Dec 162017
 
This is a VERY impressive astronomy program that will show not only constellations and planets, but also allows visual comparisons of planet and moon sizes.
File COSMOS16.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Science and Education
This is a VERY impressive astronomy program that will show not only constellations and planets, but also allows visual comparisons of planet and moon sizes.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
COMETFIL 1995 1022 deflated
COSMOS.DOC 134930 31376 deflated
COSMOS16.EXE 258448 113077 deflated
STARFILE 22740 7114 deflated
SVGA256.BGI 5410 3053 deflated

Download File COSMOS16.ZIP Here

Contents of the COSMOS.DOC file


















/--------------------------------------------------------------\
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| COSMOS |
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| Planetarium Simulator |
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| User Guide |
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| by Gene W. Lee |
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| Copyright 1988,1989,1991,1992 |
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| Internet: [email protected] |
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| Document Revision 16.05 |
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| Printed December 29, 1992 6:18 PM |
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\--------------------------------------------------------------/








Table of Contents





Introduction 1
Horizon Display Description 2
Zenith Display Description 3
Sky Map Display Description 4
Orbital (zenith) Display Description 5
Orbital (ecliptic) Display Description 6
Jupiter's Moons Display Description 7
Planet Size Display 8
Planet Position Display 8
Planet Distance Display 8
Planet Rise Times Display 9
Pick Mode 9
Find Mode 11
Menu Screen Descriptions 11
Main Menu 12
Setup Menus 13
Time Setup Menu 14
Star Setup Menu 14
Planet Setup Menu 15
Location Setup Menu 16
Trails Setup Selection 16
View Direction Setup Selection 16
Zenith View Angle Setup Menu 17
Sky Window Setup Menu 17
Save Setup Selection 17
Restore Setup Selection 18
Files used by COSMOS 18
STARFILE 18
COMETFIL 19
COSMOS.MNU 19
COSMOS.DOC 20
COSMOS.EXE 20
SVGA256.BGI 20
Technical Notes 20
Program Call 20
COSMOS Environment Variable 22
GMT / Local Time /Daylight Savings Time 22
Phase 22
Altitude and Azimuth 23
AU Astronomical Units 23
Formulas used by the program 23
Development System 23
Program Accuracy 23
Astronomical Experiments 24
Caveats 25
History of Enhancements 26
Terms of License 40
Copyright Notice 40






Index 42






Introduction

COSMOS is a program which provides astronomical simulations the
same way as seen in a planetarium. COSMOS will show the past,
present and future skies as viewed from anywhere on Earth. The
program will display the position (with real time updating) of
the planets and comets in orbit around our Sun as well as calcu-
late specific data about celestial bodies. COSMOS will even
display the moons of Jupiter as they orbit the planet.

Program options allow the user to select the date and time to
view, the direction of view, the viewer's latitude and longitude
on Earth, and much more. Using the display updating parameters
COSMOS can display a complete day's movement of the heavens, or
demonstrate the retrograde motion of the planets.

COSMOS will run on any DOS based system (DOS version 2.0 or
greater) which has SuperVGA, VGA, EGA, CGA or Hercules graphics
and a hard disk. Note that although the program will run in CGA
mode, the display quality is poor because of the lack of resolu-
tion and colors.

COSMOS will run with or without a math co-processor, however, it
can be very slow without one because of the intense floating
point arithmetic involved.


If the version number displayed on the first screen ends with
'(Limited),' this version of COSMOS is being distributed as a
Limited Demonstration version. Its only limitations are that it
will work for a limited date range and that it includes fewer
stars/objects in the data base. The Full Function version will
work between the years 1700 and 2500. The full function version
also includes over 11,000 stars and messier objects.

The Full Function version can be requested by sending a support
donation using the form at the end of this document.







Horizon Display Description

The Horizon display attempts to show the sky as seen from Earth
when looking in a specified direction at a specific time of day.
The left side of the display is what would be seen over your left
shoulder as is the right side over your right shoulder. The top
of the display shows what you would see directly over your head.
Because of the transformation from 3-dimensions to 2-dimensions,
the distortion increases as you approach the edges of the arc.
Another way to think of what the display is representing is image
you are sitting in the middle of the planetarium. You see in
front of you half of the dome. The difference is that at the
planetarium your field of view would not be large enough to see
the complete half dome all at one time. With the program the
complete half dome is compressed onto the flat screen.

The Moon is drawn in its approximate phase with the New Moon
represented with an empty circle. The drawing of the phase of
the Moon is rounded to the nearest quarter (New, First Quarter,
Half, Third Quarter, Full, etc.).

By using menu selections you can control the brightness/size of
the stars/objects, direction of view, select Real Time display
or a User Defined time, change the update rate of the display and
much more.

Note that the time and date displayed at the top of the screen
represent Local Time and assume that the system clock is set to
daylight savings time when applicable (see technical notes for
more details on daylight savings time). When 'Leave Trails' is
turned on the time/date displayed on the left is the start time
and the time/date on the right is the current time.


CONTROL KEYS for this display are:

p : Pause the updating of this display and put the
display in PICK mode (See Pick Mode)

Escape: Exit Pause/Pick Mode.

Enter : Pick Star (while in Pick Mode). Any key press
releases pick.

t : Toggles whether objects leave a trail as they move

s : Toggles between Local Time and Sidereal Time

o : Outline the Constellations (In Pick Mode)

l : Dump current screen to an IBM compatible printer
(Best results are obtained in EGA Mode)

left/right arrows: scroll display view to the left/right.
(changes view direction)






Zenith Display Description

The Zenith display attempts to show the sky as seen from Earth
when looking directly over head at a given time of day from a
specified location on Earth.

The top of the displayed circle represents the compass direction
of North, the bottom of the screen is South, Right is to the West
and the left side of the circle is toward the East horizon.
Keep in mind that distortion increases as you approach the edges
of the circle, especially for wide View Angles.

The Zenith View Angle specifies the lowest altitude an object may
be at and still be plotted on the display. For example, if Zero
is entered, then all object whose altitude is currently above the
horizon will be plotted. If 89 is entered, only objects whose
current altitude is greater than 89 degrees will be display. Thus
only objects within one degree of vertical to be displayed.

The Moon is drawn in its approximate phase with the New Moon
represented with an empty circle. The drawing of the phase of
the Moon is rounded to the nearest quarter (New, First Quarter,
Half, Third Quarter, Full, etc.).

By using menu selections you can control the brightness/size of
the stars, direction of view, select Real Time display or a User
defined time, change the update rate of the display and much
more.

Note that the time and date displayed at the top of the screen
represent Local Time and assume that the system clock is set to
daylight savings time when applicable (see technical notes for
more details on daylight savings time). When 'Leave Trails' is
turned on the time/date displayed on the left is the start time
and the time/date on the right is the current time.


CONTROL KEYS for this display are:

p : Pause the updating of this display and put the
display in PICK mode (See Pick Mode)

Escape : Exit Pause/Pick Mode.

Enter : Pick Star while in Pick Mode. Any key press
releases pick.

t : Toggles whether objects leave a trail as they move

s : Toggles between Local Time and Sidereal Time

o : Outline the Constellations (In Pick Mode)

l : Dump current screen to an IBM compatible printer
(Best results are obtained in EGA Mode)






Sky Map Display Description

This display is used to create a Sky Map located at given Right
Ascension/ Declination coordinates. All objects within the
boundaries of the window are displayed. This display is useful
for 'zooming' in on a region of the sky the same way a more
telescope would be able to zoom in on a particular area of the
sky.

The initial center and width of the display are determined from
the values entered into the menu. The width is interpreted as the
amount of right ascension covered from the left side of the
window to the right. The amount of declination covered in the
display is calculated automatically to give the correct scaling.
The scaling factor also takes into account the aspect ratio of
the display device.

While viewing the sky map, the center of the display can be
shifted in Right Ascension using the left/ right arrow keys and
can be shifted in Declination using the up/ down arrow keys. The
window width can also be increased or decreased using the '-' and
'+' keys.

Note that star brightness/size is controlled as described for the
Horizon and Zenith displays and the time/date are displayed as
described for the Horizon and Zenith displays.

CONTROL KEYS for this display are:

Left / Right Arrows : Pan Display Window Left / Right

Up / Down Arrows : Pan Display Window Up / Down

+ : Zooms in on the Center of the Window

- : Zooms out from Center of the Window

m : Toggle Between Current View and Full-Sky View

p : Pause the Updating of the Display
and Enter Pick mode.

Enter : Select Object at Cursor (Pick Mode)

t : Toggles whether objects leave a trail as they move

s : Toggles between Local Time and Sidereal Time

f : Finds object matching user entered name (Object Find)

o : Outline the Constellations (In Pick Mode)

l : Print Current Display to Print Device

ESC : Exit the Display






Orbital (zenith) Display Description

This attempts to show the position of the planets and comets as
they orbit the Sun. The view is from above the plane of the
solar system with planets moving counter clockwise around the
Sun.

By using the control keys you can zoom in toward the Sun or back
away from it. The 't' key toggles whether the planets leave a
trail as they move. The control keys will also allow you to
freeze motion.

Note that the time and date displayed at the top of the screen
represents Local Time and assumes system clock is set to day-
light savings time when applicable (see technical notes for more
details on daylight savings time). When 'Leave Trails' is turned
on the time/date displayed on the left is the start time and the
time/date on the right is the current time.



CONTROL KEYS for this display are:

p : Pause the updating of this display and enter
Pick Mode


Enter : Select Object at Cursor (Pick Mode)

t : Toggles whether planets leave a trail as they move

+ : Zooms in on the Sun

- : Zooms out from the Sun

* : Zooms out from the Sun (x10)

r : Restore Default Zoom value

l : Dump current screen to an IBM compatible printer
(Best results are obtained in EGA Mode)








Orbital (ecliptic) Display Description

The Ecliptic Orbital Display attempts to show the position of the
planets and comets as they orbit the Sun. The perspective of
this view is the ecliptic plane of the solar system. It is viewed
edge-on as seen from a position at the bottom of the screen on
the Orbital (zenith) Display.

By using the control keys you can zoom in toward the Sun or back
away from it. The 't' key toggles whether the planets leave a
trail as they move. The control keys will also allow you to
freeze the motion of the planets.

As in all displays, the Escape key exits from the display.

Note that the time and date displayed at the top of the screen
represents Local Time and assumes system clock is set to daylight
savings time when applicable (see technical notes for more de-
tails on daylight savings time). When 'Leave Trails' is turned
on the time/date displayed on the left is the start time and the
time/date on the right is the current time.



