When the highlight is at the bottom line of the

Display Window, subsequent presses of the plus button will

scroll a full page at a time.

The minus key will scroll the highlight up one line at a

time. When the highlight is at the top line of the Display

Window, subsequent presses of the minus button will scroll a

full page at a time.

Most computers will be able to scroll through 512 lines of

lookup table, using just these two buttons, in approximately

three seconds.

Once the highlight is over the information you wish to retain,

press the equal button. The extended window will collapse

and the information that was highlighted will be placed into

the unused window beneath the History Window. The Esc key will

exit you from the lookup table and return you to the normal

calculator operation.

LS-1.00 Plus Appending the Look-up Table 36

4.16.4.1 Appending the Look-up Table

To append (or create a new) lookup tables is quite simple.

Use any text editor or word processor that can create an

ASCII file. The file must conform to the following rules:

- It must be called LSRGCALC.TBL and it must reside

on the same drive and same path as LSRGCALC.EXE.

- No line can extend more than 29 columns long. If a

line is longer than 29 characters, the excess will

be simply ignored by the calculator.

- Each line must end with a carriage return.

- The maximum number of lines permitted in the table is

512. If the table has more than 512 lines the excess

will simply be ignored by the calculator.

- Any ASCII character is permissible except for those

characters whose numbers are less than ASCII 32.

ASCII characters between 126 and 255 are permissible.

This means you can get fancy with symbols such as:

, «, °±², ÉÍ», à, á, å, æ, é, ò, ó, etc.

If the calculator is RAM resident at the time you modify

or create a lookup table, the calculator program must be

unloaded before it can read in your new table. Use the

End button to terminate the calculator program then, re-

run the program.

5. ORDER FORM

LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator Registration/Order Form

Please fill out this form, then mail it along with a check, money order or

warrent to:

Lawrence Stone Research Group

P.O. Box 5715

Charleston, Oregon 97420

Thanks for your support!

Name:_________________________________________________________

Title:________________________________________________________

Company:______________________________________________________

Address:______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

City: _____________________ State: _________ Zip:______

Telephone:__________________________________

If Customized Hot Key configuration is requested, please enclose an extra $5

US, and list at least five key combinations desired on the back of this form.

+============================================================================+

|Please send me ____ copies of LSRGCALC @ $_____/each for a total of $______ |

| Please send me ____ copies of the pre-printed manual @ $10 / each $______ |

| I am adding $5 US and requesting Customized Hot Key Configuration $______ |

| |

| TOTAL ENCLOSED $______ |

| Call or write for multiple copy (site license) prices. |

+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

+===================== Check One ====================+

| [__] 5 1/4" Diskettes [__] 3 1/2" Diskette |

+----------------------------------------------------+

Where did you get the LSRGCALC calculator from (check one - fill in line)?

[__] User Group Name of Group:_____________________________________

[__] BBS Name:_______________________)(Tel #:______________________

[__] Other Such as: ________________________________________________

Distributed via PUBLIC BRAND SOFTWARE

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