Dec 122017
 
BALLISTIC is a program that generates ballistic tables for shooters. Given easily obtainable data, it calculates such useful information as the ballistic coefficient and sectional density, remaining velocity, energy, etc.
File BAL400.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Science and Education
BALLISTIC is a program that generates ballistic tables for shooters. Given easily obtainable data, it calculates such useful information as the ballistic coefficient and sectional density, remaining velocity, energy, etc.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
BAL-GEN.EXE 33507 22114 deflated
BAL-READ.ME! 3647 1655 deflated
BALISTIC.DB 4480 706 deflated
BALISTIC.DOC 136404 39607 deflated
BALISTIC.EXE 127479 68771 deflated

Download File BAL400.ZIP Here

Contents of the BALISTIC.DOC file
















B A L L I S T I C

Version 4.00




Copyright 1988, 1989 by William R. Frenchu
All Rights Reserved.










WARNING

Reloading small arms ammunition can be a DANGEROUS pastime. The
purpose of this program is NOT to teach the principles of this
fascinating hobby. It is, rather, to aid the hobbyist in as-
sessing the performance of the ammunition he has produced. It is
assumed from the outset that the user of this program is ac-
quainted with basic reloading techniques. (For review, a list of
references may be found in Appendix B of this document.) DO NOT
ATTEMPT TO PRODUCE AMMUNITION FOR YOURSELF OR OTHERS UNTIL YOU
ARE COMPLETELY FAMILIAR WITH ALL THE FUNDAMENTALS OF RELOADING.
ALWAYS START WITH THE MINIMUM LOAD AND WORK SLOWLY UP TO (NEVER
EXCEED) THE MAXIMUM LISTED LOAD.




User Supported Software (Shareware)

These programs (and their documentation) are copyrighted mate-
rial. Non-registered users of BALLISTIC are granted a limited
license to use the complete package for a trial period, to deter-
mine if it suits their needs. See Appendix F for further infor-
mation (and the usual pitch for cash).






COPYRIGHT NOTICE
----------------



BALLISTIC v4.00 is Copyright 1988, 1989 by William R. Frenchu.
GENTABLE v4.00 is Copyright 1988, 1989 by William R. Frenchu.
READTABLE v4.00 is Copyright 1988, 1989 by William R. Frenchu.

This document is Copyright 1988, 1989 by William R. Frenchu.

None of the programs listed above (or their documentation) may be
copied, in part or in whole, except as provided in the License in
the following pages.






Disclaimer

Although every reasonable care was taken to insure the accuracy
of these programs and their documentation, they are provided
"AS IS" and without warranties as to performance of merchant-
ability or any other warranties whether expressed or implied,
including, but not limited to warranty of fitness for a partic-
ular purpose. Good data processing procedure dictates that any
program be tested with non-critical data before relying on it.
The user must assume the entire risk of using the program. In no
event will the author be liable for any damages (or injury)
arising out of the use of or inability to use this program.






Trademarks

The several product names found throughout this manual are trade-
marks of various companies.






LICENSE
-------



The "BALLISTIC software package" (hereafter referred to as the
Package) includes the executable versions of BALLISTIC 4.00 and
GENTABLE 4.00, and this document. Source code for these programs
is specifically excluded. (READTABLE is an optional program
available only to registered users. See Appendix E.)

The Package is not, nor has it ever been, public domain or free
software.

The Package is distributed under the User Supported Software
concept. Non-registered users (private, governmental OR commer-
cial) are granted a limited license to use the Package for a 30
day trial period, to determine if it suits their needs. This
license further allows registered OR non-registered users to make
and distribute copies of the Package for the purpose of allowing
others to try it, provided the following restrictions are met:

1. The Package must include unmodified copies of all
files and documentation.
2. The Package may not be included with any other product
for any reason without a license from the author.
3. No charge or payment may be levied or accepted for the
Package beyond a small media fee.

Bulletin Board System Operators (sysops) may post the Package on
their BBS for downloading without written permission so long as
no SPECIAL fees are necessary to access the files. (A fee for
general access to the BBS or charge for connect time is specifi-
cally allowed.)

Distributors of User Supported and Public Domain Software MUST
additionally obtain permission in writing from William R. Frenchu
before distributing the Package. Permission is almost always
granted.

Any other use of Package, or use past the 30 day trial period
requires registration.

Appendix F contains information on registration.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
-----------------


1. ABOUT THE PROGRAM
A. General ............................................... 1
B. Program Files ......................................... 1
C. System Requirements ................................... 1
D. Program Limitations ................................... 2
E. Communicating with BALLISTIC .......................... 2
F. What's New ............................................ 2
G. The Future ............................................ 3
H. Acknowledgments ....................................... 3

2. INSTALLATION
A. Shareware Copies....................................... 5
B. All Users ............................................. 5
C. The Configuration File ................................ 5
D. Using the Pre-programmed Functions .................... 5

3. CALCULATING A BALLISTIC TABLE
A. Command Line Arguments ................................ 8
B. Calculating a Ballistic Coefficient ................... 8
C. The Ballistic Table ................................... 9
D. Sight (Trajectory) Tables ............................. 9
E. Plotting the Trajectory ............................... 10

4. OTHER MAIN MENU FUNCTIONS
A. Modifying the Ballistic Coefficient ................... 11
B. Changing the Cross Wind Value ......................... 11
C. Changing the Input Function Table ..................... 11
D. Miscellaneous Functions Menu .......................... 11
E. Database Function Menu ................................ 11

5. THE MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS MENU
A. Calculating Recoil .................................... 13
B. Calculating Minimum Twist ............................. 13
C. Calculating the Point Blank Range ..................... 14
D. Correction from Instrumental to True Muzzle Velocity .. 14
E. Calculation of Velocity Statistics .................... 14
F. Calculation of Target Statistics ...................... 15

6. DATABASE FUNCTIONS
A. Internal or External Databases ........................ 16
B. Display Database ...................................... 16
C. Search Database ....................................... 16
D. Delete Record from Database ........................... 17
E. Add Record to Database ................................ 17
F. Print Reloading Label ................................. 17
G. Select Database File .................................. 17
H. Internal Database Structure ........................... 17
I. External Database Return Values ....................... 18

7. GRAPHICS MODE FUNCTIONS
A. Changing the Axes ..................................... 19
B. Saving and Restoring Plot Data ........................ 19
C. Graphics Cursor ....................................... 19
D. Hardcopy of Graphic Data .............................. 19
E. Plotting Other Functions .............................. 20
F. Miscellaneous Graphics Commands ....................... 20


8. THE BALLISTIC TABLE
A. The Table Header ...................................... 21
B. Functions of Merit .................................... 21
C. Energy ................................................ 22
D. Momentum .............................................. 22
E. Maximum Ordinate ...................................... 22
F. Deflection ............................................ 22
G. Drop .................................................. 23
H. Lead .................................................. 23
I. Time of Flight ........................................ 23
J. Trajectory ............................................ 23

9. THE CONFIGURATION FILE
A. Using the Configuration File .......................... 25
B. Allowable Parameters .................................. 25

10. SOURCES OF DATA
A. Altitude .............................................. 27
B. Ballistic Coefficient ................................. 27
C. Bullet Weight, Length and Caliber ..................... 27
D. Gun and Powder Weight ................................. 27
E. Specific Gravity of Bullet Alloy ...................... 28
F. Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure and Wind ............ 28
G. Velocity .............................................. 28

Figures .................................................... 30

Appendix A, Glossary ....................................... 35
Appendix B, Information Sources ............................ 38
Appendix C, Coefficients for Several Factory Cartridges .... 40
Appendix D, Specific Gravities of Bullet Alloys ............ 43
Appendix E, Using Other Standard Functions ................. 44
1. Creating Custom Function Tables ....................... 44
2. Checking the Function File with READTABLE ............. 44
Appendix F, User Supported Software (Shareware) ............ 46

Registration Form .......................................... 47




1. ABOUT THE PROGRAM

A. General
BALLISTIC is a Turbo C (v2.0) program written to generate
ballistic tables for shooters. Given easily obtainable data, it
calculates such useful information as the ballistic coefficient
and sectional density, remaining velocity, energy, momentum,
drop, deflection, maximum ordinate, time of flight and lead (for
moving targets) at a given range. In addition, it can determine
the recoil, estimate the minimum rifling twist, calculate point
blank range, generate statistics, and produce trajectory tables
for estimating holdover. Several of the values calculated by BAL-
LISTIC may be displayed not only in tabular form, but also graph-
ically as a function of range.

B. Program Files
The following files should be included in any distribution
of BALLISTIC:

BAL-GEN.EXE -GENTABLE :Creates ballistic function tables.
BAL-READ.ME! -Describes version, etc.
BALISTIC.EXE -BALLISTIC :Executable file.
BALISTIC.DOC -This file.

Registered users may additionally receive:

BAL-READ.EXE -READTABLE :Optionally displays function tables.
BALISTIC.REV -Program revision history.
*.DB -BALLISTIC databases of commercial components.
CHECK_DB.COM -Checks format of user created databases.
BAL400-?.C -C Source code (extra cost)

C. System Requirements
BALLISTIC should run on most IBM BIOS-compatible computers
using PC/MS-DOS 3.0 or above. It requires 256k of free memory and
at least one disk drive. Non-graphic functions are directed to
the default display. Graphic output (for non-registered versions)
requires a VGA, MCGA, EGA, CGA or Hercules compatible display
adapter. Registered versions can be supplied that support the
higher resolution modes of several additional displays. (See file
BAL-READ.ME! for the current list.)
BALLISTIC 4.00 has been tested and found to operate properly
on the following systems:

PC/XT with Hercules monochrome or ATI "EGA Wonder" adapter
PS/2 System 30 with MCGA adapter
Compaq Plus with Compaq CGA-type adapter
Compaq DeskPro 386 with Compaq EGA-type adapter
Compaq DeskPro 386s with Compaq VGA-type adapter
Panasonic Executive Partner (8086 with CGA type display)

Version 2.0 of Turbo C appears to use a new method to check for
available graphics adapters. This may cause BALLISTIC to crash
some of the less compatible clones. (The Panasonic Executive
Partner is an example of this.) In most cases, this will be
solved by using the configuration file or command line to force
BALLISTIC to use BIOS calls for video I/O. See section 3A (com-
mand line) or 9 (configuration file) for more detailed instruc-
tions.


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 1



D. Program Limitations
Any program of this type will have certain limitations on
its use and accuracy. BALLISTIC is no exception. Discrepancies
between actual and calculated performance arise primarily because
of approximations the program uses in its calculations.
An additional source of error is the inability of the user
to measure input values exactly. Assuming that the input values
are known to 1% the average user should find agreement with
published velocity and trajectory data to be 1-2%. The recoil
calculation, due to its more approximate nature, shouldn't be
considered more than 10-15% accurate.
In any case, while the numbers produced by the program are
believed to be accurate enough for all practical purposes, they
are meant only as a guide to ammunition performance. How a parti-
cular load performs with a given gun can only be determined by
actual firings.
BALLISTIC works by comparing the user's bullet to a "stan-
dard projectile" with a well known trajectory. Since the standard
data is calculated before use by a separate program (GENTABLE),
the user's ballistic tables can be produced very quickly.
For best results, one should try to use the same standard
function to produce the table that was initially used to calcu-
late the ballistic coefficient. This may not always be possible,
as in the case where a published coefficient was calculated using
a drag function to which the program doesn't have access.

