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Contents of the LSRGCALC.DOC file
















LS-1.00 Plus
Scientific Calculator

PROGRAM REFERENCE
MANUAL

Written and Developed
by
Lawrence Stone

Copyright 1990, LSRGroup.
Lawrence Stone Research
Group


































Published by

LSRGroup
P.O. Box 5715
Charleston, Oregon 79420
U.S.A.

Telephone: (503) 888-9716

Electronic Messages:
The Marshfield Exchange BBS 152/18

Latest Program Updates:
The Empire Builder BBS (503) 888-4121










Copyright (C) 1990 by Lawrence Stone Research Group

All Rights Reserved

Published in the United States of America





Acknowledgement

Appreciation is extended to Dave Cleary, whose request for a TSR
calculator, motivated this author into many days and sleepless
nights, in the mad pursuit of the world's best, TSR, full function,
scientific calculator for IBM and compatible computer systems.

Further acknowledgement is extended to Bob Fetherson and Jim Copley
for their ideas, suggestions, and assistance in the development of
the LS-1.00 Plus, Scientific Calculator.







LS-1.00 Plus Copyright ii






COPYRIGHT NOTICE

LSRGCALC.EXE (c) Copyright
Lawrence Stone Research Group
1990
All Rights Reserved

PROGRAM REFERENCE MANUAL (c) Copyright
Lawrence Stone Research Group
1990
All Rights Reserved

MOUSE.COM (c) Copyright
Microsoft Corporation
1989, 1988, 1987
All Rights Reserved

No parts of LS-1.00 Plus or this document may be copied in part or
in whole, except as provided in the License in the following pages.

Disclaimer

LSRGroup makes no warranty of any kind, either express or implied,
including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability
and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to this software
and accompanying documentation.

IN NO EVENT SHALL LSRGroup BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES (INCLUDING
DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF
BUSINESS INFORMATION, OR OTHER PECUNIARY LOSS) ARISING OUT OF THE
USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THIS PROGRAM, EVEN IF LSRGroup HAS BEEN
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

Author's Note Concerning Software Piracy

Piracy - The word conjures romantic images of Errol Flynn and swash-
buckling buccaneers. Here is another image to consider: an indepen-
ent, self-employed programmer who performs seven weeks, night and day,
laborious effort in the endeavor to produce the best program of it's
ilk. This man's time is not reimbursed through a company's vacation
pay. Time spent programming, for this man, is income lost. Further,
this programmer resides in one of America's poorest districts - Donald
Trump or Bill Gates, he is not. Do you want to know what this author
thinks of software pirates? He feels that only the scum of the Earth
would steal seven weeks of someone's time without any consideration or
thought of payment due. Shareware products are free to evaluate, not
to steal.

LS-1.00 Plus License iii






LICENSE/REGISTRATION INFORMATION



LSRGCALC.EXE is Copyright (c) 1990 by Lawrence Stone Research Group.

LSRGCALC is not, nor has ever been, public domain or free software.

The commercial, registered version of LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator
may not be duplicated other than for backup purposes. A registered copy
of LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator must be treated like a book, in
that the same registered copy of LSRGCALC may not be used in more
than one computer at the same time, just as a book can not be handled
and read by more than one person at the same time.

Users are granted a limited license to use the Shareware Edition, of
LSRGCALC for a limited evaluation period of up to 30 days, in order
to determine if it suits their needs. Any other use of LSRGCALC or
use past this period requires registration.

All users are granted a limited license to copy the Shareware Edition
of LSRGCALC only for the purpose of allowing others to try it, subject
to the above restrictions as well as these:

LSRGCALC must be distributed in absolutely unmodified form,
including ALL program, documentation, and other files.

LSRGCALC may not be included with any other product for any
reason whatsoever without a license from LSRGroup.

No charge or payment may be levied or accepted for LSRGCALC
without written permission from LSRGroup.

Bulletin Board system operators may post the unregistered, Shareware
Edition of LSRGCALC on their BBS for downloading by their users with-
out written permission only if the above conditions are met, and only
if no special fee is necessary to access the LSRGCALC files (a general
fee to access the BBS is ok).

Distributors of User Supported and Public Domain software MUST ob-
tain written permission from LSRGroup before distributing LSRGCALC
and must follow the above conditions. Permission is almost always
granted; this requirement is necessary to ensure protection for our-
selves and LSRGCALC users from unscrupulous individuals.

The following section contains information on registration and li-
censing.

LS-1.00 Plus License iv






Registration Information

Registering LSRGCALC allows you to use the product after the trial pe-
riod. Registered LSRGCALC users get the latest copy of the LS-1.00
Plus Scientific Calculator on disk and, free product support for three
months from date of registration (product telephone support is limited
to 30 minutes connect time during the hours of 10:00 am to 4:00 pm,
Pacific Time Zone, Monday through Friday). The registered version of
the calculator has instant pop up and pop down (no need to wait while
the calculator opens and closes) and also includes REMOVE.COM to remove
the calculator from memory without having to first pop it up.

LSRGCALC registration costs $39 US. The fee covers the cost of the
diskette, mailing and handling. A pre-printed LSRGCALC Program
Reference Manual (this document) is an additional $10 US. Customized
Hot Key configurations are available for an additional $5 US.


Corporate Site Licenses/Quantity Purchases

All corporate, business, government, agencies of government, or other
commercial users of the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator must be re-
gistered. Quantity discounts and corporate or site licensing is avail-
able. Call or write LSRGroup for quantity discount pricing.


Educational Institution Discounts

Educational Institutions will receive an Educational Institution
Discount Rate with their Site/Quantity purchase. Call or write
LSRGroup for details.

Developer's Licenses

Developers wishing to bundle LSRGCALC with their programs need to
write LSRGroup stating the nature of your program and the quantity of
sales you anticipate. LSRGroup will respond with a proposed agreement
stating your cost and duration of agreement.


ORDERING INFORMATION

Note: All prices and discounts are subject to change without notice.
Discounts apply only to separate orders, they are not cumulative.
To place an order, please use the order form at the end of this manual.

All orders must include check, money order, or warrant.

LS-1.00 Plus Contents v






C O N T E N T S


1 Introduction.............................................1
1.1 Program Description.................................1
1.2 The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator Philosophy...3
1.3 System Requirements.................................4
1.4 LSRGCALC Files......................................5

2 Getting Started..........................................6
2.1 Starting the Program................................7
2.1.1 Loading LSRGCALC Non-Resident...................7
2.1.2 Using the EMS Option............................7
2.1.3 Using the DISK Option...........................8
2.1.4 Using the DOS Option............................8
2.2 Hot Keys............................................9

3 Using the Calculator....................................10
3.1 Mouse Operation....................................10
3.2 Scroll Key and Spacebar Operation..................11
3.3 Immediate Key Actuation............................13
3.3.1 The Enter Key..................................14
3.3.2 The Spacebar Key...............................14
3.3.3 The BackSpace Key..............................14
3.3.4 The Esc Key....................................14
3.4 Definition of Symbols..............................14
3.5 The Rules of Algebraic Operations..................15

4 Program Features........................................17
4.1 Using the Parenthesis Buttons......................17
4.2 Immediate Functions................................18
4.3 Trigometric Function Buttons.......................20
4.4 Number Buttons A-F.................................20
4.5 n^ Exponent Button.................................21
4.6 Exp Button.........................................21
4.7 n Root Button.....................................22
4.8 Pi Button........................................22
4.9 +/- Change Sign Button.............................22
4.10 Memory Operations.................................23
4.11 Logarithm Buttons.................................23
4.12 Angular Mode Buttons..............................24







LS-1.00 Plus Contents vi






C O N T E N T S (cont.)


