Category : Science and Education
Archive   : ENERGY.ZIP
Filename : TELISOL.DOC

Output of file : TELISOL.DOC contained in archive : ENERGY.ZIP



05 Oct 1985


Tesseract Enterprises Limited
P.O. Box 25966
Colorado Springs, CO 80936
(303) 594-6199

(c) Copyright 1985 by Tesseract Enterprises Limited
All Rights Reserved.

Page i

Page ii


There are a few actions that an architect, contractor, or
homeowner can take to lessen the impact of the present energy
situation. One is to conserve conventional fuels; another is to
find economic alternatives; and yet a third is to design or
retrofit buildings (homes) to make better use of renewable fuels.

This program provides several tools that can be used to
automate these actions -- tools that allow the user to understand
energy-use patterns and change these patterns based on technical
and economic decisions.


IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines
MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc.

Preface Page iii

This version of Teli/Solar is released as "user-supported"
software. If you are using this program and find it to be of
value, your contribution of $50 will be appreciated. Regardless
of whether you make a contribution, you are encouraged to copy
and share this program.

Your contribution, however, entitles you to the following:

o A letter-quality printed manual (with accompanying
illustrations) in a 3-ring binder,

o Telephone support, and

o Inclusion on our mailing list for notification of bug fixes
and new releases.

o One free version upgrade.

User-supported software is an experiment in distributing
computer programs that is based on these beliefs:

1. The value and utility of software is best assessed by the
user on his/her own system,

2. The creation of personal computer software can and should be
supported by the computing community, and

3. Copying of programs should be encouraged, rather than

Anyone may order a copy of this program from The Public
(Software) Library or other public software supplier. The
program will carry a notice suggesting a contribution to the
program's author. Making a contribution is completely voluntary
on the part of each user. However, this program is copyrighted,
and cannot, therefore, be sold for financial gain.

Free distribution of software and voluntary payment for its use
eliminates costs for advertising and copy protection schemes.
Users obtain quality software at reduced cost. They can try it
out before buying, and do so at their own pace and in their own
home or office. The best programs will survive, based purely on
their quality and usefulness.

Please join the experiment and encourage the continuing effort
of those software authors willing to participate.

If you believe in these ideals, your contribution is solicited
to help make them work.

Page iv Preface


The Teli/Solar package is a program which provides the user
with an easy, quick method of evaluating energy-saving
alternatives in the areas of hot water usage, building
heating/cooling load, and solar collector design.

Teli/Solar enables the average homeowner to make intelligent
decisions about energy-related home improvements and/or
investments. It is an interactive program that will quickly

o The hot water usage of a family in terms of dollars and

o The solar energy available for collection at a specified
location and orientation;

o The heating and cooling requirements for a building defined
by the user (usually a house); and

o The economic considerations involved with an energy-related

It is designed for direct use by architects, contractors, and
homeowners. It is completely menu driven and easy to use even by
someone with limited computer experience (however, the menus may
be bypassed by experienced users).

G1.1. Characteristics and AdvantagesH

Some of the characteristics and advantages of the program are
the following:

1. Disk storage of building design for later use,

2. Menu driven (with ability to bypass menus),

3. Accepts American or metric units,

4. Provides interactive response,

5. Runs on IBM-PCs and compatibles.

Page 1.1

Introduction TeliSolar

G1.2. Electronic ComputersH

The electronic computer has been around for some time and is
widely used in all phases of industry and commerce. The use of
the computer in solving everyday energy-related problems is a
reality, and the architect or contractor who does not take
advantage of the tremendous potential of the computer will soon
find himself outdated and professionally handicapped.

However, the average architectural or small contracting company
cannot justify a large "in-house" computer. With the advent of
the microcomputer, it is no longer necessary to own a large
several hundred-thousand dollar computer in order to solve many,
if not all, the problems the average architect or contractor
needs to solve. In fact, most small businesses probably already
own, or should own, a microcomputer system for other purposes,
such as: accounting, customer billing, project management,
inventory, and a host of other general business purposes.

G1.3. Manual StyleH

We have attempted to make this manual clear and consistent. If
there are steps that must be followed to accomplish a task, they
are numbered to make it easier to follow them. Whenever it is
necessary for you to type a specific string of characters, that
string will be highlighted in bold print. When it is useful for
you to see what is displayed on the console screen, a copy of the
screen display will be provided and it will be enclosed in a box.

This manual is divided into several parts or chapters. It is
written assuming the reader is familiar with the operation of the
computer and its operating system (either PC-DOS or MS-DOS);
however, there is an appendix which covers operational aspects in
detail for those of you who are just beginning. Where necessary,
the reader will be referred to the appropriate section in the
appendix. The chapters are:

This chapter discusses the background of the Teli/Solar
program, the intended user, and how the manual is organized
(it is the chapter you are currently reading).

Getting Started.
This chapter discusses the operational aspects of the
computer and DOS, the backup procedures for the supplied
disks, how to format diskettes, and how to "bring up" the
Teli/Solar system.

Hot Water Usage.
This chapter describes the usage and application of the "Hot
Water Usage" option of the program.

Page 1.2

TeliSolar Introduction

Solar Flux Striking Collector.
This chapter describes the usage and application of the
"Solar Flux" option of the program.

Heat Loss.
This chapter describes the usage and application of the
"Building Heat Loss" option of the program.

Economic Considerations.
This chapter describes the usage and application of the
"Discounted Cash Payback" option of the program.

Solar Sizing.
This chapter describes the usage and application of the
"Solar Collector Sizing" option of the program.

Appendix - Detailed Operations.
This appendix explains in detail such things as powering on
and off the computer system, booting DOS, formatting
diskettes, and making backup copies of the supplied disk. It
is included as an appendix so that those users who already
know this stuff will not have to wade through it in the body
of the manual, but those who are not familiar with the
operation of the system will have a handy reference.

Appendix - General Weather Data.
This appendix lists the percent sunshine, heating and cooling
degree days, and latitude for numerous American and Canadian

Appendix - R-values.
This appendix lists the R-values for numerous materials and

Appendix - Further Reading.
This appendix lists several books and references used in the
design and theory of this program.

The Glossary defines a few of the energy-related terms
encountered in the manual or program output.


The chapters dealing with the option selected (Chapters 3 - 7)
are, in general, divided into five sections as follows:

which describes the option and generally what it does.

Page 1.3

Introduction TeliSolar

which describes how to use the option and what input values
are needed.

which describes the on-line help available for the option.

which describes how the option can be used to solve various
real-world problems.

which describes the mathematical equations involved.

G1.4. In GeneralH

It is important that you fill out and return the Product
Registration. If you have not yet done so, please take a few
minutes now to read the Registration Plan and fill out the form

It is also important to make backup copies of the master
diskette supplied with the Teli/Solar package. If you do not know
how to make a backup copy of a diskette, refer to the appendix
"Detailed Operations".

This program is not copy protected, so it may easily be
installed on, and run from, a hard disk.

Throughout this manual, whenever there is a reference to a
graphics display of results, this applies only if the graphics
adapter card is installed.

Also, in the examples, the term "Enter ___" means type the
value indicated and press the 'Return' key. On the other hand,
the term "Press ___" means that the value indicated should be
typed and no 'Return' is necessary. (The 'Return' key is the one
on the left side of the keyboard that looks something like this:

We suggest you familiarize yourself with the computer and the
IBM supplied software before using Teli/Solar. This will make you
more comfortable about using an application on the computer and
will make the manual a little easier to understand. You may,
however, use the program without prior knowledge of the computer
system by following the procedures outlined in this manual.

Page 1.4


G2.1. ConfigurationH

The configuration needed to run this program is:

o IBM PC, IBM XT, COMPAQ, or compatible,

o A Disk Operating System (PC-DOS 1.1, 2.x, 3.x or MS-DOS 1.x,


o 128K bytes of RAM,

o either color or monochrome display (80 column),

o at least one DSDD floppy disk drive, and

o optionally, a printer and/or hard-disk.

You will also need a blank double-sided, double-density
diskette for backup.

The Teli/Solar package, as delivered to you, contains several
items. You should make sure that you have the entire package. It
consists of the following:

User's Manual
The manual is a loose-leaf binder containing the manual you
are currently reading.

The Teli/Solar package consists of one (1) diskette
containing the following files:

o TELISOL.EXE - The solar program.
o INITVAL.SOL - A file containing initial values
needed by SOLAR.EXE.
o SINSTALL.BAS - A BASICA program to setup your
customized INITVAL.SOL file
o HOUSE.DAT - A file containing a default
definition of a set of building
elements for a house.

Registration Plan
This consists of several pages which describe the Limited
Warranty, the Registration page, and the Replacement policy.

Page 2.1

Getting Started TeliSolar

G2.2. Keyboard InformationH

Your computer keyboard should contain three main groups of

o one group of typewriter keys,

o one group of function keys, and

o one group of keypad keys.

The Teli/Solar system uses all three groups of keys to perform
its various functions and commands.

The 'Shift' key can be held down while you press another key to
give you uppercase letters, symbols, or functions - just like the
Shift or Caps keys on a typewriter.

G2.3. Function KeysH

The function keys are located on the left of the keyboard. They
are numbered 'F1' through 'F10'. They are used alone to perform
one function. Whenever reference is made in this manual to one of
these keys, an "F" will precede the number. Following is the
description of the use of each of the function keys.

o F1 - provides the help screen for the 'Main Menu' when the
'Main Menu' is active.

o F2 - returns the user to the 'Main Menu' from almost any
point in the program. Use of this feature should be limited
since it uses up memory that cannot be used for anything else
and cannot be recovered.

o F3 - skips remaining input prompts during data input for
options 1 and 4. If, while inputting data for these options,
the F3 key is used, the program will not prompt for further
input and will, instead, immediately calculate and display

Page 2.2

TeliSolar Getting Started

the results using the default values for the remaining input
items. For example, suppose that during the second selection
of option 1 (hot water usage), only the second input item
needed to be changed. When prompted for the third item, the
user may press the F3 key to skip the remaining input and see
the results immediately.

o F4 - not used.

o F5 - causes the program to assume subsequent input will be in
American units (feet, ft^2, ft^3, F, etc).

o F6 - causes the program to assume subsequent input will be in
metric units (meters, m^2, m^3, C, etc).

o F7 - not used.

o F8 - not used.

o F9 - not used.

o F10 - exits the program. Pressing this key during the 'Main
Menu' display will cause the program to ask you if you are
sure you want to exit. Entering a "y" will terminate the
program. Entering any other key will return you to the 'Main
Menu'. This is useful in the event you forgot to save your
work before exitting.

The keys on the right of the keyboard are sometimes referred to
as the numeric keypad. If the 'Shift' key is held down, or if the
'Num Lock' key has been pressed, the keys will type numbers
instead of working as cursor control keys. Pressing 'Num Lock' a
second time unlocks them - allows them to be used as cursor
control keys. This is the mode that is needed for operation of
this program. The cursor movement keys needed for the R-value
help usage are the four directional-arrow keys (on the 2, 4, 6,
and 8 keys).

Most of the keys on the keyboard are labeled with the specific
key name or an abbreviation of the name. Others are not

Page 2.3

Getting Started TeliSolar

(depending on the keyboard). Below are shown a representative
sample of those keys which may be marked only with symbols.

Page 2.4

TeliSolar Getting Started

G2.4. Menu DrivenH

Teli/Solar is a 'menu-driven' system. This means you select the
function that you wish to perform from a menu of options. You
begin at the "Main Menu" and select the option that you want to
do. You will then be "prompted" for the necessary input data.
After supplying the input data, the program will generate the
results, display them to you, and then return to the "Main Menu".

The program also provides use of the function keys to perform
various operations -- as described in the previous section.

The program usually offers a "default" value for most input
prompts. You can accept a system default by simply pressing the
'Return' key or you can provide your own by typing the value you
want. The default values are contained in square brackets ([..])
following the input prompt.

The menu-driven feature of the program may be over-ridden by
experienced users if desired. When the program is at the "Graphic
display of results" prompt or "Press any key to continue" prompt
waiting for user input, you may enter a number between 1 and 9.
Doing so will bypass the "Main Menu" and go directly to the input
prompts for the option represented by that number. For example,
suppose you have just completed a "Hot water usage" calculation
(Option 1) and see the "Graphic display of results" prompt. If
you know the next thing you want to do is an economic analysis
and that this is option 4, you may simply enter a "4" for the
prompt and the economic analysis option is entered immediately
with no "Main Menu" selection necessary.

G2.5. Status LineH

The "Status Line" is the line at the bottom of the display. It
indicates how to get help, the current setting for input units
(American or metric), and the current option you have selected.
It is always displayed at the bottom of the screen, with two
exceptions. Prompts for graphic displays or returning to the
"Main Menu" temporary overwrite the Status Line. It is also not
present during the R-value help session.

Page 2.5

Getting Started TeliSolar

G2.6. Preparing Your SystemH

The Disk Operating System (either PC-DOS or MS-DOS) instructs
the computer on how to perform its functions. It consists of a
set of commands which allow you to manage information and the
hardware resources. The DOS program may be stored on either
floppy or hard disk. You can give commands directly to the
computer through the set of DOS commands. A prompt, either "A>"
or "B>" or "C>", appears on the screen to indicate you are in
DOS. You type commands after the prompt to perform such functions
as formatting a diskette or copying a file. You will be using
some of the DOS commands to perform some of the functions
discussed in the following section. See the DOS Reference Manual
for more information.