E. Communicating with BALLISTIC
Throughout this document, single keys pressed in response to
program prompts are enclosed in angle brackets. For example,
"press <1>" means to press the key labeled "1" on the keyboard.
For "press ", use the key marked either "return" or
"enter".
When the document requires that a value be "entered", the
key must be pressed when finished, e.g., to "enter 10"
press <1><0>.
Prior to hitting the key, values may be edited using
any of the appropriate cursor keys, including , ,
and . Improper entries on previous lines can be
corrected by using the key to "back up" to the bad line,
then retyping the data. In most cases, obviously improper data
will be refused and an acceptable range displayed.
File names each have an associated default extension which
need not be entered. For input filenames, a directory of matching
files may be displayed by entering a name containing the usual
DOS wildcards, "?" or "*". (This option is NOT implemented in
graphics mode.) Input filenames will be checked for existence
before they are accepted.
Several function keys have been implemented in version 4.00.
These keys will always perform the same functions, even when
similar menu choices are available. "F1" currently provides help
when in graphics mode. (The author's plan is to use this key to
provide "context sensitive" help in a future release.) "F5" will
execute a "shell to DOS" function from anyplace EXCEPT graphics
mode. "F9" will perform a "selective" print screen function,
i.e., it will print that part of the screen containing the cur-
rent calculations, without the titles, etc. "F10" will perform a
form feed.

F. What's New
There have been several additions to the program since ver-


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 2


sion 3.20. Some of these include:

1. Added database functions for storage and retrieval of
ballistic input values. Both internal and external
databases are supported.
2. Added angle of departure feature to trajectory menu.
3. Added ability to plot energy, velocity, momentum or
deflection as a function of range.
4. Added choice of several "functions of merit" to the
original IPSC power function.
5. Added graphics cursor with coordinate display.
6. Added "print to file" option for tables.
7. Maximum range has been extended.
8. Minimum bullet weight is now 1 grain.
9. Minimum bullet diameter is now 0.08" (#9 shot).
10. Users can now print input data and results of calcula-
tions performed in miscellaneous functions menu.
11. When modifying atmospheric data, the standard values
may be accepted by pressing .
12. HP Paintjet and C. Itoh 8510A printers are now sup-
ported in graphics mode.

As a result of these (and other) changes, plot files saved
under previous versions of BALLISTIC are incompatible with the
new release.

G. The Future
The author is the first to admit that BALLISTIC isn't per-
fect (or even necessarily finished). It is hoped, for instance,
that future releases will incorporate a "Powley Computer" type
computation for estimating the powder charge necessary for a
given velocity. The ability to make calculations based on dis-
tances given in meters OR yards would be a welcome improvement.
Additional features the author is considering include context
sensitive help.
The author is interested in adding new drag function tables
if reliable data can be found. He is currently on the lookout for
listings of the "J", "G5" or "G7" drag functions. Also of inter-
est is additional specific gravity data for commonly used bullet
casting alloys, and information on the types of materials used in
non-lead bullet designs (e.g., bronze and steel). Finally, a
description of the Relative Incapacitation Index (RII) would help
round out the merit function selections.
All in all, BALLISTIC seems likely to fill the needs of many
shooting buffs. Included in the documentation is a section
listing sources for further reading on small arms ballistics and
reloading. The local gun shop or public library may have others.
READ some of them!.. AND the disclaimers. Then enjoy the program.

H. Acknowledgments
The author is indebted to the following people for their
help, support, and the many suggestions they made. Without dedi-
cated users such as these, the program would never have reached
its current level of sophistication:

Jim Kreiser
Hugh Roberts
James Roberts
Donald Terwilliger

Special thanks are due to the author's wife and family,


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 3


Susan, Billy and Karen, for understanding (or at least putting up
with!) the author's wild mood swings, ranting and raving as var-
ious parts of BALLISTIC (which were working just fine yesterday!)
stopped working for no apparent reason. Thank you.



























































BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 4




2. INSTALLATION

BALLISTIC is available in two formats. The shareware version
is a packed or archive type file (typically with a .ZIP exten-
sion) which the user has most often downloaded from a computer
bulletin board system. The registered version may be supplied
already "unpacked" on one 3.5" or two 5.25" diskettes directly
from the author.
The installation procedure for both formats is similar.
Briefly, the executable files are installed on a working disk,
the system graphics printer is chosen, and a standard function
file is created.

A. Shareware Copies
Those users starting with a packed file should create their
own "distribution diskette" by formatting a blank floppy, then
unpacking all the files directly to the new diskette. This floppy
is identical to "disk 1" of the registered version.

B. All Users
The first step should be to print (and read!) the documen-
tation file from "disk 1". (3.5" disk users receive "disk 1" and
"disk 2" on a single diskette.) This may be done with either of
the DOS commands:

PRINT BALISTIC.DOC

or:

TYPE BALISTIC.DOC >PRN

(The documentation is an ascii file formatted for 66 lines of 80
characters each per page.)
The second step is the creation of a "working diskette" (or
directory). If installing to a hard disk, this may be done by
simply creating an appropriate sub-directory and copying all the
files from the distribution diskettes.
If installing to a floppy disk based system, the working
diskette is created by copying ONLY the files BALISTIC.EXE and
BAL-GEN.EXE from "disk 1". This is necessary in order to leave
enough room to create the .TAB files later.
Finally, the distribution diskettes should be stored in a
safe place, away from electric or magnetic fields and extremes of
temperature.

C. The Configuration File
Certain program default values may be changed by creating an
ascii file called BALISTIC.CFG. (Detailed instructions and allow-
able parameters are described in section 9.) It is recommended
that the user determine the proper value for PTYPE (the system
graphics printer) at this time. (The default value is NO PRIN-
TER.) The author suggests that other parameters be left at their
default values until installation is complete, and the user is
satisfied with the program's operation.

D. Using the Pre-programmed Functions
Before running BALLISTIC for the first time, a file con-
taining the "standard" drag values the program will use during
its calculations must be produced.


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 5


Although Ingalls' table was historically the most often used
for this sort of work, several others are likely to be encoun-
tered today. Many manufacturers, for instance, favor the "G1"
table. For the types of bullets typically used by reloaders the
results will be very similar regardless of the table employed.
Indeed, the variation between handloads or factory ammunition
randomly selected from the same lot will probably be greater than
the discrepancies noted between different tables over normal
shooting ranges.
GENTABLE Version 4.00 makes the following functions avail-
able:

FUNCTION VELOCITY ATMOSPHERIC
max. min. temp. pressure
British 1909 4000 300 59 29.53
Brit. 1929 Round Shot 1900 300 59 29.53
"G1" 4095 300 59 29.53
Ingalls' 3600 300 60 30.00
Ingalls' (extended) 4095 300 60 30.00

The G1, British 1909 and Ingalls' functions are practically
identical until low velocities are reached. All are well suited
to calculations involving typical hunting or pistol bullets,
i.e., rounded or slightly pointed spitzers. Results for sharply
pointed spitzers and boattails may not be as accurate with these
functions as they might with some others. Less accurate results
will also be obtained if ballistic coefficients calculated with
one set of functions are used with another, e.g., using the
coefficients listed in Appendix C (calculated with Ingalls'
table) with the British 1909 tables. (Descriptions of the differ-
ences between the functions, and the projectiles used to deter-
mine them, may be found in HATCHER'S NOTEBOOK.)
The extended Ingalls' table is simply the standard table
continued to the maximum allowable program velocity following the
method used in Hatcher. Since the values above 3600 fps are
extrapolated, they will not be as accurate as those below.
Many of the companies producing reloading components feel
that the G1 table is the best choice for all around use. Indeed,
most of the major ammunition manufacturers seem to use the G1
drag function for calculating their own "factory" ballistics.
Duplication of these tables is most easily accomplished using
this selection. This function is used by SAAMI in calculating the
tables they supply to the manufacturers as well.
The Round Shot table should be of special interest to those
using black powder arms and shotguns. To the author's knowledge,
however, no ballistics have been published using these tables.
Consequently, ballistic coefficients are unavailable. The author
recommends that the user "roll his own" by assuming a coefficient
of form equal to 1.00 and using the formula:

M
B.C. = ---------
i * d * d

where M is the bullet mass (not weight) in pounds, i is the
coefficient of form, and d is the bullet diameter in inches.
GENTABLE is started by typing its name (BAL-GEN) at the DOS
prompt, optionally following it with a command line argument. The
user will be presented with a short menu and be prompted for the
number of the drag function he desires. The program will next
prompt for a filename to contain the new data. After this data


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 6


has been entered, GENTABLE will create the new function file,
overwriting any previous file with that name.
Users planning the routine use of more than one function
should probably create them all ahead of time, giving them de-
scriptive file names. The one to be used most often should be
copied to BALISTIC.TAB.
GENTABLE will accept two arguments on the command line. If
the flag "-BIOS" is used all video output will be sent to the
screen via BIOS calls. The default is to write directly to screen
memory. The "-H" flag will display a short help screen.

Once a drag function file has been generated, BALLISTIC is
ready to run. A minimum working disk need only include the files
BALISTIC.EXE and BALISTIC.TAB. (If the graphics printer or other
defaults require changing, BALISTIC.CFG must also be on the
working disk.) This should leave sufficient room for the program
to write plot and table files, and for the user to create a fair
sized database of his most currently used loads.













































BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 7




3. CALCULATING A BALLISTIC TABLE

The goal in writing BALLISTIC was to produce a program which
was at once versatile and relatively easy to use. While there is
still room for improvement, some success in both of these direc-
tions has been achieved. The program is primarily menu driven and
prompts for all required data. Values entered (or calculated) in
one part of the program become the default for all other sec-
tions. This default data is displayed during the prompts. To
accept the displayed value press . To change it, simply
enter the new data over the old.
The output values calculated by BALLISTIC (the ballistic and
trajectory tables) will be discussed in depth in section 8.

A. Command Line Arguments
BALLISTIC is started by simply typing its filename (BALISTIC)
at the DOS prompt, optionally following it with one or more of
the following arguments:

"-BIOS" will cause all video output to be performed using
BIOS calls rather than direct screen writes. This will
significantly slow screen I/O, but may be necessary
with computers that are not 100% IBM compatible.

"-F" followed (with NO spaces) by the name of a BALLISTIC
drag function file, will cause that file to be loaded
instead of the default. For example, -FG1.DAT would
cause the program to load the file called G1.DAT
instead of the BALISTIC.TAB.

"-H" (Help) will display a brief help screen, including a
description of these arguments, then stop.

"-NOCHECK" causes the initial check of the function file
to be skipped. This may be useful on machines without
a math coprocessor.

Upon startup, BALLISTIC will attempt to read the configu-
ration file (BALISTIC.CFG, see Section 9), then load the default
function file (either BALISTIC.TAB or that file specified with
the "-F" option).
If the default file is not found in the current directory,
the user will be prompted for the name of an alternate. The de-
fault file type is ".TAB". (To use a name with no extension enter
"filename." with the trailing period.) BALLISTIC will read the
function file, make a brief check to determine its validity (a
checksum procedure), and present the user with the main menu.
(Fig. 1)

B. Calculating a Ballistic Coefficient
The first step in developing a ballistic table is to deter-
mine the ballistic coefficient. If this value cannot be found in
one of the sources described in section 10B, main menu choice 2
may be used to calculate it. Press <2> and the program will
prompt for an initial and final velocity, the range and some
atmospheric data. After this has been entered, the calculated
value of the effective ballistic coefficient (as well as the
coefficient at standard conditions for the table chosen) will be
displayed. (Fig. 2). Having determined a coefficient, BALLISTIC


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 8


can now calculate the table.
Pressing the key will redisplay the main menu, then
<1> will bring up the input screen.