4.13 Number Mode Buttons...............................24
4.13.1 Float Floating Point Operations..............24
4.13.2 Bin Binary Numbers...........................24
4.13.3 Oct Octal Numbers............................25
4.13.4 Dec Decimal Numbers..........................25
4.13.5 Hex Hexidecimal Numbers......................25
4.13.6 Fix Fixed Decimal Point Operations...........25
4.13.7 Compx Complex Numbers........................26
4.13.8 Stats Statistical Operations.................26
4.13.9 Date Date Calculations.......................26
4.13.10 Time Time Calculations......................27
4.14 Statistical Functions.............................28
4.14.1 n! Factorial Function........................28
4.14.2 + Stat summations/standard deviations.......28
4.14.3 n Add or delete from stat array.............28
4.14.4 Perm Permutations............................29
4.14.5 Comb Combinations............................29
4.14.6 Rand Random Number Functions.................29
4.14.7 Ari Arithmetic Mean........................31
4.14.8 Qua Quadratic Mean.........................31
4.14.9 Har Harmonic Mean..........................31
4.14.10 Geo Geometric Mean........................31
4.15 Control Buttons...................................32
4.15.1 CE/CL Clear Functions........................32
4.15.2 Sleep Put TSR to Sleep.......................32
4.15.3 End End The Program - Terminate TSR..........32
4.15.4 Stuff Stuff The Keyboard.....................33
4.16 Special Buttons...................................33
4.16.1 Hist History Log.............................33
4.16.2 Lpt Printer..................................34
4.16.3 File Disk File...............................34
4.16.4 Table Look-up Table..........................34
4.16.4.1 Appending the Look-up Table...............36

5 ORDER FORM..............................................37










LS-1.00 Plus Introduction 1






1. INTRODUCTION



1.1 Program Description

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator is a full-featured terminate
and stay resident (TSR) program for PCs running under the PC/MS-DOS
operating system. LSRGCALC features include:

- seventy two "buttons" provide ninety two functions.

- mouse support (MS mouse compatible), scroll keys and
spacebar actuation, immediate keys, and/or any combination
of mouse, scroll and immediate key control.

- backspace key for minor fixes, CE/CL key to clear entry
and clear all.

- three ways in which to become RAM resident; EMS and DISK
reduce the LSRGCALC DOS memory requirement from approximately
204,000 bytes to 11,000 bytes, while "popped down". This means
around 193,000 bytes of DOS are freed to run other programs
with. Use the "Sleep" key to "pop down" the memory resident
calculator or the "End" key to entirely remove it from memory.
Or, run the program without going memory resident. The
choice is yours.

- five hundred and twelve line, user configurable, fully
scrollable, look-up table for holding information such as:
values of constants, conversion formulas, laws of mathematics,
crib sheets, or those special proprietary formulas, you or
your company's business must have at hand, for immediate
calculations.

- five hundred element statistical array!

- automatic summations and standard deviations, arithmetic
means, quadratic means, harmonic means, and geometric means
calculated from the numbers entered into the statistical
array.

- permutations and combinations. You tell LSRGCALC the number
of items and the rate, and LSRGCALC immediately displays the
answer.



LS-1.00 Plus Program Description 2






- factorials for any real number (whole integer) from 1 to 170.

- random number generator offers "Defined Range" randoms (you
define the range for the random number), "Exp Distributed"
randoms (returns a real value with an exponential distribu-
tion defined by your mean), "Normal Curve" randoms (returns
a real value with a normal curve defined by your mean and
your standard deviation).

- scrollable history log. Review the last 100 operations
entered into the calculator.

- toggle printer on and off. Keep a written record of every
keystroke in a similar manner as a desk-top adding machine.

- toggle disk file on and off. Send every keystroke to a disk
file for later review. The disk file will be created in the
active path were the calculator "popped up".

- the stuff key button places the displayed number into the
keyboard buffer. This will automatically transfer the number
displayed back to the program in which the calculator "popped
up" over.

- date difference calculations and date mathematics determine
the number of days between two dates or, add and/or subtract
a specified number of years, months, and days from a given
date.

- time difference calculations and time mathematics determine
the difference between one time of day from another time of
day or, add and/or subtract a specified number of hours,
minutes, and seconds from a time of day.

- calculate sines, cosines, tangents, arc or hyp functions or
inverse hyperbolic functions in degree, radian, or gradian
modes.

- calculate numbers with fixed or floating decimals. Allows
fixed decimals from zero to 15 places.

- perform calculations in real, binary, octal, hexidecimal, or
complex number modes.





LS-1.00 Plus Program Description 3






- calculate Log base e, Log base 10, or Log base n. Use the
Log e button to compute the log of a complex number.

- calculate nth root of any real number, real number roots of
complex numbers or complex roots of complex numbers.

- calculate nth power of any real number or the complex power
of any complex number.

- use the Exp button to work with scientific notation for any
real number or, calculate the exponential function for any
complex number with the Exp button (create complex numbers
to powers of ten with the "E" key).

- determine the reciprocal of any real or complex number with
the "1/n" button.

- determine the exact order in which algebraic expression are
evaluated with the parenthesis keys. You can have up to
eight pending parenthesis operations at any one time.

- work with any real number in the range of -2,147,483,648 to
+2,147,483,647. Real numbers greater than this range are
automatically forced into scientific notation with a range
of -1.79 x 10^308 to +1.79 x 10^308.

- work with any hexidecimal number in the range of zero to
7FFFFFFF, any octal number in the range of 0 to 17777777777,
or any binary from 1000000000000000 to 0111111111111111.
Complex numbers can range from (-3.40x10^38 -3.40x10^38i) to
(+3.40x10^38 +3.40x10^38i).


1.2 The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator Philosophy

When LSRGCALC was written, one basic idea was kept in mind. It was
felt that a powerful, interactive calculator program could be as
easy to operate, or easier, as the hand-held calculator resting on
top of the desk, along-side your computer. Couple this power with
versatility, functionality and blazing speed.

We believe, after trying LSRGCALC, that you will end up placing that
hand-held pocket calculator, presently at rest beside your computer,
into your briefcase where it belongs.




LS-1.00 Plus System Requirements 4








1.3 System Requirements

- IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, or close compatible.

- PC/MS DOS version 3.0 or newer.

- 80 column monitor in 80 x 25, 80 x 43 or 80 x 50 text mode.
LSRGCALC will refuse to "pop up" over a graphics screen mode.

- Hard disk or floppy with 640 Kbytes available for program
file space (minimum disk space required can be as low as
162,000 bytes if you are not using the DISK option).

- 204,000 bytes of free DOS memory to initially load LSRGCALC
as RAM resident (or as a "normal", non-resident program).
When LSRGCALC is loaded as TSR (RAM resident) and "asleep",
it will free up all but around 11,000 bytes of it's DOS
memory for use by other programs. If you make it RAM resident
in DOS, then all 204,000 bytes will remain in DOS.

- LSRGCALC's EMS option requires 212,992 bytes available LIM
(Lotus-Intel-Microsoft) EMS (Expanded Memory System) version
4.0 or newer. LIM EMS is highly desirable but not necessary.

Although LSRGCALC can perform the DISK option from a floppy drive
(with sufficient free disk space), we don't recommend this because
"pop up" and "pop down" time from floppy drives will take several
seconds.


1.4 LSRGCALC Files

LSRGCALC comes with a number of files and may create more in its
normal operation. Files included in the LSRGCALC package are:

LSRGCALC.EXE - The LSRGCALC program itself
LSRGCALC.DOC - The LSRGCALC program reference manual
CALCSCRN.MON - The LSRGCALC screen file for monochrome systems
CALCSCRN.CLR - The LSRGCALC screen file for color systems
LSRGCALC.TBL - The LSRGCALC, user configurable look-up table
README.NOW - File containing information relating to any
changes or other details not covered in this
manual.
MOUSE.COM - Microsoft mouse driver.
REMOVE.COM - Registered versions of the calculator only.

LS-1.00 Plus LSRGCALC Files 5






Files that LSRGCALC may create during it's normal operation are:

LSRGCALC.FIL - The file created in the default path when you
choose the "File" button.

C100 & C101 - The files created by LSRGCALC when it goes RAM
resident with the DISK option. These files are
automatically removed by LSRGCALC when you "END"
it from memory (terminate).







































LS-1.00 Plus Getting Started 6






2. Getting Started

First, before you do anything else, make a backup copy of your
LSRGCALC diskette.