CONTROL KEYS for this display are:

p : Pause the updating of this display

t : Toggles whether planets leave a trail as they move

+ : Zooms in on the Sun

- : Zooms out from the Sun

* : Zooms out from the Sun (x10)

r : Restore Default Zoom value

l : Dump current screen to an IBM compatible printer
(Best results are obtained in EGA Mode)






Jupiter's Moons Display Description

The Jupiter Moon Display shows the position of the four major
moons of Jupiter as they orbit the planet. The view perspective
begins as you would see Jupiter and its moons when looking
through a telescope. Using the UP/DOWN arrow keys the perspec-
tive can be changed. Pressing the UP arrow key moves the perspec-
tive of the observer up from the plane of the moon's orbits
toward the North Pole of Jupiter. Pressing the Down arrow key
moves the observers perspective back down to the plane of moon's
orbit.

In the upper left corner of the screen is displayed the current
simulated width of the screen in Million Kilometers. In the
upper right corner of the screen is the observers angle above the
plane of the moon's orbit. When the Tilt is zero, the display
simulates the view an observer would have from earth. As the
Tilt is increased, the view changes to the view an observer would
have looking down on Jupiter from its North Pole.

By using the control keys you can zoom in toward Jupiter or back
away from it. The 't' key toggles whether the moons leave a
trail as they move.
As in all displays, the Escape key exits from the display.

Note that the time and date displayed at the top of the screen
represents Local Time and assumes system clock is set to daylight
savings time when applicable (see technical notes for more de-
tails on daylight savings time). When 'Leave Trails' is turned
on the time/date displayed on the left is the start time and the
time/date on the right is the current time.


CONTROL KEYS for this display are:

t : Toggles whether moons leave a trail as they move

o : Toggles display of the orbital paths of the moons

+ : Zooms in on Jupiter

- : Zooms out from Jupiter

Up : Move view perspective up towards Jupiter's
North Pole

Down : Move view perspective down towards the plane of
the moon's orbit.

* : Zooms out from Jupiter (x2)

r : Restore Default Zoom value

l : Dump current screen to an IBM compatible printer
(Best results are obtained in EGA Mode)






Planet Size Display

The Size display allows the user to visualize the difference in
size between any two planets, the Sun, Moon and other bodies.

The display draws the two bodies to relative scaled size and
labels them at the bottom of the display. Above each of the
bodies is their diameter in Miles. The figures which appear
between the two bodies show the ratio of the size of the larger
to the smaller one.

Note: If the ratio of size is written in Red, then the size dif-
ference was beyond the resolution of the screen.

Pressing the Esc key will exit the display.

* Refer to Update Mode description of the Setup Time Menu.



Planet Position Display

This screen provides numerical information about the planets, Sun
and Moon's position as viewed from Earth.

The Right Ascension and Declination for each body are given along
with its Altitude and Azimuth.

Each time a key is pressed (excluding the Escape key and the
'A' key) or the Left mouse button is pressed, the display time is
updated according to the Update Mode and the fields are recalcu-
lated and redisplayed.

Pressing the 'A' key or the Right Mouse button will cause the
display to continuously update until another key is pressed.

Pressing the Esc key or pressing the mouse Left and Right button
will exit the display.

* Refer to Update Mode description of the Setup Time Menu.



Planet Distance Display

This screen provides numerical information about the distance of
the planets from the Earth and Sun.

It displays the distance from the Earth to each of the Planets
and the distance from each of the Planets to the Sun. The dis-
tance is measured in Astronomical Units (AUs) and in Millions of
miles.

AUs are equal to 149.6 Million Kilometers or 92.96 Million Miles.







Each time a key is pressed (excluding the Escape key and the
'A' key) or the Left mouse button is pressed, the display time is
updated according to the Update Mode and the fields are recalcu-
lated and redisplayed.

Pressing the 'A' key or the Right Mouse button will cause the
display to continuously update until another key is pressed.

Pressing the Esc key or pressing the mouse Left and Right button
will exit the display.

* Refer to Update Mode description of the Setup Time Menu.



Planet Rise Times Display

This screen provides numerical information about the rise and set
times of the planets, Moon and Sun.

This display shows the rise and set time of each of the planets,
the Sun and the Moon. The Total Rise column gives the amount of
time the body is above the horizon.

The Phase and Apparent Magnitude of each of the bodies are also
listed.

Each time a key is pressed (excluding the Escape key and the
'A' key) or the Left mouse button is pressed, the display time is
updated according to the Update Mode and the fields are recalcu-
lated and redisplayed.

Pressing the 'A' key or the Right Mouse button will cause the
display to continuously update until another key is pressed.

Pressing the Esc key or pressing the mouse Left and Right button
will exit the display.

* Refer to Update Mode description of the Setup Time Menu.




Pick Mode

When in the HORIZON, ZENITH, SKY MAP or ORBITAL (zenith) display
modes, the user has the option of picking an object on the dis-
play to identify it. The object to be identified is selected
using a graphics cursor. If the cursor is positioned within the
capture range of an object, and the Retrn key is pressed, it will
lock on to that object and display information about it. If the
cursor is not within the capture range of an object, the Alti-
tude/Azimuth and Right Ascension/Declination of the location
selected is displayed.








During Pick Mode, the user has the option of outlining the con-
stellations (Asterisms) by pressing the 'o' key. These outlines
can be left on during the 'Picking' process. To turn off the
outlines simply press the 'o' key again.


HOW TO USE THIS FEATURE:

While in a display which supports Pick Mode, press the 'p' key to
enter Pick mode. After all objects on the display have been
updated to reflect the displayed time, Pick Mode will be entered.
Move the cursor around the screen by pressing the arrow keys.
For finer cursor movement press the SHIFT or NUM LOCK key along
with an arrow key. When the cursor is pointing at the desired
object, press the Retrn key to select it. If the cursor is
within the capture range of an object the cursor will first be
repositioned to point at the object. A pop up window will then
appear which will provide details about the object. Depending on
display type being viewed, the following information may be
included:

? Altitude and Azimuth (See Technical notes for definition).

? Right Ascension and Declination.

? Distance from Sun and Earth

? Phase of the object.

? Apparent Magnitude of the object.

? Constellation the object is part of.

? Meaning of Constellation name.
Ie. Orion, "THE HUNTER"

? Name of the object.

? Spectral Type of the object.

? Object Type (Planet,Comet,Star,Double Star,Nebula,etc.).

A Microsoft Compatible Mouse can also be used in pick mode.
While viewing one of the displays that supports pick mode, press-
ing the left mouse button will enter pick mode, just as the 'p'
key does.

Once in pick mode, the mouse can be used to position the pointer
the same way that the arrow keys do. When the pointer has been
positioned to the desired object, the left button of the mouse
can be used to select the object just as the Retrn key will.

Pressing the right button of the mouse while in picked mode, with
nothing currently selected, will exit pick mode the same way the






Escape key will.

Pressing the center mouse button in pick mode will toggle con-
stellation drawing just as the 'o' key does.

Pressing the Left and Right mouse buttons together, while not in
pick mode, will exit the display and return to the main menu.


Find Mode

Find Mode will allow the user to select an object by name. If a
matching name is found among the planets, comets, stars or other
objects, the matching object will be displayed. Pick Mode will
automatically be entered with the cursor preset to point at the
selected object. This feature is available on the Horizon,
Zenith and Sky Map displays.

To use this feature, select the Horizon, Zenith or Sky Map dis-
play from the main menu. A press of the 'f' key will display a
pop-up menu. The name of the object to be located is entered at
the cursor. The entered name may contain letters, numbers and
wild-cards (discussed next). Pressing return accepts the input
name and the search begins. As objects are being search, matches
to the input name are display whenever found. The user is asked
whether this is the object they were looking for. If not, the
search continues. If the object found is correct, the display
boundaries will be adjusted if necessary to display the object.
At this point, Pick Mode will automatically be entered and the
cursor will appear pointing at the selected object. Pick mode
will work the same as previously described at this point. On the
Sky Map display, the display can always be adjusted to display
the matched object. On the Horizon and Zenith displays, the
display direction (or view angle) will only be adjusted if the
object is above the horizon.

Wild-cards are the '*' and the '?' characters. They can be
placed anywhere in the search string when the exact name is not
known. The '*' will match any amount of characters and the '?'
will match any single character.
Say we are looking for the star Betelgeuse in Orion but you're
not quite sure how to spell it. Just enter bet*. Any object
with its name starting with 'bet' followed by any other charac-
ters will be a match. Another example is, you're looking for
messier object M40-something. Enter the search string of m4?.
This will match any three character string with the first two
characters being m4.


Menu Screen Descriptions

This section describes the purpose and function of each of the
menu screens.

The overall layout consists of a main screen which has selections






for each different displays on the upper half.
Along the bottom of the menu are the sub-menu selections. Each
of these allows the default parameters of COSMOS to be 'Tuned' to
fit your specific application.

The Color of the COSMOS menu screens may be altered to suit your
individual taste. The default screen color starts out as Blue
but can be changed per execution by using the '-C' program call
option (see program call options for more details).
The default of Blue can also be changed. Anytime the 'Save
Setup' selection is made, the screen color currently in use
becomes the new default color. Remember, the default screen
color is used anytime the '-C' call option is not present.



Main Menu

The main menu is basically made up of two parts. One
part allows the user to select a display to view.
These graphic and table displays are listed below.
Refer to description of each display type in the
previous sections.

To select one of the following display types, simply
press the corresponding key to the display you wish
to view. Provided that all user entered parameters
from the setup menus are valid, a display will
appear.

If a mouse is active, a block cursor will appear
within the Display Selection boundaries. Position-
ing the block cursor near the display to be selected
and then press the left button. This will have the
same effect and pressing the selection key itself.








Key Display See Page
___ _______ ________

1 Horizon Display pg. 2

2 Zenith Display pg. 3

3 Sky Map Display pg. 4

4 Solar Orbit Display pg. 5

5 Jupiter's Moons Display pg. 7

6 Relative Sizes Display pg. 8

7 Distance Data pg. 8

8 Rise/Set Data pg. 9

9 Position Data pg. 8

I Information for Display Controls

Esc Exit Program




Setup Menus

The second part of the main menu is the Setup Sub-
menu selections. These are found on the bottom two
lines of the main menu. Using these setup menus,
COSMOS can be configured simulate different events.
To activate one of the setup menus, use the tab or
arrow keys to cause the desired sub-menu box to
blink. Pressing return will then cause a pop up
menu to appear where new parameters can be entered.
If a mouse is installed, pressing the right button
will simulate the TAB key being pressed. Pressing
the left/right button combination will simulate the
RETURN key being pressed.

To change the values in a setup menu, begin by using
the Tab key to position the cursor to the field to
be changed. Enter the new value and press the Return
key. The back space key may be used during value
entry. When all fields are changed as desired, the
Esc key is pressed to return to the Main Menu.
If a mouse is installed, the left and right buttons
can be used instead of the Tab and Esc keys respec-
tively.

If a field in the setup menu was being entered and






the Return key has not yet been pressed, the Esc key
will treat the field as though the Return key had
been pressed before exiting back to the main menu.

The 'Trails' and 'View Direction' setup selections
do not have sub-menus. Instead they toggle/advance
the current value with each press of the Return key.


Time Setup Menu


This menu is used to define the time for which the
display is drawn and to define how much time each
consecutive display is advanced.