C. The Ballistic Table
Figure 3 shows sample input data for main menu choice 1,
calculating the ballistic table. Since the initial velocity,
range and ballistic coefficient have been entered or calculated
on a prior screen, they needn't be re-typed unless a different
value is desired.
The bullet diameter prompt should be answered with the ac-
tual bore diameter in inches although input of the firearm's
nominal caliber (with leading decimal point, e.g., .22) is often
close enough.
Throughout the program, entering a value of 0.0 for the
"effective" ballistic coefficient, will cause the program to re-
prompt for the value of the coefficient at STP. The "effective"
value will then be calculated from the STP value using the cur-
rent values of temperature and pressure. (Temperature and pres-
sure may be changed from either main menu choice 3, or the con-
figuration file.)
In this example, entering a range value of 500 will create a
table to 500 yards based on the performance noted over the first
100. If a value of zero had been entered for the range, it would
have caused the program to switch to "metallic silhouette mode".
The user would then be prompted for his choice of standard rifle
or pistol silhouette target distances (rounded to the nearest
yard). As long as the input value for range remains zero, these
alternate ranges will be used.
The final necessary data item is the number of intervals
into which the total range should be divided. The maximum number
allowed is the smaller of 50 or the total range (in yards). This
value is assumed to be four when operating in silhouette mode.
Data entry is concluded with an optional table title.
Figure 4 shows the table itself and the program's prompt for
generation of a sight table. At this point, should it be desir-
able to get a printed copy, press <1>. The program will redirect
ballistic table output to the system's LST: device and return to
the prompt. A form feed (page eject) can be sent to the printer
by pressing <2>.
The table can be written to an ASCII file (for inclusion by
a word processor or later printing) by pressing <3>. The program
will prompt for a filename, which may exist. (Default extension
is .OUT.) The file will in NO case be overwritten. If it is
already present, the data will be appended. If the file does not
exist, BALLISTIC will create it.
The "New Data" choice, <5>, will return the user to the data
entry screen to calculate another ballistic table. "Main Menu"
(<6> or ) will jump directly back to the program's initial
screen.

D. Sight (Trajectory) Tables
Sight tables can be produced by pushing <4> in response to
the prompt at the bottom of the ballistic table. The program will
require that distance for which the weapon is "sighted in" (this
value need NOT have appeared in the range column of the original
ballistic table), the height of the sight above the centerline of
the bore, and any angular correction for uphill or downhill
shooting.
In silhouette mode, entering a value of zero for the tar-
geted range will cause the prompt to take the form of which sil-


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 9


houette (chicken, pig, turkey or ram) the weapon is zeroed for.
The user should respond with the first letter of the appropriate
target.
If the program is not in silhouette mode, entering a range
of zero for the targeted range will cause the program to reprompt
for the bullet's angle of departure (in decimal degrees).
Output of this table can be diverted in exactly the same
manner as the ballistic table. Pressing <5> allows the user to
enter new data for another sight table (using the current bal-
listic conditions), and <6> (or ) returns to the ballistic
table and prompt.

E. Plotting the Trajectory
Pressing <4> at the sight table prompt will present the user
with a graphic representation of the bullet's trajectory. Range,
in yards, will be shown along the bottom, with tic marks ap-
pearing at distances corresponding to the entries in the ballis-
tic table. Dotted lines will appear vertically at the distance
for which the weapon is zeroed and horizontally at the line of
sight. The trajectory (in inches above or below the line of
sight) is indicated on the left scale. (Additional commands
available in graphics mode are discussed in section 7.) Pressing
(or ) will return the user to the sight table prompt.








































BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 10




4. OTHER MAIN MENU FUNCTIONS

A. Modifying the Ballistic Coefficient
Those living at high altitude or in areas of extreme temper-
ature will want to adjust published (sea level) values of the
ballistic coefficient to more accurate local values. Main menu
choice 3 may be used to accomplish this (Figure 5). The program
will need to know the altitude, barometric pressure and tempera-
ture in addition to the value of the ballistic coefficient at STP
(Standard Temperature and Pressure, the published value).
One should bear in mind that these meteorological values
(especially temperature) ALSO affect the initial velocity of a
given load. This effect is beyond the ability of this program to
calculate but descriptions of it may be found in many reloading
manuals.

B. Changing the Cross Wind Value and Angle
Menu choice 3 also allows for adjustment of the speed of the
cross wind used to calculate wind deflection. By default, the
program sets this value to 10 miles per hour. It should be noted
that deflection is linear with wind speed, i.e., a 5 mph wind
will deflect a bullet by exactly half the amount of a 10 mph
wind.
The angle of the cross wind may be changed here as well. In
program coordinates, 0 degrees (the default) is blowing directly
across the bullet's path, either left to right or right to left.
90 degrees would be either a head or tail wind with no cross wind
component. These values are used ONLY for calculating deflection.
Their effect on other aspects of the trajectory is currently
ignored.

C. Changing the Input Function Table
Starting with version 2.00, it is possible to change func-
tion tables without restarting the program. Pressing <4> from the
main menu will cause a prompt for the new file name. As noted in
subsection A, the default extension is ".TAB" which need not be
entered. Users should remember that to enter a filename with no
extension, the trailing period is required. Simply press to
abort the function and return to the main menu.
This option doesn't alter the fact that BALISTIC.TAB (or the
filename supplied with the "-F" command line option) will be
loaded (if present) when the program is first started. It is
provided only for users who routinely use more than one function
table. Even so, program startup will be simplified if the table
most commonly used is copied to BALISTIC.TAB.
Loading a new function file will not reset the temperature
and pressure to the defaults for the new table. Thus, some care
should be taken if switching between two tables that use differ-
ent standard conditions.

D. Miscellaneous Functions Menu
Pressing <5> at the main menu prompt will present the user
with the miscellaneous functions menu. From this menu the user
may choose to calculate recoil, shot statistics, the minimum ne-
cessary twist for bullet stabilization, or the point blank range
for a given target size. These functions will be discussed in
section 5 of this document.
E. Database Function Menu
Pressing <6> at the main menu prompt will cause the program


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 11


to enter the database section. Both internal and external data-
bases are supported. When entered, the program looks in the
current directory to see if an executable file (.BAT, .COM,
or .EXE) called BAL-DBF exists. If it does (and if sufficient
memory is installed), control passes to that program. If not, the
internal database is invoked. Section 6 will explain the func-
tions available there in greater detail.
























































BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 12




5. THE MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS MENU

Several interesting calculations not as often needed by the
shooter have been grouped together in the miscellaneous functions
menu.

A. Calculating Recoil
The recoil energy and velocity of a weapon can be calculated
using miscellaneous menu choice 1, provided its weight and the
weight of the powder charge are known (Figure 6). This number can
be deceptive as the perception of recoil by different shooters is
VERY subjective. In addition to the physics involved, there must
be some consideration given to the fit of the gun to the individ-
ual, shape and material of the stock or grips, etc. Many
shooters, for instance, fear the recoil of a 12 gauge shotgun
(even with target loads) while thinking nothing of using a
6 pound 30-06 despite the fact that the "calculated" recoil can
be quite similar. Such recoil is often in the eye (or shoulder)
of the beholder.
This section also calculates whether a "muzzle brake" will
be useful in reducing felt recoil by allowing the user to deter-
mine the rough percentage of recoil caused by the bullet itself
(which a muzzle brake cannot affect). The value produced is the
level to which recoil energy would be reduced if there were no
powder at all. This is a crude estimate of what a shooter might
achieve with a perfect brake. (Bear in mind, however, that NO
muzzle brake is 100% effective and the actual amount of reduction
will be less.)
The recoil calculation used by BALLISTIC is a rough approxi-
mation, similar to that discussed in the March 1988 American
Rifleman. It would be extremely challenging to write a completely
accurate description of the recoil process. It would also be very
difficult to use as many variables are involved including, but
not limited to bore cross sectional area, length of barrel, at-
mospheric pressure and temperature, type of powder, loading den-
sity, etc. The values calculated here should not be considered
accurate to more than 10-15%. Barrel/powder combinations that
produce excessive muzzle flash will be even less accurate.

B. Calculating Minimum Twist
The slowest twist that will stabilize a bullet in flight may
be calculated using miscellaneous menu choice 2. The formula used
here is the approximation credited to Sir Alfred George Greenhill
in 1879. Necessary input data includes the bullet's diameter and
length in inches and specific gravity.
The default value for specific gravity is the average den-
sity of a typical jacketed bullet. Also listed on the input
screen (for reference) is the specific gravity of pure lead.
Specific gravities (or densities) of other bullet alloys seem
difficult to find. The user should be aware that these specific
gravities can NOT be added algebraically. That is, an alloy con-
taining 50% lead and 50% tin will NOT have a specific gravity
that is the average of the two pure metals. Appendix D of this
document contains specific gravity data for a small selection of
common alloys.
The angle made by the rifling grooves and the axis of the
bore is known as the "helix angle". As some European manufac-
turers describe the twist using this value rather than the cus-
tomary "1 turn in xx inches", BALLISTIC provides both numbers.


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 13


The author has been informed that this approximation was
originally intended for use with artillery projectiles. More
recent findings suggest that, for typical small arms ammunition,
a Greenhill number smaller than the default of 150.0 may be ap-
propriate, especially under adverse atmospheric conditions such
as rain and snow (100 has been recommended). A discussion may be
found in the June 1988 issue of Rifle. ("Shooting the Kalashni-
kov", pp. 28 - 31.) This number may be "permanently" changed
using the configuration file.

C. Calculating the Point Blank Range
Given the velocity, sight height and ballistic coefficient,
a point blank range may be determined for a specific target size.
The point blank range is the maximum range for which a bullet can
be counted upon to strike a target by simply aiming the weapon
directly at its center. For example, given a 6 inch target, a
point blank range may be calculated so the bullet is always less
than 3 inches above or below the line of sight.
BALLISTIC will calculate this distance for a given target
size and tell the user for what range the weapon should be
sighted, the maximum point blank range and what trajectory the
bullet will have at 100 yards. (If the targeted range is less
than 100 yards, the trajectory at 25 yards will be given in-
stead.) This figure may be used to sight the weapon when the
targeted range is either unrealistically far away, or an unusual
number of yards. For instance, in the example screen, sighting
the weapon 2.9 inches high at 100 yards will allow the shooter to
hit a 6 inch target out to 257 yards, without allowing for any
holdover. (However, the bullet will only strike the CENTER of the
target at 219 yards.)
BALLISTIC always calculates the point blank range for an
uphill/downhill angle of zero degrees. As during previous input
screens, entering a value of zero for the "effective" ballistic
coefficient will cause the program to re-prompt for the STP
value.

D. Correction from Instrumental to True Muzzle Velocity
When bullet velocities are measured by chronograph, it is
necessary to set the first (or start) screen far enough away from
the muzzle to avoid blast effects. The second (or stop) screen
must be set a fixed distance from the first so the elapsed time
between the two can be measured. Unfortunately, the speed calcu-
lated under these conditions is NOT the actual muzzle velocity,
but rather the average speed of the bullet over the interval
between the two screens. While the difference is usually small,
it is possible to make the correction to the true muzzle veloc-
ity, provided the screen distances and the ballistic coefficient
are known. Miscellaneous menu choice 4 provides for this calcula-
tion.