Although you can run LSRGCALC from a floppy drive (with sufficient
free disk space), it is not recommended. If you do so, and if you
install LSRGCALC RAM resident with the DISK option, then you must
keep the LSRGCALC diskette in the drive so that LSRGCALC can read
and write two "C1" files.

A more practical method for loading and running LSRGCALC is from a
hard drive. Create a free directory for LSRGCALC and its files.
You create the new directory by first, checking into the appropriate
drive with a command such as:

C: (then press Enter)

Next, tell DOS to make a new directory. We suggest you call your
new directory "CALC". Issue the command:

md \CALC (then press Enter)

Now, have your computer reference itself from within your new
directory by typing the command:

cd \CALC (then press Enter)

Finally, place the LSRGCALC diskette into a floppy drive, such as
A: drive, and copy all the LSRGCALC files with the command:

copy a:*.* (then press Enter)

The LSRGCALC files that you must have, in order to run the LS-1.00
Plus Scientific Calculator are:

LSRGCALC.EXE
CALCSCRN.MON (if you have a monochrome video card)
CALCSCRN.CLR (if you have a color video card)
LSRGCALC.TBL (not necessary but highly recommended)








LS-1.00 Plus Starting the Program 7






2.1 Starting the Program

To run the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator, your computer must
first reference itself to the drive and path in which the LSRGCALC
files are located. This means that if the LSRGCALC files reside
in another drive OR another directory, you must first issue the
DOS command to change to the appropriate drive and/or directory
before you tell LSRGCALC to load and run. If you are working from
within, let's say, drive D: and the LSRGCALC are in C:\CALC then
type the following commands:

C: (then press Enter)
cd \CALC (then press Enter)

You can run the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator four different
ways, by typing the following commands:


2.1.1 Loading LSRGCALC Non-Resident

Type the command:

LSRGCALC (then press Enter)

This will make LSRGCALC load and run as a normal, non-RAM resident
program. That is to say, when you exit the program with the "End"
or "Sleep" buttons (or the Esc key), LSRGCALC will 100% free it-
self from memory, returning all of the memory it used to DOS and
any other program that may need it.


2.1.2 Using the EMS Option

Type the command:

LSRGCALC ems (then press Enter)

The above command will install LSRGCALC as RAM resident using your
expanded memory system (note - expanded memory is NOT the same as
extended memory). If you issue the above command and EMS memory
is not available, or insufficient EMS is available, or your system
has an EMS hardware problem, LSRGCALC will then load itself RAM
resident within DOS memory. When this option is used, LSRGCALC
moves all of it's memory "image" to EMS memory except for a small
11 Kbyte DOS kernel. This means that approximately 193,000 bytes
of DOS memory is freed for use by other programs.


LS-1.00 Plus Using the DISK Option 8







2.1.3 Using the DISK Option

Type the command:

LSRGCALC disk (then press Enter)

The above command will install LSRGCALC as RAM resident using your
disk to temporarily store it's memory "image". If you issue the
above command and there is insufficient disk space or a disk hard-
ware problem, LSRGCALC will attempt to terminate and remove itself
from your system's memory. When this option is used, LSRGCALC
will write all of it's memory "image" (except for a small 11 K-
byte kernel) as two files to your disk in the same location that
the LSRGCALC.EXE resides. These files will be named, "C100" and
"C101" and will initially be zero bytes and approx. 194,768 bytes,
respectively. After you have "popped up" the calculator, these
files will be about the same size, approximately 194,768 bytes
each (or somewhat less).

When you un-install the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator from
your system's memory with the "End" button, the last two "C1"
files created by LSRGCALC will be automatically deleted from your
disk. (Registered versions of the calculator can use REMOVE.COM
to un-install the calculator directly from the DOS prompt).


2.1.4 Using the DOS Option

Type the command:

LSRGCALC dos (then press Enter)

The above command will install LSRGCALC as RAM resident using your
system's DOS memory. This option leaves the LSRGCALC memory
"image" entirely in DOS leaving approximately 204,000 bytes less
memory available for other programs to use.











LS-1.00 Plus Hot Keys 9






2.2 Hot Keys

When LSRGCALC successfully becomes RAM resident, it will display the
messages:

"LSRGCALC is Loaded into Memory and is Going to Sleep."
"Use + Key Combination to Awaken."

Now, to "pop up" the calculator, at any time, simply press and
hold down the Right Shift key then, tap the Spacebar key. If
the calculator is RAM resident using DOS or EMS memory, the
calculator will immediately "pop up" over the current program.

If you have made the calculator RAM resident using the DISK option
then, the calculator will take a second or so to "pop up". If
your system is using a slow disk drive, it may take two or three
seconds to "pop up". To let you know that something is, indeed,
happening, you will notice that there will be a square, blinking,
green cursor at the upper-left most corner of the monitor.

You may only have one copy of the calculator RAM resident at a
time. If you try to load a second copy as RAM resident, you will
be informed:

"LSRGCALC Already Installed in Memory!"
"Use + Key Combination to Awaken."

You are, however, allowed to install one copy of the calculator
as RAM resident, then load and run a second copy of the calculator
as a "normal", non-resident program. This would serve no useful
purpose except to allow you to perform two calculations on two
copies of the calculator, from within one computer system.
















LS-1.00 Plus Using the Calculator 10






3. Using the Calculator


LS-1.00 Plus Calculator
Operation Indicators
Primary Display Window
Operations Indicator Window
Copyright 1990, LSRGroup.
History Window
ARC Exc Rcl Sto CE/CL Displays Previous 2 Entries

HYP SIN COS TAN Sleep Info From The Look-Up Table

n^ Exp ( ) End
StuffHist Lpt File Table
n D E F
n! + n Perm Comb
1/n A B C x
RandAri Qua Har Geo
Log10 7 8 9 -
Deg Rad Grad
Log e 4 5 6 +
Float Bin Oct Dec Hex
Log n 1 2 3
= Fix CompxStats Date Time
0 +/-



3.1 Mouse Operation

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator will make use of a
MS mouse (or compatible), if installed. Simply position the
mouse cursor over a calculator button and click with either the
right or left mouse keys. The experienced mouse user will want
to click and drag while using the Hist or Table functions. This
will not work. Scrolling these functions require positioning
the mouse cursor over the "+" or "-" button and clicking the
right or left mouse key (refer to chapter 4.16.4). This was
done to make all functions, whether mouse or keyboard, operate
in a manner similar to a pocket calculator. With a pocket cal-
culator, you would move a finger over the appropriate button and
press it down. Use your mouse as an extension of your finger.

LSRGCALC.EXE is programmed for the Microsoft mouse or 100%
compatables. If you are experiencing problems with your mouse,
try loading MOUSE.COM supplied with this program.

LS-1.00 Plus Scroll Key and Spacebar Operation 11






3.2 Scroll Key and Spacebar Operation

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator was designed to be used
in a manner similar to a pocket calculator. With a pocket
calculator, you move a finger over the appropriate button and
then press the button. With LSRGCALC, you move the highlight
over the appropriate button and press the spacebar key. The
philosophy for operating the calculator in this manner is, "if
you already know how to operate a typical pocket calculator then
your learning time required to become proficient with the LS-1.00
Plus Scientific Calculator is almost zero."

The following keys will scroll the calculator's highlight:

Up Arrow: Moves the highlight up one button at a time.
Wraps at the top button to the bottom button
on the same column of buttons.

Down Arrow: Moves the highlight down one button at a time.
Wraps at the bottom button to the top button
on the same column of buttons.

Right Arrow: Moves the highlight right one button at a time.
Wraps at the right-most button of the row to
the corresponding row's left-most button.

Left Arrow: Moves the highlight left one button at a time.
Wraps at the left-most button of the row to the
corresponding row's right-most button.

PgUp: Moves the highlight to the top-most button of
the column. Does not wrap.

PgDn: Moves the highlight to the bottom-most button
of the column. Does not wrap.

Home: The Home key moves the highlight to the left-
most button on the side of the calculator it is
on. If the highlight is positioned on the right
side of the calculator, the second tap on the
key will move it to the right-most button on the
left side, and the third tap of the Home key will
move the highlight to the far left.