UPDATE MODE- If System Clock (0) mode is selected
then the system's clock is used to derive the time
for each consecutive display and the value of Update
Rate is ignored. The value of User Defined time is
also ignored.

Values other than 'System Clock' use the User De-
fined Time described below. Incrementing each
consecutive display is done by adding the Update
Rate to the displayed time according to the display
mode.

A Sidereal Day is one revolution of the Earth with
reference to the stars ( instead of the Sun). It is
approximately equal to 23 hours and 56 minutes.

A Lunar Day is one revolution of the Earth with
reference to the Moon (instead of the Sun). It is
approximately equal to 1 day and 50 minutes.

UPDATE RATE defines how much time is added to each
consecutive display. It is used whenever the 'System
Clock' Update Mode is NOT selected. See Update Mode
definition.


MONTH, DAY, YEAR, HOUR, MIN, SEC are used to set the
User Defined Time. See Update Mode.
* NOTE *: User defined time is specified in
Local Time including Daylight Savings Time when
applicable.

Star Setup Menu


This menu is used to configure how stars will be
displayed when viewing the Horizon, Zenith and Sky
Map displays. Stars can be turned on or off and the
viewable magnitude limits can be adjusted.







DISPLAY STARS selects whether or not stars are
displayed on the Horizon, Zenith and Sky Map dis-
plays (Note: our Sun is not considered to be in the
set of stars but is treated more like a planet)

ENLARGE STARS, If set, brighter stars will be drawn
larger than dimmer stars and comets will be drawn as
a cross. Although this selection creates stars
which are not true to size, it may be helpful for
Non-EGA/VGA monitors which can not show different
star intensities. It may also be useful for creating
more readable printouts on the print device. The
CUTOFF values used for determining intensities are
the same values used to determine plotting size.

FIRST CUTOFF, Stars with magnitudes between minus
infinity and the First Cutoff are displayed in a
high intensity white or largest size.

SECOND CUTOFF, stars with magnitudes between the
first cutoff and the second cutoff are displayed in
a medium intensity white or a medium size.

THIRD CUTOFF, stars with magnitudes between the
second cutoff and the third cutoff are displayed in
a low intensity white or a small size.

Stars with magnitudes dimmer than the third cutoff
are not displayed at all.

For SuperVGA mode, the above is basically still
true. The exception is that star intensities are
displayed in 55 different shades of white instead of
only 3. The intensity of each displayed star/object
is set in accordance with its brightness as propor-
tional to its magnitude. For brightness, only the
value of cutoff3 is important. The brightest star
shade is assigned to the magnitude of the brightest
star loaded from the star file. The dimmest shade
is assigned to stars with magnitudes equal to the
value of cutoff3. The remaining shades are assigned
based on the star's magnitude in respect to this
range. For enlarging stars/objects, all three
cutoff values work as they do in EGA/VGA.

These cutoff values allow the user to limit the
stars displayed, to the stars that can actually be
seen due to the amount of ambient city lights where
they are located.



Planet Setup Menu







This menu is used to select which bodies will appear
on the displays and which bodies will be listed in
the tables. Select 'Yes' to enable the display of
each body and 'No' to disable it.

Yes, Carl Sagan, I know, the Sun, Moon and Comets
are not really planets, but this is where you select
them.


Location Setup Menu

This menu allows the user to define where they are
located on the planet Earth. This information is
not used in the Orbital or sky map Displays. Nor is
it used on the Planet Distances display.


LONGITUDE is the observer's longitude on Earth.
This value is used in the Horizon and Zenith Dis-
plays and Positions Table. West of the Prime Merid-
ian is positive and East is negative.

Example: Mpls, Mn. is approximately +90
Columbus, Ohio is approx. +80


LATITUDE is the observer's latitude on Earth. North
of the Equator is positive and South is negative.

Example: Mpls, Mn. is approximately +45
Columbus, Ohio is approx. +40


TIME ZONE describes the difference between Greenwich
time and local time.

Example : Central Time is a +6.
Eastern Time is a +5.
New Zealand is in -12.



Trails Setup Selection


LEAVE TRAIL selects whether the bodies on the graph-
ical displays leave a trail behind them as they
move. This is useful for examining the paths they
are following.



View Direction Setup Selection








VIEW DIRECTION is used to select which direction you
are looking when using the Horizon Display. Direc-
tion is the same as it's measured using a magnetic
compass. The full 360 degree circle is broken into
eight directions; North, North East, East, South
East, South, South West, West, and North West.


Zenith View Angle Setup Menu


ZENITH VIEW ANGLE defines the lowest Altitude that
an object can currently be at, and still appear on
the Zenith display. The smaller the value, the
narrower the imaginary cone of view above you will
be. A value of zero provides a fish eye view of the
looking up, including the whole horizon around the
edge of the circle.



Sky Map Window Setup Menu


The values entered here define the location about
which the Sky Map will be centered and how much
Right Ascension will be included between the left
and the right edges of the window.


CENTER (RA) defines the value of right ascension
that the sky map display will begin at.

CENTER (DEC) defines the value of the declination
that the sky map display will begin at.

WIDTH (RA) defines the amount of right ascension
that will be displayed between the left and right
edge of the sky map display.



Save Setup Selection


SAVE MENU SETUP will save the current state of the
menu selections and definitions.

NOTE: The saved menu configuration is read in at
program startup from COSMOS.MNU. This will enable
you to set items such as your longitude, latitude
and time zone, then have them come up as the default
every time you run the program.







Example, Go through all the menus setting up the
parameters the way they apply to your specific
situation. Then select the Save Menu Setup option by
moving the flashing-option cursor to the Save Menu
Setup box followed by pressing the Retrn key. A pop
up window will appear confirming the save. From now
on the menus will be setup this way every time you
start the program.

You may also choose to save other menu configura-
tions under different names. When restoring a menu
setup, you may enter the name of any of the saved
configurations.

Restore Setup Selection


RESTORE MENU SETUP will reread the COSMOS.MNU file
and reload the default menu setup parameters that
the program starts up with.

When restoring a menu setup, you may also enter the
name of any of the saved configurations. The de-
fault file name will be the name of the last setup
file accessed.


Files used by COSMOS

This section describes the files used by COSMOS. It explains
their usage and where applicable, their format.

STARFILE

This file contains the star data used by COSMOS.
COSMOS will read as many of the stars from STARFILE
as will fit into the available memory on your sys-
tem. The chime tone will sound if the number of
stars read in was limited due to lack of available
memory. This file is in binary format and contains
the following information, which can be seen when an
object is PICKED in Pick Mode.

? Right Ascension of the object.

? Declination of the object.

? Magnitude (apparent) of the object.

? Which constellation the object belongs to.

? The name of the object.

? Spectral Type of the object.







? Object Type,
Ie. - Star, Double Star, Nebula, etc.


COMETFIL

This file contains the orbital elements for periodic
comets. The file has the format

field 1: Comet Type (p-periodic , n-nonperiodic
*-comment line)

**** for Periodic Comets ****

field 2: Perihelion Epoch
field 3: Perihelion longitude (degrees)
field 4: Longitude of ascending node (degrees)
field 5: Period (years)
field 6: Semi-major axis of orbit (AU)
field 7: Eccentricity ( only values < 0.98 )
field 8: Inclination of orbit (degrees)
field 9: Name of comet (no spaces, less
than 20 chars)


***** for Non-Period (Parabolic) Comets ****

field 2: Perihelion Epoch data
field 3: Perihelion Distance (AU)
field 4: Argument of Perihelion (degrees)

field 5: Longitude of ascending node (degrees)
field 6: Inclination (degrees)
field 7: Name of comet (no spaces, less
than 20 chars)

Any line with an asterisk (*) in the first column is
treated as a comment line.

*NOTE: ALL fields must be filled in for the particu-
lar comet type. Currently, minimal verification is
performed on the data.


COSMOS.MNU

This is the file used to save the current setup of
the menus. Refer to its definition under the Save
Setup section of the Setup-Menus description.

Every time COSMOS is started, this file is read (if
it exists) and the menu default parameters are
loaded from it. This file is also read to Restore
the default menu parameters on the 'Restore Menu'
option.








COSMOS.DOC

This document in a format suitable for printing on a
standard draft printer.

COSMOS.EXE

The executable program.


SVGA256.BGI

This file is the graphics driver used for SuperVGA
modes. It is needed only if these modes are to be
used.



Technical Notes


Program Call

After moving to the directory which contains the
COSMOS.exe, starfile. and optional COSMOS.MNU files,
the program should be called as follows:


COSMOS {-options}

Where current options are:


s -Do not pause during title display.

n -Do not correct for Daylight Savings Time.
( For Countries which do not use DST )

d -Use European Daylight Savings Time Dates.

A -Use Australian Daylight Savings Time
Dates.

v -Force VGA display mode.
(640x480, 16 colors)

V# -Force SuperVGA display mode.
1 - (640x400, 256 colors)
2 - (640x480, 256 colors)
3 - (800x600, 256 colors)
4 - (1024x768, 256 colors)
** NOTE ** (see CAVEATS section for
notes on SuperVGA modes)







e -Force EGA display mode.
(640x350, 16 colors)

E -Force EGA MONO display mode.
(640x350, 2 colors)

c -Force CGA display mode.
(320x200, 4 colors, palette 1)

m -Force Monochrome display mode.
(640x200, 2 colors)

h -Force Hercules display mode.
(720x348, 2 colors)

l# -Limit the stars loaded into the program
to those whos magnitude is greater
than #.

x# -Limit the Maximum number of stars loaded
from STARFILE to #

C# - Use the color # for menu screens where
1-Blue 2-Green 3-Cyan 4-Red
5-Violet 6-Brown 0-Black

M -Do Not invert the Foreground/Background
colors on sub-menu screens.

P# - Number of passes over the paper when
printing ( default is One )

S# - Selects alternative Symbols/Colors for
Solar bodies.
0 - (default) original COSMOS colors
1 - swaps colors of Sun and Moon
2 - naked eye visual representation

Examples:

COSMOS -d -C2

{ Would use European DST correction and
would use Green for the Menu Color }


COSMOS -v -n

{ Would turn off DST correction
AND force the program to override
the detected graphics mode and
use VGA graphics display mode
instead.

*** NOTE ***: OPTIONS ARE CASE SENSITIVE.








COSMOS Environment Variable

If there is an environment variable named COSMOS
set, the program will use its value as the path to
access the files used by the program and you will no
longer have to change to your COSMOS directory for
the COSMOS program to find its files.

As an example, add the line SET COSMOS=C:\COSMOS to
the autoexec.bat file (assuming the directory
c:\COSMOS contains the COSMOS program and all it's
related files). Reboot your system. Now change to
any other directory, say the root directory. Execute
the COSMOS program (c:\COSMOS\COSMOS). COSMOS will
still be able to find its working files even though
you are not in the COSMOS directory.