Appendix A contains a detailed discussion of starting the IBM
PC, booting the DOS system, and making a backup copy of the
release disk. If you have not yet made a backup of the diskette
supplied in the Teli/Solar package, you should do so now. (See
Appendix A if you don't know how to do this)

After making a backup copy (or installing the program on the
hard disk), you should put the master diskette away in a safe
place and use the backup copy for all future use.

Before using the Teli/Solar package, you need to set up your
own INITVAL.SOL file. To install your own INITVAL.SOL file:

1. Load DOS. Be sure BASICA is on the DOS disk.

2. Insert your working copy of the Teli/Solar disk in drive B.

3. At the "A>" prompt, enter "B:".

4. Rename the supplied INITVAL.SOL file, just in case. At the
"B>" prompt, enter: "RENAME INITVAL.SOL OLDVAL.SOL".

5. At the "B>" prompt, enter: "A:BASICA SINSTALL".

6. Answer each of the questions. The number of sunny days per
month and heating degree days you need may be in Appendix B.
Find your city or the one nearest to you in the table to get
these values.

To use the Teli/Solar program:

From floppy drives -

1. Load DOS,
2. Insert the backup disk in drive B,
3. At the "A>" prompt, enter "B:",
4. At the "B>" prompt, enter "TELISOL".

From hard disk -

Page 2.6

TeliSolar Getting Started

1. DOS should already be loaded,
2. At the "C>" prompt, enter "TELISOL".

A screen will appear containing the name of the program, the
version number, and, if you have a graphics card, the company
logo. Press any key to proceed.

The MAIN MENU will then appear. It will look similar to the

| Teli/Solar (Ver. 1.20) 07-03-1985 07:54:07 |
| |
| |
| |
| 1 - Weekly hot water usage & solar requirements |
| 2 - Solar flux striking solar collector |
| 3 - Heat loss from a building |
| 4 - Return on energy-saving investments |
| 5 - Solar collector sizing calculation |
| 6 - Reserved for future use |
| 7 - Reserved for future use |
| 8 - Save program element data |
| 9 - Load program element data |
| |
| F1 - Main Menu Help F2 - MAIN MENU |
| F3 - Skip remaining input |
| F5 - American Units F6 - Metric Units |
| |
| F10 - Exit from program |
| |
| Choose an option: |
| |
| |
| -1 = help. Units = American. Mode = Main Menu |

Choose the option desired. Options 1 through 5 have built-in
default values which may be chosen by simply pressing the
'Return' key. This allows the user to step through each of the
options by pressing the 'Return' key to see some representative
input and the results of that input. This should give the user a
"feel" for how the program works without the necessity of
determining the specific input for his or her application. To do

1. Press the "1" key.

2. When the 'Weekly hot water usage & solar requirements' menu

Page 2.7

Getting Started TeliSolar

appears, press the 'Return' key until the 'Graphic display of
usage (Y or N)' message appears. To see a pie chart graph of
the hot water usage, enter a "Y". Entering any other key
causes a return to the Main Menu.

3. Press the "2" key.

4. When the 'Solar flux striking solar collector' menu appears,
press the 'Return' key three (3) times. A display should
appear showing the number of BTUs that can theoretically be
collected by a flat plate collector during each month for a
collector with the orientation defined by the default values.
A 'Graphic display of flux (Y or N)?' message should appear.
Enter a "Y" to see it, or any other key to return to the Main


5. Press the "3" key.

6. When the 'Heat loss from a building' menu appears, press the
"C" key. A display of the amount and percent of total heat
loss through each of the default building elements defined in
the "HOUSE.DAT" file should appear, along with the total
yearly heating and cooling requirements for the house. A
'Graphic display of load' message should appear. Enter a "Y"
to see it, or any other key to return to the Main Menu.

7. Press the "4" key.

8. When the 'Return on energy-saving investments' menu appears,
press the 'Return' key until the display showing the net
savings due to energy investment appears. This shows the
number of years it takes to "pay for" an energy-related
investment. When ready, press any key to return to the Main

9. Press the "5" key.

10. When the 'Solar collector sizing calculation' menu appears,
press the 'ENTER' key three (3) times. The total collector
area needed to heat the hot water usage determined in step
one should be displayed. When ready, press any key to return
to the Main Menu.

Following the above steps should have given you a "feel" for
how the program works and the kind of results that you can
expect. Now its time to move on to the real thing.

Page 2.8


G3.1. IntroductionH

The hot water that a family uses is a necessary use of energy
in any household. However, there are means of minimizing that use
and reducing the cost necessary to provide the hot water.

The "Hot water usage and solar requirements" option allows the
user to calculate the yearly hot water usage and cost in terms of
energy and dollars. It gives the user an approximation of how
many gallons of hot water is used each year and how much energy
and money that hot water costs.

Using the methods presented here, you can easily and rapidly
assess the effect of:

o Turning down the thermostat on your hot water heater,

o Putting a flow restrictor in your shower head,

o Using cold water for laundry, or

o Taking fewer or shorter showers each week.

The values determined won't be precise because estimates and
assumptions have been made either for simplicity's sake or
because not enough is known about actual costs. However, the
results should be accurate enough to help you evaluate

G3.2. UsageH

At the Main Menu screen, select option '1' when prompted for
the option that you want. The program will then prompt you for
the necessary input values.

For all input prompts, a default value is shown in square
brackets ( [...] ) following the usage description. This value
is either the built-in default or the last value entered by you.
To use the value shown, simply press the 'Return' key. To
override this value with your own, simply type your value
following the prompt.

You start by entering the number of times each week that the
members of your household use hot water for the purpose stated.
If the usage varies from the amount shown below, adjust the
estimate accordingly. (For instance, if each member of your four
member household takes a 5 minute shower every night, the

Page 3.1

Hot Water Usage TeliSolar

estimate would be 7 showers times 4 members for a total of 28
five minute showers per week. However, if one member takes 10
minute showers, the estimate would be 7 showers times 3 members
plus 7 showers times the equivalent of 2 members for a total of
35 five minute showers per week.)

After answering the hot water usage questions, the screen
should look similar to this:

| |
| |
| BATH/SHOWER [ 21.00 ] |
| LAUNDRY (HOT WATER) [ 3.00 ] |
| LAUNDRY (WARM WATER) [ 4.00 ] |
| DISHWASHER [ 12.00 ] |
| |
| Total weekly hot water use in gallons is 730 |
| |

The last line shows the amount of hot water used each week.

Next, you must enter the input and output water temperature for
your hot water heater. The temperature of the input water depends
on the season of the year and the location of your house.
Typically, it is about 50 to 55 degrees. The temperature of the
water leaving the hot water heater is controlled by the
thermostat on the heater. This is usually set at about 140
degrees by the factory or installer.

Then, you must enter the type of fuel used to heat the water.
The choices are 'E' for electricity, 'O' for fuel oil, 'G' for
natural gas, or 'P' for propane.

Lastly, you must enter the price you pay for a kilowatt-hour
(for electricity), 100 cubic feet (for gas), or gallon (for oil
or propane). This price should be on your utility bill. National
averages are $0.07 per kilowatt-hour, $0.59 per 100 cubic feet,
$1.20 per gallon of oil, and $0.50 per gallon of propane (as of
December 1982).

After answering these questions, the screen should look similar
to this:

Page 3.2

TeliSolar Hot Water Usage

| |
| |
| BATH/SHOWER [ 21.00 ] |
| LAUNDRY (HOT WATER) [ 3.00 ] |
| LAUNDRY (WARM WATER) [ 4.00 ] |
| DISHWASHER [ 12.00 ] |
| |
| Total weekly hot water use in gallons is 730 |
| |
| Temperature of inlet water [ 50.00 ] |
| Temperature of hot water outlet [ 140.00 ] |
| Enter fuel type : (E)lectricty,(O)il,(G)as, or (P)ropane [G]? |
| Enter fuel cost ($/100 cu ft) [ .35 ] |
| |
| |
| Estimated total annual BTU's used is 36,070,000 |
| Estimated total annual cost to heat hot water is $184.11 |
| |
| |
| Graphic display of usage (Y or N)? Mode is HOT WATER. |
| |

G3.3. HelpH

At any of the prompts for input values, you may enter a "-1"
for the value to get 'help' information. If you do this at this
point, you will see a display which contains the following

This mode is used to calculate the yearly hot water
usage and cost based on the hot water usage habits of
your family.

Simply answer each query with the estimated number of
times each week that hot water is used for the purpose
indicated. The program will then total up the gallons
used for the week, multipy by 52 to get a yearly total
(since the hot water usage should be fairly constant
week to week), and calculate the yearly BTU usage and
dollar cost using a cost factor which depends on the
fuel type (gas, oil, or electricity) and the dollar
cost per unit.

The dollar cost per unit is typically as follows:

Page 3.3

Hot Water Usage TeliSolar

Electricity - $0.070/KWHR
Gas - $0.590/therm
Oil - $1.200/gal.
Propane - $0.500/gal.

The inlet temperature is the water temperature entering
your water heater. This depends on your location and
the season of the year; among other things. The outlet
temperature is the water temperature coming out of the
heater. This is controlled by the thermostat on the
water heater and is usually set to about 140 degrees by
the manufacturer or installer.

When ready, hit any key.

G3.4. ApplicationH

If you are considering installing a hot water solar pre-heater,
a major factor to consider is the cost of the solar equipment. An
equally important factor to consider, however, is the amount you
now spend to own and operate a conventional water heater. The
amount that can be saved by switching to solar will depend on
what you now spend. This section of the program will help you
estimate the current costs and potential yearly savings.

By choosing this option multiple times and changing the
appropriate values, you can easily see the impact of higher
energy costs, taking shorter showers, using cold water to wash
with, turning down the thermostat on your hot water heater, or
taking any number of other energy-conserving measures.

The values determined here may be used in conjunction with the
"Solar flux striking a solar collector" option (No. 2) and the
"Solar collector sizing calculation" option (No. 5) to calculate
the approximate size of solar collector panels needed if you are
considering installing a solar hot water pre-heater system. You
can also use them in conjunction with the 'Return on
energy-saving investment' option (No. 4) to determine how long it
will take to "pay for" an investment made in upgrading or
improving your hot water heating system.

Page 3.4

TeliSolar Hot Water Usage

G3.5. TheoryH

This section details the mathematical model used in determining
the amount of energy needed to heat hot water and the resulting

No. of Gallons/
Uses Use

Wu = Bath/shower x 15
+ Laundry (hot) x 25
+ Laundry (warm) x 15
+ Dishwasher x 15
+ Washing dishes by hand x 4
+ Washing face & hands x 2
+ Food preparation x 3
+ Other

where: Wu is hot water used in gallons

Then the energy used is given by:

Fu = [ (Wu x Hu x 52) + Es ] x Ff


Fu = Fuel used (energy used)
Wu = Hot water used from above
Hu = Heat units or thousands of BTUs needed each
week to heat one gallon of water from 50 F
to 140 F. It is 0.75
Es = Energy to store the hot water. It is the heat
units needed to maintain the temperature in the
hot water heater and to account for heat loss
from the tank and pipes. It is 5000 for an
electric heater and 7600 otherwise.
Ff = Fuel Factor or the number that takes into account
the different amounts of heat produced by the
different fuels. It is 0.293 for electricity,
0.010 for oil, 0.013 for natural gas, and
0.015 for propane.

The annual cost can then be determined:

Cost = Fu x Fc


Fu = Fuel used from above
Fc = Fuel cost or the price per basic unit of fuel

Page 3.5

Hot Water Usage TeliSolar

Page 3.6


G4.1. IntroductionH

As the cost of fuel skyrockets, many people are looking for
ways to conserve fuel or use alternate methods for heating and
cooling. This option, used in conjunction with other options
contained in this package, can be used to evaluate the
desirability of harnessing some of the sun's energy.

The most immediately noticeable and cheapest use of solar
energy will be the heating of hot water. The technology currently
exists for the average homeowner to afford and install a solar
hot water pre-heater. For the homeowner living in an area of high
energy costs, the cost of a solar hot water pre-heater may be
recovered in a few years; especially considering the current
federal and state tax credits available.

The solar collectors in common use today consist of a thin
plate of metal (usually copper, stainless steel, or aluminum
sealed behind a glass panel and thermally bonded to metal tubes.
A fluid such as water or antifreeze passes through the tubes and
absorbs heat from the tubes which are heated by the flat plates.
This heated water is then pumped through a heat exchanger which
transfers the heat from the solar heated medium to water stored
in a hot water heater.

In areas with very high fuel costs, such as the Northeast and
Midwest, the cost of a solar hot water pre-heater can be a very
worthwhile investment. For instance, a solar hot water pre-heater
can be purchased (exclusive of installation) for about $2500 at
the time of this writing. Federal and state tax credits can save
you $1200 to $1500; which means the after tax cost of the solar
system is $1000 to $1500.