LS-1.00 Plus Scroll Key and Spacebar Operation 12







This facilitates moving to the beginning column
of buttons for the side of the calculator you are
working with. The Home key will not wrap.

End: The End key moves the highlight to the right-
most button on the side of the calculator it is
on. If the highlight is positioned on the left
side of the calculator, the second tap on the
key will move it to the left-most button on the
right side, and the third tap of the End key will
move the highlight to the far right.

This facilitates moving to the ending column
of buttons for the side of the calculator you are
working with. The End key will not wrap.

To "press" a button, move the highlight over it using one or
more of the scroll keys, then tap your spacebar key. DO NOT
USE THE ENTER KEY. The Enter key is reserved by LSRGCALC for
use as an equal button (refer to the following chapter entitled,
"Immediate Key Actuation").

To facilitate cursor movement, LSRGCALC dramatically reduces your
computer's cursor delay rate. The effect is a tremendous increase
in your cursor response time. However, whenever you End or put
the calculator to Sleep, LSRGCALC will re-set the cursor's delay
rate to it's original state (Well behaved computer program's must
always restore EVERYTHING to their original conditions before
they terminate control!). In other words, if your cursor is
sluggish, it will speed up when you "pop up" the calculator and
slow down when you "pop down" the calculator.
















LS-1.00 Plus Immediate Key Actuation 13








3.3 Immediate Key Actuation

Please note: "button" refers to any of the 72, rectangular areas

of the calculator that perform computations. "Key" refers to any
of the keys on your computer's keyboard.

To help non-mouse users operate the calculator with almost the
same speed that can be achieved with a mouse, the LS-1.00
Plus Scientific Calculator allows direct key correlation between
your keyboard and 27 of it's buttons. The following keys on your
computer's keyboard will immediately active the listed buttons:

Immediate Key Button Selected


0 through 9 0 through 9
A through F {shift key ignored} A through F
. or Del .
( {use shift + 9} or [ (
) {use shift + 0} or ] )
\ or /
* x
- -
+ +
= or Enter =
^ {use shift + 6} ^
@ {use shift + 2} n
! {use shift + 1} 1/n

Using any of the above listed keys will immediately actuate the
appropriate calculator button. You do not need to use the space-
bar with Immediate Keys.

To maximize operation speed of your calculator, place your right
hand at the separate number pad on the right side of the keyboard
and your left hand near the spacebar. Your right hand then
controls the selection of math operators (grey keys), as well as,
controls movement of the highlight with appropriate scroll keys.
Your left hand handles all non-shifted immediate keys, as well
as, the spacebar.

REMEMBER: THE ENTER KEY IS YOUR EQUAL KEY - IT WILL NOT WORK AS
YOUR SPACEBAR. To actuate a highlighted button, use the spacebar
not the Enter key - your Enter key only actuates the "=" button.


LS-1.00 Plus The Backspace Key 14




3.3.1 The Enter Key

The Enter key only actuates the equal button (=). Use the
spacebar key to actuate any other button while highlighted.

3.3.2 The Spacebar Key

The spacebar actuates any button currently highlighted.

3.3.3 The BackSpace Key

Unlike your pocket calculator, the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific
Calculator will make use of your computer's backspace key.
Each press of the backspace key will delete the right-most
digit of the number shown in the Primary Display Window.
The backspace key is inactive in the Date or Time Number
Modes, as well as, whenever you are entering a number re-
quired by any Immediate Function button.

When working with complex numbers, the backspace key will not
delete the right-most digit of the real component if you have
informed the calculator that you are entering the imaginary
component. Once you have informed the calculator that you
are entering the imaginary component, the backspace key will
only delete the right-most digits of the imaginary component.

3.3.4 The Esc Key

If you have loaded LSRGCALC without any options, the Esc key
will terminate the program, removing all of it's memory for
use by other programs.

If you have loaded LSRGCALC with either the EMS, DISK, or DOS
options, the Esc key will "pop down" the calculator and put
it to Sleep.

The Esc key can be used to exit the History Log, as well as,
to exit the Look Up Table.

3.4 Definition of Symbols

Because of the nature of a computers non-graphics screen display
and because of the limitations of the typical keyboard, many
mathematical symbols are difficult (and sometime impossible) to
replicate on your monitor. Therefore, the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific
Calculator may use some unfamiliar symbols. For example, 4 or
4 squared is relatively easy to display - even many typewriters
can handle that one. But, how do we display 4 to the power of 16?
for the square root is easy but how about the cubed root?

LS-1.00 Plus Definition of Symbols 15






The calculator, as well as, this manual will use the following
symbols (among others):

^ exponent, such as 3^5 meaning 3 to the power of 5
root, such as 3 for the cubed root
or / division, such as 5 / 4 for 5 divided by 4
1/n reciprocal, a number divided into 1
sd standard deviation, used with statistical functions
mean (average), used with statistical functions
x or * multiplication, such as 5 * 4 for 5 times 4
r real number root of a complex number (, etc.)
j complex root of a complex number

The n^ n and 1/n buttons are defined as: n to the power of,
the nth root, and the reciprocal of n, respectively.

Scientific notation is a form for expressing numbers (called the
mantissa) multiplied by 10 raised to a power (the exponent). This
is a very useful method to work with very large or very small num-
bers. The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator will use a capital
"D" to show scientific notation for any real number, whereas,
complex numbers will use a capital "E". For example:

7.56987345 x 10^199 is expressed as 7.56987345D+199
7.56987345 x 10^-98 is expressed as 7.56987345D-98
(3.45x10^23 -4.5x10^19i) is expressed as (3.45E+23 -4.5E+19i)


3.5 The Rules of Algebraic Operations

Mathematics is a science with some concrete rules. One of it's
most basic rule is to never allow two different answers to the
same series of calculations. Because of this, mathematics has
a universal set of rules for performing calculations employing
mixed operations. For example, what is the correct answer to
the following problem:

3 + 7 - 2 x 24 12 = ?

There is only one correct answer, and the answer is 6, not 16.

"Whoa, just a second", you say. "My adding machine just did
the above calculation and it printed out 16, not 6 as you say."





LS-1.00 Plus The Rules of Algebraic Operations 16






Well, your adding machine is correct if we consider each subset
of operations, in the above example, as separate problems, with
the result of each previous operation applied to the next subset.
In other words:

3
+ 7 = 10
- 2 = 8
x 24 = 192
12 = 16

However, the example equation above is not composed of a separate
subset of problems, but rather, is one problem, represented by
one equation, and, therefore, only has one correct answer and
that answer is 6, due to the rules of algebraic operations.

The universal rule for determining which operation has priority
over the other operators and, hence is performed first is:


Priority Operations

1 (highest) parenthesis, hyperbolic, trigometric,
factorial, reciprocal, angle conversion,
combinations, permutations, logarithms

2 powers and roots

3 multiplication and division

4 (lowest) addition and subtraction



The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator does NOT use the rules
of Algebraic Operations. Rather, like your adding machine,
it applies each operator to the result of the previous operation.

However, the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator can be instructed
to calculate a subset of data as a separate operation then, apply
the results of the subset to the rest of the calculation. You
instruct it to do so by placing parenthesis around the set of
operators and numbers that have "priority".





LS-1.00 Plus Program Features 17






4. Program Features

4.1 Using the Parenthesis Buttons

Because the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator will compute a
formula composed of mixed operators in the same manner as a add-
ing machine, you must inform the program which operators have
priority within the formula being calculated. In the example
discussed in chapter 3.5, we desired to have our computation
conform to the rules of Algebraic operations. The formula

3 + 7 - 2 x 24 12 = ?

would need to be expressed as

3 + 7 - (2 x 24 12) = 6

One result of using the parenthesis buttons is clarity. The
expression above is, at a glance, very clear as to what oper-
ations have priority. Clarity promotes good math. Another
result of effective use of parenthesis is that it allows you to
define which operations are to be performed ahead of the others.
The formula above could be re-entered as:

(3 + 7 - (2 x 24)) 12 = -3.16666666666667

Notice that this use of the parenthesis forced a different pri-
ority of operations which produced a radically different result.
Also note that although the result is radically different, it
is completely valid because we did not break the rules of alge-
braic operations - parenthesis are of the highest priority.