GMT Time / Local Time /Daylight Savings Time

COSMOS thinks in terms of Greenwich Mean Time, but
interfaces with the user in their Local Time. COSMOS
uses the value you set in TIME ZONE (see the
Location Menu) to make this correction.

Your system clock should always be set to the cor-
rect local time. This includes daylight savings
time if applicable. If daylight savings time is not
instituted where you are located or you do not want
to set your system's clock in daylight saving time,
COSMOS can be called with the 'n' option. This will
instruct the program not to make any corrections for
daylight savings time and will expect the clock to
be set to Local Standard time.

NOTE: Daylight Savings Time is assumed to begin on
the FIRST Sunday in April and end on the LAST Sunday
in October (U.S. DST). European DST (see the 'd'
program call option) is assumed to begin on the LAST
Sunday in March and end on the LAST Sunday in Sep-
tember. Australian DST (see the 'A' program call
option) is assumed to begin on the last Sunday in
October and end on the First Sunday in March.



Phase

The phase of a body is defined as follows:
(using the Moon phases as an example)

0 or 360 degrees is the New Moon.

270 degrees is the first half (Waxing half).







180 degrees is the full Moon.

90 degrees is the last half (Waning half).

This applies to all other solar system bodies.



Altitude and Azimuth

Altitude and Azimuth describe the elevation and
compass direction an object is from the observer.

Altitude is measured in degrees above the horizon.
0.0 is on the horizon and 90.0 is straight up at
zenith. A negative altitude implies that the object
is below the horizon.

Azimuth is measured in degrees from North. 0.0 is
North, 90.0 is East, 180.0 is South and 270.0 is
West.



AU Astronomical Units

Astronomical Units are a measure of length which are
roughly equal to the radius of the Earth's orbit
around the Sun at its farthest point.

1 AU = 149.6 Million kilometers.



Formulas used by the program

The formulas used by this program were derived using
the book 'Practical astronomy with your calculator'
written by Duffet Smith, Peter. Published by Press
Syndicate of the University of Cambridge 1979, 1981.



Development System

This program was written using Turbo-C++ 1.01 on a
Unisys IT with an EGA/VGA display and a 80287.



Program Accuracy

The accuracy of the positions calculated and plotted
vary by a couple of minutes of arc at most. This






will produce plots that are well within the needs of
an amateur astronomer. COSMOS, however, should not
be used for the purpose of Interstellar Navigation
(you may get lost).


Astronomical Experiments

These are just some of the ways you can use COSMOS
to watch the heavens move. Many more are possible,
it's up to your imagination.


? Watch a complete day go by in minutes.

To see the Sun, Moon and the planets traverse the
sky while you watch it a simple task.
To see this motion set the Update Mode to "Increment
by minutes" and set the Update Rate to four or five.
Turn off the stars to increase the display update
speed. Look at the southern horizon and watch the
days go by.


? Watch the stars circle the North Star as the
Earth rotates through a day.

The North Star is approximately aligned with the
Earth's axis of rotation. If you photograph the
northern sky with long exposures you will get a
picture with the stars forming concentric circles
around the North Star.
To create this picture using COSMOS, set up the
horizon display to view the northern sky from a
northern latitude. Turn on "Bodies Leave Trails."
Set the Update Mode to "Increment Minutes" and the
Update Rate to about 5. As you watch each frame of
the display progress the concentric circles appear.


? Watch the Sun's height in the sky at noon change
through out the year.

As the Earth travels around the Sun, the angle
between an observer on the Earth and the Sun
changes. On the Winter Solstice the Sun is low in
the sky at noon and on the Summer Solstice it reach-
es its high point.
To see this you can use the program to display the
position of the Sun every day at noon. Set the
"Bodies Leave Trails" to YES. Set the Update Mode to
Increment Day and set the Update Rate to one. Turn
off the display of stars. Displaying the southern
horizon you will see the Sun Rise as Summer ap-
proaches and then began to fall as Fall leads to






Winter.


? Watch the movement of the Sun during a Summer
day above the Arctic Circle.

At latitudes above the Arctic Circle the Sun will
not set on the longest day of the year, June 21. To
recreate this 24 hour day, set the viewer's latitude
to a value between 66.5 and 90.0. Set the time of
display to be June 21 of any year. This can be
accomplished by setting the Update Mode to Increment
Minutes and the Update Rate to about five. Turn off
the display of stars to increase the update speed.
If you watch the Suns movement during one full day
you will notice that the sun did not rise and set
but rather that it followed a path of equal height
around the horizon. If you display Planetary Data
(from the main menu) you will notice that the
Rise/Set time for the Sun is "Never Sets."



? Watch the retrograde motion of the planets.

The retrograde motion of the planets refers to the
way they wander through the constellations from
night to night. In fact, the word planet means
wanderer.
To see this motion, set the Update Mode to "Incre-
ment Sidereal Day" and set the Update rate to two or
three. This mode updates the display by the same
amount of time it takes the stars to return to the
same position in the sky each consecutive night.
Turning off the display of the Moon and Sun is
recommended for this experiment. If you set "Bodies
Leave Trails" the planets will draw their paths
through the stars as they move. A recommended
Date/Location setup for this display is; look at the
southern horizon from North America at Midnight on
September 1. With Stars displayed it can take up to
fifteen minutes (with math co-processor) to get an
interesting display.



Caveats

Since this program was written on an EGA/VGA system,
the displays were optimized to look best in EGA and
VGA modes. Although the program does run in CGA
mode, the display is of lower quality (due to the
low resolution) and is limited in usefulness if any
detail is required.







Since SuperVGA modes tend to be non-standardized,
unpredictable results can occur if a SuperVGA mode
is selected which is not supported by the graphics
adapter. For the same reason, SuperVGA modes are
never selected automatically; they must be forced if
desired.

The program is very math intensive and needs a math
co-processor to run effectively, especially on
systems with slow clock speeds. The program will
run without math co-processor support. However, the
program becomes limited in its display updating
due to the long calculation times of the math emula-
tion routines.


If you have a math co-processor and are interested
in seeing just how slow this program will run with-
out it, do the following.
Before executing COSMOS (at the DOS prompt), type
"set 87=n". The program, when run, will detect this
value and use floating point emulation routines
instead of the math chip.
Now that you have seen what a good investment your
math co-processor is, you can enable it by exiting
COSMOS and typing "set 87=y."

NOTE: The " (Quotes) were not supposed to be typed
in.


History of Enhancements

Revision 5.73 5-9-88
First Public Release

Revision 5.74 5-25-88
New Memory Model allows all stars in STARFILE to fit
into memory.
Problem with program stating "Rename program to
COSMOS.exe" when DOS switch char is changed has been
fixed.
Attempted fix for intermittent math error on some
systems was made.

Revision 5.75 6-1-88
Program uses expanded star file which now includes
star names/descriptions and also has more stars.

Revision 5.76 6-11-88
Added menu selection to reread the default menu
setup from file MENU.SAV.

Revision 5.77 6-14-88
Fixed two coding errors which caused floating point






math errors.

Revision 5.78 6-20-88
Test of Star Pick functions (UNRELEASED)

Revision 5.79 6-22-88
Changed format of STARFILE to binary file. Stars
load in 1/4 the old load time.

Revision 5.80 6-24-88
Fixed error in program that incorrectly rounded star
magnitude cutoff values to integers.

Revision 5.81 6-25-88
Added constellation highlighting feature when a star
is Picked (See horizon display for details).
This new menu option causes old menu.sav files to
become invalid. Execute Menu Save option again.
Changed the color of Neptune so that it is different
than Jupiter.

Revision 5.82 6-26-88
First version to have Pick cursor working. Cursor
shape needs more work.

Revision 5.83 6-29-88
Method for highlighting constellations changed; no
longer use menu option to determine whether to
highlight. Instructions on how to use Pick Mode are
now given interactively to the user.

Revision 5.84 7-2-88
Program now uses and displays constellation names
instead of IAU designation.

Revision 5.85 7-3-88
Fixed problem that stars which are already plotted
on the horizon display are erased because another
star tries to plot on top of it. Fixed problem in
pick display where it left out the negative sign on
negative declinations.

Revision 5.86 8-7-88
Combined Program Logo screen and the star reading
screen into one Logo screen.

Revision 5.87 8-14-88
Added 'Up' field to Planetary Data Display. This
field contains an up-arrow if the body is above the
horizon at the displayed time.

Revision 5.88 8-18-88
First TEST version released with print out option on
the horizon screen.







Revision 5.89 8-29-88
Made changes to the horizon printout routine. Other
Internal changes.

Revision 5.90 9-6-88
Changed time printout on Horizon display to show
start time and current time when 'leave trails' is
on. This then shows how long it took to make the
trails on the screen.

Revision 5.91 9-9-88
Made same change as 5.90 to the Orbit display.

Revision 6.00 9-10-88
Fix to compiler now allows program to be compiled
using Huge memory model. This allowed the following
enhancements.
Put 'Display Help' function back in to program.
Did more work on Horizon display printout feature.
Added screen dump function to the Orbit display.
Incorporated .BGI and .CHR files into the program,
they no longer needed to be external.
Added update increment of 'Lunar Day' to time setup
menu.

Revision 6.01 9-12-88
Added 'Planet Distances' display.

Revision 6.02 9-13-88
Changed 'Planet Distances' display to show distance
of planets from Sun and from Earth.

Revision 6.03 9-15-88
Added distance measurement of Miles on the 'Planets
Distances' display.

Revision 6.04 9-16-88
Fixed memory allocation problem on systems with 256k
of memory. Added messages to confirm writing and
reading of the menu save file.

Revision 6.05 9-17-88
Split out Planetary data display into three separate
displays. 1-Planet Positions 2-Planet distances and
3-Planet rise/set times.

Revision 6.06 9-18-88
Added check in display printout routine to check for
printer being off line.

Revision 6.07 9-21-88
COSMOS now displays the update mode and rate at the
bottom of the horizon display.

Revision 6.08 9-23-88






Total-Rise-Time column added to the Rise-Times
display.

Revision 6.09 10-1-88
Cursor (in pick mode) now wraps around instead of
stopping at the screen edges.

Revision 6.10 10-22-88
Enhanced program to use COSMOS environment variable.
(See Program Call section of document)

Revision 6.11 11-1-88
Added Monochrome (640x200) mode as a valid display
mode.

Revision 6.12 11-6-88
Fixed potential problem with program selecting non-
supported advanced graphics modes.

Revision 6.13 11-29-88
Fixed problem of not plotting N.East stars when
viewing N.West on the horizon display.
Fixed program so it is now possible to PICK (see
pick mode) the North Star.

Revision 6.14 11-30-88
Added support for European Daylight Savings Time.

Revision 7.00 12-06-88
Added display to show the size difference between
planets (see Size Display description)

Revision 7.01 12-07-88
Upgraded compiler for program to Turbo-C 2.0

Revision 7.02 12-12-88
Fixed problem with program crashing when dumping
display to printer in VGA mode.