The most important factor relating to the installation of a
solar collector is its orientation. It is very important that it
be oriented to face as close to south as possible. The position
of the house, sun availability, heating load periods, and the
earth latitude of the house must all be considered when designing
the system. Trade-offs must be made among all these factors.
Also, information regarding the timing and amount of solar energy
available is required during the design and trade-off study. It
is particularly helpful to be able to predict the amount of heat
collected based on the various factors described above when it
comes to the determination of collector placement. The most heat
can be collected when the surface of the collector exactly faces
(i.e., is perpendicular to) the light from the sun. This means
that the proper orientation of the collectors (i.e., tilt angle
with respect to horizontal and the azimuth angle with respect to
true south) is extremely important. There are other factors to

Page 4.1

Solar Flux Striking Collector TeliSolar

consider during the design and trade-off studies, but the
placement is probably the single most important factor.

This option is included to make the placement trade-off study
as easy as possible. It uses a simulation model of the
theoretical maximum amount of direct sunlight striking a tilted
flat plate collector. It calculates the number of Btu's per
square foot per hour striking a flat plate based on the tilt
angle and azimuth.

The three inputs needed to use the model are:

o Latitude. If you don't know the degrees latitude of your
city, an easy way to get it is either from a map containing
latitude/longitude lines or by calling the nearest airport
and asking for it. The latitudes of several major U.S. and
Canadian cities are listed in Appendix B.

o Tilt angle. This is the angle measured from the horizontal to
the surface of the collector. An upright wall (vertical
surface) has a tilt angle of 90 degrees.

o Azimuth. This is the angle that the surface makes with
respect to true south. Degrees east is entered as a positive
number and degrees west is entered as a negative number.

In addition to the above inputs, the program also needs the
average number of sunny days for each month for your area. These
values are stored in the file 'INITVAL.SOL' (along with other
values needed by the program). These values should be installed
to match the values determined for your area before using the

G4.2. UsageH

At the Main Menu screen, select option '2' when prompted for
the option that you want. The program will then ask for each of
the three inputs described above in order. At each prompt, either
enter the value which applies to your situation or press the
'Return' key to use the default value shown in brackets. Entering
a "-1" for a value for any of the three prompts will display the
same "HELP" screen which provides a short description of the
values needed for input.

The program will then calculate the daily and monthly heat
available to be collected by a flat plate collector based on your
location and the defined orientation of the collector.

Page 4.2

TeliSolar Solar Flux Striking Collector

G4.3. HelpH

At any of the prompts for input values, you may enter a "-1"
for the value to get 'help' information. If you do this at this
point, you will see a display which contains the following

This mode is used to calculate the amount of heat
(BTUs) collected on a solar flat plate collector per
hour-ft^2. The calculations depend on your latitude,
the tilt angle of the collector (see below), and the
angle from true south.

It is used in conjunction with the hot water usage mode
and the yearly heating load to determine the size of
solar panel collector area needed. This is a 3 step

Step 1 - Run either the hot water mode or the yearly
heating load mode to get BTUs needed.
Step 2 - Run this mode to calculate the solar
radiation hitting a collector.
Step 3 - Run the collector sizing mode to calculate
\ ^ True S.
Collector / Azimuth \ |
| / | \ |
---->/ Tilt angle. ------> \ |
/ \ |
/________Horiz. \ |
| House |

When ready, hit any key.

G4.4. ApplicationH

This option may be used in conjunction with options 1 and 5 or
3 and 5 to design a solar collector. It will give you the first
item of necessary information; namely, how much sunlight may be
collected in your area. Using an example house with the following

o Latitude = 39.5

o Tilt angle = 35 degrees

o Azimuth = 10 degrees east

Page 4.3

Solar Flux Striking Collector TeliSolar

you get the following output:

| |
| |
| Latitude of your position [ 39.00 ] |
| Tilt angle relative to horizonal [ 35.00 ] |
| Azimuth with respect to true south [ 18.00 ] |
| |
| Solar radiation on a flat collector |
| |
| Month Btus/ Average sunny Btus/ |
| day-ft^2 days/month month-ft^2 |
| |
| Jan - 1468 25 36700 |
| Feb - 1816 25 45400 |
| Mar - 2109 25 52725 |
| Apr - 2255 25 56375 |
| May - 2253 25 56325 |
| Jun - 2222 25 55550 |
| Jul - 2236 25 55900 |
| Aug - 2232 25 55800 |
| Sep - 2091 25 52275 |
| Oct - 1787 25 44675 |
| Nov - 1449 25 36225 |
| Dec - 1322 25 33050 |
| |
| Graphic display of flux (Y or N)? Mode is SOLAR ENERGY |
| |

Then, using the default values in option 3 for the example
house, you get the heat-load value of approximately 93 million

Next, use 'Solar collector sizing calculation' (option 5) to
get the collector size needed to heat the example house. Here,
you will need the collector efficiency. In many states, each
manufacturer is required to state an efficiency factor for its
product (a good estimate is between 60 - 75%). Using the default
setting of 75% and an average case calculation, the desired
collector size is calculated: about 185 square feet.

Experiment with the model using different tilt angles or
azimuth values to calculate results for various schemes. You can
easily see how varying these values changes the amount of
collector size needed. Since the collectors are the single
largest cost factor in a complete solar system, you should
optimize these parameters to get the smallest collector size

Page 4.4

TeliSolar Solar Flux Striking Collector


G4.5. TheoryH

The solar flux calculations presented in this section of the
program are for the 21st day of each month.

The model used here was derived from 4Principles of Solar5
4Engineering 5 by Kreith and Kreider (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).
The mathematical equations for the model follow.

1. Solar incidence outside the earth's atmosphere
(the solar constant)

Io = 429(1 + 0.034 x cos(360 x N / 365))

where: N = day number

2. Solar declination

D = 23.45 x sin(360 x (284 + N) / 365)

where: N = day number

3. Mass of air along the path of light

M = [ (1229 + (614 x sin(alpha)^2)) ^ 1/2
- [ 614 x sin(alpha) ]


alpha = solar altitude
sin(alpha) = sin(L) x sin(D) + cos(L) x cos(D) x cos(H)
L = latitude
D = solar declination (from above)
H = solar hour angle

4. Solar incidence attenuated by air mass

Is = Io x 0.56 x (e^(-0.65M) + e^(-.095M))


e = base of natural logarithm
M = Mass of air along the path of light (from above)

5. Solar power on a tilted flat plate

Ip = Is x cos(i)


Page 4.5

Solar Flux Striking Collector TeliSolar

i = angle of incidence
cos(i) = sin(D) x sin(L) x cos(T)
- cos(L) x sin(T) x cos(A)
+ cos(D) x cos(H) x cos(L) x cos(T)
+ sin(L) x sin(T) x cos(A)
+ cos(D) x sin(T) x sin(A) x sin(H)
T = tilt angle
A = azimuth (true south = 0)

Page 4.6


G5.1. IntroductionH

Heat is lost from or enters into a building by two principal
methods: transmission and infiltration.

Transmission is the movement of energy (heat) through a solid
from the hotter side to the colder side. Typically in a building,
this movement (flow) is through surfaces such as floors, walls,
ceilings, doors, and windows. The rate at which the heat moves
through the surface depends on the difference in temperature
between the two sides of the surface and the material from which
it is made. Different materials have different resistances to the
flow of heat through them. This resistance to heat flow is known
as R-value. The greater the R-value, the greater the resistance,
or in other words, the less the heat flow through the material.

R-value ratings for common building materials are well known
and can be used to determine the heat loss for a surface.
R-values are expressed in units of Btu/sq ft/hr/degree F. A
surface with a R-value of 20 is losing heat at the rate of 0.05
(1/R-value) Btu/sq ft/hr/degree F. If the area of the surface
through which the heat is flowing is 250 square feet, and the
difference in temperature between the two sides is 10 degree F,
the heat loss is 125 Btu/hour.

Since it is not possible to calculate the heat loss constantly
as the outside temperature changes during the day, an average
difference between the inside and outside temperatures is needed
in order to calculate the heat loss through a building surface. A
generally available figure for this average is known as a
degree-day. A degree-day is the temperature difference between 65
F and the average temperature of the day. For example, on a given
day for which the high is 40 F and the low is 20 F, the average
temperature is 30 F. The day, then contains 35 degree-days.

A building's heat loss is then calculated as the number of
Btus/hr/degree F multiplied by 24 hours, multiplied by the number
of degree-days.

Infiltration is defined as the movement of air through openings
in the building. These usually consist of cracks around
ill-fitting doors and windows, or fireplace openings. Movement of
air also occurs when outside doors are opened.

Infiltration is most easily calculated in terms of "air changes
per hour", which describes the number of times each hour that the
air in the building is replaced with outside air. This air must
then be heated or cooled anew which adds significantly to the
energy requirements. Most buildings designed today have from 0.2

Page 5.1

Heat loss TeliSolar

to 1.0 air changes per hour (AC/hr).

Infiltration losses can also be due to running fans which vent
to the outside. These fans pull air from inside the building and
vent it to the outside. The air lost through these fans is then
replaced with air that must again be heated or cooled, thus
adding still more to the energy requirements. Fans are usually
located in the kitchen over the stove and in the bathrooms.

For solar heat loss calculations, a good number to choose would
be 1.0 AC/hr. For a structure having a volume of 10,000 cubic
feet and 1.0 AC/hr., and a day having 35 heating degree-days, the
heat loss due to infiltration would be 151,200 Btus.

Adding all transmission losses through the building elements
and the infiltration losses will give the total heat loss of the
structure. This option of the program provides a convenient
method to calculate this heat loss for a building of your design.

G5.2. UsageH

At the Main Menu screen, select option '3' when prompted for
the option that you want. The program will then present you with
a choice of three different options from which to choose. The 'C'
option will use the current values of the building elements (the
default values built into the database if you haven't defined any
yet and show you an example output. The 'E' option will allow
you to edit the building elements currently defined to the
program. The third option, 'N' allows you to define your own
house or building.

To use this option to model a house or building, you must first
define the building to the program. This definition may be as
complicated or as simple as you wish. Basically, the definition
consists of the R-value and area (in square feet) for each of the
surfaces that are exposed to the outside air or through which
heat may be lost. For purposes of illustration, we will define a
hypothetical house (see figures 1 and 2):

It has two 3' by 7' doors; six 3' by 3' windows; two 8' by 30'
walls; two 8' by 50' walls; and one 30' by 50' ceiling/roof.

The following page shows a front and top view of the
hypothetical house which will be used in the examples in this

Page 5.2

TeliSolar Heat loss

Figure 1

Page 5.3

Heat loss TeliSolar

Figure 2

Page 5.4

TeliSolar Heat loss

Figure 2 shows a detail of how the walls, ceiling, and roof of
the house is constructed.

We must first calculate the area of each of the surfaces
through which heat flows:

Windows - 3'x3' = 9ft^2 times 6 windows = 48 ft^2
Doors - 3'x7' = 21ft^2 times 2 doors = 42 ft^2
Walls - 8'x50' = 400ft^2 times 2 walls +
8'x30' = 240ft^2 times 2 walls -
windows and doors = 550 ft^2
Walls - 3'x47' brick front = 141 ft^2
Roof - 30'x50' (includes ceiling and attic) = 1500ft^2

Next, we need to determine the R-value of each of the surfaces.
This may be done manually using the Table of R-values given in
Appendix C, or may be done with program assistance by entering a
'-1' when prompted for the R-value for each surface. See Section
4, 'HELP', for information on how to use the program assistance.

Windows - (assuming dual pane) = 1.67
Doors - (assuming 1 1/4" wooden door) = 1.56
Walls - Air film = 0.68
1/2" Gypsum board = 0.45
3 1/2" fiberglass batts =11.00
1/2" plywood = 0.62
1" wood siding = 1.00 = 13.75
Walls - (brick fronting) = 14.05
Roof - (assuming roof and ceiling)
air film = 0.60
1/2" gypsum board = 0.45
3 1/2" fiberglass batts =11.00
still air = 1.14
Air film = 0.60
1/2 plywood = 0.62
tar paper = 0.05
Asphalt shingles = 0.44 = 14.90

Then, determine the infiltration load on the house. This occurs
in two different fashions: one is the use of a ventilating fan
(in the bathroom, for instance); and the other is due to air
changes because of leaks, opening of doors, etc. The first one,
forced ventilation, is straight-forward. It is simply the rated
capacity of the fan(s) in cubic feet per minute (CPM) times the
estimated on-time. The second one, however, is considerably more
difficult. All buildings have some unwanted outside air
infiltration. The simplest way to think of this infiltration is
the number of total air changes per hour. This can be thought of

Page 5.5

Heat loss TeliSolar

as the number of times per hour that all of the air in the
building is replaced with new air from outside. These air changes
per hour (AC/hr) can vary from as low as 0.2 to as high as 2.0.
See the following table for rough guidelines for AC/hr of typical
houses. The AC/hr is difficult to measure or estimate, so your
own best educated guess is probably as good as any. Table I lists
typical AC/hr values for several differently constructed houses.