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator allows up to eight pending
parenthesis operations at one time. The calculator will inform
you of pending parenthesis operations in it's Indicator Window
by displaying (1) for one pending operation, (2) for two, etc.

The calculator will not work a computation, such as, implied
multiplication, i.e, (a + 1)(b - 1). You must explicitly place
the operator between the two sets of parenthesis. In other words,

(a + 1) * (b - 1) is valid
(a + 1)(b - 1) is not valid.

Also, the calculator will not allow parenthesis to be used within
Immediate Functions, e.g., a^(x + y) must be entered using the
appropriate Law of Exponents.

LS-1.00 Plus Immediate Functions 18






4.2 Immediate Functions

Immediate Functions are operators that immediately affect the
number displayed in the Primary Display Window (the display
window at the top-left side of the calculator). Immediate
Functions include SIN, COS, TAN, or their inverse and/or hyper-
bolic functions - ARC and HYP, n^, n, 1/n, Deg, Rad, Grad, Bin
Dec, Float, Oct, Hex, n!, Fix, or, any Log button.

Certain Immediate Functions will require additional keystrokes.
For example, n asks for the nth root. You must supply this
number and inform the calculator to continue with either a press
of the equal button or, any other algebraic operator button or
parenthesis button.

You cannot use parenthesis within any Immediate Function. For
example, the expression, a^(x + y) would require the use of
the power button, n^ which is an Immediate Function.

Although LSRGCALC will not allow parenthesis within Immediate
Functions, it will allow Immediate Functions within a set of
parenthesis. In other words, (a^x)^y is perfectly valid. You
can also use one Immediate Function to affect another. For
instance, you can calculate 125 to the power of the reciprocal
of 3 (the cubed root) with the following buttons:

125 n^ 3 1/n =

"OK, great", you say. But, you have a classroom assignment and
need to calculate a^(x + y). Well, one of the beautiful features
of mathematics is, "there is more than one way to skin the cat"
(maybe you have to be a mathematician to appreciate the beauty).
At any rate, the formula above can be re-stated with the Laws of
Exponents: a^(x + y) = a^x * a^y

Below are a few Laws of Exponents you may find useful.

Laws of Exponents

Expression You Use

a^(x + y) a^x * a^y
a^(x - y) a^x / a^y
a^(x * y) (a^x)^y




LS-1.00 Plus Immediate Functions 19






The calculator can use Laws of Logarithms as well:

Laws of Logarithms

Expression You Use

Log(a^b) b * a LogE
Log(a * b) a LogE + b LogE
Log(a / b) a LogE - b LogE


Other laws, such as, Laws of Cosines are expressed as:

Laws of Cosines

Expression You Use

____________________
a = b + c -2bc cos A b^2 + c^2 - (2 * b * c * A COS) 2 =
____________________
b = a + c -2ac cos B a^2 + c^2 - (2 * a * c * B COS) 2 =
____________________
c = a + b -2ab cos C a^2 + b^2 - (2 * a * b * C COS) 2 =


The above examples of the Laws of Cosines clearly illustrate how
Immediate Functions affect the preceding number, as well as, when
parenthesis are needed and, when they are not. The quantity,
2ab, according to algebraic rules, has priority over the other
operators within the square root function. Consequently, we
show this within a set of parenthesis. The COS function is an
Immediate Function, directly changing the value of C and, thus,
does not need to be enclosed within it's own set of parenthesis.
Nor, does the interim result of the computation need to have it's
own set of parenthesis because, the closing parenthesis that fol-
lows the cosine will complete the calculation to that point. This
produces an interim result that is immediately acted upon by the
n button (you define the root 2 by pressing the n button, then
the 2 button and then press the equal button).









LS-1.00 Plus Trigometric Function Buttons 20






4.3 Trigometric Function Buttons

Trigometric Function Buttons are SIN, COS, TAN, their inverse
function button, ARC, and their hyperbolic function button, HYP.

Trigometric Function Buttons are Immediate Functions, which
immediately act upon the number displayed in the Primary Display
Window. The following illustrate the button sequence employed
with Trigometric Function buttons and their results while in the
degree Angular Mode:

Buttons Pressed Number Displayed

12 SIN .207911690817708
.567 ARC SIN 34.541290458534
21 HYP SIN 37781287770.667
15 ARC HYP SIN 194.937811395351

One very important note regarding trigometric functions. The
LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator defaults to the degree mode.
Many trigometric calculations are often performed in the radian
mode, such as, inverse hyperbolic functions.

Computing a SIN, COS, or TAN function in the Deg Angular Mode,
then pressing the Rad or Grad button, will produce a very dif-
ferent result than one produced by first pressing the Rad or Grad
buttons, then computing the SIN, COS, or TAN. However, the
calculator will consistently convert inverse, hyperbolic, or
inverse hyperbolic functions whether the Angular Mode was set
before or after the computation.

The rational for constructing the calculator this way is this:
the sin, cos, or tan of, let's say, 12 is not the same as the
sin, cos, or tan of 12 radians, and, therefore, the computation
should reflect this difference. However, many computations util-
izing the inverse and/or the hyperbolic functions require radian
angular measurements. What we have done is to try to anticipate
a possible mistake with establishing the proper Angular Mode
while performing inverse and/or hyperbolic computations.


4.4 Number Buttons A-F

The number buttons, A through F, have no effect unless you have
established the Number Mode as either Hex (hexidecimal) or Compx
(complex).


LS-1.00 Plus Number Buttons A-F 21






When computing in the Compx Number Mode, the only letter buttons
that are active are "B" and "E". The "B" button informs the
calculator that the real component of the complex number has
been entered and you are now entering the imaginary component.
When you press the "B" button, the calculator will post a small
case letter "i" at the right-most side of the Primary Display
Window. When you see this, the calculator is awaiting you to
enter the imaginary component of the number.

The "E" button is used to force either the real component and/or
the imaginary component of a complex number into their scientific
notation form. Use the "E" button after the mantissa has been
entered.


4.5 n^ Exponent Button

The Exponent Button is used to raise the number displayed in the
Primary Display Window to an exponent value. The n^ button only
works with real (Float or Dec) or complex numbers (not Hex, Bin,
or Oct). When using this button with real numbers, the exponent
can be a positive, negative, or decimal value. This button can
also be used in conjunction with the 1/n button to raise a number
to a reciprocal power.

If an integer number (whole number) is raised to an exponent and
the number is less than 2,147,483,647 or, the number is greater
than -2,147,483,648, then, as soon as you press any operation
button, the calculator will convert it to a number within this
range, e.g., 1D+3 + 1 = 1001 or, 1D+3 = 1000. Also, any compu-
tation that results in a number outside of the 2.147 billion
range will be automatically displayed in scientific notation.

Use the n^ button to raise a complex number to a complex value.


4.6 Exp Button

The Exp button is used to enter a real number (Float or Dec) as
scientific notation. Use it after the mantissa has been entered.

The Exp button is also used for raising a complex number to it's
exponential function. To raise a complex number to a complex
power, use the n^ button.




LS-1.00 Plus n Root Button 22






4.7 n Root Button

The Root Button is used to compute the number displayed in the
Primary Display Window to it's nth root. The n button only
works with real (Float or Dec) or complex numbers (not Hex, Bin,
or Oct). When using this button with real numbers, the root
can be a positive, negative, or decimal value. This button can
also be used in conjunction with the 1/n button to compute a root
to a reciprocal value.

Use the n button to compute a complex number to either a real
value root or a complex root. To compute a real root of a complex
number, enter the complex number, press the n button once. You
will see displayed r = which informs you that the calculator is
awaiting you to enter a real number. Enter the number then press
the equal button. To compute a complex root of a complex number,
press the n button twice. You will see displayed j which is to
inform you that the calculator is awaiting another complex number.
Enter the complex number and press the equal button.


4.8 Pi Button

The button acts as any other number button. If you are in a
real number mode (Float or Dec), pi is displayed and calculated
to 14 significant digits (12 decimal digits) which, for your
information, is 3.141592653589. If you are computing in the
complex number mode then the button will, for both the real
component or imaginary component, display and compute pi to eight
significant digits = 3.141593.