Revision 7.03 12-13-88
Fixed a rare bug in displaying the setting times of
bodies when latitude is AT the Arctic Circle.

Revision 7.04 12-17-88
Added Reset-Zoom function to Orbit Display. Fixed
error on the Help Display.

Revision 7.05 12-22-88
Added support for Hercules Display mode.

Revision 7.06 12-23-88
COSMOS now displays the update mode and rate at the
bottom of the Orbit display.

Revision 7.07 12-24-88






Enhanced PICK Mode to allow a Planet, the Sun or the
Moon to be selected.

Revision 7.08 12-26-88
Added Planet Magnitude information to the Rise-
Times display and the Pick Mode pop-up windows.

Revision 7.09 12-28-88
Fixes made to better support Hercules Monochrome
Mode.

Revision 7.10 12-30-88
Fixed problem with selecting the Moon in Pick Mode
on Horizon Display.

Revision 7.11 1-3-89
Changed program to list all valid options if program
is started with an invalid option.

Revision 7.12 1-7-89
Fixed a bug that would not allow -10,-11 or -12 to
be entered into the TIME ZONE field on the LOCATION
menu.

Revision 7.13 1-10-89
Removed check that would not let user enter Pick
Mode when no stars had been plotted. Related to
change in version 7.07

Revision 7.14 1-23-89
Fixed error that caused intermittent program crashes
due to floating point math errors.

Revision 8.00 2/7/89
Added Zenith Display Mode.

Revision 8.01 2/8/89
Added Zenith View Angle control from the main menu.
MENU.SAV file must be recreated. MENU.SAV file
created from previous version can not be used.

Revision 8.02 2/8/89
Fix to Zenith display to catch PICKS being made
outside the display circle.

Revision 8.03 2/9/89
Changed layout of Zenith display to make it appear
more as the sky would if looking up. Labeled West
and East sides of Zenith display.

Revision 8.04 3/8/89
Starfile fixed to label Cancer constellation cor-
rectly. No actual changes to program.

Revision 8.05 3/17/89






Added automatic updating feature to the data dis-
plays -Rise Time display, Distance display, etc.

Revision 8.06 4/28/89
Added scroll functionality to the HORIZON display.

Revision 8.07 4/30/89
Added the Ecliptic Orbit Display.

Revision 8.08 7/04/89
Fixed program to force 80 column mode for text
displays. Starfile enhanced to include names for
over %75 of the stars and messier objects.

Revision 8.09 7/20/89
Improved accuracy of display on small bodies on the
Size Display screen. Added Auriga-Beta and Betel-
geuse to the size-display.

Revision 8.10 7/22/89
Change displaying of large numbers to include commas
to increase readability.

Revision 8.11 7/23/89
Enhanced graphics initialization to improve speed.
Added the -l# command line option, which will limit
the minimum magnitude of stars loaded into the
program from the STARFILE.

Revision 8.12 7/23/89
Enhanced the program to handle the Ega Monochrome
display mode. See command line option "-E".

Revision 8.13 7/24/89
Enhanced environment variable check so COSMOS
environment no longer needs to end with a backslash.
(See COSMOS Environment Variable section for more
details).

Revision 9.01 7/26/89
Added sky map display mode.

Revision 9.02 7/27/89
Enhanced sky map display to allow pick mode func-
tions.

Revision 9.03 7/31/89
Optimized drawing of the sky map display to increase
update speed on panning and zooming.

Revision 9.04 7/31/89
Added option to allow user to specify that they want
larger stars drawn to emulate brighter stars. ( see
Star Setup Menu section for details ). This version
requires that the old menu.sav be deleted and re-






generated. Add check in program to watch for old
(incompatible) menu.sav files.

Revision 9.05 7/31/89
Added menu inputs for Centering the sky map Display
on a given coordinate. COSMOS is now archived for
delivery and installation programs are provided.

Revision 9.06 8/3/89
Corrected program error in highlighting constella-
tion stars on sky map display during pick mode.

Revision 9.07 8/4/89
Corrected the scaling of the declination on the sky
map display.

Revision 9.08 8/6/89
Fixed error occurring on sky map display when window
width value caused window to span the 0h/24h Right
Ascension point. Enhanced sky map to fill in the
last viewed coordinate into main menu.


Revision 10.00 8/19/89
Finally, what everyone has been asking for, New Menu
Displays.

Revision 10.01 8/21/89
Fixed some range checking errors created by version
10.00.

Revision 10.02 8/30/89
Added other planetary moons to the Size Display.

Revision 10.03 8/30/89
On size display, size ratio is now written in Red if
the Relative size difference is beyond the resolu-
tion of the screen.

Revision 10.04 9/3/89
Changed Restore-Menu function to reset Update-Mode
value back to 'Use System Clock'.

Revision 10.05 9/6/89
Made minor changes to the appearance of the menus.

Revision 10.06 9/7/89
Fixed problem which prevented user from entering
values between 00h 00m and -01h 00m for the Center
Declination value on the sky map sub-menu.

Revision 10.07 9/8/89
Changed the size defined for Pluto on Size Display.
Enhanced a weak point in memory management section
of program.







Revision 10.08 9/23/89
Fixed error in routine that puts commas into large
numbers which are printed on the display.

Revision 11.01 9/30/89
Added Mouse control for Microsoft Compatible mice on
star displays and orbital displays.

Revision 11.02 10/1/89
Added mouse control on data displays to update
screen and exit display. Added audible signal when
errors occur.

Revision 11.03 10/1/89
Added program call option '-C' which allows user to
select the color of the menu screens. The current
value of menu screen color was also added to the
MENU.SAV file which will require deletion and recre-
ation of the MENU.SAV file.

Revision 11.04 10/1/89
Added the ability to select a display type from the
main menu via the mouse. Added mouse control to aid
in viewing the Help screens.

Revision 11.05 10/1/89
Reversed Left and Right Mouse button usage to make
the Left button the 'main' button.

Revision 11.06 10/2/89
Improved routines which read mouse button presses
and now use the LEFT & RIGHT mouse button combina-
tion as an effective third button.

Revision 11.07 10/6/89
Fixed problem introduce when mouse interface was
added in 11.06.

Revision 11.08 10/7/89
Added extra mouse control for three button mice.

Revision 11.09 10/8/89
Added mouse support to access setup menus on main
menu screen. (See Menu Description for details)

Revision 11.10 10/8/89
On Setup Menus, the Left mouse button can be used as
the Tab key and the Right button can be used as the
Retrn key.

Revision 11.11 10/9/89
Fixed a problem with right scroll function using
mouse buttons. Added 't' function key on all star
displays to toggle 'leave trails' mode on/off. ( The






same way that the orbital displays have worked )

Revision 11.12 10/12/89
Fixed problem with scrolling left/right on Horizon
display (with mouse) after selecting up/down mode on
sky map display.

Revision 11.13 10/25/89
Fixed problem with toggling Trails On/Off using the
't' key on the star displays.

Revision 11.14 10/29/89
Changed 'm' key press on sky map display to resume
last window parameters on second press of 'm'.

Revision 11.15 11/01/89
Fixed a problem with the implementation of version
11.14.

Revision 12.00 11/5/89
Added 'outline' feature to draw in the constellation
asterisms on star displays. This feature works
while the display is paused in Pick Mode. Removed
old highlight stars option in pick mode.

Revision 12.01 11/10/89
Added more asterisms to the constellation drawing
feature.

Revision 12.02 11/11/89
Added 'Meaning' of constellation name, ie. Orion
"THE HUNTER", to the object description during pick
mode.

Revision 12.03 11/19/89
Cosmetic changes only.

Revision 12.04 12/1/89
Added more stars to starfile. Starfile now a version
4.0. Enhanced COSMOS to enable it to load more
stars from starfile into available memory.

Revision 12.05 12/1/89
Added program call option '-x#' to allow user to
limit the number of stars COSMOS will load from
starfile.

Revision 12.06 01/4/90
Corrected problem with drawing horizon outline when
display was in a monochrome mode.

Revision 12.07 01/6/90
COSMOS now watch for the Ctrl-Break Key and exits
program promptly and cleanly.







Revision 12.08 01/19/90
A Bug in the C-compiler caused COSMOS to intermit-
tently hang the computer while displaying the
Rise/Set screen. This only happened when a math co-
processor was NOT present. The problem has been
circumvented artificially for now and is waiting for
a fix to the complier bug.

Revision 12.09 01/26/90
Changed COSMOS to default to 640x200 monochrome mode
instead of 320x200 4 color mode when only a CGA
graphics card is detected. The -c option will still
force the 320x200 4 color mode if desired.

Revision 12.10 03/24/90
Made changes to help improve the accuracy of the
Sun's rise and set times.

Revision 12.11 04/18/90
Added Pick Mode to the Orbital (Zenith) Display.

Revision 13.00 04/19/90
Added the ability to display Periodic Comets on the
Orbital Displays. Added Pick Mode the Orbital
(zenith) display.

Revision 13.01 04/23/90
Added Parabolic Comets (non-periodic) to the Orbital
Displays.







Revision 13.02 04/23/90
Corrected problem with showing height of planets
above the ecliptic on the Orbital (ecliptic) dis-
play.

Revision 13.03 04/24/90
Added the values of Right Ascension and Declination
to the data in the Pick Mode pop-up window for the
Orbital (zenith) display.

Revision 13.04 04/25/90
Added Comets to the Horizon, Zenith and Map dis-
plays.

Revision 13.05 04/27/90
Added the ability to turn off the display of comets.

Revision 13.06 04/27/90
Added Phase and Approximate Magnitude information on
Pick Mode pop-up windows when selecting a comet.

Revision 13.08 05/15/90
Added the -M and -C0 program startup options. This
will allow Monochrome Graphics users more compati-
bility.

Revision 13.09 05/26/90
Improved accuracy of comet magnitude calculation.

Revision 13.10 05/30/90
When an object has been 'picked' and the pop-up
information window is being displayed, pressing the
'l' key dumps the screen to the printer.

Revision 13.11 06/10/90
Added Daylight Savings Time adjustment for Austra-
lia.

Revision 13.12 06/17/90
Corrected a problem which caused areas of the 'DOS
Prompt Background Color' to show up on the Planet
Data (Position, Rise/Set, Distance) Displays.

Revision 13.13 08/03/90
Fixed problem which prevented Pluto from being
disabled on the PLANETS menu.

Revision 13.14 08/03/90
Added the -P command line option for Printer Con-
trol.

Revision 13.15 08/10/90
Enhanced 'Enlarged Stars' setting to distinguish
comets by drawing them as a cross shape.







Revision 13.16 09/23/90
Added the ability to display Sidereal time as well
as local time on the Horizon, Zenith and Map dis-

plays.

Revision 13.17 10/06/90
When picking 'open space' on the Horizon, Zenith and
Map displays, the Right Ascension and Declination of
that point are displayed.

Revision 13.18 10/15/90
COSMOS is now aware that Daylight Savings Time was
not instituted until 1967.