E. Calculation of Velocity Statistics
Not all bullets from the same load will leave the barrel of
a gun at exactly the same speed. Some statistical variation is
also to be expected in the measurement of any physical quantity.
Analysis of a string of measured velocities (up to 25) may be
accomplished using miscellaneous menu choice 5. Output data in-
cludes the maximum and minimum velocity values (and extreme
spread), the average velocity for the string, and the standard
deviation of the sample. BALLISTIC updates these values as each
point is entered, allowing the user to determine the effect of
each shot on the statistics. Pressing at the prompt for


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 14


"Next Velocity" will display the statistics menu, allowing the
user to correct or delete the entry list. From here, pressing <5>
(or ) will return to the miscellaneous menu.
A complete discussion of statistics is beyond the scope of
this document, but it should be noted that standard deviation of
a velocity string is a measure of data or sampling scatter, and
NOT necessarily an indication of the target accuracy of a partic-
ular load. (Accurate loads will, however, tend to have lower
standard deviations.) Examination of the standard deviation can
show whether a particular measurement should be included in the
average. For example, in a string of 10 shots or less, it is
usually safe to delete any velocity that deviates by more than 2
standard deviations from the average as a statistical anomaly.
BALLISTIC will mark each shot that exceeds the current average
value by more than one standard deviation (SD). A single star (*)
indicates difference of more than one but less than two SD. Two
stars (**) indicate a value more than 2 SD from the mean.

F. Calculation of Target Statistics
BALLISTIC will also provide some statistical analysis of
targets, including group center, group size and an evaluation of
"true fliers". This section is most easily used when the x,y
coordinates of each shot can be read directly from one of the
"sighting in" targets commonly supplied by some firearms manufac-
turers. (These targets are marked off in small squares rather
than the concentric circles used for "bullseye" shooting.) Enter
the coordinates of each shot (up to 10 total) and the program
will display the x,y coordinates of the group center, and the
size of the group as measured across the two shots furthest
apart. As with the velocity statistics section, pressing in
response to a coordinate prompt will cause the statistics menu to
be displayed.
Each shot will be marked for geometric standard deviations
in a manner similar to that used for velocity statistics. A sin-
gle star will indicate that the shot exceeds one SD from the
group center in the x direction, the y direction OR both. Two
stars indicates a deviation of more than 2 SD from the current
group center. Shots which lie outside of 2 SD from the group
center, especially in the absence of other "wide" shots, can
usually be safely labeled "fliers".























BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 15






6. DATABASE FUNCTIONS

While writing BALLISTIC, the author was convinced that some
kind of database feature would prove extremely useful. The prob-
lem confronting him was what kind of database to provide. The
established databases, like dBase III+ or Symphony, might be
preferred by users with access to them, but those without them
would then be left out in the cold. Clearly some type of internal
database was necessary. Ideally, it would be able to read ex-
isting database files.
The solution was to provide both options. Version 4.00 of
BALLISTIC incorporates a rudimentary database program, using a
simple ascii file format for storage. Users without access to a
more comprehensive database program can use this feature to build
up their own library of ballistic information.
Those fortunate enough to have access to one of the more
powerful commercial database managers have two options. They may
use the "report generation" features of their databases to create
a BALLISTIC compatible database, or they can choose to ignore the
built in feature and have BALLISTIC run their program directly.
(BALLISTIC will remain in memory.) On exiting from the external
program, BALLISTIC will attempt to read a file containing the
updated parameters returned by their program.

A. Internal or External Databases
Upon pressing the <6> key from the main menu, BALLISTIC
attempts to determine which of its database options to execute.
It first searches (in the current directory ONLY) for a file
called BAL-DBF.BAT, a batch file that will start up the users
database program. If that file cannot be found, it will attempt
to run either BAL-DBF.COM or BAL-DBF.EXE. If none of these files
exist, the program executes the internal database.
If the internal database is activated, and the program
cannot find the datafile, only options 5 and 6 (Print Label and
Select Database) will be active. If the database is found, but
contains no records, option 4 (Append Record to Database) will be
operational as well.

B. Display Database
Assuming the internal database has been selected, and an
appropriate database file was found, menu choice 1 will allow the
user to display individual records on the screen. Several "sub-
options" will be available. Pressing <1> or <2> (or the arrow
cursor keys) will display the previous or next record, respec-
tively. If the user already knows which record is of interest,
choice 3 will allow him to proceed directly to that record num-
ber. The and keys will at all times take the user to
the first or last record in the current dataset.
Choice 4 (Accept data) will read the currently displayed
record into BALLISTIC. If the record contains muzzle velocity and
another velocity recorded at a given distance, the program will
ask the user if the ballistic coefficient should be calculated
for the current drag function.

C. Search Database
Database menu choice 2 will allow the user to perform a text
search of the records. Upon entering the search subroutine, the


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 16


user will be prompted for a search string, and the search will
begin with the last record displayed. Record movement keys are
similar to those discussed in the previous section, with the
addition of choice 4 (New Key) which will allow the user to
specify a new search key. The and keys will initiate
a forward or reverse search from either end of the database.

D. Delete Record from Database
Database menu choice 3 will allow the user to delete a
record from the current database. Records may be displayed as
described in section B, and the currently displayed record de-
leted by pressing <4>.
The first time the database is changed, whether by appending
or deleting a record, the original database file is backed up by
copying it to .BAK. If the user should decide
that an error was made, the backup file can be recopied or re-
named.

E. Add Record to Database
This option (number 4 from the Database menu) will append a
new record to the end of an existing database. The user will be
prompted for all the necessary data, using the current program
values as the default.

F. Print Reloading Label
Pressing <5> from the Database menu will present the user
with a function virtually identical to the Display option. The
primary difference is that sub-option 4 will now direct the
record's image to the printer, for including in boxes of reloaded
cartridges.

G. Select Database File
Option 6 (Select Database File) will allow the user to
choose a new database file for use. After being prompted for a
name, the program will attempt to open the file and read the
header record. If the file does not exist, the user is given the
option of creating it. Since the performance of several of the
database functions degrades as file size gets larger, this option
allows the user to keep several smaller databases available, and
switch between them as necessary.

H. Internal Database Structure
Data files for the internal database may be created using
BALLISTIC itself, the "report" option of most commercial data-
bases, or any ascii word processor. Each line must be EXACTLY 120
characters long, not counting the CR/LF pair used as a termina-
tor.
The first line should contain (starting in the left column,
WITHOUT leading spaces) the number of records contained in the
database, a space, the version number of BALLISTIC (4.00), an-
other space, and a database comment. If necessary, it must be
padded with blanks on the right to bring the total line length to
120 characters.
Second and subsequent lines will consist of a chart title or
load comment exactly 79 characters long (padded with blanks if
necessary), followed (starting in column 80) by:

Bullet Weight (integer, bullet weight in grains)
Caliber (real, bullet diameter in inches)
Initial Velocity (real, f.p.s)
Final Velocity (integer, f.p.s)


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 17


Range (integer, range for final velocity in yds.)
Bal. Coeff. (real, ballistic coeff. at STP, can be 0)
Powder Weight (real, powder weight in grains, can be 0)

Again, the values must be separated by at least one space. The
whole line must be exactly 120 characters long, not counting the
terminating CR/LF pair.

I. External Database Return Values
The values from an external database program can be imported
into BALLISTIC through the file BALISTIC.RET. The external pro-
gram should create this ascii file containing the following
information:

(Line 1)
Chart title or comment (79 characters max., ending in CR/LF)

(Line 2 - Each entry separated by a space, line ends with CR/LF)
Bullet Weight (integer, bullet weight in grains)
Caliber (real, bullet diameter in inches)
Initial Velocity (real, f.p.s)
Final Velocity (integer, can be zero)
Range (integer, range for final velocity in yds.)
Bal. Coeff. (real, ballistic coeff. at STP, can be 0)
Powder Weight (real, powder weight in grains, can be 0)

(Maximum length of Line 2 must be less than 79 characters)




































BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 18






7. GRAPHICS MODE FUNCTIONS

It is possible to display several useful bullet character-
istics graphically (as a function of range). Graphics mode is
entered by pressing <4> from the trajectory table prompt. The
following commands are available to users only while in graphics
mode.

A. Changing the Axes
Pressing (for axes) will allow the user to set a "view-
port" in the current graphics display. The program will prompt
for starting and ending range, and the maximum and minimum ordi-
nate then plot only that portion of the chosen function that
falls in the described "window". The minimum and maximum allow-
able range values are 0 and the maximum table range, respec-
tively. Pressing (for start) will reset the plot to the ini-
tial (program chosen) limits.

B. Saving and Restoring Plot Data
If is pressed, graphics data (for the current range
viewport ONLY) will be written to a file. The user will first be
prompted for a filename and any existing file with that name will
be overwritten. (There is NO default extension.) ONLY the current
data (plotted with a solid line) will be saved to the file. This
data may be "merged" with the current graphics plot at any time
by pressing . When read back, it will be scaled and plotted
using a different color (if available) to distinguish it from the
current plot. The number of files that can be read back is lim-
ited only by the user's ability to tell them apart on the gra-
phics screen. Data types CANNOT be mixed, i.e., the user cannot
read a trajectory plot onto an energy display.

C. Graphics Cursor
The coordinates of a given point (to the nearest pixel) can
be displayed with the graphics cursor feature. Pressing in
graphics mode toggles the appearance of a small, cross shaped
cursor, and two boxes at the top of the plot containing the co-
ordinates of the displayed point. The current function value will
be on the left and range (in yards) will be on the right.
The cursor may be moved around the screen (one pixel at a
time) through use of the the cursor keys. Holding the key
down while manipulating the cursor keys will cause faster move-
ment (about 16 pixels).
Increased (apparent) resolution can be obtained by using the
xes command to expand the screen around the region of inter-
est. (This actually just makes each pixel represent a smaller
area.)

D. Hardcopy of Graphic Data
A hardcopy of the plot (actually, a screen dump) may be
produced by pressing

if an graphics printer is present. (Sup-
ported printers are discussed in the configuration file section
under PTYPE.) Depending on the display adapter and printer, this
may require several minutes. (A typical EGA graphics screen dump
is about 30k, roughly the size of a ten page document, and takes
as long to print.) Printing may be abandoned at any time by
pressing a key.


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 19


Users with a printer not listed may want to try using the
key which will usually require that the program
GRAPHICS.COM (from the DOS system diskette) be run before BALLIS-
TIC is started. Neither method will work with all display and
printer combinations. (Registered users may, of course, contact
the author and request support for their particular printer.)

E. Plotting Other Functions
When the plotting command is first issued, a plot of the
bullet's trajectory versus range is immediately generated. Plots
of several other parameters as a function of range are also
available. Pressing will present the user with a plot of
velocity, with momentum, with deflection and with the
bullet's kinetic energy. The original trajectory plot may be
restored by pressing .