Using the button while in either octal or hexidecimal number
modes will result in a display and subsequent computations where
pi = 3. The button is not operative while in binary mode.


4.9 +/- Change Sign Button

The +/- button is used to change the sign or signs of any real
or complex number. When using it to change the sign, you must
first have, at least, one digit of the number entered. For
example, enter the number 2.567 then press the +/- button to make
the number negative. Then press the Exp button, press the +/-
button, then enter 199. The result will be -2.567D-199. You
can use the +/- button within any Immediate Function except LogN
(you cannot compute a logarithm to the base of a negative number).


LS-1.00 Plus +/- Change Sign Button 23






The +/- button also allows you to change the signs within a
complex number. For example, enter the number 3.45 then press
the +/- button to make it negative. Then press the "E" button
to raise it to an exponent. Enter the exponent 12 then press the
+/- button to make the exponent negative. Press the "B" button
to continue with the imaginary component of the number. Enter
the number 5.4, press the +/- button, press the "E" button, then
enter 8 and, again press the +/- button. The resulting complex
number will be (-3.45E-12 -5.4E-8i).


4.10 Memory Operations

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator has three buttons for use
with memory operations. The memory operations are active in all
number mode computations except for Date or Time operations. You
can store a number while in one number mode, change to another
number mode then, when you recall or exchange it, it will auto-
matically be converted to the present number mode. The only
exception is complex numbers, which do not convert from one mode
to another.

The Sto button is used to copy the number from the Primary Display
Window to memory. If the number is non-zero, then the number is
stored and the calculator will indicate such with a "M" in the
Operation Indicators Window. If the number is zero or the Primary
Display Window is blank (or displays a Clear message) then, the
memory is cleared and the "M" is removed from the Operation
Indicators Window.

To recall the number stored in memory, press the Rcl button. To
exchange a number with the number stored in memory, press the
Exc button. You can exchange a zero with a non-zero without
clearing the memory.


4.11 Logarithm Buttons

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator offers three types of
logarithm computations: Log base 10, Log base e, and Log base n.
Logarithm functions act immediately upon the displayed number.

The Log10 button computes the log of the displayed number to the
base 10.

The Log e button computes the log of the displayed number to the
base e, or use it to compute the log of a complex number.

LS-1.00 Plus Logarithm Buttons 24






The Log n button computes the log of the displayed number to the
base n. When you choose this option, the calculator will ask you
to enter a number for base n. Enter the number then press the
equal button or another operation button to continue.


4.12 Angular Mode Buttons

The Angular Mode buttons are Immediate Functions. Any number
displayed in the Primary Display Window will immediately be
converted to the appropriate angular mode. Angular Mode buttons
are Deg, Rad, and Grad for conversion to degrees, radians, and
gradians, respectively. The default mode for the calculator is
degrees. The current angular mode will be displayed in the
Operations Indicator Window. Refer to chapter 4.3 for infor-
mation pertaining to Angular Modes and Trigometric buttons.


4.13 Number Mode Buttons

4.13.1 Float Floating Point Operations

The Float button will force the calculator into the degree
Angular Mode (Deg) and in the decimal number mode. It will
float any decimal operations up to 16 significant digits. If
the number has more than 16 significant digits the calculator
will the force the results of the computation into scientific
notation. Numbers in this mode can range from -1.79D+308 to
+1.79D+308. When the Float button is selected, the Operations
Indicator Window will display the words, "Deg" and "Float".


4.13.2 Bin Binary Numbers

The Bin button will force the calculator into the binary
number mode. Binary numbers can range from a decimal value
of -32,768 to +32,767. When the Bin button is selected, the
Operations Indicator Window will display the words, "Bin" and
"Fix". You cannot use decimal operations in the binary mode.

Binary numbers are not handled, by the calculator, in the same
manner as other number systems. The effect of this is that
when you first enter into the binary mode, you will need to
press the equal button to actuate acceptance of the number(s)
you wish to enter.



LS-1.00 Plus Octal Numbers 25





4.13.3 Oct Octal Numbers

The Oct button will force the calculator into the octal
number mode. Octal numbers can range from a decimal value
of 0 to +2,147,483,647. When the Oct button is selected, the
Operations Indicator Window will display the words, "Oct" and
"Fix". You cannot use decimal operations nor negative numbers
in the octal number mode.


4.13.4 Dec Decimal Numbers

The Dec button will force the calculator into the decimal
number mode. It works exactly as the Float button except if
you have previously selected a fixed decimal position then
the number of "Fixed" remains the same. Note - binary,
octal and hexidecimal will force "Fixed" to equal zero. If
you are changing from one of these number modes to the decimal
number mode and want your numbers to use fractional components
then, either press the Fix button and instruct the calculator
how many decimal positions to carry or, select the Float
button. When Dec is selected, the Operations Indicator Window
will display the words, "Deg" and either "Float" or "Fix".


4.13.5 Hex Hexidecimal Numbers

The Hex button will force the calculator into the hexidecimal
number mode. Hexidecimal numbers can range from a decimal
value of 0 to +2,147,483,647. When the Hex button is selected,
the Operations Indicator Window will display the words, "Hex"
and "Fix". You cannot use decimal operations nor negative num-
bers in the hexidecimal number mode.


4.13.6 Fix Fixed Decimal Point Operations

The Fix button will force the calculator to fix the number
of digits to carry as the fractional component of any real
number. The Fix button is inactive for all number modes
except for the decimal number mode. When you press the Fix
button, it will display the message, "Fixed = 0". This is
it's default. If you press the equal key at this time, you
will have set fixed decimal point operations to zero. The
Fix button allows you to fix the decimal count from zero to
15 positions. Enter the number of digits you wish to fix then
press the equal button. When the Fix button is selected, the
Operations Indicator Window will display the word, "Fix".

LS-1.00 Plus Complex Numbers 26






4.13.7 Compx Complex Numbers

The Compx button will force the calculator into the complex
number mode. Complex numbers can range from a low value of
(-3.40E+38 -3.40E+38i) to a high of (3.40E+38 +3.40E+38i).
Because the Primary Display Window allows a maximum of 25
digits, complex numbers are displayed without parenthesis.
Also, the range of complex numbers is great enough to display
a number 27 digits long. In the event that the complex num-
ber exceeds the 25 digit limitation of the Primary Display
Window, LSRGCALC will truncate either the real and/or the
imaginary component to 12 digits. Although your display will
show the truncated number, LSRGCALC will continue to work
with the entire number. When Compx is selected, the Operations
Indicator Window will display the words, "Complex" and "Float".


4.13.8 Stats Statistical Operations

The Stats button will force the calculator into the decimal
number mode and allow the use of all statistical buttons.
When the Stats button is selected, the Operations Indicator
Window will display the words, "Stats" and "Float". You can-
not use then "Fix" button while in statistical mode. If you
wish to use the Fix button, do so after you have completed your
statistical computations; first press the Float button then,
press the Fix button.

Statistical function buttons that become active, once in the
Stats mode, are: n!, +, n, Perm, Comb, Rand, Ari , Qua ,
Har , and Geo .


4.13.9 Date Date Calculations

The Date button toggles between date difference calculations
and date math computations. When Date is selected, the
Operations Indicator Window will display the word, "Date" and
the History Window will display the word, "DateDiff" or
"DateMath", depending which mode is chosen. The default mode
for Date computations is DateDiff. Press the Date button
a second time to cycle to DateMath. All date entries must
be entered in the format mm/dd/yyyy where "mm" requires two
digits for the month, "dd" requires two digits for the day,
and "yyyy" requires four digits for the year. Do not attempt
to enter the slash marks - LSRGCALC will automatically enter
them in the appropriate places.

LS-1.00 Plus Date Calculations 27






Results of DateDiff calculations are displayed in the Primary
Display Window as the exact number of days between two dates,
and results are also displayed in the History Window as an
approximate number of years, months and days.

Because of the conversion from the Gregorian calendar to the
Julian calendar, October 15, 1582, and because the days be-
tween October 1, 1582 and October 14, 1582 were removed from
the calendar, the LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator can only
be considered reliable for the period from October 15, 1582
through December 31, 9999.