Revision 13.19 11/14/90
When toggling between Sidereal time and Local time,
the display is updated immediately.

Revision 14.00 12/11/90
Added Find Mode on Map Display. Finds
stars,planets,comets by name.

Revision 14.01 12/12/90
Fixed problem with character echo in graphics mode
caused by Version 14.00

Revision 14.02 12/13/90
Fixed problem with Find Mode in locating Comets.

Revision 14.03 12/18/90
Internal Changes, using Turbo C++ version 1.01

Revision 14.04 12/22/90
COSMOS now uses OVERLAYS to allow more stars to be
loaded into memory by swapping out portions of the
program. Added the -X option to control use of
Expanded and Extended memory overlay swapping.

Revision 14.05 12/23/90
Added the 'Program Information' window as an option
on the main menu.

Revision 14.06 12/30/90
Added the FIND function to the Zenith Display.

Revision 14.07 01/01/91
Added the FIND function to the Horizon Display.


Revision 14.08 01/12/91
Cosmetic Fixes Only.

Revision 14.09 01/26/91
Fixed problem that intermittently caused floating
point math errors when "picking" a Planet.








Revision 14.11 02/10/91
Corrected problem which displayed incorrect Ra/Dec
values when an open area was Picked on the sky map
display.

Revision 14.12 03/23/91
COSMOS is now aware of number of the number of
buttons on the mouse.
COSMOS is now complied using Borland C++ Ver 2.0
Fixed cosmetic problems caused by new compiler.

Revision 14.13 04/11/91
Changed COSMOS so that it does not do direct screen
I/O. This will allow it to be more compatible with
programs such as Desqview.

Revision 14.14 04/14/91
COSMOS is now Desqview Aware. If you use Desqview,
COSMOS will recognize the environment.

Revision 14.15 05/22/91
Fixed an error which caused COSMOS to incorrectly
calculate bodily positions on dates before 1976.

Revision 14.16 05/25/91
Users can now save multiple menu setups. When
saving and restoring menu setups, an alternative
file name may be entered. The file name of the
default menu setup has been changed from MENU.SAV to
COSMOS.MNU.

Revision 14.17 05/28/91
A comment may be specified when saving menu setups.
This comment is saved along with the setup parame-
ters in the specified setup save-file.

Revision 15.02 08/12/91
Added support for SuperVGA modes as described by the
-V# option. This allows stars to be displayed in 33
intensities of white to simulate actual magnitudes.

Revision 15.03 09/05/91
Identification of CPU and Co-Processor type was
added.

Revision 15.04 10/28/91
Changed program to prefer Expanded memory over
Extended memory when both are available.

Revision 15.05 1/1/92
Enhanced internal selection of star intensities in
SuperVGA modes for better viewability. COSMOS is
now compiled using Borland C++ version 3.0 to en-
hance execution speed.







Revision 15.06 1/11/92
Removed internal check of CPU type (added in version
15.03) due to intermittent problems created on
slightly none compatible systems.

Revision 15.07 5/16/92
Added alternative Symbols and Colors for the Solar
bodies. See the -S option.

Revision 15.08 8/8/92
Fixed problem with rise/set time for latitudes above
the arctic circle.

Revision 16.01 8/13/92
Added new display which shows the moons of Jupiter
as they orbit the planet, as seen from an earth
based telescope.

Revision 16.02 8/26/92
Changed default zoom factor on Jupiter Moons dis-
play. Now, the zoom factor that was in effect when
the display was exited, will be in effect when the
display is re-entered.

Revision 16.03 8/30/92
On the Jupiter Moon display, the UP/DOWN keys can be
used to change the view from the plane of the moon's
orbit to viewing the moons from above Jupiter.

Revision 16.04 8/21/92
Fixed bug which caused data screens to scroll incor-
rectly.

Revision 16.05 12/29/92
Jupiter moon display now shows the orbital paths of
the moons. This toggles on and off using 'o'.






Terms of License

As the licensee of the Full Function Version (ex-
clude limited version) of this program, you may use
the program on one computer. If you are an individ-
ual (but not a company or an institution), you may
use the program on any other computer(s) that you
own personally. Companies and Institutions must
register one copy per computer or obtain a site
license.


Copyright Notice

If the version number displayed on the first screen
ends with '(Limited),' this version of COSMOS is
being distributed as a Limited Demonstration ver-
sion. Its only limitations are that it will work
for a limited date range and that it includes fewer
stars/objects in the data base. The Full Function
version will work between the years 1700 and 2500.
The full function version also includes over 11,000
stars and messier objects.


The Full Function version can be requested by send-
ing a support donation using the form at the end of
this document.

Limitations on distribution and use include the
following:

No responsibility for the operation of COSMOS is
assumed or implied by its author. The user of
COSMOS uses the program at their own risk. The
author assumes no responsibly for damages caused by
use of this program.

This program and its documentation may not be dis-
tributed if any changes have been made.

The copyright notice and statement of authorship
must not be modified or removed.

All copies of the Full-Function (Unlimited) version
must be registered and may not be distributed.

LIMITED versions of COSMOS may be distributed for a
nominal fee not to exceed $5.00(US).

Use the following form to purchase the Full-Function
(Unlimited) version of COSMOS.









Remit to: Gene W. Lee Order Form
4309 Peggy Lane 16.05
Plano, Texas
75074-3567
Please send:


____ COSMOS Disk (Full-Function Version).... @ $31.50 ea. $ ____
(includes program and manual on disk)

____ COSMOS Upgrade to Latest Version ( Indicate Ser. Number )
(If Diskette is returned with Request Form) $17.50 $ ____
(If New Diskette is Desired) $19.00 $ ____

____ Floppy Format: 5.25" or 3.5" ( Add $1.50 for 3.5" ) $ ____

____ Non-USA shipping ( Add $5.00 ) $ ____

(Texas residents add 8.25% sales tax) Tax $ ____

Total $ ______

Payment by: ( ) Check drawn on US Bank ( ) Money Order

Name: ____________________________________________________________

Organization: _______________________________________________________

Address: ____________________________________________________________

: ____________________________________________________________

: ____________________________________________________________

Day Phone: (___) _________________ Eve: (___) ___________________


*** IMPORTANT *** ORDERS OUTSIDE THE US: Use check or Money Order drawn
on US BANK in US DOLLARS.

Sorry, no C.O.D. orders will be accepted. (s3t)

WARNING: YOU MAY NOT USE COSMOS WITHIN YOUR ORGANIZATION WITHOUT A
PURCHASE OR LICENSE ARRANGEMENT.

WARNING: The author assumes no responsibility for damages caused by
uses of this program.

System-Type Survey

Computer Type _______________________________________ Speed ____Mhz

System Memory _______ Monitor Type ____________ Math Chip _______








Index



Ability, 33, 35, 36, 37
Able, 4, 22
Accepted, 41
Accepts, 11
Access, 22, 33
Accessed, 18
Accomplished, 25
Accordance, 15
According, 8, 9, 14
Account, 4
Accuracy, 23, 31, 35, 36
Activate, 13
Active, 12
Actual, 30, 38
Actually, 15
Adapter, 26
Add, 22, 32, 41
Added, 14, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39
Adding, 14
Address, 41
Adjusted, 11, 14
Adjustment, 36
Advance, 14
Advanced, 14, 29
Aid, 33
Aligned, 24
Allocation, 28
Allow, 1, 5, 6, 11, 15, 30, 31, 34, 36, 37, 38
Allowed, 28
Allows, 8, 12, 16, 26, 28, 33, 38
Altered, 12
Alternative, 21, 38, 39
Altitude, 3, 8, 9, 10, 17, 23
Amateur, 24
Ambient, 15
America, 25
Amount, 4, 9, 11, 15, 17, 25
Angle, 3, 7, 11, 17, 24, 30
Angles, 3
Anytime, 12
Ap, 24
Apparent, 9, 10, 18
Appear, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 24, 30
Appearance, 32
Applicable, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 14, 18, 22
Application, 12
Applies, 23
Apply, 18
Approach, 2, 3






Approx, 16
Approximate, 2, 3, 36
Approximately, 14, 16, 24
April, 22
Arc, 2, 23
Archived, 32
Arctic, 25, 29, 39
Area, 4, 38
Areas, 36
Argument, 19
Arithmetic, 1
ARRANGEMENT, 41
Arrow, 4, 7, 10, 13
Arrows, 2, 4
Artificially, 35
Ascending, 19
Ascension, 4, 8, 9, 10, 17, 18, 32, 36, 37
Asked, 11
Asking, 32
Aspect, 4
Assigned, 15
Assume, 2, 3
Assumed, 22, 40
Assumes, 5, 6, 7, 40, 41
Assuming, 22
Asterisk, 19
Asterisms, 10, 34
Astronomer, 24
Astronomical, 1, 8, 23, 24
Astronomy, 23
Ation, 33
Attempted, 26
Attempts, 2, 3, 5, 6
AU, 19, 23
Audible, 33
Auriga-Beta, 31
AUs, 8
Austra, 36
Australian, 20, 22
Author, 40, 41
Authorship, 40
Autoexec, 22
Automatic, 31
Automatically, 4, 11, 26
Aware, 37, 38
Axis, 19, 24
Azimuth, 8, 9, 10, 23
A' key, 8, 9

Back, 5, 6, 7, 13, 14, 28, 32
Background, 21, 36
Backslash, 31
Base, 1, 40
Based, 15, 39
Basically, 12, 15






Bat, 22
Become, 27
Becomes, 12, 26
Began, 24
Begin, 13, 17, 22
Begins, 7, 11
Behind, 16
Being, 1, 10, 11, 13, 28, 30, 36, 40
Belongs, 18
Best, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 25
Bet, 11
Betel, 31
Betelgeuse, 11
Better, 30, 38
Bility, 36
Black, 21
Blink, 13
Block, 12
Blue, 12, 21
Bodies Leave Trails, 24
Bodily, 38
Borland, 38
Both, 38
Boundaries, 4, 11, 12
Brighter, 15, 31
Brightness, 2, 3, 4, 15
Brown, 21
Button, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 33
Buttons, 11, 13, 33, 38

Calculate, 1, 38
Calculated, 4, 23
Calculation, 26, 36
Calculator, 23
Call, 12, 20, 22, 29, 33, 34
Called, 20, 22
Cambridge, 23
Can, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 22, 24,
25, 26, 30, 33, 38, 39, 40
Cancer, 30
Capture, 9, 10
Card, 35
Carl, 16
Catch, 30
Cause, 8, 9, 13
Caused, 26, 30, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41
Causes, 27
CAVEATS, 20, 25
Celestial, 1
Center, 4, 11, 17, 32
Centered, 17
Centering, 32
Central, 16
CGA, 1, 21, 25, 35
Change, 2, 3, 13, 22, 24, 28, 30, 31, 39