Table I


| Construction | AC/hour |
| Super insulated - Special design | 0.2 |
| to limit infiltration. | |
| Tight constructed - new storm doors| 0.7 |
| & windows, caulking around doors,| |
| windows, & foundation. | |
| Average - old doors & windows, old | 1.0 |
| caulking & weatherstripping | |
| 10 to 25 years old - no storm | 1.5 |
| windows,caulking, or stripping | |
| Older than 25 years - drafty, | 2.0 |
| windows & doors loose | |
| | |

The last two items needed are the volume of the building and
the number of heating degree-days and cooling degree-days. The
volume can be calculated by multiplying the length of the
building by its width by its height. For example, the volume for
our hypothetical house is 12000 cubic feet. For a tri-level
house, calculate the volume for each level separately and then
add the volumes together. The heating/cooling degree-days depend
on the climatological environment where the building is located.
Typical values for several cities in the U.S. and Canada are
given in Appendix B. Degree-day data is also available for
various U.S. cities from the U.S. Weather Service (see references

Page 5.6

TeliSolar Heat loss

After providing the necessary inputs, the screen should look
similar to the following (some lines may have scrolled off the
top of the screen):

| |
| Enter title of this run. |
| ? Test case with 5 building elements and basement |
| Enter air changes/hour [ 1.00 ] |
| Fan capacity in cubic ft/minute [ 10.00 ] 0.0 |
| What is the heating degree-days [ 6473.00 ] |
| What is the cooling degree-days [ 1075.00 ] |
| Enter volume of building [ 12000.00 ] |
| Do you want to consider basement floors? yes |
| Enter width of basement [ 0.00 ] 30.0 |
| Enter length of basement [ 0.00 ] 50.0 |
| Enter depth of basement [ 0.00 ] 8.0 |
| Do you want to consider below-grade walls? yes |
| Enter width of basement [ 30.00 ] |
| Enter length of basement [ 50.00 ] |
| Enter depth of basement [ 8.00 ] |
| Enter depth of wall insulation [ 0.00 ] 2.0 |
| Enter R-value of wall insulation [ 0.00 ] 19.6 |
| Press 'ENTER' for 'Surface Name' when done. |
| Enter surface name ? Windows |
| Enter surface area 48 |
| Enter R-value of surface 1.67 |
| Enter surface name ? Doors |
| Enter surface area 42 |
| Enter R-value of surface 1.56 |
| Enter surface name ? Walls |
| Enter surface area 550 |
| Enter R-value of surface 13.75 |
| Enter surface name ? Walls - brick |
| Enter surface area 141 |
| Enter R-value of surface 14.05 |
| Enter surface name ? Roof |
| Enter surface area 1500 |
| Enter R-value of surface 14.90 |
| Enter surface name ? |
| |
| -1 = help. Units = American. Mode is ENERGY LOAD. |

Page 5.7

Heat loss TeliSolar

After defining the last building surface, the program will
calculate the heat loss through each building element (shown on
the output in the "UA" column) and the percentage of the total
heat that is lost through that element (shown on the output in
the "LOAD %" column). The program will then produce a display
similar to the following:

| |
| |
| NAME (FT^2) BTU/HR-DEG F % |
| --------------------+-------------+--------+------------+------- |
| Windows 48.00 1.67 28.74 5.17 |
| Doors 42.00 1.56 26.92 4.84 |
| Walls 550.00 13.75 40.00 7.20 |
| Walls - brick 141.00 14.05 10.04 1.81 |
| Roof 1500.00 14.90 100.67 18.12 |
| Basement floor 1500.00 50.00 30.00 5.40 |
| Below-grade walls 1120.00 10.54 106.24 19.12 |
| |
| |
| --------------------+-------------+--------+------------+------- |
| Air infiltration 1.00 12000.0 213.12 38.35 |
| Forced ventilation 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.00 |
| |
| |
| Yearly heating requirement is 86.33413 million BTU's |
| Yearly cooling requirement is 14.33789 million BTU's |
| |
| |
| Do you want a graphic display of load? Mode is HEATING LOAD |

After defining the building elements and seeing the results of
the heat loss calculations, you should return to the Main Menu
and choose option 7 to save your building definition. When you
choose option 7, the program will prompt you for a filename into
which it will store the necessary information to recover the
building elements. Then, on subsequent runs, you choose option 8
to re-load your previously defined building. At any time, you can
edit the building definition (see next section), but you must
then re-save it using option 7.

Page 5.8

TeliSolar Heat loss

G5.3. EdittingH

As described earlier in the 'Usage' section, you may choose to
display the currently defined building, define a new building, or
edit the existing building definition. If you choose the latter
option, a display will appear with a list of the currently
defined building elements preceded by a number in parenthesis.

For the following, assume the number of building elements is

o Entering a "-1" will allow you to add new building elements
to the currently defined list. You will be asked for the name
of the surface to be added, its area, and its R-value. For
the R-value, you may enter a "-1" to use the advanced help
features described in the next section.

o Entering a "0" accepts the editting you have done and
displays the results as if you had chosen the "C" option.

o Entering a "1" to "n" from the list of elements shown will
edit that building element. After choosing this option, you
will be asked if you want to edit the Area or the R-value of
the element. Type either an "A" or an "R". If you type an
"A", the program will then prompt you for the new area to
replace the currently defined one for that element. If you
type an "R", the program will prompt you for the new R-value
to replace the currently defined one for that element. You
may respond with a "-1" to get the advanced help capabilities
described in the next section. After exitting 'Help' mode,
press 'Return' to accept the R-value generated.

o Entering a "n+1" value will allow you to edit the number of
heating/cooling degree-days, the fan run time, etc.

You may edit or add as many elements as you wish.

G5.4. HelpH

At any of the prompts for input values, you may enter a "-1"
for the value to get 'help' information. If you do this at this
point, you will see a display which contains the following

This mode is used to calculate the amount of energy
needed to heat or cool a building (usually a house)
defined by the user. After inputting a number of
loading and weather related factors, the user inputs
the area and R-value for each of the different kinds of
building surfaces (i.e., walls, roof/ceiling, doors,
windows, etc). When inputting the R-values, a -1 will

Page 5.9

Heat loss TeliSolar

provide a list of materials from which to choose.
Simply move the hi-lite to the material desired using
the cursor keys and press the '+' key. If you made a
mistake, use the '-' key to subtract out the R-value.
If the thickness is not sufficient for your needs, use
the '*' to multiply the given R-value by the necessary
number to get the R-value needed. To provide a known
R-value for a material not listed, use the '?' key. It
will ask for a value to be entered. When all materials
and/or R-values have been chosen and entered, use the
'=' key to accept the accumulated R-value.

The items needed for this option are as follows: a)
The number of times that all of the air in the building
is replaced with new air from outside (air
changes per hour). b) The total capacity of all fans
in the building (CPM) c) The number of minutes per
day that the fans run. d) The number of heating
degree-days for your area (available from a
number of solar energy books). e) The number of
cooling degree-days for your area. f) The total
volume of the building being defined (ft^3).

When ready, hit any key.

This option contains some advanced help capabilities to assist
the user in getting R-values for the surfaces being defined. When
prompted for the R-value when defining the structure for the
first time or when editing a surface element, entering a '-1' for
the R-value will cause a 'Help' screen containing R-values for
several of the more common building materials to appear. The
first R-value, in the upper left hand corner of the screen will
be hi-lighted, and the accumulated R-value (namely, 0.0) will
appear in the upper right hand corner of the screen. As each
R-value is chosen, this value will increase to show the latest

To get the total R-value for any given surface, you must move
the cursor to each of the materials composing that surface and
cause it to be added in to the accumulating total.

The cursor is moved to the material of choice by using the
cursor positioning keys (i.e., the up, down, left, and right
arrow keys) until the material is hi-lighted. When the desired
material is hi-lighted, any of the following options are

1. Add the selected R-value to the accumulated R-value. You do
this by using the '+' key. It will add the R-value of the

Page 5.10

TeliSolar Heat loss

material hi-lighted to the accumulated value shown in the
upper right hand corner.

2. Subtract the selected R-value from the accumulated R-value.
You do this by using the '-' key. It will subtract the
R-value of the material hi-lighted from the accumulated value
shown in the upper right hand corner. This is useful when you
make a mistake and add one in you don't want.

3. Add in your own R-value. You do this by using the '?' key. It
will prompt you for an R-value which it will then add to the
accumulated value shown in the upper right hand corner. You
can use this to add in values for materials which are not
listed and for which you have determined the R-value from
other sources. (This value may be negative, which would, in
effect, subtract the R-value out of the accumulated value).

4. Multiply the hi-lighted R-value by a factor. You do this by
using the '*' key. It will multiply the R-value of the
material hi-lighted by a factor which the program prompts you
for and adds it to the accumulated R-value. You would use
this when the given thickness of the material is not right
for your application. For instance, suppose you used 2 inches
of plaster on one of your walls. Since no 2 inch plaster
option is available, you must position the cursor to the '1
in. plaster' option and then press the '*' key. When prompted
for the multiply factor, you would enter a '2'. The R-value
(0.2) would be multiplied by two and added to the accumulated
value. (Again, this value may be a negative number).

5. Accept the accumulated R-value for the value of the surface.
You do this by using the '=' key. This will put you back to
the screen at which you entered the '-1' and display the
value following the prompt. To accept this as the R-value for
the surface, simply press the 'Return' key.

For an example, let's use the house we defined earlier.
Specifically, let's use the 'Help' screen to calculate the
R-value for the lower portion of the wall (that portion with the
brick front). To do this, we would type in a '-1' when prompted
for the R-value. The 'Help' will appear with the '1/4 in.
Plywood 0.31' hi-lighted. Then:

1. Using the right arrow key, move the cursor over to the right
column. Using the down arrow key, move the cursor down to the
material 'Inside vertical air film'. Press the '+' key.

2. Using the left arrow key, move the cursor over to the left
column. Using the down arrow key, move the cursor down to the
'1/2 in. Gypsum board'. Press the '+' key.

3. Using the up arrow key, move the cursor up to the '1/2 in.
Plywood'. Press the '+' key.

Page 5.11

Heat loss TeliSolar

4. Using the down arrow key, move the cursor down to the 'Wooden
siding shingles'. Press the '+' key.

5. Using the up arrow key, move the cursor up to the '1 in.
brick'. Press the '*' key. When asked for the multiply
factor, enter '2.5' since the brick siding is 2 and 1/2
inches thick and the given R-value is for only one inch thick

6. Using the down arrow key, move the cursor to the '6 in.
Fiberglass batts'.

7. Press the '+' key.

8. The accumulated R-value shown in the upper right hand corner
should now be 21.93. Press the '=' key to accept this as the
necessary R-value.

G5.5. ApplicationH

Heat, of course, tends to flow from hot places to cold places.
Therefore, in summer heat flows into our living or working
environment and must be "pumped" back outdoors with a type of
heat pump called an air conditioner. In winter, the heat flows
out of our environment and must be replaced by burning some form
of fuel to run a furnace or heater.

Both of these methods have one thing in common: they cost money
to implement and operate. Alarming increases in the price of fuel
and electricity have caused the energy portion of our cost of
living to rival rent or mortgage payments. In an attempt to
reduce these costs, the homeowner must first decide where to
concentrate the energy-saving effort. This option automates the
calculations needed to determine the energy requirements of a
building. Once all of the building components have been modelled
and major areas of winter heat loss or summer heat gain have been
determined, it is then obvious which areas deserve attention.

Using this option, along with option 4, allows one to determine
heating and cooling load savings by changing building designs,
such as adding more insulation in the ceiling or weatherstripping
doors and windows to reduce air infiltration. It also shows the
areas where one should not spend time nor money. For example, if
the heating/cooling load through the doors of a building amount
to 2.3% of the total load, it would probably not be cost
effective to spend money upgrading the door to a more
energy-efficient door to reduce the load due to the door to 1.7%.
The money would be better spent reducing the load in other areas;
such as more insulation and weatherstripping, for instance.

See the "Application" section in the "Economic Considerations"
chapter for an example application of the "Heat Loss" option.

Page 5.12

TeliSolar Heat loss

Experiment with your house definition using different R-values,
air changes, and fan run times to calculate results for various
schemes. You can quickly and easily see how varying these values
changes the heating/cooling load and percent loss through the
different components.

G5.6. TheoryH

There are four factors which contribute to the heating and
cooling load of a structure. These are:

o Conduction

o Convection

o Radiation

o Infiltration

We will consider each of these separately and then show how
they are related to the heating and cooling load.


Conduction is the flow of heat through a solid material. The
heat transfer rate due to conduction is determined using the

Qc = K x A x (Ti - To)/(delta X) (1)


Qc = Heat transfer rate in BTU/hr
A = Cross sectional area in square feet (ft^2)
(Ti-To) = Temperature difference in degrees Fahrenheit
(delta X) = Material thickness in feet
K = Thermal conductivity in BTU/hr-ft^2-F

As described earlier, R-value is the resistance of a material
to heat flow through it. R-value is another way of describing
thermal conductivity for a given thickness of material.

R = R-value = (delta X)/K (2)

By substituting, we get the following equation which is easier
to use since building materials have R-value ratings instead of

Page 5.13

Heat loss TeliSolar

thermal conductivities:

Qc = A x (Ti - To) / R (3)

If we build a wall with fiberglass insulation sandwiched
between a sheet of gypsum board and a sheet of
asphalt-impregnated plywood, the total R-value will be the sum of
the R-values for all three materials since the heat must flow
through all three materials.

Rt = Rg + Ri + Rp (4)


Convection may be either free or forced, depending on whether
the medium (gas or liquid) is in motion or not. Convective heat
transfer is a complicated process that is beyond the scope of
this manual (and program) to explain, so we use a simplified
equation to determine the heat flow:

Qv = h x A x (Tair - Tsurface) (5)

where: h = Heat transfer coefficient
A = Cross sectional area
(Ta-Ts) = Temperature difference

R-values have been calculated for the areas of convective heat
flow associated with building analysis (inside horizontal and
vertical air films, attic air spaces, and outside air films).
These R-values are equivalent to 1/h. Hence, equation (5)

Qv = A x (Tair - Tsurface) / R (6)

which looks just like that for conduction.


