Contents of the CONCALC.DOC file
All rights reserved
The CONCALC software and manual ("documentation") are copyrighted by the
author. Use of the software indicates your acceptance of the following
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY.
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
Although this software and documentation have been thoroughly tested and
reviewed, both are provided solely "as is" and without warranty of any kind.
The author specifically disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied,
including, but not limited to, implied warranties of merchantability and
fitness for a particular purpose with respect to defects in the software and
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFIT OR ANY OTHER
DAMAGE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, COMMERCIAL,
CONSEQUENTIAL OR OTHER DAMAGES OF ANY KIND RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE OR ITS DOCUMENTATION.
To register this software, send $5 (check or money-order) to:
6010 Avenida Chamnez
La Jolla, CA 92037
UNIT CONVERTER and FORMULA CALCULATOR
This program contains three selections that convert between units of
various systems of measurment and three selections that calculate a
variety of scientific formulas.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
This selection converts length, area, volume, time, weight (mass), angle,
and charge measurements and combinations thereof within and between the
English, Metric, and Troy (apothecary) systems.
NAMING CONVENTIONS: A list of valid unit names, abbreviations, and metric
prefixes can be displayed by pressing the key. Where a unit name has
more than one usage, the most common usage is assumed for the basic unit and
all other uses are prefixed. EXAMPLE: The unit "Ton" most commonly refers to
"Short-Ton" so the other two uses are labled as "Long-Ton" and "Metric-Ton".
With the exception of ounces, for which weight is the most common use, fluid
measures are assumed to be more common than dry. Only the basic metric units
appear in the unit name list but any of them can be prefixed with a metric
prefix to form a valid unit. EXAMPLE: kilometer, centimeter, millimeter, etc.
ENTERING NAMES: Names can be entered singularly (as they appear in the
list) or as compound names. Compound names may be used where the quantity
being measured is multidimensional. Squared and cubed units are entered as
UNIT^2 and UNIT^3 (capitalization is for readability only). Units of dif-
ferent types that are to be multiplied are separated by a space and units
to be divided are separated by PER.
EXAMPLE 1: AREA is defined as distance times distance, often refered
to as distance squared. Some valid AREA compound units are
FEET^2, MILES^2, METERS^2, etc. There are also two valid
single unit names: ACRE and ARE.
EXAMPLE 2: FORCE is defined as mass times distance divided by time
squared. Some common FORCE single units are NEWTON and
DYNE, but these can be entered as KILOGRAM METERS PER
SECOND^2 and GRAM CENTIMETERS PER SECOND^2. You could
even have TON MILES PER MINUTE^2.
All units entered must be of the same type (e.g., distance, weight, mass
per time^2, etc.), otherwise a '... dimension incompatibility' message will
INPUTS: The first input required is for the quantity and units from which
you wish to convert, and is in the form:
[, [, ]]
EXAMPLE: 5 yards, 2 feet, 7 inches
A total of three mixed unit entries may be input at once provided they are
separated by commas and are of the same type. If the program does not recog-
nize a unit, an error message will appear.
Entering a single unit without a quantity in front will cause that unit's
dimension(s) to be listed.
EXAMPLE: entering 'newton' will display: DISTANCE MASS PER TIME^2
The second input is the units to be converted to and must be of the same
type as those converted from. If there are no entry errors, the conversion
is then performed and displayed.
Conversions are made between three different systems: Kelvin, Celsius, and
Fahrenheit. The first input is the temperature to be converted and is in the
The second input is the units converted to.
This selection will convert numbers from one base to another. Decimal
numbers can be converted into any base and vice versa. Binary (base 2)
numbers can be converted into Octal (base 8) or Hexidecimal (base 16) and
vice versa. The conversion type is selected from a sub-menu.
You will be prompted for the required input. There are only two things
you must pay attention to:
1. The total number of digits used in any number system is the same as
the base (e.g., the Decimal system [base 10] has 10 digits [0-9],
the Binary system [base 2] has two [0-1], etc.).
2. For bases greater than 10, the extra digits are represented by
letters (e.g., the Hexidecimal [base 16] has sixteen "digits", the
decimal digits 0-9 and the letters A-F). Therefor, the largest base
that can be handled is base 36 (10 digits plus 26 letters).
The formula selections provide a variety of scientific formulas, most of
which have three or four elements. You select the desired formula from a
sub-menu. An input mask will then appear for entering the quantities. Enter
0 (zero) for any unknown quantity. After the last quantity has been entered,
the unkown quantities will be calculated or an error message will appear if
not enough quantities were given for a solution. A minimum of two quantities
or more must be given. If more quantities are given than needed the extra
quantities are not used in the calculations and may be re-calculated.
No units are used with the formulas so you must be familiar with what units
and terms are used together. For instance, if force is calculated in NEWTONS,
then the units are kilograms, meters, and seconds; but for DYNES they are
grams, centimeters, and seconds. Particularly insidious is the English system
since mass unit for POUNDS of force is the SLUG, not the pound. So one POUND
of force is one slug-foot per second squared, while one pound-foot per second
squared is a POUNDAL!. The one consistent dimension is time which is always
in seconds for all systems.