Changed, 7, 12, 13, 26, 27, 28, 30, 32, 34, 35, 38, 39
Changes, 2, 7, 24, 28, 30, 32, 34, 35, 37, 40
Char, 26
Character, 11, 37
Characters, 11
Chars, 19
Check, 28, 30, 31, 32, 39, 41
Checking, 32
Chime, 18
Chip, 26, 41
Choose, 18
Circle, 2, 3, 17, 24, 25, 29, 30, 39
Circles, 24
Circumvented, 35
City, 15
Cleanly, 34
Clock, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 14, 22, 26, 32
Clockwise, 5
Clock' Update, 14
Clude, 40
Co, 35
Coding, 26
Color, 12, 21, 27, 33, 35, 36
Colors, 1, 20, 21, 39
Columbus, 16
Column, 9, 19, 29, 31
Combina, 33
Combination, 13
Combined, 27
Come, 17
Comet, 10, 19, 36
COMETFIL, 19
Comets, 1, 5, 6, 11, 15, 16, 19, 35, 36, 37
Command, 31, 36
Commas, 31, 33
Comment, 19, 38
Companies, 40
Company, 40
Compass, 3, 17, 23
Compati, 36
Compatible, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 33, 38, 39
Compiled, 28, 38
Compiler, 28, 29, 38
Complete, 1, 2, 24
Complied, 38
Complier, 35
Compressed, 2
Computer, 35, 40, 41
Con, 36
Concentric, 24
Cone, 17
Configura, 18
Configuration, 17
Configurations, 18
Configure, 14






Configured, 13
Confirm, 28
Confirming, 18
Consecutive, 14, 25
Considered, 15
Consists, 11
Constella, 32
Constellation, 10, 11, 18, 27, 30, 34
Constellations, 2, 3, 4, 10, 25, 27
Contain, 11
Contains, 18, 19, 20, 22, 27
Contents, 2
Continues, 11
Continuously, 8, 9
Control, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 30, 33, 37
Controlled, 4
Controls, 13
Coordinate, 32
Coordinates, 4
Copies, 40
Copy, 40
Copyright, 1, 40
Cor, 22, 30
Corner, 7
Correct, 4, 11, 20
Corrected, 32, 34, 36, 38
Correction, 21, 22
Correction and, 21
Corrections, 22
Corresponding, 12
Cosmetic, 34, 37, 38
COSMOS, 1, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26, 28, 29, 31, 32,
34, 35, 37, 38, 40, 41
Counter, 5
Countries, 20
Couple, 23
Covered, 4
Co-processor, 1, 25, 26, 38
CPU, 38, 39
Crashes, 30
Crashing, 29
Create, 4, 24
Created, 30, 32, 39
Creates, 15
Creating, 15
Cross, 15, 36
Ctrl-Break, 34
Current, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 17, 19, 20, 28, 33
Currently, 3, 10, 12, 17, 19
Cursor, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 18, 27, 29
Cyan, 21
C-compiler, 35

Damages, 40, 41
Data, 1, 13, 18, 19, 25, 27, 28, 31, 33, 36, 39, 40






Date, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 25, 40
Dates, 20, 38
Day, 2, 3, 14, 24, 25, 28, 41
Daylight, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 14, 20, 22, 29, 36, 37
Days, 24
Day's, 1
De, 14, 18
DEC, 17, 38
December, 1
Declination, 4, 8, 9, 10, 17, 18, 32, 36, 37
Declinations, 27
Decreased, 4
Default, 5, 6, 7, 12, 17, 18, 19, 21, 26, 35, 38, 39
Define, 14, 16, 17
Defined, 2, 3, 14, 22, 32
Defines, 14, 17
Definition, 10, 14, 19
Definitions, 17
Degree, 3, 17
Degrees, 3, 19, 22, 23
Deleted, 31
Deletion, 33
Delivery, 32
Demonstrate, 1
Demonstration, 1, 40
Depending, 10
Derive, 14
Derived, 23
Describe, 23
Described, 4, 11, 14, 38
Describes, 11, 16, 18
Description, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 19, 29, 33, 34
Descriptions, 11, 26
Designation, 27
Desired, 10, 13, 26, 35, 41
Desqview, 38
Detail, 25
Details, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 27, 31, 33
Detect, 26
Detected, 21, 35
Determine, 15, 27
Determined, 4
Determining, 15
Development, 23
Device, 4, 15
Diameter, 8
Difference, 2, 8, 16, 29, 32
Different, 12, 13, 15, 18, 27
Dimensions, 2
Dimmer, 15
Dimmest, 15
Direc, 17
Direct, 38
Direction, 1, 2, 3, 11, 14, 16, 17, 23
Directions, 17






Directly, 2, 3
Directory, 20, 22
Dis, 15, 16, 31, 36, 37, 39, 40
Disable, 16
Disabled, 36
Discussed, 11
Disk, 41
Diskette, 41
Display, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,
20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36,
37, 38, 39
Displayed, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 25, 27, 36,
37, 38, 40
Displaying, 24, 29, 31, 35
Displays, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32,
33, 34, 35, 36, 37
Distance, 8, 10, 13, 19, 28, 31, 36
Distances, 16, 28
Distinguish, 36
Distortion, 2, 3
Distributed, 1, 40
Distribution, 40
Document, 1, 20, 29, 40
Documentation, 40
Dome, 2
Donation, 1, 40
Done, 14
Driver, 20
DST, 20, 21, 22
Dumps, 36

Ea, 41
Earth, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 24, 28, 39
Earth's, 23, 24
East, 3, 16, 17, 23, 29, 30
Eastern, 16
Eccentricity, 19
Echo, 37
Ecliptic, 6, 31, 36
Edge, 17
Edges, 2, 3, 17, 29
Edge-on, 6
Effect, 12, 39
Effective, 33
Effectively, 26
Eight, 17
Elements, 19
Elevation, 23
Empty, 2, 3
Emula, 26
Emulate, 31
Emulation, 26
En, 38
Enable, 16, 17, 26, 34
End, 1, 22, 31, 40






Ends, 1, 40
Enhanced, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 36, 38
Enhancements, 26, 28
Enlarged, 36
Enlarging, 15
Enough, 2
Enter, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 13, 18, 30
Entered, 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 30, 38
Entering, 32
Entry, 13
Environment, 22, 29, 31, 38
Epoch, 19
Equal, 8, 14, 15, 23, 25
Equator, 16
Erased, 27
Error, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 38
Errors, 26, 27, 30, 32, 33, 37
Es, 24
ESC, 4, 8, 9, 13, 14
Escape, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11
Especially, 3, 26
Etc, 2, 3, 10, 19, 31
European, 20, 21, 22, 29
Eve, 41
Events, 13
Every, 17, 18, 19, 24
Everyone, 32
Ex, 40
Exact, 11
Examining, 16
Example, 3, 11, 16, 18, 22
Examples, 21
Exceed, 40
Exception, 15
Excluding, 8, 9
Execution, 12, 38
Exited, 39
Extended, 37, 38
Extra, 33

Fact, 25
Factor, 4, 39
Fall, 24
Farthest, 23
Fault, 18
Fee, 40
Fewer, 1, 40
Finds, 4, 37
Flat, 2
Floppy, 41
Forced, 26
Foreground, 21
Full-Function, 40, 41
Functionality, 31







GMT, 22
Graphic, 12
Green, 21
Greenwich, 16, 22

Hance, 38
Hang, 35
Happened, 35
Height, 24, 25, 36
Hercules, 1, 21, 29, 30
Highlight, 27, 34
Highlighting, 27, 32
Horizon, 2, 3, 4, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28,
29, 30, 31, 34, 36, 37
HOUR, 14, 25
HUNTER, 10, 34

Ian, 16
Identification, 38
Identified, 9
Identify, 9
Ie, 10, 19, 34
Immediately, 37
Implementation, 34
Important, 15, 41
Inclination, 19
Incor, 39
Incorrect, 38
Indicate, 41
Individ, 40
Initialization, 31
Input, 11
Installed, 13
Instructions, 27
Intensities, 15, 38
Interface, 33
Intermit, 35
Intermittently, 37
Interstellar, 24
Introduce, 33
Introduction, 1
Invert, 21
Items, 17

Jupiter, 1, 7, 27, 39
Jupiter's, 7, 13

Keep, 3
Key, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 33, 34, 36

Label, 30
Labeled, 30
Labels, 8
Lack, 1, 18
Lane, 41






Lar, 19
Large, 2, 31, 33
Larger, 8, 15, 31
Largest, 15
Latest, 41
Latitude, 1, 16, 17, 24, 25, 29
Letters, 11
Lia, 36
License, 40, 41
Limitations, 1, 40
Locating, 37
Location, 3, 9, 16, 17, 22, 25, 30
Longitude, 1, 16, 17, 19
Lower, 25
Lunar, 14, 28

Made, 12, 26, 28, 30, 32, 35, 40
Magnetic, 17
Magnitude, 9, 10, 14, 15, 18, 21, 27, 30, 31, 36
Magnitudes, 15, 38
Main, 11, 12, 13, 14, 25, 30, 32, 33, 37
Major, 7
Make, 22, 28, 30, 33
Management, 32
Manual, 41
Many, 18, 24
Map, 4, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 31, 32, 34, 36, 37, 38
March, 22
Match, 11
Matched, 11
Matches, 11
Matching, 4, 11
Math, 1, 25, 26, 27, 30, 35, 37, 41
Maximum, 21
May, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 24, 38, 40, 41
Mean, 22
Meaning, 10, 34
Means, 25
Measure, 23
Measured, 8, 17, 23
Measurement, 28
Medium, 15
Memory, 18, 26, 28, 32, 34, 37, 38, 41
Ment, 25
Menu, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22,
25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 37, 38
Menus, 12, 13, 18, 19, 32, 33
Merid, 16
Messages, 28
Messier, 1, 11, 31, 40
Method, 27
Mhz, 41
Mice, 33
Microsoft, 10, 33
Middle, 2






Midnight, 25
Miles, 8, 28
Million, 7, 8, 23
Millions, 8
Mind, 3
Minimal, 19
Minimum, 31
Minor, 32
Minus, 15
Minutes, 14, 23, 24, 25
Mn, 16
MNU, 17, 18, 19, 20, 38
Mode, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21, 24,
25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37
Model, 26, 28
Modes, 9, 20, 25, 26, 29, 38
Modified, 40
Money, 41
Monitor, 41
Monitors, 15
Monochrome, 21, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 36
Moon, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 14, 16, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 39
Moons, 1, 7, 13, 32, 39
Motion, 1, 5, 6, 24, 25
Mouse, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 33, 34, 38
Moves, 7
Multiple, 38

Naked, 21
Name, 4, 10, 11, 18, 19, 34, 37, 38, 41
Named, 22
Names, 18, 26, 27, 31
Narrower, 17
Navigation, 24
Near, 12
Nearest, 2, 3
Nebula, 10, 19
Necessary, 11
Needed, 20, 28
Needs, 24, 26, 27, 31
Neptune, 27
Never, 25, 26
New, 2, 3, 12, 13, 16, 22, 26, 27, 32, 38, 39, 41
Next, 11
Night, 25
Node, 19
Nominal, 40
Non, 29
Non-EGA, 15
Non-Period, 19
Non-periodic, 35
Non-standardized, 26
Non-USA, 41
Noon, 24
North, 3, 7, 16, 17, 23, 24, 25, 29