Radiation transfer proceeds unimpeded in a vacuum. It is
emitted by all surfaces whose temperatures are above absolute
zero. The equation for determining the heat flow due to radiation

Page 5.14

TeliSolar Heat loss

Qr = e x A x s x (Ti^4 - To^4) (7)


e = emissivity which is a measure of the ability
of a surface to emit radiant heat
A = Cross sectional area
s = Constant of proportionality
(Ti^4-To^4) = Temperature difference

In cases where radiation is important in building heat flow,
convection is also involved, so that the radiation effect may be
added to the convective R-value. The R-values listed here include
the radiant heat flow value where necessary.


Infiltration is the unwanted loss of heated air to the outside
and the subsequent replacement of that air with cold air from the
outside. When the outside air enters a conditioned space, it must
be heated (or cooled) to the temperature of the conditioned
space. The energy, Qi, necessary to do this is given by:

Qi = V x D x SH x (Ti - To) (8)

where: V = Volume of air displaced in ft^3
D = Density (air = 0.074) lb/ft^3
SH = Specific Heat (air = 0.24) BTU/lb-F

The volume of infiltration is given in cubic feet per minute
(CPM). This gives:

Qi = 1.07 x CFM x (Ti - To) (9)

Heat Loss

To calculate the total heat loss (Qt) from a building, then, we
need to add all the heat loss values through all the possible
paths (walls, doors, windows, ceiling, etc).

Qt = Qw + Qd + . . . (10)

= (Aw / Rw) x (Tiw - Tow) + . . . (11)

where: Qt = Total heat loss

Page 5.15

Heat loss TeliSolar

Qw = Heat loss through walls
Qd = Heat loss through doors
Aw = Area of walls
Rw = R-value of walls
Tiw = Temperature of inside wall surface
Tow = Temperature of outside wall surface

Since the temperature difference is simply the difference
between the inside and outside temperatures, and is essentially
the same for all paths, equation (9) becomes:

Qt = ( Aw/Rw + Ad/Rd + . . . ) x (Ti - To) (12)

Since it is nearly impossible to get the temperature difference
all the time for a building to use in the determination of the
heat loss, it becomes necessary to use an average value
determined over a long period of time. This value is available
for various U.S. cities and is called the degree-day. Heating
degree-days are usually based on an inside temperature of 65 F
and is a measure of the average temperature difference between
the inside and outside temperatures which are needed for several
of the calculations presented here. Using degree-days, our
equation for heat loss now becomes:

Qt = (SUM(Asurface/Rsurface) + Qi) x degree-days x 24

Page 5.16


G6.1. IntroductionH

The first three options give you a simplified method of
calculating heat loss and energy usage, but you may well be
wondering if it would be worth while to do anything about the
energy consumption. With the high cost of energy these days, the
most obvious answer would seem to be an unqualified YES! However,
you may find, from a purely financial point of view, that
investing your money in some high-yield investment will provide
more return than the energy savings due to a capital investment
on an energy saving home improvement.

The fourth option, "Return on energy-saving investments",
provides the user with a means of evaluating an energy saving
home improvement against investing an equal amount in some other
investment, such as savings account, stocks, T-bills, etc. After
using either option 1 or 3 two or more times to get the energy
savings due to some change such as adding storm windows or
insulation or a solar hot water pre-heater, this option can then
be used to determine if the amount of capital needed to purchase
the material and labor is a good investment financially.
(Remember, this option can only determine if the investment is
good or bad in financial terms, not on whether you should or
shouldn't because you are or aren't an energy conservationist).

A fairly simple method of determining the financial soundness
of an investment of this type is one called discounted payback.
This method takes into account the amount of capital invested,
the savings effected by that investment, the fuel escalation
rate, the general inflation rate, and the income from investing
the capital in other investments. This method allows you to
calculate how long it would take for the money saved each year on
energy cost savings to pay back the amount of capital invested on
the energy saving improvement.

G6.2. UsageH

At the Main Menu screen, select option '4' when prompted for
the desired option. The program will then request several input
values. At each prompt, enter the value which applies to your
situation or press the 'Return' key (<--') to accept the default
value shown in brackets.

The following inputs are needed:

1. General inflation rate (percent) - This is the current
general inflation rate. Enter it as a percent (i.e., 75).

Page 6.1

Economic Considerations TeliSolar

2. Investment yield rate (percent) - This is the yield that
could be obtain if you invested the same amount of capital in
some other investment (stocks, money markets, etc).

3. Fuel escalation rate (percent) - This is the rate at which
fuel costs are going up each year.

4. Energy-saving investment cost ($) - This is the amount of
money which you spent on the energy saving improvement.

5. Heating load savings (million btus) - This is the amount of
energy saved as determined by using option 1 or 3 two times
(once before the improvement and once after the improvement).

6. Cost of heating ($/fuel unit) - This is the amount that fuel
costs for heating.

7. Fuel type - This is the type of fuel used to heat the
building (electricity, oil, gas, or propane)

8. Cooling load savings (million btus)- This is the amount of
energy needed for cooling that is saved (as described in step
5 above).

9. Cost of cooling ($/fuel unit) - This is the amount that fuel
costs for cooling.

10. Fuel type - Same as step 7 above except used for cooling.

After providing the necessary input, the screen should look
similar to the following:

| |
| General inflation rate (percent) [ 6.00 ] |
| Investment yield rate (percent) [ 9.00 ] |
| Fuel escalation rate (percent) [ 11.00 ] |
| Energy-saving investment cost ($) [ 450.00 ] |
| Heating load savings (million btus [ 8.00 ] |
| Cost of heating ($/unit) [ 7.50 ] 0.08 |
| Enter fuel type : (E)lec,(O)il,(G)as,(P)ropane [G]? e |
| Cooling load savings (million btus [ 4.00 ] |
| Cost of cooling ($/unit) [ 6.00 ] 0.08 |
| Enter fuel type : (E)lec,(O)il,(G)as,(P)ropane [G]? e |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| -1 = help. Units = American. Mode is INVESTMENT RETURN. |

Page 6.2

TeliSolar Economic Considerations

The program then produces an output that looks like the

| |
| Present value of Present value if Net savings of |
| energy savings. capital were energy |
| Year (cumulative) invested investment |
| |
| 1 294.63 462.74 -168.10 |
| 2 603.16 475.83 127.33 |
| 3 926.25 489.30 436.95 |
| 4 1264.57 503.15 761.42 |
| 5 1618.85 517.39 1101.46 |
| 6 1989.85 532.03 1457.81 |
| 7 2378.34 547.09 1831.25 |
| 8 2785.16 562.57 2222.59 |
| 9 3211.17 578.49 2632.67 |
| 10 3657.27 594.87 3062.40 |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| Energy investment payed for in first year. |
| |
| |
| When ready, hit any key. Mode is INVESTMENT RETURN. |
| |

G6.3. HelpH

At any of the prompts for input values, you may enter a "-1"
for the value to get 'help' information. If you do this at this
point, you will see a display which contains the following

This option is used to calculate how long it would take
for the money saved on energy costs due to an
improvement to pay for the capital invested on the
improvement. It takes into account the income that
would be derived from investing the capital in savings,
stocks, etc., the escalation of fuel costs, and the
general inflation rate. The following input is needed:

a) The current general inflation rate (such as 5.5%)
b) The yield that could be attained if the capital were
invested in other investments such as savings,
stocks, T-bills, etc. c) The current rate at which

Page 6.3

Economic Considerations TeliSolar

fuel costs are going up each year. d) The amount
invested in the energy-saving improvement. e) The
amount of energy saved as calculated by using option 1
or 3. f) The cost of fuel to provide one million
Btus for heating purposes. g) The amount of energy
saved for cooling purposes. h) The cost of fuel to
provide one million Btus for cooling purposes.

After providing all the above inputs when requested,
the program will calculate the present value of the
energy savings, the present value of the capital if you
had invested it instead, and the net savings due to the
energy-saving improvement.

When ready, hit any key.

G6.4. ApplicationH

Using the 'Heat loss from a building' option (No. 3) and this
option, you can determine if investing your money in an
energy-saving upgrade is profitable. Assume you want to add more
insulation to the ceiling. Assume also that the of R19 fiberglass
is $0.50 per square foot and that you install the material
yourself. Based on the hypothetical house described earlier with
a ceiling area of 1200 square feet, the cost of insulation is

At the Main Menu, choose option 3 and set the R-value of the
roof to 15:

1. Press "E" to edit the current values for the building.

2. Enter a "5" to choose editting of the roof.

3. Press "R" to change the R-value.

4. Enter "15" to set the new R-value.

5. Enter a "0" to stop editting.

6. The number of BTUs used per year for heating should be
79.98005 million. The number of BTUs used per year for
cooling should be 13.25264 million. Write these down.

7. Enter a "N" to return to the Main Menu.

Choose option 3 again and this time set the R-value to 34:

Page 6.4

TeliSolar Economic Considerations

1. Follow steps 1-3 above.

2. Enter "34" to set the new R-value.

3. Follow steps 5-7 above. (The values should be 71.29862 and

Choose option 4 to determine the payback period:

1. Enter "6.0" for the general inflation rate.

2. Enter "9.0" for the investment yield.

3. Enter "10.0" for the fuel escalation rate.

4. Enter "600" for the investment cost (calculated above).

5. Calculate the difference in BTU usage for heating from the
two steps above (79.98005-71.29862 million BTUs). Enter

6. Enter the cost of heating. Use "0.08".

7. Enter the fuel type. Use "E".

8. Calculate the difference in BTU usage for cooling from the
two steps above (13.25264-11.84088 million BTUs). Enter

9. Enter the cost of cooling. Use "0.08".

10. Enter the fuel type. Use "E".

11. The display shows the accumulated amount of payback for each
year, and the number of years it will take to "pay off" the
$600 energy-saving investment.

G6.5. TheoryH

Any number of economic models may have been used for this
program. A semi-sophisticated model is the "discounted payback"
method. It takes into account:

o Income derived from investing the capital instead of using it
for energy- saving costs.

o Fuel escalation rates.

o Inflation rate.

From the "Theory" section in the previous chapter, you can
calculate the annual heating and cooling costs before and after

Page 6.5

Economic Considerations TeliSolar

an energy-saving upgrade. The amount spent on the upgrade is
also known.

The simple payback model would be:

Years to recover = Investment/Savings

By adding a few more terms, a more accurate equation may be

PV = [ A ] * [ (1+E)/(1+I) ] * [ 1 - ((1+E)/(1+I))^N ]

PV = Present Value
A = Annual savings
E = Fuel escalation rate
I = General inflation rate
N = Year in question

This equation allows the user to determine, based on conditions
now (such as inflation rate, etc), how much of the energy-saving
cost is "payed off" each year. The pay off occurs in the year in
which the sign changes.

Page 6.6


G7.1. IntroductionH

This option is used with the 'Weekly hot water usage & solar
requirements' option (# 1) or the 'Heat loss from a building'
option (# 3), and the 'Solar flux striking solar collector'
option (# 2) to determine the size of flat plate solar collector
needed to generate the heating requirements determined in options
1 or 3. The amount of energy that may be collected in your
situation was determined using option 2. Option 2 and either
option 1 or 3 must have been previously selected in order to
obtain the information necessary for the calculations made in
this section.

G7.2. UsageH

At the Main Menu screen, select option '5' when prompted for
the desired option. The program will then request several input
values. At each prompt, enter the value which applies to your
situation or press the 'Return' key (<--') to accept the default
value shown in brackets.

The following inputs are needed:

1. The efficiency of the selected flat plate collectors. This
information can usually be obtained from the manufacturer of
the collectors you are considering purchasing. A good
estimate would be in the range 60 to 75.

2. Whether you are sizing the 'hot water usage' requirements or
the 'Heat loss' requirements. You must have previously chosen
either option 1 or 3 and determined the energy requirements
for that situation.

3. Whether you want to determine the size requirements for the
average case (for the average of all the months) or the worst
case (the month which receives the least sunshine). For the
average case, there may be months in which there is not
enough sunshine for the collectors to collect enough energy
to meet the heating requirements.

After providing the above inputs, the program will calculate
the approximate number of square feet of flat plate collector
needed to provide the necessary heating requirements. The screen
should look similar to this:

Page 7.1

Solar Sizing TeliSolar

| |
| Efficiency of selected solar panel [ 0.75 ]? |
| Calculate for Hot water(W) or Heat load(H) [ W ]? |
| Calculate for (W)orst case or (A)verage [ A ] ? |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| Estimated collector size needed is 66.86307 ft^2 |
| or approximately 2 panels. |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| When ready, hit any key. Mode is SOLAR SIZING |
| |

G7.3. HelpH

At any of the prompts for input values, you may enter a "-1"
for the value to get 'help' information. If you do this at this
point, you will see a display which contains the following

This option can be used to calculate the number of
square feet of a flat plate solar collector needed to
produce the BTUs calculated in either the 'Weekly hot
water usage' or the 'Heat loss from a building'

One or both of the above mentioned options and the
'Solar flux striking solar collector' option MUST have
been previously run in order for the necessary values
to be available.