F. Miscellaneous Graphics Commands
Pressing or the key will return the user to the
sight table prompt. will toggle the appearance of a grid on
the plot and will provide a short help screen.











































BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 20






8. THE BALLISTIC TABLE

The primary purpose of BALLISTIC is to produce a "ballistic
table" showing the remaining velocity at given ranges. The pro-
gram is also capable of supplying a wealth of additional informa-
tion derived from these values. (Refer to Fig. 4)

A. The Table Header
The ballistic table header merely provides a "data echo" of
the conditions used to produce the accompanying table. In addi-
tion to the table title and other user supplied data, two cal-
culated values are displayed here.
Sectional density of the bullet is defined as the weight of
the projectile in pounds, divided by the square of its diameter
(in inches). Sectional density can provide the reloader with a
handle on two important pieces of information. First, it provides
a measure of how fast a bullet can be safely "pushed". Certainly
for a given caliber, bullets with a high sectional density should
not be loaded to as high a velocity as bullets with a low value.
Secondly, a bullet with high sectional density will tend to have
greater penetration than a projectile with a smaller value. An
excellent discussion of sectional density and its relation to
hunting bullets may be found in June 1988 issue of The American
Rifleman. ("From the Loading Bench: Sectional Density Counts",
page 16)

B. Functions of Merit
There is great interest in a simple calculation that would
allow shooters to rank quantitatively the terminal performance of
their loads. Given the difficulty of obtaining reliable scien-
tific data on stopping power (the subjects tend to object...), a
universally accepted description of it has been a Holy Grail
among gun gurus for practically as many years as there have been
cartridges. (It has been the author's observation that many
shooters find a gun that they like FIRST, THEN try to justify it
with the calculation that makes their choice look best!) In the
interest of peace and harmony, the user may choose one of six
"functions of merit" to be displayed in the header. These are,
IPSC Power Factor, Tappen WAVE Function, Taylor Knock Out, Josse-
rand Energy Transfer, Hatcher RSP or Coefficient of Form (i). The
user can specify his particular choice with BALISTIC.CFG (section
9). Default is the Coefficient of Form (which plays no favor-
ites). All functions are determined using the muzzle velocity
rather than velocity at range.
The coefficient of form relates the shape of the bullet in
question to the shape of the projectile used in constructing the
drag function.
The IPSC Power Factor is a number used by the International
Practical Shooting Confederation to determine whether a compet-
itor's handgun load is to be scored as "major" or "minor" cali-
ber. It is calculated by multiplying the bullet weight in grains
by the initial velocity and dividing by 1000. Any load whose
power factor is over 175 is scored as major. Factors between 125
and 175 are scored as minor caliber. Loads with a power factor of
less than 125 are not legal for IPSC competition.
Taylor Knock Out was devised by John Taylor to describe his
experiences with bullet performance in large game. It's defined


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 21


as bullet weight (in pounds) times velocity times the bullet
diameter in inches. (See "African Rifles and Cartridges" by John
Taylor for a more thorough description.)
General Julian Hatcher, following his involvement in the
Thompson-LaGarde experiments in wound ballistics, established a
widely used scale he called the Relative Stopping Power (RSP). A
simplified version has been credited to Mel Tappan in his book
SURVIVAL GUNS. Called the WAVE factor, (for Weight, Area, Velo-
city and Efficiency) it is typically about 1/2 the actual RSP
listed by Hatcher. Defined (as the name implies) as the product
of weight, area, and velocity divided by 1000, it is frequently
modified by a rather arbitrary bullet shape factor (the effici-
ency). Hatcher gave a "slightly flat pointed" bullet an effici-
ency of 1.0, and scaled everything else from 0.9 (for round nosed
bullets) to 1.25 (for semi-wadcutters or jacketed hollow points).
Tappen also adopted this factor. In the value provided by BALLIS-
TIC the efficiency is ALWAYS assumed to be 1.0 and any scaling
for bullet shape must be done by the user.
Recently popular, (although first described some time ago)
is the concept of "energy transfer" or "energy dump" as an ap-
proximation of stopping power. The Josserand Energy Transfer
Function provided by BALLISTIC is defined as the product of area
and kinetic energy.

C. Energy
The kinetic energy of a moving body is described by 1/2
times the mass of the body multiplied by the square of its veloc-
ity. It may be thought of as the amount of work the bullet can do
on its target. The unit (foot-pounds) is the amount of work nec-
essary to lift an object weighing 1 pound to a height of 1 foot.
Many hunters feel this quantity is good to use when determining
the suitability of a given load for a particular game animal as
(under certain conditions) it is probably related to the "killing
power" of a projectile. One cannot rely entirely on this simpli-
fied picture, however, as terminal ballistics is also concerned
with bullet and target construction.

D. Momentum
As, in any collision of moving bodies, momentum is con-
served, it may be thought of as the "striking" or "knockdown"
power of a projectile. This can be slightly misleading, however,
as the conservation applies only to the total "system" of par-
ticles. If, for example, the bullet completely penetrates the
target, it may retain a large portion of its original momentum,
transferring to the target only that part it actually lost. It is
defined as the mass of a body times its velocity.

E. Maximum Ordinate
The maximum ordinate calculated by BALLISTIC is the greatest
distance that a projectile will pass above a straight reference
line drawn from the muzzle to its current position at any given
range. It is NOT the same as the mid-range trajectory which is
defined as the bullet's trajectory (above the line of sight)
exactly half way to the indicated range. It is also slightly
different from the maximum height (which is also referenced to
the line of sight).

F. Deflection
Deflection is the amount of sideways motion which can be
attributed to the action of a crosswind on the projectile. This
value is directly proportional to wind speed, that is, if the


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 22


wind at the site is 5 m.p.h. and the figures calculated are for
10 m.p.h., simply divide the table values by 2.
Deflection should not be confused with drift, the sideways
motion caused by the bullet's spin. Deflection is typically a
much larger figure. For example, at 1000 yards the drift of a .30
caliber service bullet is only about 7 inches. Compare this value
with the roughly 175 inches of deflection produced by the same
bullet in a 10 m.p.h. cross wind.

G. Drop
From the instant a bullet leaves the barrel, gravity and air
resistance conspire to bend its path from that along which it was
originally projected (the bore line, NOT the line of sight). A
bullet's drop is the distance it has fallen away from that ini-
tial path, known as the line of departure. This is that quantity
to which shooters refer when speaking about the "flatness" of a
particular loading.

H. Lead
Lead is primarily of interest to those who hunt. By now,
most experienced hunters will have realized that aiming directly
at an animal running across the path of the bullet is almost
guaranteed to produce a miss. By the time the bullet has got to
the point of aim, the animal is somewhere else. The trick, then,
is to know how far ahead of the target one needs to aim so bullet
and target arrive in the same place at the same instant.
In BALLISTIC, the units used for this figure are "inches per
m.p.h. of target speed" and are used as follows. Imagine a target
moving 10 m.p.h. across the path of the bullet at a distance of
100 yards. Examining the table (Fig. 4) produces a value of
2.0 in./m.p.h. at that distance, so the proper target lead would
be (10 m.p.h.) times (2.0 in./m.p.h.) or 20.0 inches. Wind speed
(deflection) is NOT taken into account during the calculation of
lead.

I. Time of Flight
Time of flight is simply that; the amount of time, in se-
conds, necessary for a bullet to travel the distance from the
muzzle to the indicated range.

J. Trajectory
Loosely speaking, trajectory is the path of a moving projec-
tile. BALLISTIC provides both tabular and graphic representations
of this path, relative to the weapon's line of sight, i.e., the
line drawn directly from the sights (either "iron" or telescopic)
to the target. The user should note that the actual trajectory of
a small arms bullet coincides with the line of sight at only two
places. Once, a few yards from the muzzle, (when its motion rela-
tive to the line of sight is upward) and again at the targeted
(or "sighted in") distance (when it crosses in a downward direc-
tion).
Trajectory may be described in several ways, but the two
most common are "inches" and "minutes of angle". When expressed
in inches it is the actual distance of the projectile above or
below the line of sight. This value may be converted to the ne-
cessary angular correction (minutes of angle, or M.O.A.) by ap-
plying the conversion factor of 1 M.O.A. = 1.047 inches/100 yds.
This value is particularly useful as most sight adjustments are
calibrated in minutes of angle. Target scopes are usually cali-
brated at 1/4 minute per "click", while iron sights may be as
much as 1 minute per click. (In this notation, minutes do NOT


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 23


refer in any way to units of time, but rather to 1/60th of an
angular degree.) BALLISTIC provides both systems in its trajec-
tory tables.
Shooting at a target either uphill or downhill will cause
the bullet to shoot higher than it is aimed. Under these condi-
tions, the projectile doesn't make a second crossing of the line
of sight until AFTER the targeted distance. The term "level
firing" used here may be slightly misleading. Most small arms are
sighted so the initial angle of the bullet's departure is very
slightly up. (This angle is known as the "angle of departure",
and for a typical rifle, is less than one degree.) Firing uphill
or downhill usually produces a tilt that dwarfs this small value.



















































BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 24






9. THE CONFIGURATION FILE

Version 4.00 of BALLISTIC will allow certain program de-
faults to be overridden with a configuration file, BALISTIC.CFG.
The file is searched for ONLY in the current directory when
BALLISTIC is first started and is NOT necessary for operating the
program.

A. Using the Configuration File
The configuration file is a user-created, ascii text file,
each line of which contains the name of the parameter to be
changed, one or more spaces, and the new value. Parameters listed
as "must be integer" may NOT contain a decimal point or exponen-
tial notation. Certain parameters may only accept ON and OFF (or
similar string choices) as values. Entries are NOT case specific.
The following file would turn off the bell, set the default
altitude to 2000 feet and set the video write mode to BIOS:

BELL OFF
Altitude 2000
video bios


B. Allowable Parameters
The following parameters are allowable for BALLISTIC v4.00:

ALTITUDE - The altitude to be used in the ballistic table
and ballistic coefficient calculations. May be REAL.
The default value is zero.

BELL - Controls whether the console bell is rung for
errors detected by the program. Allowable values are
ON and OFF. The default is BELL ON.

BKG - Determines the background text screen color. Allow-
able values are 0 through 7. Must be INTEGER. The
default value is 0. This parameter is illegal for
systems having only a monochrome text/graphics card.
Following are the colors corresponding to each value:
0 - Black 4 - Red
1 - Blue 5 - Magenta
2 - Green 6 - Brown
3 - Cyan 7 - Lt. Gray

COLOR - The text color. Default is 7. See BKG for a de-
scription of allowable values and restrictions.

FUNCTION - The "function of merit" to be displayed in the
table header. Default is 0, for Coefficient of Form.
The choices are described in more detail in section
8B. Acceptable values are:
0 - Coefficient of Form
1 - IPSC Power Function
2 - Taylor Knock Out (TKO) Value
3 - Tappen WAVE Function
4 - Josserand Energy Transfer Function
5 - Hatcher Relative Stopping Power (RSP)


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 25



GREENHILL - This option specifies a new Greenhill number
for use in the minimum twist calculation. Acceptable
values range from 75.0 to 200.0. The default is 150.0.

GRID - This option informs the program whether the grid
should initially appear in the Plot function. This may
also be toggled from the Plot function itself. Allow-
able values are ON and OFF.

PCHECK - The type of printer check to be performed by
BALLISTIC before printing tabular data. Non-IBM
printers and computers may have trouble with the BIOS
level check. Default is 2. Acceptable values are:
0 - Don't perform any check
1 - Perform BIOS check of printer
2 - Prompt for user check
3 - Perform both checks

PRESSURE - The atmospheric pressure used for the ballis-
tic table and ballistic coefficient calculations. May
be REAL. The default value is dependent on the func-
tion file chosen.

PRINTER - Line width in characters of the system printer.
Must be an INTEGER value from 80 to 200. Default is
80.

PTYPE - Type of graphics printer connected to system.
This option is only used by the graphic screen dump
routine. Default is 0, for no graphics printer. Cur-
rently supported values are:
0 - No graphics printer
1 - Hewlett Packard LaserJet
2 - Star SG-10 (in IBM mode)
3 - IBM Proprinter
4 - IBM Graphics Printer
5 - Epson FX-80
6 - C. Itoh 8510A
7 - Hewlett Packard PaintJet

TEMPERATURE - The temperature to be used for ballistic
table and ballistic coefficient calculations. May be
REAL. The default value is dependent on the function
file chosen.

TCHECK - Determines whether the program performs a check
sum test of the function file after reading it. De-
fault value is ON, allowable values are ON or OFF.

VIDEO - Determines the method used to write to the
screen. Allowable values are BIOS and DIRECT. BIOS
causes all output to be done through the use of system
BIOS calls. This mode may be useful for computers/
graphics adapters that are not 100% compatible with
the IBM PC family. It does, however, significantly
slow output. Using the DIRECT option causes all screen
output to be written directly to video memory. Default
is DIRECT.




BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 26






10. SOURCES OF DATA

Much of the data necessary for ballistic calculations is
readily available. Even the ballistic coefficient can usually be
calculated from the information at hand. Following are suggested
sources for specific input data to the program.

A. Altitude
The calculation doesn't depend on altitude directly, but
rather on the way air temperature and pressure vary with alti-
tude. The program uses this value to determine what the "stan-
dard" temperature and pressure are for a given ballistic func-
tion. Users can look up the actual altitude of their location in
an almanac or one of the U.S. Department of the Interior "Quad-
rangle Maps" available at many sporting goods or camping stores.
Either jot it down near the computer so it can be entered when
the program is run or add it to the configuration file as de-
scribed in section 9.

B. Ballistic Coefficient
This will probably be the most difficult number to find.
Those who reload will usually be able to get this value from the
manufacturer of their bullets. (Speer and Sierra, for instance,
print this data in their reloading manuals.) The value for other
bullets may sometimes be estimated by comparing bullet shapes,
provided the bullet is of the same caliber. Comparing the bullet
in question to a specially prepared chart of shapes is often more
accurate. The DuPont Company at one time produced a series of
these and other useful charts, called "A Short Cut To Ballis-
tics". The complete set is supplied with Ackley's handbook and
the specific chart for estimating ballistic coefficients is re-
printed in HATCHER'S NOTEBOOK.
BALLISTIC will itself calculate the coefficient in certain
cases. Both the initial and remaining velocity at a fixed range
must be known. This data is available for factory loaded ammuni-
tion in manufacturers' literature and sources such as SHOOTERS
BIBLE. (A short section of coefficients for several factory
loadings calculated using this program and Ingalls' table may be
found in Appendix C.)

C. Bullet Weight, Length, and Caliber
These are easy. On factory-loaded ammunition or components,
bullet weight (in grains) and caliber will be written on the box.
Those who cast their own bullets will need to weigh several sam-
ples prepared with the actual alloy used. Take the average of
half a dozen or so and use that value. A sufficiently accurate
value for bullet length may be found with a ruler.

D. Gun and Powder Weights
These two are needed only to calculate the amount of recoil
generated by a given load. The weight of a rifle can usually be
found accurately enough on a bathroom-type scale. Actual weights
of most firearms can be found in manufacturers' literature as
well as in such sources as SHOOTER'S BIBLE, GUN DIGEST, and pro-
duct reviews in many magazines. The user shouldn't forget to add
in the weight of scopes, slings, custom stocks or any other
accessories.


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 27


Powder weights will be known if performing calculations for
handloads. If using factory loads, try estimating by comparing to
available reloading data. Find a load that moves a bullet of
similar construction (jacketed, soft lead, etc.) to about the
same muzzle velocity.

E. Specific Gravity of Bullet Alloy
This value is only required for calculating the minimum
necessary twist for stabilization. Two more or less standard
values are 11.34 for pure lead, and 10.90 for a typical jacketed
bullet. Other values are very difficult to find in the litera-
ture. Hatcher, describes a fairly simple way to measure this
quantity, but the two values above should be sufficiently accu-
rate for most practical purposes.
Appendix D of this document contains a short compilation of
specific gravity data for some common Lead/Tin/Antimony alloys.
These were taken primarily from volume one of the American So-
ciety of Metals METALS HANDBOOK.

F. Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure, Wind
Suitably accurate values for temperature and pressure can be
obtained from a weather report or newspaper. As with altitude,
the calculation isn't terribly sensitive to these factors, so,
unless the range is in the Sahara Desert or Antarctica, they can
probably be ignored. (It CAN be interesting to set up a ballistic
table and vary them just to see what happens... Experiment!) The
same suggestion applies; try the program with and without cor-
recting and see if the difference is big enough to notice.
Bear in mind that this program examines the effect of these
variables only on the ballistic coefficient. Temperature, for
instance, will also change the initial velocity of a load, a
factor beyond the ability of this program to calculate. (Tables
describing this effect can be found in both the Speer reloading
manual and Ackley's handbook.) Temperature and pressure are also
valid parameters for use in the configuration file. (Section 9)
Wind direction can only be estimated at the actual shooting
site. Zero degrees indicates a wind blowing across the bullet's
path to either the right or left. Ninety degrees describes a wind
blowing either directly behind or directly into the bullet's
path. As this value is only used for calculating wind deflection,
a signed value isn't necessary. Also, since deflection is linear
with wind speed, leaving the value set for the default 10 mph
allows for easy interpolation at the range.

G. Velocity
Muzzle velocities of most factory ammunition can be found in
periodicals such as the SHOOTER'S BIBLE. Those who reload are
aware that estimated or reported velocities are usually listed
with the loading data for a particular cartridge.
The most effective way to find the velocity for a completely
unknown load is, of course, the chronograph. Unfortunately, few
people have access to one and their price puts them beyond the
reach of the casual buyer.
The author once built an inexpensive attachment that allowed
a Commodore-64 home computer to be used as a simple chronograph,
but its usefulness was limited since a source of house current
was still needed nearby... also, the C-64 isn't exactly portable.
The technique SHOULD be adaptable to many other home computers
and the author would be happy to discuss the project with regis-
tered users.
Ackley, in his book HANDBOOK FOR SHOOTERS AND RELOADERS,


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 28


describes a simple "ballistic pendulum" that can be used to esti-
mate projectile velocities. No external power is necessary; it
relies on the kinetic energy of the bullet to swing a heavy mass.




























































BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 29





--==< B A L L I S T I C v4.00 >==--
Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu
All Rights Reserved.



- MAIN MENU -

1 ........ Calculate Ballistic Table.
2 .. Calculate Ballistic Coefficient.
3 .... Adjust Atmospheric Conditions.
4 ........ Select New Function Table.
5 .......... Miscellaneous Functions.
6 ............... Database Functions.
7 ................. Return to System.


Your Choice ? 1





---------------------( Fig. 1 - Main Menu )----------------------






--==< B A L L I S T I C v4.00 >==--
Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu
All Rights Reserved.



- CALCULATE BALLISTIC COEFFICIENT -

Please input:
Initial velocity ....(fps) 2820
Final velocity ......(fps) 2520
Range .............(yards) 100
Altitude ............(ft.) 0
Temperature ......(deg. F) 59.0
Atmos. pressure ..(in. Hg) 29.53

Effective Bal. Coeff. = 0.301
(Bal. Coeff. at STP = 0.301)




-------( Fig 2. - Calculating the Ballistic Coefficient )-------







BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 30





--==< B A L L I S T I C v4.00 >==--
Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu
All Rights Reserved.



- CALCULATE BALLISTIC TABLE -

Please input:
Initial velocity ...........(fps) 2820
Bullet weight ...........(grains) 147
Bullet diameter ............(in.) 0.308
Effective Bal. Coeff. ........... 0.301
Range ....................(yards) 100
Number of intervals .....(50 max) 10


Chart title (79 chars. max) ?
7.62 NATO - 147gr FMJ




------------------( Fig. 3 - Main input screen )-----------------


7.62 NATO - 147gr FMJ
(Calculated using G1 table)
Bullet Weight ......... 147 grains Bullet Caliber ........ 0.308
Sectional Density ..... 0.221 Coefficient of Form ... 0.735
Effective Bal. Coeff... 0.301 Bal. Coeff. at STP .... 0.301
Cross wind ............ 10.0 m.p.h. Altitude .............. 0 Ft.
Atmospheric pressure .. 29.53 in. Temperature ........... 59.0 F

Range Velocity Energy Momentum Mx. Ord. Defl. Drop Lead Time
yards f.p.s. ft-lb. lb.-sec. in. in. in. in/mph sec.
0 2820 2595.4 1.8407 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.000
10 2789 2538.8 1.8205 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.011
20 2758 2483.3 1.8005 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.022
30 2728 2428.8 1.7806 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.032
40 2698 2375.2 1.7609 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 0.044
50 2668 2322.6 1.7413 0.1 0.3 0.6 1.0 0.055
60 2638 2270.9 1.7218 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.2 0.066
70 2608 2220.1 1.7024 0.3 0.5 1.1 1.4 0.077
80 2579 2170.3 1.6832 0.4 0.7 1.5 1.6 0.089
90 2549 2121.3 1.6641 0.5 0.9 1.9 1.8 0.101
100 2520 2073.1 1.6451 0.6 1.1 2.4 2.0 0.113


1=Print 2=Form Feed 3=File 4=Sight Table 5=New Data 6=Main Menu ? 4


------------( Fig. 4 - The completed ballistic table )-----------







BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 31





--==< B A L L I S T I C v4.00 >==--
Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu
All Rights Reserved.



- ADJUST ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS -

Please input:
Bal. Coeff. at STP ........ 0.301
Altitude .............(ft.) 5000
Temperature .......(deg. F) 41.2
Atmos. pressure ...(in. Hg) 25.44
Wind speed ........(m.p.h.) 10.0
Angle from broadside (deg.) 0


Effective Ballistic Coefficient = 0.337





--------( Fig. 5 - Modifying the ballistic coefficient )--------






--==< B A L L I S T I C v4.00 >==--
Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu
All Rights Reserved.



- CALCULATE RECOIL -

Please input:
Initial velocity .....(fps) 2820
Weight of gun ........(lbs) 9.50
Weight of bullet ..(grains) 147
Weight of powder ..(grains) 43.0

Recoil Velocity = 8.8 fps
Recoil Energy = 11.5 ft-lbs
(Recoil due to bullet = 5.7 ft-lbs or 50%)





-----------------( Fig. 6 - Recoil calculation )----------------







BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 32





--==< B A L L I S T I C v4.00 >==--
Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu
All Rights Reserved.



- CALCULATE POINT BLANK RANGE -

Please input:
Initial velocity ...........(fps) 2820
Sight height ............(inches) 0.90
Max. dist. from sight line .(in.) 3.00
Effective Bal. Coeff. ........... 0.301

Targeted range for +/-3.00 inch path is 220 yds.
Point-blank range is 258 yds.
(100 yd. trajectory = +2.9 in.)






-----------( Fig. 7 - Calculating Point Blank Range )-----------






--==< B A L L I S T I C v4.00 >==--
Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu
All Rights Reserved.



- CALCULATE TWIST -

Please input:
Bullet diameter ......(in.) 0.308
Bullet length ........(in.) 1.20
Greenhill number .......... 150.0
Spec. Gravity of Bullet ... 10.90

Slowest twist allowing for stabilization is
1 turn in 11.9 inches.
(Helix angle = 4.7 degrees)





------------------( Fig. 8 - Calculating twist )----------------







BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 33





--==< B A L L I S T I C v4.00 >==--
Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu
All Rights Reserved.



- CALCULATE TRUE MUZZLE VELOCITY -

Please input:
Distance to first screen ...(ft.) 3.00
Distance between screens ...(ft.) 1.00
Instrumental Velocity ......(fps) 2820
Effective Bal. Coeff. ........... 0.301


Actual Muzzle Velocity = 2824 fps







---( Fig. 9 - Calculating muzzle velocity from instrumental )---






--==< B A L L I S T I C v4.00 >==--
Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu
All Rights Reserved.