DateMath calculations adds and/or subtracts a specified number
of years, months and days to/from a date and displays the re-
sult in the Primary Display Window in the form month/day/year,
and the results are also displayed in the History Window using
a three letter abbreviation for the day of week, followed by the
full month name, day and year; e.g., "Wed August 15, 1990".
Because of the manner in which the name for the day of the
week is calculated, the weekday name can only be considered
reliable from 01/01/1901 through 12/31/2099.


4.13.10 Time Time Calculations

The Time button toggles between time difference calculations
and time math computations. When Time is selected, the
Operations Indicator Window will display the word, "Time" and
the History Window will display the word, "TimeDiff" or
"TimeMath", depending which mode is chosen. The default mode
for Time computations is TimeDiff. Press the Time button
a second time to cycle to TimeMath. All time entries must
be entered in the format hh:mm:ss where "hh" requires two
digits for the hour, "mm" requires two digits for the minute,
and "ss" requires two digits for the second. Do not attempt
to enter the colons - LSRGCALC will automatically enter them
in the appropriate places.

Time difference calculations are the difference between one
time of day from another time of day and are displayed in the
Primary Display Window in the format, hh:mm:ss.

Time math calculations add and/or subtract a specified number
of hours, minutes and seconds to/from a time of day and dis-
plays the resulting time of day in the Primary Display Window
in the format, hh:mm:ss.


LS-1.00 Plus Statistical Functions 28






4.14 Statistical Functions

All statistical functions are inoperative unless the Stats number
mode has first been selected.

4.14.1 n! Factorial Function

The n! button calculates the factorial of any whole integer
from 1 to 170.


4.14.2 + Stat summations/standard deviations

This button toggles between two functions: summation of the
numbers entered into the statistical array or, computation of
the standard deviation of the numbers entered into the statis-
tical array. This button is inoperative unless at least one
number is entered into the statistical array. The History
Window will display the words, "summation" or "standard
deviation", depending which mode was selected. Press the
+ button once for summations, press it again for standard
deviations, and the third press to cycle the + button off.


4.14.3 n Add or delete from stat array

This button toggles between three functions: add numbers to
the statistical array, delete the last entry from the sta-
tistical array or, delete all numbers from the statistical
array. If there is not at least one number in the statistical
array then the options to delete are inoperative.

To add numbers to the statistical array, press the n button
then, enter a number and press the equal key. The calculator
will respond by displaying, within the History Window, the
number just entered preceded by <()>. Within the parenthesis
is a number representing the array element. If you were to
enter 12 numbers into the array, the display would show <(12)>
as your last entry. While this option is active, the
Operations Indicator Window will display the message, "Add
Numbers to Stat Array". When you have finished adding numbers
to the statistical array, press the n button THREE more times.
The statistical array can accept up to 500 numbers.





LS-1.00 Plus Add or delete from stat array 29





To delete the last number(s) entered into the statistical array
press the n button a second time. A message at the top of the
Operations Indicator Window will state, "Delete #'s from Stat
Array". Move the highlight to the CE/CL button and tap the
spacebar (or click with the mouse). The calculator will
respond by displaying within the History Window a message such
as, <(12)>Clear Entry. The next presse of the CE/CL button would
delete the eleventh number, and the next press of the CE/CL button
would delete the tenth number, etc. When you have finished delet-
ing numbers from the statistical array, press the n button two
more times - the Indicator Window will display normal indicators.

To delete all of the numbers from the statistical array, press
the n button a third time. A message at the top of the
Operations Indicator Window will state, "Delete All from Stat
Array". Move the highlight to the CE/CL button and tap the
spacebar (or click with the mouse).


4.14.4 Perm Permutations

The Perm button computes permutations. Enter a number into
the Primary Display Window then press the Perm button. The
calculator will respond by displaying, in the History Window,
the words, "Items = " followed by your number. The Primary
Display Window will have the words, "Rate =". Enter a rate
and press the equal button or any operation button.


4.14.5 Comb Combinations

The Comb button computes combinations. Enter a number into
the Primary Display Window then press the Comb button. The
calculator will respond by displaying, in the History Window,
the words, "Items = " followed by your number. The Primary
Display Window will have the words, "Rate =". Enter a rate
and press the equal button or any operation button.


4.14.6 Rand Random Number Functions

The Rand button toggles between three functions; Defined Range
randoms, Exp Distributed randoms, and Normal Curve randoms.

Enter a number into the Primary Display Window. Then press
the Rand button once for Defined Range randoms, again for
Exp Distributed randoms, again for Normal Curve randoms, and
again to turn off the random generator.

LS-1.00 Plus Random Number Functions 30






When you select Defined Range randoms, the History Window will
show, "Defined Range Random", and the number in the Primary
Display Window will be accepted as the minimum for the defined
range, and will show the message, "Min =". If this is not
acceptable, cycle through the Rand choices with the spacebar
(or mouse click) until the message, "Random Generator Off" is
displayed in the History Window. If acceptable, press the
equal button. The calculator will display, "Max =" in the
Primary Display Window. Enter a number for the maximum range,
then press the equal button.

When you select Exp Distributed randoms, the History Window
will show, "Exp Distributed Random", and the number in the
Primary Display Window will be accepted as the mean used to
define a random number with an exponential distribution. The
Primary Display Window will show " =". If this is not accep-
table, cycle through the Rand choices with the spacebar (or
mouse click) until the message, "Random Generator Off" is dis-
played in the History Window. If acceptable, press the equal
button. The calculator will immediately calculate a random
number with an exponential distribution based upon the mean.
Note that the mean can first be generated with one of the
calculator's mean buttons, such as the Ari button.

When you select Normal Curve randoms, the History Window will
show, "Normal Curve Random", and the number in the Primary
Display Window will be accepted as the mean used to define a
random number with a normal distribution based upon that
mean and a standard deviation. The Primary Display Window
will show the message, " =". If this is not acceptable, cycle
through the Rand choices with the spacebar (or mouse click)
until the message, "Random Generator Off" is displayed in the
History Window. If acceptable, press the equal button. The
calculator will display, "sd =" in the Primary Display Window.
Enter a number for the standard deviation (sd), then press
the equal button. Note, the mean can first be generated with
one of the calculator's mean buttons, such as the Ari but-
ton, and the standard deviation can be supplied with the
calculator's + button's standard deviation function.









LS-1.00 Plus Random Number Functions 31






It is noteworthy to point out the process employed by the
calculator to generate random numbers. Each random number and
each digit within the random is created through a "shuffle"
process providing a random table whose sequence length is over
3.6028797018964 x 10^16. Further, when you first load the
calculator, the "seed" used to generate the random table is
determined by the system date plus the system time plus the
tick of the system clock plus a special "key". This means
that the random table used by LSRGCALC is uniquely different
each and every time you load the program. If time and date
are not set on your computer system, then the sequence of
possible random tables that the calculator can generate is in
excess of 7.6545051729021 x 10^199. It's safe to say you'll
never run out of random numbers!


4.14.7 Ari Arithmetic Mean

The Ari button computes the arithmetic mean of the numbers
entered into the statistical array.


4.14.8 Qua Quadratic Mean

The Qua button computes the quadratic mean of the numbers
entered into the statistical array.


4.14.9 Har Harmonic Mean

The Har button computes the harmonic mean of the numbers
entered into the statistical array.


4.14.10 Geo Geometric Mean

The Geo button computes the geometric mean of the numbers
entered into the statistical array.










LS-1.00 Plus Control Buttons 32





4.15 Control Buttons

4.15.1 CE/CL Clear Functions

The CE/CL button is a dual function button. The first press
of this button clears the entry from the Primary Display
Window. Press the CE/CL button twice in a row clears all
numbers except for those numbers held in the memory storage
or those numbers in the statistical array. Refer to chapter
4.14.3 for information regarding how to use this key to
delete numbers from the statistical array. Refer to chapter
4.10 for information regarding how to clear memory storage.


4.15.2 Sleep Put TSR to Sleep

If the calculator is RAM resident, this button will allow it
to "pop down". If the calculator is not RAM resident, this
button will terminate the program and remove it from memory.