The efficiency is dependent on the solar collector
panel being evaluated. You should be able to get it
from the manufacturers literature. If not, a value in
the range of 0.65 to 0.80 should be a fairly good

Use the 'Hot water(W)' choice to calculate the area
needed for a solar hot water preheater based on usage
information calculated in Option 1.

Use the 'yearly Heat load(H)' choice to calculate the

Page 7.2

TeliSolar Solar Sizing

area needed for heating your building based on
information calculated in Option 3.

Worst case applies to either choice, and calculates the
area for the month with the least amount of sunshine.
Average case calculates the area for the average amount
of heat collected by the collectors.

When ready, hit any key.

G7.4. ApplicationH

The amount of heat a solar energy collector system can supply
depends mainly on the number of square feet of flat plate
collector exposed to the sun. If cost were no object, one could
simply connect one or more large storage tanks to a large array
of collectors and use the sun to heat all the hot water necessary
and to also heat the house in which he/she lived. However, this
approach is extremely expensive and in most cases, cost is an
object. Designers and homeowners usually have to make trade-offs
between cost and performance. This option, used with the others
supplied in this program, is used to speedup and simplify that
trade-off study.

Experiment with this model, and the others provided in this
program, to determine the most cost effective method of providing
your family with the hot water and space heating necessary, based
on your needs and location.

G7.5. TheoryH

The mathematics for this model is very straight forward.

To get the average heat collection value, add the heat
collected per month-ft^2 for all months and divide by 12. To get
the worst case value, use the smallest value for all the months.

Then, the size needed is calculated as follows:

Size = Hu x 1/Hc x 1/E


Hu = Heat used. Calculated in option 1 or 3 in BTU/yr.
Hc = Heat collected by flat plate collector. Calculated

Page 7.3

Solar Sizing TeliSolar

in option 2. BTU/yr-ft^2.
E = Collector efficiency

Page 7.4


GA.1. Handling and Storage of DiskettesH

Diskettes are very sensitive and must be handled with care. The
magnetically coated recording surface of the diskette is visible
through the oval holes in the permanent, black plastic jacket.
You must never touch any part of the exposed recording surface.
Touching this surface could destroy the diskette. Instead, always
handle it by the edge where the label is located.

When you place the diskette into the drive, hold it so the
label edge is facing up and closest to you.

Be sure that the lift lever of the disk drive is pushed up in
the open position. Hold the diskette as described above, insert
it into the drive, and carefully push it all the way in until it
stops. Close the disk drive door by pushing down on the lift
lever until it clicks shut.

Page A.1

Detailed Operations TeliSolar

Because the diskette is magnetic, it must be kept away from
electrical appliances and other equipment that have a magnetic
field, such as office paper clip containers or copy-holders.
Over-exposure to fluorescent lights can also damage diskettes.

Very high or low temperatures can damage a diskette. The
acceptable range is about 50 F to 125 F (10 C to 52 C). So don't
leave them in your car for too long on a warm or cold day, and
don't put them near a radiator, stove, heater, etc.

Diskettes are also sensitive to physical damage. Do not bend or
staple the plastic cover. If you write on the label or paper
envelope while the diskette is inside it, use only a soft
felt-tip pen - never a pencil or ballpoint. Whenever possible,
write on the label before putting it on the diskette.

When not in use, diskettes should always be stored in their
paper envelopes to protect them from dust and other elements.
They should be stored in an upright position in a hard-cover box.
Never put anything on top of a diskette, such as food, drinks,
the family cat, etc.

GA.2. Write-Protecting DiskettesH

Some diskettes contain important data that should not be
altered or destroyed. By placing a small foil tab over the square
write-protect notch of the diskette, you can be assured that
information can be read from, but not written to or erased from,
that diskette. See below.

The diskettes supplied with this package already have the foil
tab placed over the write-protect notch. Do not put a tab over
the notch on your working copy of the program.

Page A.2

TeliSolar Detailed Operations

GA.3. Helpful HintsH


o Remove diskettes before you turn off the computer.

o Make regular backup copies of the files you generate.

o Date and label your diskettes, including the names of the
files written to them.


o Remove the diskettes from the disk drives without saving any
files created during the run.

o Remove the diskette from the drive while the red "in-use"
light is on or the drive motor is running.

o Insert foreign objects into the disk drives.

GA.4. Cold StartingH

Following is the procedure to begin when the computer power is

1. Put the DOS diskette in Drive A (usually the left drive).
Don't forget to shut the door. Be sure you insert the
diskette correctly! The label side should be facing up,
exposed area away form you.

(Note: if the diskette has an untabbed write-protect notch on
the left side of it and it is your master diskette, put a
metallic write-protect tab over it. You should not put a
write-enabled diskette into a drive unless you expect to
write on it.)

2. Flip the RED power switch on the right side (near the back)
to ON.

3. Turn on your monitor (or TV) if it has a separate power

4. The IBM-PC does a memory check during the power-up
procedure, so it may take several seconds before you notice

5. If you have just turned it off before starting this
procedure, it may not start up properly. Be sure the power is
off for at least 30 seconds or so before powering up.

Page A.3

Detailed Operations TeliSolar

6. The screen clears and drive A whirs with its red light on.

7. If the PC is working correcting, you will get the "Enter
today's date (mm-dd-yy)" message. :il.Proceed from here as
with the Warm Start procedure described below starting at
Step 5.

GA.5. Warm StartingH

Following is the procedure to use if the PC's power is already

1. Put the DOS diskette in Drive A (usually the one on the
left). Be sure to close the door.

2. Using your left hand, hold down both the "Alt" and "Ctrl"
keys (on the left side of the keyboard). Then press the "Del"
key (on the lower right of the keyboard), while still holding
down the "Alt" and "Ctrl" keys.

3. The screen clears and drive A whirs with its red light on.

4. If everything worked OK, the message "Enter today's date
(mm-dd-yy)" appears

5. Using the numbers on the top row of the keyboard, type in
the date in numeric form (March 10, 1983 is entered as
3-10-83). Press the 'Return' key (the one to the right side
of the keyboard that looks something like "<--'")

6. If you attempt to enter a date that doesn't make sense, the
DOS will catch it and ask you to enter the date again. It
will not prevent you from entering the wrong date.

7. If all goes well, you will see a copyright notice, the DOS
version number, and a prompt that looks like "A>" ("C>" if
you have a hard disk). Whenever you see this prompt, the DOS
system is ready to accept a command.

8. Once you are at this point, you are ready to run the your

Page A.4

TeliSolar Detailed Operations

GA.6. Diskette FormattingH

Follow the procedure below to format a blank diskette.

1. Put a blank diskette in Drive B (the one on the right) and
shut the door.

2. Type in "DIR B:". Press 'Return'. If the diskette has not
been formatted, you should get the message "Disk error
reading drive B" followed by "Abort, Retry, Ignore?". Type
"A" to abort. Press 'Return'. If the diskette has been
formatted, but contains no files, the message "No Files"
should appear. In either of these cases it is OK to proceed.
If a list of file names appears, you must decide at this
point if you really want to use this diskette. PROCEEDING ON

3. Type in 'FORMAT B:'. Press 'Return'. You'll get the message
"Insert new diskette for drive B: and strike any key when
ready". Press the space bar.

4. You will see the message "Formatting...Format complete". It
will display some information about the capacity of the
diskette, and then ask "Format another (Y/N)". Type in "N"

GA.7. Diskette BackupH

The first thing you should do after opening the release
package, is to make a backup copy of your master diskette and
then put the master away in a safe place. To do this:

1. Start the IBM-PC system (see above for the Cold Start or Warm
Start procedures).

2. Format a blank diskette to receive the backup copy. (See
above procedure for formatting the diskette if you do not
know how to do this.)

3. Remove the DOS diskette from Drive A. Insert the master
diskette in Drive A and close the door. Type in "COPY A:*.*
B:" (notice the spaces between the arguments). Press
'Return'. You will see the names of the files as they are
copied to your newly formatted diskette.

4. When the "A>" prompt appears, your backup copy is complete.
Take it out and label it appropriately.

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Detailed Operations TeliSolar

GA.8. Using a Hard DiskH

If you are using a new computer with a hard disk, you must make
sure it is properly formatted and initialized before you begin.
See your computer dealer or use the computer's DOS Reference
manual to format it properly and install DOS on the hard disk.

When using a hard disk, programs are usually stored in and run
from subdirectories. We recommend creating a separate
subdirectory for this program and it's data files.

So, to install this package on a hard disk:

1. Type: "cd \"

2. Press the 'Return' key.

3. Type: "md ", where "" is a subdirectory name of
your choosing.

4. Press the 'Return' key.

5. Type: "cd \".

6. Press the 'Return' key.

7. Insert the master diskette supplied with this package into
the "A" drive, and close the door.

8. Type: "COPY A:*.* C:"

9. Press the 'Return' key. As the system copies the files from
the master diskette onto the hard disk, the file names appear
on the screen. When the copying process is complete, the DOS
prompt "C>" appears.

10. Remove the master disk from the "A" drive and store it in a
safe place.

11. You can now execute the program from the hard disk.

GA.9. Power OffH

Follow these steps to power off your IBM-PC:

1. When you power off the PC, you lose whatever is on the screen
and in memory. Be careful about powering off!

2. Be sure to remove any and all diskettes and leave the drive
doors open.

3. Power off the PC by flipping the RED power switch down.

Page A.6

TeliSolar Detailed Operations

4. Turn off the monitor (or TV) and the printer if you have one.

5. Avoid turning the PC on and off too often. The power surges
and temperature changes due to power up/down cycles are not
good for the electronic components and shorten their lives.

Page A.7

Detailed Operations TeliSolar

Page A.8


Number of sunny days in
State City Ja Fe Ma Ap Ma Ju Ju Au Se Oc No De
----- ----

Alabama Birmingham 13 14 17 19 20 20 19 20 20 21 17 14
Montgomery 16 15 19 21 23 22 20 21 21 22 19 15
Alaska Anchorage 12 13 17 17 16 15 14 12 11 10 10 9
Fairbanks 11 14 19 20 17 16 14 11 9 9 11 9
Juneau 9 9 12 11 11 11 9 9 8 6 6 6
Nome 14 13 15 16 16 14 10 8 10 11 11 9
Arizona Phoenix 24 22 26 26 29 28 26 26 27 27 25 24
Yuma 26 24 28 28 30 29 29 28 28 29 27 26
Arkansas Little Rock 14 15 18 19 21 22 22 23 21 23 17 15
California Eureka 12 12 16 16 17 17 16 14 16 15 13 12

Fresno 14 18 22 25 28 28 30 30 28 27 22 15
Los Angeles 22 19 22 20 21 21 25 25 24 24 24 22
Red Bluff 16 17 20 23 24 26 29 29 27 24 19 16
Sacramento 14 16 21 23 25 27 30 29 28 25 20 14
San Diego 21 19 21 20 19 18 21 22 21 22 23 22
San Francisco 16 16 20 21 22 23 21 20 21 22 19 17
Colorado Denver 21 19 20 19 19 21 21 21 21 22 20 20
Grand Junct 18 17 20 20 22 24 24 22 23 23 20 18
Conn. Hartford 14 15 17 16 18 18 19 19 17 17 14 14
D.C. Washington 14 15 17 17 19 19 20 19 19 19 16 15
Florida Jacksonville 18 17 20 21 22 19 19 20 17 18 18 16
Key West 21 21 24 23 24 21 21 22 20 20 21 20
Miami Beach 20 20 23 22 21 19 20 21 19 19 20 20
Tampa 20 19 22 22 23 20 19 20 19 21 20 19
Georgia Atlanta 15 15 18 20 21 20 19 20 20 21 18 15
Hawaii Hilo 15 12 13 10 10 12 14 12 13 13 10 11
Honolulu 19 18 19 19 20 20 21 22 21 21 19 19
Lihue 15 13 15 14 16 18 18 18 20 18 15 15
Idaho Boise 12 13 18 20 21 23 28 27 24 20 14 11
Pocatello 11 13 18 19 20 22 25 25 23 20 14 11
Illinois Chicago 14 14 16 17 20 21 23 22 20 19 14 13
Springfield 15 14 17 17 20 21 24 22 22 20 16 14
Indiana Ft. Wayne 12 12 16 17 19 21 23 21 19 18 12 12
Indianapolis 13 13 15 17 19 20 23 22 20 20 14 12

Page B.1

General Info. by City TeliSolar

Number of sunny days in
State City Ja Fe Ma Ap Ma Ju Ju Au Se Oc No De
----- ----