Northern, 24
Note, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 26
Notes, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 20
Nothing, 10
Notice, 25, 40
N-nonperiodic, 19

Object, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 15, 17, 18, 19, 23, 34, 36
Objects, 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 11, 15, 31, 40
Observer, 7, 23, 24
Observers, 7
Observer's, 16
Obtain, 40
Obtained, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7
Occur, 26, 33
Occurring, 32
October, 22
Ohio, 16
Old, 27, 31, 32, 34
Once, 10
One, 1, 2, 3, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 21, 24, 25, 27, 40
Open, 37, 38
Operation, 40
Optimized, 25, 31
Option, 9, 10, 12, 18, 19, 22, 27, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38,
39
Optional, 20
Options, 1, 12, 20, 21, 30, 36
Orbit, 1, 5, 6, 7, 13, 19, 23, 28, 29, 31, 39
Orbital, 5, 6, 9, 16, 19, 33, 34, 35, 36
Orbits, 7
Order, 41
Original, 21
Originally, 1
Orion, 10, 11, 34
Outline, 2, 3, 4, 34
Outlines, 10
Outlining, 10
Overall, 11
Overlay, 37
OVERLAYS, 37
Override, 21

Page, 13
Palette, 21
Pan, 4
Panning, 31
Paper, 21
Parabolic, 19, 35
Parame, 38
Parameters, 1, 12, 13, 18, 19, 34
Part, 10, 12, 13
Particu, 19
Particular, 4
Parts, 12






Passes, 21
Past, 1
Path, 22, 25
Paths, 16, 25
Pause, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 20
Paused, 34
Payment, 41
Peggy, 41
Per, 12, 40
Performed, 19
Perihelion, 19
Period, 19
Periodic, 19, 35
Personally, 40
Perspective, 6, 7
Peter, 23
Pg, 13
Phase, 2, 3, 9, 10, 22, 36
Phases, 22
Phone, 41
Photograph, 24
PICK, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 18, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36
Picked, 10, 18, 27, 36, 38
Picking, 9, 10, 37
PICKS, 30
Picture, 24
Placed, 11
Plane, 5, 6, 7, 39
Planet, 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 25, 28, 30, 36, 37, 39
Planetarium, 1, 2
Planetary, 25, 27, 28, 32
Planets, 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 16, 24, 25, 28, 29, 36, 37
Plano, 41
Play, 36, 39
Plays, 15, 16, 31, 36, 37
Please, 41
Plot, 27
Plots, 24
Plotted, 3, 23, 27, 30
Plotting, 15, 29
Pluto, 32, 36
PM, 1
Point, 1, 10, 11, 23, 24, 26, 30, 32, 37
Pointer, 10
Pointing, 10, 11
Pole, 7
Poor, 1
Pop, 10, 13, 18
Pop-up, 11, 30, 36
Portions, 37
Position, 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 24, 25, 36
Positioned, 9, 10
Positions, 16, 23, 28, 38
Positive, 16
Possible, 24, 29






Potential, 29
Practical, 23
Prefer, 38
Present, 1, 12, 35
Preset, 11
Press, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 23, 34
Pressed, 8, 9, 13, 14
Presses, 33
Pressing, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 18, 36
Prevented, 32, 36
Previous, 12, 30
Previously, 11
Printer, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 20, 28, 29, 36
Printouts, 15
Proaches, 24
Problems, 38, 39
Process, 10
Processor, 35
Promptly, 34
Propor, 15
Puts, 33
P-periodic, 19

Quite, 11

RA, 17, 38
Radius, 23
Rate, 2, 3, 14, 24, 25, 28, 29
Ratio, 4, 8, 32
Reach, 24
Read, 17, 18, 19, 33
Readability, 31
Readable, 15
Reading, 27, 28
Real, 2, 3
Really, 16
Reason, 26
Reboot, 22
Recalculated, 8, 9
Recognize, 38
Recommended, 25
Recre, 33
Recreate, 25
Recreated, 30
Rect, 22
Rectly, 30, 39
Red, 8, 21, 32
Redisplayed, 8, 9
Refer, 8, 9, 12, 19
Reference, 14
Refers, 25
Reflect, 10
Region, 4
Register, 40
Registered, 40






Related, 22, 30
Relative, 8, 13, 32
Release, 26
Released, 27
Releases, 2, 3
Reload, 18
Remaining, 15
Remember, 12
Remit, 41
Removed, 30, 34, 39, 40
Rename, 26
Repositioned, 10
Represent, 2, 3
Representation, 21
Represented, 2, 3
Representing, 2
Represents, 3, 5, 6, 7
Request, 41
Requested, 1, 40
Require, 33
Required, 25
Requires, 31
Reread, 18, 26
Reset, 32
Reset-Zoom, 29
Residents, 41
Resolu, 32
Resolution, 1, 8, 25
Respec, 13
Respect, 15
Responsibility, 40, 41
Responsibly, 40
Restore, 5, 6, 7, 18, 19
Restore-Menu, 32
Restoring, 18, 38
Results, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 26
Resume, 34
Retrn, 9, 10, 18, 33
Retrograde, 1, 25
Return, 11, 13, 14, 25
Returned, 41
Reversed, 33
Revision, 1, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38,
39
Revolution, 14
Re-entered, 39
Rise, 9, 13, 24, 25, 28, 30, 31, 35, 36, 39
Rise-Times, 29

Sagan, 16
Sales, 41
Same, 1, 4, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17, 25, 26, 28, 34
SAV, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 38
Saved, 17, 18, 38
Save-file, 38






Saving, 22, 38
Savings, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 14, 20, 22, 29, 36, 37
Say, 11, 22
Scaled, 8
Scaling, 4, 32
Screen, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33,
35, 36, 38, 40
Screens, 11, 12, 21, 33, 39
Scroll, 2, 31, 33, 39
Scrolling, 34
Search, 11
Section, 11, 18, 19, 20, 29, 31, 32
Sections, 12
See, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 20, 22, 24, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33,
39
Seeing, 26
Seen, 1, 2, 3, 6, 15, 18, 26, 39
Select, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 33
Selected, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 26, 30
Selecting, 29, 30, 34, 36
Selection, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 26, 38
Selections, 2, 3, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17
Selects, 15, 16, 21
Semi-major, 19
Send, 40, 41
Sending, 1
Sep, 22
Separate, 28
September, 25
Ser, 41
Set, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 15, 17, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 35, 36,
39
Sets, 25
Setting, 18, 25, 29, 36
Setup, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 25, 26, 28, 31, 33,
38
Setups, 38
Setup-Menus, 19
Shade, 15
Shades, 15
Shape, 27, 36
Shifted, 4
Shipping, 41
Should, 20, 22, 24
Shoulder, 2
Show, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 15, 28, 29, 36
Showing, 36
Shows, 2, 7, 9, 28, 39
Side, 2, 3, 4
Sidereal, 2, 3, 4, 14, 25, 37
Sides, 30
Sign, 27
Signal, 33
Simple, 24
Simply, 10, 12






Simulate, 13, 38
Simulated, 7
Simulates, 7
Simulations, 1
Simulator, 1
Single, 11
Sion, 40
Site, 40
Sitting, 2
Situation, 18
Size, 2, 3, 4, 8, 15, 29, 31, 32
Sizes, 13
Size-display, 31
Skies, 1
Sky, 2, 3, 4, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 24, 25, 30, 31, 32, 34,
38
Slightly, 39
Slow, 1, 26
Small, 15, 31
Smaller, 8, 17
Smith, 23
Solar, 5, 6, 13, 21, 23, 39
Solstice, 24
Something, 11
Sorry, 41
Sound, 18
South, 3, 16, 17, 23
Southern, 24, 25
Space, 13, 37
Spaces, 19
Span, 32
Specific, 1, 2, 12, 18
Specified, 2, 3, 14, 38
Specifies, 3
Specify, 31
Spectral, 10, 18
Speed, 24, 25, 31, 38, 41
Speeds, 26
Spell, 11
Split, 28
Standard, 20, 22
Star, 2, 3, 4, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18, 19, 24, 26, 27, 29, 31, 33, 34,
38
STARFILE, 18, 20, 21, 26, 27, 30, 31, 34
Stars, 1, 2, 3, 11, 14, 15, 18, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32,
34, 36, 37, 38, 40
Start, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 18, 28
Started, 19, 30
Starting, 11
Starts, 12, 18
Startup, 17, 36
Star's, 15
State, 17
Statement, 40
Stating, 26






Still, 3, 15, 17, 22, 35
Stopping, 29
Straight, 23
String, 11
Sub, 13
Sub-menus, 14
Suit, 12
Sun, 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28, 30
Sunday, 22
Suns, 25
SuperVGA, 1, 15, 20, 26, 38
Supports, 10
Sure, 11
SVGA, 20
Swapping, 37
Swaps, 21
Symbols, 21, 39
Sys, 18
Systems, 26, 28, 39
System-Type, 41

Tab, 13, 33
Tables, 16
Taste, 12
Technical, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 20
Tem, 18
Tend, 26
Tently, 35
Ters, 38
Texas, 41
Tilt, 7
Time, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22,
25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 36, 37, 39
TIME ZONE, 22
Tional, 15
Tions, 18, 31
Tively, 13
Toggle, 4, 11, 14, 33
Toggling, 34, 37
Tone, 18
Total-Rise-Time, 29
Towards, 7
Trail, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 16
Trails, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 14, 16, 24, 25, 28, 33, 34
Transformation, 2
Tributed, 40
Trol, 36
Tuned, 12
Turbo, 37

Ual, 40
Units, 8, 23
University, 23
Unlimited, 40
Unpredictable, 26






Update, 2, 3, 8, 9, 14, 24, 25, 28, 29, 31, 33
Update Mode, 8, 9
Update-Mode, 32
Upgrade, 41
Upper, 7, 12
Up-arrow, 27
Usefulness, 25
Users, 36, 38

Ver, 38, 40
Verification, 19
Versions, 40
Vertical, 3
VGA, 1, 15, 20, 21, 23, 25, 29
Via, 33
Viewability, 38
Viewable, 14
Violet, 21
Visual, 21

Waiting, 35
Wander, 25
Wanderer, 25
Waning, 23
Want, 22, 31
Weak, 32
Whole, 17
Whos, 21
Wide, 3
Width, 4, 7, 17, 32
Wild-cards, 11
Worked, 34
Works, 34

YEAR, 14, 24, 25
Years, 1, 19, 40

Zenith, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 23, 30, 35, 36, 37
ZONE, 16, 17, 30
Zoom, 4, 5, 6, 7, 39
Zooming, 4, 31



 December 16, 2017  Add comments

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