- CALCULATE VELOCITY STATISTICS -

1 - 2820.0 6 - 2852.0*
2 - 2825.0 7 - 2827.0
3 - 2830.0 8 - 2818.0*
4 - 2835.0
5 - 2850.0*

Maximum = 2852.0, Minimum = 2818.0, Extreme Spread = 34.0
Average Velocity = 2832.1, Sample Standard Deviation = 12.8



1=Clear All 2=Delete 3=Correct 4=Add Entries 5=Exit ? 4


----------( Fig. 10 - Calculating velocity statistics )----------







BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 34




Appendix A
Glossary

BALLISTICS - The study of moving projectiles. Commonly, what is
meant is "exterior" ballistics, that is, the portion of the
bullet's flight between muzzle and target. "Interior" ballis-
tics refers to the portion between primer ignition and free
flight and "terminal" ballistics to what happens when the
bullet strikes its target.

BALLISTIC COEFFICIENT - The ratio of the sectional density of a
projectile to its coefficient of form. A measure of how well a
bullet retains its velocity. Commonly supplied by reloading
manufacturers, or it may be derived from their ballistic ta-
bles. Two types are used by the program. The STP value is that
which the bullet would have at the standard temperature and
atmospheric pressure for the table being used. The "effective"
value is the STP value modified for the actual atmospheric
conditions.

BULLET - The actual projectile in small arms ammunition. Commonly
corrupted to mean the entire cartridge.

BULLET WEIGHT - Weight of the actual projectile. Usually given in
grains.

CALIBER - Technically, the diameter of the barrel measured across
the lands. In practice, the diameter of the bullet.

CARTRIDGE - Fixed ammunition, including case, powder, primer, and
bullet, for small arms.

COEFFICIENT OF FORM - A number relating the ballistic efficiency
of a given shape to the shape of the projectile used to cal-
culate the ballistic table.

CROSS WIND ANGLE - The angle between the wind and line of depar-
ture.

DRIFT - Technically, the distance a bullet will travel horizon-
tally due to its spin. This effect is usually quite small,
amounting to about 7 inches at 1000 yards for a military M2
(30-06) cartridge. Often confused with wind deflection.

DEFLECTION - See wind deflection.

DROP - The distance a bullet will fall due to the influence of
gravity. Measured from the line of departure, not the line of
sight.

ENERGY - Here, the kinetic energy of a moving bullet, usually
given in ft-lbs. Equal to one half the mass of the bullet
multiplied by the square of the velocity.

F.P.S. - Feet per second. A unit of velocity.

FT.-LBS. - Foot pounds. A unit of energy equal to the effort
required to raise one pound to a height of one foot.



BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 35


GRAINS - A unit of weight equal to 1/7000 of a pound.

INGALLS' TABLES - A set of ballistic tables first calculated by
Col. J. M. Ingalls in 1918. Probably the most widely used
tables for small arms calculations. Other tables commonly used
include the British tables of 1909, 1929, Winchester's G ta-
bles and the Ordnance Department's J table.

I.H.M.S.A. - International Handgun Metallic Silhouette Associa-
tion.

I.P.S.C - International Practical Shooting Confederation.

LEAD - How far ahead of a moving target a shooter must aim to be
assured of hitting it. In BALLISTIC, the lead is given in
inches/m.p.h. of target speed. If the entry in the table is
"1.2", the lead for a target moving at 5 m.p.h., (perpendicul-
ar to the bullet's path) would be (5 * 1.2) 6.0 inches. Wind
speed is NOT taken into account in this calculation.

LINE OF DEPARTURE - An imaginary line formed by extending the
muzzle of the weapon. It coincides with the bullet's path only
while the bullet is actually in the barrel.

LINE OF SIGHT - An imaginary line from the center of the sights
to the point of aim. The bullet typically crosses this line
only twice; once, a few yards from the muzzle, and again at
the targeted distance.

MAXIMUM ORDINATE - The highest vertical distance above a line
from the muzzle to the bullet's current position. Sometimes
confused with the maximum height (which is referenced to the
line of sight).

M.O.A. - Minute of Angle. Equal to 1/60 of an angular degree. At
100 yards, 1 M.O.A. is approximately 1.047 inches.

MOMENTUM - Equal to the mass of a bullet multiplied by its veloc-
ity. Indicative of the striking or knockdown power of a pro-
jectile.

N.R.A - National Rifle Association. If you shoot, you SHOULD
belong to this organization.

POINT-BLANK RANGE - That range for which the bullet's path
doesn't vary from the line of sight by more than a given
amount.

POWER FACTOR - A number used in IPSC competition to determine
whether a handgun cartridge may be scored as a "major" or
"minor" caliber. Defined as the bullet weight (in grains)
divided by 1000 and multiplied by the velocity. Cartridges
with a power factor equal to or greater than 175 are consid-
ered "major". Cartridges ranking between 125 and 175 are
"minor" and those below 125 are not legal for IPSC competi-
tion.

S.A.A.M.I - Sporting Arms Ammunition Manufacturers Institute.

SECTIONAL DENSITY - The weight of a projectile (in pounds) di-
vided by the square of its diameter (in inches).


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 36



SIGHT HEIGHT - The measured distance between the centerlines of
the sights and muzzle of a gun.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY - The ratio of the mass of a material to that of
an equal volume of water.

TARGETED RANGE - That distance where the path of the bullet
crosses the line of sight. (The "sighting in" distance.)

TIME OF FLIGHT - The time necessary for a bullet to travel from
the muzzle of a gun to a given range.

TRAJECTORY - The path of a moving projectile. Here, the number of
inches above or below the line of sight.

TWIST - Here, the rate of twist in the rifling of a gun barrel.
The minimum amount of twist necessary to stabilize a bullet in
flight can be determined from its length, density, and cali-
ber. Usually expressed as "1 turn in xx inches" where xx may
range from about 8 inches up to over 30. "Faster" twist trans-
lates to a smaller number. Minimum twist is the "slowest"
twist that will stabilize a given bullet.

WIND DEFLECTION - The amount of horizontal motion attributable to
the action of the wind. Often mistakenly called drift.






































BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 37




Appendix B
Information Sources


BALLISTICS:

Any intermediate physics (mechanics) text.
BALLISTICS ON THE HOME COMPUTER, American Rifleman, June
1983
BALLISTICS ON YOUR POCKET CALCULATOR, American Rifleman,
June 1987
BALLISTIC TABLES AND HOW TO USE THEM, American Rifleman,
December 1963
CALCULATING RECOIL, American Rifleman, March 1988
EXPLORING BALLISTICS WITH YOUR COMPUTER, Byte Magazine
September 1980
EXTERIOR BALLISTICS, McShane, Kelly and Reno, University of
Denver Press, 1953
HATCHER'S NOTEBOOK, Julian S. Hatcher, Harrisburg: Stackpole
Books, 1962
METALLIC CARTRIDGE RELOADING, Edward A. Matunas: DBI Books
SHOOT WITH A COMPUTER, Outdoor Life, January 1989
TRAJECTORY COMPUTATION SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL COMPUTER, SAAMI
publications, 1976



RELOADING:

CARTRIDGES OF THE WORLD, J.T. Amber, Northfield: Digest
Books, 1972
COMPLETE GUIDE TO HANDLOADING, Philip B. Sharpe, New York:
Funk & Wagnells Co., 1953
HANDBOOK FOR SHOOTERS AND RELOADERS, VOL I & II, P.O. Ackley,
Salt Lake City: Publisher's Press, 1965
HODGDON POWDER DATA MANUAL #25, Shawnee Mission, KS: Hodgdon
Powder Co. Inc., 1987
HORNADY HANDBOOK OF CARTRIDGE RELOADING, RIFLE-PISTOL, Grand
Island: Hornady Manufacturing Co., 1973
LYMAN RELOADING HANDBOOK #46, Middlefield: Lyman Products
for Shooters, 1970
NRA HANDLOADER'S GUIDE, Wash. D.C.: The National Rifle
Association of America, 1969
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF HANDLOADING, Georgetown: Small
Arms Technical Publishing Co., 1954
SIERRA BULLETS RELOADING MANUAL, Santa Fe Springs: Sierra
Bullets, 1971
SPEER RELOADING MANUAL #10, Lewiston: Speer, Inc., 1979



STATISTICS:

DATA REDUCTION AND ERROR ANALYSIS FOR THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES,
Philip R. Bevington, New York: McGraw-Hill Co., 1969






BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 38


ASSOCIATIONS:

AMERICAN SHOOTING SPORTS COALITION, INC. - P.O. Box 1447,
Ft. Washington, PA 19034
FIREARMS COALITION (Neal Knox Associates) - Box 6537, Silver
Springs, MD 20906
GUN OWNERS OF AMERICA - 8001 Forbes Place (Suite 102),
Springfield, VA 22151
INTERNATIONAL HANDGUN METALLIC SILHOUETTE ASSOCIATION -
Box 1609, Idaho Falls, ID 83401
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION TO KEEP & BEAR ARMS - P.O. Box 78336,
Seattle, WA 98178
NATIONAL FIREARMS ASSOCIATION - P.O. Box 160038, Austin,
TX 78716
NATIONAL RIFLE ASSOCIATION - 1600 Rhode Island Ave. NW,
Washington, D.C. 20036
S. A. A. M. I. (SPORTING ARMS AMMUNITION MANUFACTURERS
INSTITUTE) - P.O. Box 838, Branford, Conn. 06405
SECOND AMENDMENT FOUNDATION - 12500 N.E. Tenth Place,
Bellvue, WA 98005



BULLETIN BOARDS/INFORMATION SERVICES:

BULLET'N BOARD BBS - Tanya Metaska, Sysop - (703) 971-4491
BBS of the Firearms Coalition. Legal updates, firearms
programs, Reload conference.
COMBAT ARMS BBS - Richard Bash, Sysop - (415) 537-1777
BBS of Combat Arms Gun Shop. Many firearms, legal, and
aviation programs. National Firearms Echo.
COMPUSERVE INFORMATION SERVICE - (check local numbers)
Outdoor forum (firearms and NRA conferences) LOTS of
useful information.
POLYMATH ONE BBS - D.G. Gabrial, Sysop - (609) 394-2608
BALLISTIC support board. PCRelay Firearms Echo.



























BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 39




Appendix C
Ballistic Coefficients for Factory Bullets

The coefficients listed here were calculated from tables
found in SHOOTER'S BIBLE No. 75 (1984) using the program and
Ingalls' function. No attempt was made to include every load,
instead, representative loads for each caliber were chosen.



Part 1 - Centerfire Pistol and Revolver


Cartridge Bullet Coefficient Manufacturer
================================================================
.25 ACP 50 FMC .174 F
.25 ACP 50 FMC .097 R,W
.380 ACP 85 STHP .105 W
.380 ACP 90 JHP .073 F
.380 ACP 95 FMC .082 F,R,W
9 mm 95 JHP .101 F,R,W
9 mm 115 FMC .128 W
9 mm 115 JHP .131 R,F
9 mm 115 STHP .131 W
9 mm 123 FMC .140 F
.38 SPEC. 110 STHP .147 W
.38 SPEC. 148 WC .062 F,R,W
.38 SPEC. 158 LRN .162 F,R,W
.357 MAG. 110 JHP .093 F,R,W
.357 MAG. 125 JHP .122 F,R,W
.357 MAG. 158 JSP .135 F,R,W
.44 MAG. 180 JHP .120 F,R
.44 MAG. 210 STHP .125 W
.44 MAG. 220 MCP .193 F
.44 MAG. 240 JHP .156 R
.44 MAG. 240 LGC .139 R
.45 ACP 185 MCWC .082 R,W
.45 ACP 185 JHP .152 F
.45 ACP 185 STHP .137 W
.45 ACP 230 FMC .165 R,W
.45 COLT 225 STHP .167 W
.45 COLT 225 SWCHP .172 F
.45 COLT 250 LRN .157 R


---------------
ABBREVIATIONS
Manufacturers: F=Federal, R=Remington, W=Winchester
Bullets: FMC=Full Metal Case, STHP=Silver Tip Hollow Point,
JHP=Jacketed Hollow Point, MCWC=Metal Case Wadcutter, WC=Wad-
cutter, LRN=Lead Round Nose, LGC=Lead Gas Check, JSP=Jacketed
Soft Point, MCP=Metal Case Profile, SWCHP=Semiwadcutter Hollow
Point








BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 40








Part 2 - Centerfire Rifle


Cartridge Bullet Coefficient Manufacturer
=================================================================
.22-250 REM. 55 PSP .231 F,W
.22-250 REM. 55 PSP .253 R
.223 REM. 55 FMC .207 R
.223 REM. 55 FMC .278 W
.223 REM. 55 MCBT .350 F
.243 WIN. 80 SP .259 F,R,W
.243 WIN. 100 PSP .371 F,R,W
.270 WIN. 130 PSP .378 F,W
.270 WIN. 130 PSP .345 R
.270 WIN. 150 SP .267 F,R
.270 WIN. 150 PSP .356 W
7mm MAUSER 140 PSP .433 F,R
7mm MAUSER 175 SP .280 F,W
7mm REM.MAG. 150 PSP .354 F,R,W
7mm REM.MAG. 175 PSP .453 F,R,W
.30 CARBINE 110 FMC .180 F,W
.30 CARBINE 110 FMC .164 R
30-30 WIN. 150 SP .221 F,W
30-30 WIN. 150 SP .195 R
30-30 WIN. 170 SP .259 F,R,W
30-06 150 PSP .329 F,R,W
30-06 180 PSP .398 F,R,W
30-06 200 BTSP .592 F
30-06 220 SP .299 R,W
.300 WIN.MAG. 180 PSP .462 F,R,W
.308 WIN. 150 PSP .323 F,R,W
.308 WIN. 180 PSP .390 F,R,W
.35 REM 200 SP .193 F,R,W
.45-70 300 JHP .302 F,W
.45-70 405 SP .269 R


---------------
ABBREVIATIONS
Manufacturers: F=Federal, R=Remington, W=Winchester
Bullets: FMC=Full Metal Case, PSP=Pointed Soft Point, SP=Soft
Point, BTSP=Boat Tail Soft Point, MCBT=Metal Case Boat Tail















BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 41








Part 3 - Rimfire


Cartridge Bullet Coefficient Manufacturer
==================================================================
.22 LR "VIPER" 36 TC .110 R
.22 LR "YELLOW JACKET" 33 TCHP .101 R
.22 LR HV 40 LRN .128 R
.22 LR HV 36 LHP .115 R
.22 LR TARGET 40 LRN .136 R
.22 LONG 29 LRN .095 R
.22 SHORT 29 LRN .098 R
.22 SHORT 27 LHP .091 R
.22 SHORT TARGET 29 LRN .097 R

.22 WIN. MAG. 40 JHP .108 W
.22 WIN. MAG. 40 FMC .108 W
.22 LR "XPEDITER" 29 LHP .079 W
.22 LR "H.P." 37 LRN .117 W
.22 LR "DYNAPOINT" 40 LDP .127 W
.22 LR "T22" 40 LRN .135 W
.22 LR 40 LRN .127 W
.22 LONG 29 LRN .095 W
.22 SHORT "H.P." 27 LRN .091 W
.22 SHORT "T22" 29 LRN .097 W
.22 SHORT 29 LRN .098 W

.22 LR "HI POWER" 40 LRN .126 F
.22 LR "HI POWER" 38 LHP .122 F
.22 LR "CHAMPION" 40 LRN .135 F
.22 LONG "HI POWER" 29 LRN .094 F
.22 SHORT 29 LRN .100 F
.22 SHORT 29 LHP .092 F


---------------
ABBREVIATIONS
Manufacturers: F=Federal, R=Remington, W=Winchester
Bullets: LRN=Lead Round Nose, LHP=Lead Hollow Point, LDP=Lead
Dynapoint, FMC=Full Metal Case, TC=Truncated Cone, TCHP= Trun-
cated Cone Hollow Point
















BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 42




Appendix D
Specific Gravities of Bullet Alloys


Part 1 - Lead/Tin/Antimony Alloys

Percent Composition Specific Gravity Trade or
Pb Sn Sb of alloy Common Name
=================================================================
100 11.340 pure lead
100 7.298 pure tin
100 6.62 pure antimony
30 70 8.32 soft solder
37 63 8.42 eutectic solder
50 50 8.89 50-50 solder
75 10 15 9.73 lead babbit-SAE 14
80 20 10.20 20-80 solder
80 5 15 10.04 alloy 8
83 2 15 10.09 alloy 10
85 15 10.28 alloy 11
85 5 10 10.24 lead babbit-SAE 13
91 9 10.66 9% antimonial lead
92 8 10.74 8% antimonial lead
94 6 10.88 hard lead (bullets)
95 5 11.00 5-95 solder
96 4 11.04 hard lead
99 1 11.27 1% antimonial lead
92 8 7.28 white metal



Part 2 - Other Alloys

Composition Specific Gravity Trade or
of alloy Common Name
=================================================================
100 Cu 8.96 pure copper
100 Fe 7.87 pure iron
95 Cu, 5 Zn 8.86 gilding
90 Cu, 10 Zn 8.80 commercial bronze
70 Cu, 30 Zn 8.53 cartridge brass
98.75 Cu, 1.25 Sn 8.89 1.25% phos. bronze
90 Cu, 10 Sn 8.78 10% phosphor bronze
97 Cu, 3 Si 8.53 silicon bronze (A)
98.5 Cu, 1.5 Si 8.75 silicon bronze (B)
99.5 Fe,.06 C,.38 Mn,.01 Si 7.87 .06% carbon steel
99.0 Fe,.23 C,.64 Mn,.11 Si 7.86 .23% carbon steel
98.7 Fe,.44 C,.69 Mn,.20 Si 7.84 .435% carbon steel


---------------
SOURCES:
Metals Handbook, Vol. 1, "Properties and Selection of Metals"
(8th ed.), American Society for Metals
Metal and Alloys Data Book, Samuel L. Hoyt






BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 43




Appendix E
Using Other Standard Functions


1. Creating Custom Function Tables
The user is not limited to using the functions produced by
GENTABLE. Tables may be produced by any program or language that
stores numbers in IEEE format, including Microsoft C v5.0 or
Quick C. (There will be a problem calculating checksums when
using Microsoft 5.0 unless the -Op optimization is used.) The
file format and data types used are:

1. Truncated revision number for version of GENTABLE used
multiplied by -1. (int)
2. The complete revision number. (float) (Added in v4.0)
3. The table name. (char[32])
4. Standard temperature for table data. (double)
5. Standard pressure for table data. (double)
6. Maximum velocity in table (<=4094). (unsigned)
7. Minimum velocity in table. (unsigned)
8. S_table, T_table pairs as described in HATCHER'S NOTE-
BOOK for velocities (max >= v >= 0). (float)
9. Checksum calculated as the sum of (S_table - T_table)
values. (float)

2. Checking the Function File with READTABLE
After creating the function file, registered users may (op-
tionally) check it with READTABLE. Since BALLISTIC makes its own
brief check, this step is usually unnecessary.
READTABLE was originally written as a debugging aid and is
provided only to satisfy user's curiosity as to what is contained
in a ballistic function table. It might also be of some use to
those contemplating creation of their own function files. Once
started, it prompts the user for the name of the function file to
be examined, displays the header information, then prints the
values to the screen. The speed of the display may be altered by
pressing either the <-> or <+> keys. Pressing any other key will
cause the display to pause at the next value. Once paused,
pressing causes execution to abort. Any other key will
cause the program to resume.
As with GENTABLE, READTABLE is started by typing its name
(BAL-READ) at the DOS prompt, optionally followed by any of the
following flags:

"-BIOS" Causes the program to perform all writes using
BIOS calls. This will significantly slow output.

"-F" (From) - Start listing the table to the screen with
the value immediately following the argument, i.e.,
-F2000 will start the listing at 2000 fps.

"-G" (Graphics) - Don't use the IBM graphic character
set. (Use ASCII characters instead.)

"-H" (Help) - Display a short help screen listing these
flags.

"-T" (To) - End the listing at the value following this
argument.


BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 44



"-N" (Noprint) - Don't print the table, calculate the
checksum only.

Flags requiring numeric arguments should NOT have a space
between the flag and input value.

























































BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 45




Appendix F
User Supported Software (Shareware)


User Supported Software is based on the premise that if
someone gets a chance to try out a program, likes it, and finds
he uses it on a regular basis, he will contribute to the support
of that program. Users who take the trouble to register know they
are helping to make sure that high quality software like BALLIS-
TIC continues to be sold in this low cost way.
BALLISTIC is being distributed as User Supported Software.
Registration allows you to continue using BALLISTIC after the
initial 30 day trial period. Registered users get mailed notifi-
cation of future BALLISTIC releases, and are eligible for low
cost (or free) upgrades. Additionally, registered users may
obtain support for special printers, video cards, etc.
Registration of BALLISTIC costs $15.00. For $30.00, you
receive registration, a disk containing the current version of
the BALLISTIC package, READTABLE, CHECK_DB, a printed copy of the
manual, and whatever BALLISTIC compatible databases the author
has acquired. (Currently available: Sierra, Nosler, Speer and
Hornady reloading components, and CCI and Federal handgun car-
tridges.)
Source code for version 4.00 is available (to registered
users only) for an additional $50.00. (This price does NOT in-
clude registration.)
Checks and money orders are accepted for payment, as well as
corporate purchase orders.
A registration (order) form appears on the following page.
Comments or suggestions may be left for the author (Bill
Frenchu) at any of the following places:

Bullet 'n Board BBS (703) 971-4491
Polymath One BBS (609) 394-2608 (Co-Sysop)
CompuServe 74575,61 (E-Plex or Outdoor Forum)
PCRelay Firearms Echo (routed mail to ->POLYMATH)





Corporations and Institutions

Please contact the author for information on licensing mul-
tiple copies of BALLISTIC. (Site licenses are available at very
reasonable rates.) Under no circumstances may an unregistered
copy of BALLISTIC be used in a corporate, institutional or gov-
ernment environment.













BALLISTIC v4.00 - Copyright 1988, 1989 by W.R. Frenchu Page 46


BALLISTIC 4.00 REGISTRATION FORM

Name _____________________________________ Date _______________

Mailing Address:

Street __________________________________ Phone ______________

City ________________________ State ___ Zip ________________



Computer/DOS (& BIOS) _____________________ Printer ____________

Display/adapter type _______________________ Co-processor? ______


Where did you find out about BALLISTIC? _________________________

=================================================================
Quan Item Each Total


____ BALLISTIC v4.00 - Registration ONLY $15.00 _____
(No diskette or manual)

____ BALLISTIC v4.00 - "Deluxe" Registration $30.00 _____
(Includes current version of BALLISTIC,
databases, aux. files, and manual.)

Diskette size: ___ 5.25" ___ 3.5"


____ Version 4.00 source code. (Turbo C v2.0) $50.00 _____
Must be registered user. (Price does
NOT include registration.)

TOTAL =====

=================================================================
The author is always trying to improve BALLISTIC. You can help!
Comments about BALLISTIC v4.00 (and documentation):



Suggestions for future versions of BALLISTIC:




Types of shooting you do (or how will you use BALLISTIC?):




Have you used any other ballistic programs? Which ones?







Mail to: William Frenchu, 79 Taylor Terrace, Hopewell, NJ 08525



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