Iowa Des Moines 17 16 17 18 19 20 23 22 19 20 16 15
Sioux City 17 16 18 18 20 20 23 22 20 20 16 16
Kansas Dodge City 21 18 21 20 21 22 24 24 23 23 21 21
Wichita 19 18 20 19 20 22 25 24 22 21 20 18
Kentucky Louisville 13 13 16 17 20 20 22 21 20 20 15 12
Louisiana New Orleans 15 14 18 19 20 19 18 19 19 22 18 14
Shreveport 15 15 18 18 21 23 24 25 24 24 20 19
Maine Eastport 14 14 16 16 16 16 17 18 16 16 11 12
Massachusetts Boston 15 16 18 17 18 19 20 20 18 18 14 15
Michigan Detroit 11 12 15 16 18 20 21 20 18 17 11 9
Grand Rapids 8 10 15 16 19 20 22 21 17 16 9 7
Marquette 10 11 15 16 16 17 20 18 14 12 7 7
Minnesota Duluth 15 15 19 17 18 18 21 20 16 15 11 12
Minneapolis 15 15 17 17 19 19 22 21 18 17 12 12
Mississippi Vicksburg 14 14 18 19 21 22 21 22 22 22 18 14
Missouri Kansas City 17 16 18 18 20 21 24 23 21 21 18 16
St. Louis 15 14 17 18 20 20 22 21 20 20 16 14
Springfield 15 15 18 18 20 21 24 22 21 20 17 15
Montana Helena 14 15 18 18 18 19 24 23 19 18 14 13
Kalispell 9 11 15 17 18 18 24 23 18 16 8 6
Nebraska Lincoln 18 17 19 18 20 21 24 22 20 20 18 17
North Platte 20 18 20 19 20 22 24 23 22 22 19 18
Nevada Ely 19 18 21 20 21 24 24 25 24 23 20 19
Las Vegas 23 22 24 24 26 27 26 27 28 26 25 23
Reno 18 18 21 23 24 25 28 28 26 24 20 17
New Hampshire Concord 15 15 17 16 16 17 18 18 17 16 13 13
New Jersey Atlantic City 16 16 18 18 19 20 21 20 20 17 17 16
New Mexico Albuquerque 22 20 22 23 24 25 24 23 24 25 24 22
New York Albany 13 14 16 16 18 19 20 19 17 17 12 12
Buffalo 10 11 15 15 18 20 22 21 18 16 9 9
New York 15 16 18 18 19 20 20 20 19 19 16 16
N. Carolina Asheville 15 15 17 18 20 19 18 18 19 20 18 15
Raleigh 16 16 18 19 21 20 19 19 19 20 19 16
N. Dakota Bismarck 16 16 17 17 18 18 23 21 19 18 15 15
Fargo 15 15 17 17 19 19 23 21 18 18 12 14
Ohio Cincinnati 13 13 16 17 19 21 22 21 20 19 14 12
Cleveland 9 10 14 16 19 20 22 21 19 17 10 8
Columbus 11 12 15 16 20 20 22 21 20 19 13 11
Oklahoma Oklahoma City 18 17 20 19 20 22 24 24 22 21 19 18
Oregon Portland 8 10 13 15 16 17 22 20 17 13 8 7
Pennsylvania Harrisburg 13 15 17 17 19 20 21 20 19 18 14 13
Philadelphia 14 16 18 17 19 19 20 19 19 19 16 15
Pittsburgh 10 11 14 15 18 19 20 19 19 17 12 9
Rhode Island Block Island 14 15 15 17 18 18 19 19 18 18 15 14
S. Carolina Charleston 18 17 20 22 23 21 20 20 20 21 20 18

Page B.2

TeliSolar General Info. by City

Number of sunny days in
State City Ja Fe Ma Ap Ma Ju Ju Au Se Oc No De
----- ----

Columbia 16 16 19 20 21 20 20 20 19 21 19 16
S. Dakota Huron 17 17 19 19 20 20 24 22 20 19 16 15
Rapid City 18 17 20 19 19 20 23 23 21 20 17 17
Tennessee Knoxville 13 14 16 18 20 20 20 18 19 20 16 13
Memphis 14 14 18 19 21 22 23 23 21 21 17 14
Nashville 13 13 17 18 20 21 21 21 21 20 17 13
Texas Abilene 20 19 23 20 23 26 26 26 22 22 22 20
Austin 14 14 18 18 19 22 24 24 21 22 17 15
El Paso 23 22 25 26 27 26 24 24 24 25 24 23
Ft. Worth 17 16 20 20 21 23 24 24 22 22 19 18
Galveston 16 14 17 18 21 23 22 22 21 23 19 15
Utah Salt Lake Cit 15 15 19 20 23 23 25 25 25 23 17 15
Vermont Burlington 11 12 15 14 16 18 19 18 15 13 8 7
Virginia Norfork 16 16 19 19 21 20 20 20 19 20 18 16
Richmond 15 15 18 19 21 20 20 19 19 20 17 16
Washington Seattle 8 10 13 14 16 14 19 17 16 11 8 7
Spokane 8 11 16 19 20 20 25 24 20 16 8 7
W. Virginia Parkersburg 9 10 13 15 17 18 20 19 18 16 11 9
Wisconsin Green Bay 14 14 17 17 18 19 22 20 17 16 12 12
Milwaukee 14 13 16 17 19 20 23 21 19 17 13 12
Wyoming Cheyenne 20 18 20 18 18 20 22 21 21 21 20 20
Puerto Rico San Juan 20 19 22 20 18 19 20 21 18 20 19 20
Alberta Banff 7 9 11 12 13 12 13 13 14 12 9 5
Calgary 12 12 13 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 13 12
Edmonton 11 11 15 16 17 17 17 17 15 15 12 11
British Colum Dawson Creek 10 11 14 15 17 17 17 17 14 13 10 8
Prince George 7 9 12 13 16 16 16 16 12 10 7 5
Vancouver 6 9 11 12 16 16 16 16 14 11 8 6
Victoria 8 10 13 14 18 17 18 18 17 13 9 7
Manitoba Brandon 12 13 14 14 16 15 16 16 15 15 9 11
The Pas 10 12 14 14 16 15 16 16 13 13 6 9
Winnipeg 13 14 19 15 16 16 16 16 14 15 9 11
New Brunswick Chatham 12 12 12 13 14 14 14 14 14 13 10 11
Moncton 11 11 11 12 14 14 14 14 13 13 9 10
Saint John 12 12 13 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 9 12
Newfoundland Gander 8 8 9 8 10 10 10 10 11 10 7 7
St. John's 8 8 8 8 11 11 11 11 12 10 7 7
Nova Scotia Halifax 10 11 12 12 14 13 14 14 14 14 10 10
Sydney 9 10 11 12 14 13 14 14 13 13 8 8
Ontario Kingston 11 11 12 13 17 17 17 17 15 14 9 9
North Bay 11 13 13 14 16 15 16 16 13 11 6 8
Ottawa 11 11 13 13 16 15 16 16 14 12 8 9
Sault Ste Mar 8 11 13 14 16 16 16 16 13 11 7 8
Thunder Bay 13 15 16 15 16 15 16 16 14 11 9 11
Toronto 9 10 12 13 15 14 15 15 16 14 8 9

Page B.3

General Info. by City TeliSolar

Number of sunny days in
State City Ja Fe Ma Ap Ma Ju Ju Au Se Oc No De
----- ----

Prince Edward Charlottetown 9 10 11 11 13 13 13 13 14 12 8 7
Quebec Amos 9 11 13 14 14 14 14 14 11 8 5 8
Montreal 11 12 14 14 16 16 16 16 16 14 8 9
Normandin 11 11 13 13 14 14 14 14 11 10 7 9
Quebec 9 10 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 11 7 8
St. Ambroise 11 11 13 15 14 14 14 14 11 8 6 9
Saskatchewan Indian Head 12 13 15 15 17 17 17 17 17 15 11 10
Moose Jaw 12 11 14 16 17 17 17 17 16 16 11 10
Prince Albert 11 12 14 15 16 16 16 16 14 13 9 10
Regina 11 11 13 15 18 17 18 17 15 16 11 10
Saskatoon 12 13 16 16 18 17 17 17 16 16 11 11

Page B.4

TeliSolar General Info. by City

State City Heating Cooling Lat.
----- ---- ------- ------- ----

Alabama Birmingham 2780 1928 33.5
Montgomery 1954 0 32.4
Alaska Anchorage 10789 0 61.2
Fairbanks 14279 52 64.8
Juneau 8187 0 58.3
Nome 14086 0 64.5
Arizona Phoenix 1492 3508 33.4
Yuma 951 0 0.0
Arkansas Little Rock 2982 1925 34.7
California Eureka 4632 0 0.0
Fresno 2532 1671 36.8
Los Angeles 2015 1185 33.9
Red Bluff 2546 0 0.0
Sacramento 2600 1159 0.0
San Diego 1574 722 0.0
San Francisco 3069 39 37.8
Colorado Denver 5673 625 39.7
Grand Junct 5796 1140 39.1
Conn. Hartford 6139 584 41.8
D.C. Washington 4333 1415 38.9
Florida Jacksonville 1239 0 30.3
Key West 108 0 0.0
Miami Beach 141 4038 25.8
Tampa 683 3366 27.9
Georgia Atlanta 2983 1589 33.7
Hawaii Hilo 0 3066 0.0
Honolulu 0 4221 21.3
Lihue 0 0 0.0
Idaho Boise 5809 714 43.6
Pocatello 7033 0 42.9
Illinois Chicago 6155 925 41.9
Springfield 5429 1116 0.0
Indiana Ft. Wayne 6205 0 41.1
Indianapolis 5699 974 39.7
Iowa Des Moines 6808 928 41.6
Sioux City 6951 0 0.0
Kansas Dodge City 4986 0 37.8
Wichita 4620 1673 37.7
Kentucky Louisville 4660 1268 38.2
Louisiana New Orleans 1385 2706 30.0
Shreveport 2184 2538 32.5
Maine Eastport 8246 0 0.0
Massachusetts Boston 5634 661 42.4
Michigan Detroit 6232 743 42.3
Grand Rapids 6894 575 43.0

Page B.5

General Info. by City TeliSolar

State City Heating Cooling Lat.
----- ---- ------- ------- ----

Marquette 8393 216 0.0
Minnesota Duluth 10000 176 46.8
Minneapolis 8382 585 45.0
Mississippi Vicksburg 2041 0 0.0
Missouri Kansas City 4711 1420 39.1
St. Louis 4900 1475 38.6
Springfield 4561 0 0.0
Montana Helena 8128 256 0.0
Kalispell 8191 0 0.0
Nebraska Lincoln 5864 0 40.8
North Platte 6684 802 0.0
Nevada Ely 7733 0 39.3
Las Vegas 2709 2946 36.1
Reno 6332 0 39.5
New Hampshire Concord 7383 349 43.2
New Jersey Atlantic City 4812 864 0.0
New Mexico Albuquerque 4348 1316 35.1
New York Albany 6875 574 42.7
Buffalo 7062 437 42.9
New York 4850 1068 40.8
N. Carolina Asheville 4042 872 35.6
Raleigh 3393 1394 0.0
N. Dakota Bismarck 8851 0 46.8
Fargo 9226 473 46.9
Ohio Cincinnati 4806 1188 39.1
Cleveland 6351 613 41.4
Columbus 5660 809 40.0
Oklahoma Oklahoma City 3725 1876 35.4
Oregon Portland 4635 300 45.5
Pennsylvania Harrisburg 5251 1025 40.2
Philadelphia 5101 1104 40.0
Pittsburgh 5987 948 40.4
Rhode Island Block Island 5804 359 0.0
S. Carolina Charleston 2033 2078 32.9
Columbia 2484 0 0.0
S. Dakota Huron 8223 0 0.0
Rapid City 7345 661 44.2
Tennessee Knoxville 3494 1569 36.0
Memphis 3232 2029 35.2
Nashville 3578 1694 36.1
Texas Abilene 2624 0 0.0
Austin 1711 0 30.3
El Paso 2700 2098 31.8
Ft. Worth 2405 2587 32.8
Galveston 1235 0 29.3

Page B.6

TeliSolar General Info. by City

State City Heating Cooling Lat.
----- ---- ------- ------- ----

Utah Salt Lake Cit 6052 927 40.8
Vermont Burlington 8269 396 0.0
Virginia Norfork 3421 1441 36.8
Richmond 3865 1353 37.5
Washington Seattle 4424 129 47.5
Spokane 6655 388 47.7
W. Virginia Parkersburg 4754 0 0.0
Wisconsin Green Bay 8029 0 44.5
Milwaukee 7635 450 43.0
Wyoming Cheyenne 7278 327 41.1
Puerto Rico San Juan 0 4982 0.0
Alberta Banff 9611 0 0.0
Calgary 9204 0 0.0
Edmonton 9768 0 0.0
British Colum Dawson Creek 10467 0 0.0
Prince George 9145 0 0.0
Vancouver 4924 0 0.0
Victoria 4874 0 0.0
Manitoba Brandon 10722 0 0.0
The Pas 11882 0 0.0
Winnipeg 10461 0 0.0
New Brunswick Chatham 8632 0 0.0
Moncton 8281 0 0.0
Saint John 7303 0 0.0
Newfoundland Gander 8567 0 0.0
St. John's 7735 0 0.0
Nova Scotia Halifax 6835 0 0.0
Sydney 7729 0 0.0
Ontario Kingston 7494 0 0.0
North Bay 8884 0 0.0
Ottawa 8162 0 0.0
Sault Ste Mar 8931 0 0.0
Thunder Bay 10028 0 0.0
Toronto 6558 0 0.0
Prince Edward Charlottetown 7877 0 0.0
Quebec Amos 10880 0 0.0
Montreal 7933 0 0.0
Normandin 10824 0 0.0
Quebec 8561 0 0.0
St. Ambroise 10458 0 0.0
Saskatchewan Indian Head 10404 0 0.0
Moose Jaw 9621 0 0.0
Prince Albert 11519 0 0.0
Regina 10474 0 0.0
Saskatoon 10486 0 0.0