4.15.3 End End The Program - Terminate TSR

If the calculator is RAM resident, this button will allow it
to terminate and remove itself from the system's memory. If
the End button is pressed while "popped up" over any program,
other than the DOS command line, the calculator will attempt
to terminate, display a message, "Go to the DOS Command Line.
Try again later." It will then "pop up" again, allowing you
to use the Sleep button. You are NOT allowed to terminate
any RAM resident program from within another application!

Be advised that if you have loaded another RAM resident pro-
gram after this program went memory resident, then remove this
program from memory with the End button, a hole will be created
in the DOS memory allocation system. This will probably cause
a system "hang", forcing you to reboot. A general rule for
removing ANY memory resident program is: LAST IN - FIRST OUT.
In other words, the last RAM resident program installed must
be the first program released from memory. The next to the
last loaded as RAM resident is the second one you can safely
remove, etc.

Registered versions of the calculator can use REMOVE.COM to
remove the calculator from memory directly from the DOS prompt.
At the DOS command line, simply type the command,

remove lsrgcalc (then press Enter)

LS-1.00 Plus Stuff The Keyboard 33






4.15.4 Stuff Stuff The Keyboard

The Stuff button stuffs the displayed number into the keyboard.
This facilitates transferring the number from the calculator to
the program it "popped up" over. In other words, if, let's
say, you are in a spreadsheet program and need to compute a
number, you would press your Hot Keys to awaken the calculator,
perform the calculations needed then, press the Stuff key but-
ton. LSRGCALC will stuff the keyboard with the displayed num-
ber then go to sleep. As soon as control is returned to your
spreadsheet program, the number that you stuffed will appear
in it (assuming the spreadsheet program is in a keyboard data
entry mode).

Before LSRGCALC stuffs the keyboard, it checks the length of
the number because the keyboard buffer can only hold 16 digits.
If the length of the number is greater than 15 digits, LSRGCALC
will do one of three things. If the number is a real number
in scientific notation, it will strip the mantissa to the
first ten digits, leaving the exponent unchanged. If the
number is in binary, it stuffs only the right 15 digits. Any
other number type will have only the left 15 digits stuffed
into the keyboard buffer.


4.16 Special Buttons

4.16.1 Hist History Log

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator will display your pre-
vious two operations in the History Window. It also remembers
the last 100 operations you performed. To review the last
100 operations, press the Hist button. LSRGCALC will respond
with a message in the Operations Indicator Window that states,
"Scroll History: <+> or <->". Use the plus button to move
forward through the history log. Use the minus button to move
backwards through the log. When you reach the beginning of
the log, LSRGCALC will display, in the History Window, the
message, "*** Top of History Log ***". When you reach the end
of the log, the message states, "*** Bottom of History Log ***"
and, if there has not been any operations recorded, it states,
"*** No History in Log ***". The Esc key will exit the review
of the History Log, returning you to normal calculator operation.





LS-1.00 Plus History Log 34






If there has been more than 100 operations entered, then LSRGCALC
will not display these messages. Instead, the history log will
loop from the last entry to the recorded entry that occurred 100
operation prior and back, depending whether you are moving forward
or backward through the log. Press the Hist button again to exit
the History Log.


4.16.2 Lpt Printer

The Lpt button toggles the printer (LPT1) on or off. Keep
a printed record of every operation entered into the LS-1.00
Plus Scientific Calculator. When the printer has been toggled
on, the calculator will display, "Lpt" in the Operations
Indicator Window.


4.16.3 File Disk File

The File button works exactly as the Lpt button except it
sends the output to a disk file called, "LSRGCALC.FIL". The
disk file is always created on the drive and path in which the
calculator "popped up". The file is in ASCII and easily read
by any editor or word processor. When this option is active,
LSRGCALC will display the word, "File" in the Operations
Indicator Window. The calculator can send data to the printer
and to a file at the same time. Press the File button again
to toggle it off.


4.16.4 Table Look-up Table

The LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator has a special feature
not found in any other calculator - a user configuarable lookup
table. The table can contain up to five hundred and twelve
lines of information, such as: values of constants, conversion
formulas, laws of mathematics, crib sheets, or those special
proprietary formulas, you or your company's business must have
at hand, for immediate calculations. The table is fully
scrollable.

Pressing the Table button actuates the lookup table. The
calculator immediately responds by extending the breadth of
the History Window to the full length of the calculator and
by displaying, in the Operations Indicator Window the message:
"Scroll: <+> <-> Select: <=>".


LS-1.00 Plus Look-up Table 35







Operation Indicators

Scroll: <+> <-> Select: <=>

-------------------
a^(b function c) is invalid!

a^(x+y) = a^x * a^y
a^(x-y) = a^x / a^y
a^(x*y) = (a^x)^y

Inverse Hyperbolic Functions:
-----------------------------

sinh^-1n = Rad n ARC HYP SIN
sinh^-1n = n+((n^2+1)2) LogE

cosh^-1n = Rad n ARC HYP COS
cosh^-1n = n+((n^2-1)2) LogE

tanh^-1n = Rad n ARC HYP TAN




The plus button will scroll the highlight down one line at
a time. When the highlight is at the bottom line of the
Display Window, subsequent presses of the plus button will
scroll a full page at a time.

The minus key will scroll the highlight up one line at a
time. When the highlight is at the top line of the Display
Window, subsequent presses of the minus button will scroll a
full page at a time.

Most computers will be able to scroll through 512 lines of
lookup table, using just these two buttons, in approximately
three seconds.

Once the highlight is over the information you wish to retain,
press the equal button. The extended window will collapse
and the information that was highlighted will be placed into
the unused window beneath the History Window. The Esc key will
exit you from the lookup table and return you to the normal
calculator operation.


LS-1.00 Plus Appending the Look-up Table 36






4.16.4.1 Appending the Look-up Table

To append (or create a new) lookup tables is quite simple.
Use any text editor or word processor that can create an
ASCII file. The file must conform to the following rules:

- It must be called LSRGCALC.TBL and it must reside
on the same drive and same path as LSRGCALC.EXE.

- No line can extend more than 29 columns long. If a
line is longer than 29 characters, the excess will
be simply ignored by the calculator.

- Each line must end with a carriage return.

- The maximum number of lines permitted in the table is
512. If the table has more than 512 lines the excess
will simply be ignored by the calculator.

- Any ASCII character is permissible except for those
characters whose numbers are less than ASCII 32.
ASCII characters between 126 and 255 are permissible.
This means you can get fancy with symbols such as:
, , , , , , , , , , , etc.

If the calculator is RAM resident at the time you modify
or create a lookup table, the calculator program must be
unloaded before it can read in your new table. Use the
End button to terminate the calculator program then, re-
run the program.

















5. ORDER FORM


LS-1.00 Plus Scientific Calculator Registration/Order Form

Please fill out this form, then mail it along with a check, money order or
warrent to:

Lawrence Stone Research Group
P.O. Box 5715
Charleston, Oregon 97420

Thanks for your support!

Name:_________________________________________________________

Title:________________________________________________________

Company:______________________________________________________

Address:______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

City: _____________________ State: _________ Zip:______

Telephone:__________________________________


If Customized Hot Key configuration is requested, please enclose an extra $5
US, and list at least five key combinations desired on the back of this form.


+============================================================================+
|Please send me ____ copies of LSRGCALC @ $_____/each for a total of $______ |
| Please send me ____ copies of the pre-printed manual @ $10 / each $______ |
| I am adding $5 US and requesting Customized Hot Key Configuration $______ |
| |
| TOTAL ENCLOSED $______ |
| Call or write for multiple copy (site license) prices. |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

+===================== Check One ====================+
| [__] 5 1/4" Diskettes [__] 3 1/2" Diskette |
+----------------------------------------------------+

Where did you get the LSRGCALC calculator from (check one - fill in line)?

[__] User Group Name of Group:_____________________________________

[__] BBS Name:_______________________)(Tel #:______________________

[__] Other Such as: ________________________________________________
Distributed via PUBLIC BRAND SOFTWARE



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