Page B.7

General Info. by City TeliSolar

Page B.8


1/8" Asbestos-cement board 0.03
3/8" Gypsum 0.32
1/2" Gypsum 0.45
25/32" Sheathing 2.06
fiber 0.00
1" Wood fiber board 2.38
1/4" Wood fiber 0.18
00.98 0.00
subfloor 0.00
3/4" Hardwood 0.68
Felt building paper 0.06
Carpet & fiber pad 2.08
Carpet & rubber pad 1.23
1/8" Cork tile 0.28
1" Terrazzo 0.08
Tile 0.05
1/2" Gypsumboard 0.45
Hardwood flooring 0.68
1" Cement mortar 0.20
1" Gypsum-fiber concrete 0.60
1" Stucco 0.20
1" Common Brick 0.20
1" Face Brick 0.11
8" Concrete block 1.04
1" Stone 0.08
1" Marble 0.05
1" Cement plaster 0.20
1/2" Gypsum plaster 0.32
Asbestos shingles 0.21
Asphalt roll 0.15
Built-up roofing 0.44
1/2" Slate roofing 0.05
Wood shingle roofing 0.94
Wood shingle siding 0.80
Wood insulated siding 1.40
Asphalt insulated siding 1.46
1/2" Plywood 0.62
1" Hardwoods 0.91
1" Softwoods 1.25
1" Solid-core wood door 1.56

Page C.1

R-values of Selected Materials TeliSolar

Page C.2


The Solar Decision Book, A Guide for Heating Your Home with
Solar Energy
Richard H. Montgomery, John Wiley & Sons, 1978

The Solar Home Book
Bruce Anderson, Brick House Publishing, 1976

The Passive Solar Energy Book
Edward Mazria, Rodale Press, 1979

Passive Solar Design Handbook, Volume 2
(DOE/cs-0127/2), Los Alamos

Complete Book of Insulating
L. Gay (editor), Stephen Green Press, 1980

Simplified Energy Design Economics
Marshall H. and R. Ruegg (editors), U.S. Government
Printing Office

Page D.1

Further Reading TeliSolar

Page D.2


Active solar system
A system that has equipment to trap the sun's energy and
mechanically move that energy to its point of intended use
for water heating, space heating, and possibly space cooling.
Usually has storage capabilities.

Angle of incidence
Angle at which solar energy strikes a surface.

The angle between solar south and the direction in which the
collectors are faced. Used in solar flux calculations.

British thermal unit (Btu)
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one
pound (pint) of water one degree Fahrenheit.

A device used to collect solar radiation (energy) and convert
it to usable heat.

Collector efficiency
The performance of a collector, measured as a ratio of useful
energy collected to the available energy striking the
collector. Usually expressed as a percent.

Collector tilt angle
The angle between the collector and a horizontal or level

The process by which heat energy is transferred through
materials (solids, liquids, or gases) by molecular excitation
of adjacent molecules.

The quantity of heat (BTUs) that will flow through one square
foot of material, one inch thick, in one hour, when there is
a temperature difference of 1 degree F between its surfaces.

The transfer of heat between a moving fluid medium (liquid or
gas) and a surface, or the transfer of heat within a fluid by
movements within the fluid.

A unit of measurement used in heat-loss calculations and
solar system sizing. Shows degrees difference between 65
degrees F and the day's mean (average) outdoor temperature. A
25 degree-day would have a mean temperature of 40 degree F.

Page E.1

Glossary TeliSolar

Two such days would add up to 50 degree-days.

Direct radiation
Composed of parallel rays coming straight from the sun.
Casts shadows on clear days.

The property of emitting heat radiation; possessed by all
materials to a varying extent.

Flat plate collector
Converts the sun's radiation into heat on a flat surface
within a simple box. Does not use reflecting surfaces, or
lens arrangements.

The intensity of heat flow.

Heat exchanger
A device which transfers heat from one substance to another
substance without mixing the two.

Heat loss
A decrease in the amount of heat contained in a space,
resulting from heat flow through walls, windows, roof, and
other building envelope components.

The uncontrolled movement of outdoor air into the interior of
a building through cracks around windows and doors or in
walls, roofs, and floors. This may work by cold air leaking
in during the winter, or hot air leaking in during the

The total amount of solar radiation striking a collector
cover plate. Includes direct, diffuse, and reflected

Kilowatt-hour. Equals 1000 watt-hours. Electricity is sold in

Passive system
A solar system which has no mechanical means to move or
regulate the release of collected energy.

Payback period
The amount of time (usually years) needed for a building
owner to recover the system investment in fuel-cost savings.

Page E.2

TeliSolar Glossary

The heat movement from a warm surface.

The tested insulation value which is used to calculate the
U-factor. "R" is the resistance to heat flow.

Solar radiation
The sun's energy that comes to earth in the form of direct,
diffuse, and reflected rays.

The number of Btus which pass through one square foot of
solid in one hour if there is a one degree Fahrenheit
difference between the two sides. Used to express heat
transmission. The reciprocal of "R-value" (U=1/R).

Page E.3

Glossary TeliSolar

Page E.4


Product Registration

Tesseract believes that customer service is very important for
customer satisfaction. We want you to be happy with the product
that you have purchased and have you as a repeat customer for
future products that we might offer. Therefore, you have our
assurance of customer service and product support.

To take advantage of Tesseract's Customer Service Plan, you
must first register your product with Tesseract Enterprises
Limited. The Product Registration Form is included following this
section. Tesseract encourages you to complete and mail the form
as soon as possible.

The $50.00 registration fee entitles you to:

o The replacing of your purchased product if it proves
defective within the warranty period.

o The replacing of your purchased product for a small charge if
it proves defective after the warranty has expired.

o The providing of substantial savings on new releases of the

o The answering of technical questions about the product.

o The supplying of enhancement information when new releases
are available.

o A letter-quality, indexed, printed manual (with accompanying
illustrations) in a 3-ring binder.

o A free version upgrade.

Product Warranty

The diskette(s) on which your Tesseract program is recorded is
warranted to be free of defects in materials and workmanship
under normal use for a period of 90 days from date of purchase.

This warranty applies only to the original buyer and only to
the recording medium (diskette), not to the information recorded
on it.

Service Information TeliSolar

Tesseract makes no representations or warranties, either
express or implied, with respect to the software described
hereof, its quality or performance and specifically disclaims any
implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any
particular purpose. All programs have been thoroughly tested, but
there may be bugs for which Tesseract cannot be responsible.
Tesseract assumes no responsibility to the customer or any other
person for any application or use of any software or
documentation, sold by it or any of its dealers. This program is
the result of many man-years of development and testing, but it
is an engineering tool and as such contains simplifying
assumptions and approximations that may render it unsuitable for
certain applications.

Product Upgrade Plan

The Tesseract Product Upgrade Plan entitles you you one free
version upgrade using the enclosed "REDEMPTION COUPON". Simply
provide the product Version Number and Serial Number in the space
provided and return it to Tesseract Enterprises Limited for the
latest version of the product. This is a once only offer.
Subsequent version upgrades may be purchased at a fraction of the
original price, commensurate with the nature of the revision.

Tesseract Enterprises Limited may, from time to time, enhance
or improve the program or documentation of its products.

Tesseract incurs no obligation to furnish revision notices to
customers who have purchased Tesseract products; Tesseract,
nonetheless, intends to inform licensees for whom a Product
Registration Form is on file of any substantial improvements or

Limited Warranty and License

All Tesseract programs and documentation are copyrighted
materials and may not be sold for financial gain.

This product is the result of several man-years of effort and
considerable money. It is priced low enough so that all computer
owners can afford to buy it. Making a copy and selling it for
financial gain is a violation of copyright laws. We at Tesseract
do not believe in copy protection because of the problems it
causes the end user who would like to make backup copies (which
we consider very important) or use this product with a hard disk.
So, please, protect a vital, useful, and important industry and
those companies that are trying to provide useful products that
all can afford.

TeliSolar Service Information

Teli/Solar Registration Form

Please fill out this form and return it to Tesseract Enterprises
Limited (along with the registration fee) in order to register
your ownership of Teli/Solar.

Name: __________________________________________
Address: _______________________________________

Firm: __________________________________________

Version4______ Serial Number5___________


Type of business: ___________________________________________

I learned of Teli/Solar through: _____________________________

Primary Uses: Business __ Personal__ Home __ Other __


Service Information TeliSolar

TeliSolar Service Information

Product Evaluation

(Cut along dotted line)


This coupon is good for one free version update for the
Teli/Solar package by Tesseract Enterprises Limited. When this
coupon is returned by a registered owner of the Teli/Solar
package, the latest version of the package will be sent to the
person(s) sending in this coupon absolutely free of charge.

Teli/Solar Version _________ Serial Number ______________

Service Information TeliSolar

TeliSolar Service Information

Version 1.20 Error Report Form

Your Name: ___________________________________________________
Address : ___________________________________________________
Computer: ___________________________________________________
Version of DOS : _____________________________________________
Memory of your Computer : ____________________________________

Error Description : __________________________________________

Did the error : 1. Halt the program and print an error message
or 2. Cause incorrect results?

List the incorrect results if any : __________________________
Error Message if Any : _______________________________________
Which Option Was the Error in ? ______________________________
Were you able to correct the Error ? Yes ___ No ___
How did you correct the Error ?

Any other comments : __________________________________________

Does the error always occur or does the error only occur under
certain conditions? __________________________________________

Mail to : Tesseract Enterprises Inc.
Post Office Box 25966
Colorado Springs, CO 80936
Attn : Error

Please send us information on any errors you encounter. Please
read the manual before submitting an error report form. The bugs
in this program do not occur very often. If you run into an error
during the first few hours you are using the software you are
probably doing something wrong.

Service Information TeliSolar

TeliSolar Service Information


Your Name : ___________________________________________________
Street : ___________________________________________________
City/State: ___________________________________________________
Zip Code : _______________

Computer : ___________________________________________________
Version of DOS : ______________________________________________

What version of Teli/Solar do you have ? ________
What is the serial number ? _______________

What version of Teli/Solar do you want ? ________

New order (unregistered user) .............. $50.00
Updated version ............................ $15.00
Updated version (with coupon) .............. Free

Oversea orders add $5. Colorado Residents add 5% sales tax.

First Class Mail is included. We ship your order in less
than 7 days. Allow 2 to 3 weeks for postal delivery.

Mail to : Tesseract Enterprises Inc.
Post Office Box 25966
Colorado Springs, CO 80936
Attn : Update

Service Information TeliSolar


G1. Introduction.......................................... 1.1H
1.1. Characteristics and Advantages.................... 1.1
1.2. Electronic Computers............................... 1.2
1.3. Manual Style....................................... 1.2
1.4. In General......................................... 1.4

G2. Getting Started........................................ 2.1H
2.1. Configuration...................................... 2.1
2.2. Keyboard Information............................... 2.2
2.3. Function Keys...................................... 2.2
2.4. Menu Driven........................................ 2.5
2.5. Status Line........................................ 2.5
2.6. Preparing Your System.............................. 2.6

G3. Hot Water Usage........................................ 3.1H
3.1. Introduction....................................... 3.1
3.2. Usage.............................................. 3.1
3.3. Help............................................... 3.3
3.4. Application........................................ 3.4
3.5. Theory............................................. 3.5

G4. Solar Flux Striking Collector.......................... 4.1H
4.1. Introduction....................................... 4.1
4.2. Usage.............................................. 4.2
4.3. Help............................................... 4.3
4.4. Application........................................ 4.3
4.5. Theory............................................. 4.5

G5. Heat loss.............................................. 5.1H
5.1. Introduction....................................... 5.1
5.2. Usage.............................................. 5.2
5.3. Editting........................................... 5.9
5.4. Help............................................... 5.9
5.5. Application........................................ 5.12
5.6. Theory............................................. 5.13

G6. Economic Considerations................................ 6.1H
6.1. Introduction....................................... 6.1
6.2. Usage.............................................. 6.1
6.3. Help............................................... 6.3
6.4. Application........................................ 6.4
6.5. Theory............................................. 6.5

G7. Solar Sizing........................................... 7.1H
7.1. Introduction....................................... 7.1
7.2. Usage.............................................. 7.1
7.3. Help............................................... 7.2
7.4. Application........................................ 7.3
7.5. Theory............................................. 7.3

Table of Contents TeliSolar

GAppendix A. Detailed Operations........................... A.1H
A.1. Handling and Storage of Diskettes.................. A.1
A.2. Write-Protecting Diskettes......................... A.2
A.3. Helpful Hints...................................... A.3
A.4. Cold Starting...................................... A.3
A.5. Warm Starting...................................... A.4
A.6. Diskette Formatting................................ A.5
A.7. Diskette Backup.................................... A.5
A.8. Using a Hard Disk.................................. A.6
A.9. Power Off.......................................... A.6

GAppendix B. General Info. by City......................... B.1H

GAppendix C. R-values of Selected Materials................ C.1H

GAppendix D. Further Reading............................... D.1H

GGlossary.................................................. E.1H

GService Information....................................... F.1H



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  3 Responses to “Category : Science and Education
Archive   : ENERGY.ZIP
Filename : TELISOL.DOC

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: