Category : Science and Education
Archive   : ACE120-2.ZIP
Filename : STARCOM.DAT

Output of file : STARCOM.DAT contained in archive : ACE120-2.ZIP
Alpha Eridani (Achernar)
"Achernar" is from the Arabic for "The End of the River," nearly its present
position in the constellation, about 32 degrees from the south pole. --Allen
Alpha Ursae Minoris (Polaris)
"Polaris" is from the Latin for "Pole-star." It is a little over 1 degree
distant from the exact pole, which lies on the straight line drawn from Polaris
to Zeta Ursae Majoris, and will continue in gradual approach to the pole until
about the year 2095, when it will be only 26' 30" away. --Allen
Alpha Persei (Mirfak)
"Mirfak" is from the Arabic for "The Side," its present position on the
maps. Mirfak never sets in the latitude of New York City, but just touches
the horizon at its lower culmination. --Allen
Alpha Tauri (Aldebaran)
"Aldebaran" is from the Arabic for "The Follower," i.e., of the Pleiades.
Aldebaran is but slightly south of the ecliptic, and, lying in the moon's path,
is frequently occulted, thus often showing the optical illusion of projection.
It has three times the brilliancy of Polaris. --Allen
Beta Orionis (Rigel)
"Rigel" is from the Arabic for "The Left Leg." Although lettered below
Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis), it is usually superior to it in brightness.
Alpha Aurigae (Capella)
This star has been known as Capella, "The Little She-goat," since at least
the first century B.C. With Zeta and Eta, it forms the group known as "The
Kids." Capella emits 250 times as much light as our sun. Its spectrum
resembles that of the sun; indeed, spectroscopists say that Capella is
virtually identical with the sun in physical constitution. It is the most
northern of all 1st-magnitude stars and is visible at some hour of every clear
night throughout the year from the northern hemisphere. --Allen
Gamma Orionis (Bellatrix)
"Bellatrix" is from the Latin for "The Female Warrior." It marks the
shoulder of Orion. --Allen
Beta Tauri (Elnath)
"Elnath" is from the Arabic for "The Butting One," because the star is
located on the tip of the northern horn, 5 degrees from Zeta, similarly placed
on the southern. Between Elnath and Psi Aurigae was discovered on 24 January
1892 the celebrated Nova Aurigae that occasioned much interest in the
astronomical world. --Allen
Epsilon Orionis (Alnilam)
"Alnilam" is from the Arabic for "The String of Pearls." It is the central
star of the belt. The celestial equator now passes through the belt. --Allen
Zeta Orionis (Alnitak)
"Alnitak" is from the Arabic for "The Girdle." It is the lowest star in the
belt. The celestial equator now passes through the belt. --Allen
Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse)
"Betelgeuse" is from the Arabic for "The Armpit of the Central One." At
times, when near a minimum, Betelgeuse matches Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri) in color
and brightness. Its banded spectrum suggests that it might be approaching the
point of extinction. It was first seen to be variable by Sir John Herschel in
1836. It is a multiple star, and Barnard discovered about it large and
diffused nebulosity. It is less than 3 degrees west of the solstitial colure.
Beta Aurigae (Menkalinan)
"Menkalinan" is from the Arabic for "The Shoulder of the Rein-holder," which
it marks, the solstitial colure passing it 2 degrees to the east, the star
itself being about 10 degrees east of Capella (Alpha Aurigae). The discovery
that it was a very close binary was made by Pickering from spectroscopic
observations in 1889. The lines in the spectrum double and undouble every two
days. --Allen
Beta Canis Majoris (Mirzam)
"Mirzam" is from the Arabic for "The Announcer," the idea of the
applicability of this title being that this star announced the immediate rising
of the still brighter Sirius (Alpha Canis Majoris). It entirely disappeared in
1670 and was not again observed for 23 years, but since that time has
maintained a steady luster, although faint for its lettering. It marks the top
of the dog's head. --Allen
Alpha Carinae (Canopus)
Canopus is the Latinized name for the chief pilot of the fleet of Menelaus,
who, on his return from the destruction of Troy, touched at Egypt, where he
died and was honored by a monument, giving his name to the city and to this
star, which at that time rose 7.5 degrees above that horizon.
Posidonius of Alexandria about the middle of the 3rd century B.C. utilized
this star in his attempt to measure a degree on the earth's surface, possibly
the earliest attempt at geodetic measurement. Canopus is invisible to
observers north of the 37th parallel. It is conspicuous from Georgia, Florida,
and the Gulf States. --Allen
Gamma Geminorum (Alhena)
"Alhena" is from the Arabic for "brand" or "mark." --Allen
Alpha Canis Majoris (Sirius)
"Sirius" is Latinized from the Greek for "sparkling" or "scorching." It is
also called "The Dog-Star." Its heliacal rising 400 years B.C. corresponded
with the sun's entrance into the constellation Leo, which marked the hottest
time of the year. This observation gave rise to the Romans' "dies
caniculariae," the dog days, and the association of the celestial Dog and Lion
with the heat of midsummer.
Sirius, notwithstanding its brilliancy, is by no means the nearest star to
our system, although it is among the nearest. Some are of the opinion that the
apparent magnitude of Sirius is partly due to the whiteness of its tint and its
greater intrinsic brilliancy and that the red stars Aldebaran, Betelgeuse, and
others, would appear much brighter than now if of the same color as Sirius,
rays of red light affecting the retina of the eye more slowly than those of
other colors. Sirius is about 9.5 times brighter than Altair (Alpha Aquilae).
The sun is about 7 billion times brighter than Sirius, but, taking distance
into account, about 1/40th as bright.
Certain peculiarities in the motion of Sirius led to the discovery of a
comes in 1862 by Alvan G. Clark. It has a period of 51.5 years and an orbit
whose diameter is between those of Uranus and Neptune, its mass being 1/3 that
of Sirius and equal to that of our sun, although its light is but 1/10000 of
that of its principal. --Allen
Epsilon Canis Majoris (Adhara)
"Adhara" is from the Arabic for "The Virgins," applied to this star in
connection with Delta, Eta, and Omicron. --Allen
Delta Canis Majoris (Wezen)
"Wezen" is from the Arabic for "weight," as the star seems to rise with
difficulty from the horizon. --Allen
Alpha Geminorum (Castor)
Castor was the horseman of The Twins, and the mortal one as being the son of
Tyndareus. The star is 7 degrees north of the ecliptic, but although literally
heading the constellation, is now fainter than Pollux (Beta), and astronomers
generally are agreed that there has been an inversion of their brilliancy since
the 16th century.
The discovery that Castor is a double star was positively made in 1802 by
Sir William Herschel, who coined the word "binary" now applied to this class of
stars. Actually, Castor is a sextuple system, since all three visible members
are also spectroscopic binaries. --Allen, Mullaney, McCall
Alpha Canis Minoris (Procyon)
"Procyon" is from the Greek for "before the dog," i.e., before Sirius (Alpha
Canis Majoris). Procyon has a close comes, the period of revolution of the
system being about 40 years in an orbit slightly greater than that of Uranus
and the combined mass being about six times that of our sun and earth, with the
mass of the comes equaling that of our sun and its light being three times
greater. --Allen
Beta Geminorum (Pollux)
Pollux was the pugilist of The Twins, and the immortal one as being the son
of Zeus. The star lies 12 degrees north of the ecliptic, the zodiac's
boundary-line running between it and Castor (Alpha Geminorum). A convenient
measuring-rod, Castor and Pollux stand 4.5 degrees apart. --Allen
Gamma Velorum (Suhail)
"Suhail" is from the Arabic for "brilliant," "glorious," and "beautiful."
Suhail is visible from all points south of 42 degrees of north latitude, so it
is plainly visible from the latitude of Maine. --Allen
Epsilon Carinae (Avior)
Avior's actual luminosity is about 1400 times that of the sun. --Burnham
Delta Velorum
This star is about 9 degrees southeast from Suhail (Gamma Velorum), near the
Vela-Carina border. This is one of the stars which seems to share the space
motion of the Ursa Major stream, along with Sirius (Alpha Canis Majoris) and a
number of other bright stars. --Burnham
Beta Carinae (Miaplacidus)
"Miaplacidus" is from the Arabic for "the waters" and the Latin for "quiet"
and "still," i.e., the still waters in which the ship Argo is resting, Carina
(Latin for "keel") being a division of the earlier constellation Argo. --Allen
Alpha Hydrae (Alphard)
"Alphard" is from the Arabic for "The Solitary One in the Serpent," well
describing its position in the sky. --Allen
Alpha Leonis (Regulus)
"Regulus" is from the Latin for "The Little King," from the belief that the
star ruled the affairs of the heavens. Regulus's position and that of Spica
(Alpha Virginis), observed by Hipparchus, when compared with the earlier
records, are said to have revealed to him the phenomenon of the precession of
the equinoxes. Regulus is the faintest of the 1st-magnitude stars, with but
1/13 of the brightness of Sirius. It lies very close to the ecliptic and is
often occulted by the sun. --Allen
Gamma Leonis (Algieba)
"Algieba" is Arabicized from the Latin for "The Lion's Mane." --Allen
Alpha Ursae Majoris (Dubhe)
"Dubhe" is from the Arabic for "The Bear." It is 5 degrees from Merak
(Beta) and 10 degrees from Megrez (Delta). Being always visible from the
northern hemisphere, these stars afford a ready means of accurate eye
measurement of others adjacent. Dubhe and Merak, as "The Pointers," indicate
the pole-star (Polaris, Alpha Ursae Minoris), about 29 degrees distant from
Dubhe, and Regulus (Alpha Leonis), 45 degrees away toward the south. They are
circumpolar north of about 33 degrees. --Allen
Alpha Crucis (Acrux)
"Acrux" is probably a word coined from "Alpha Crucis." Acrux lies 2 degrees
east of the equinoctial colure, and, at its culmination, touches the horizon in
latitude about 28 degrees, due south from Corvus. --Allen
Gamma Crucis (Gacrux)
"Gacrux" is probably a word coined from "Gamma Crucis." It is the uppermost
star of the cross. --Allen
Epsilon Ursae Majoris (Alioth)
"Alioth" is of uncertain derivation, perhaps associated with the Arabic for
"The White of the Eye," i.e., "intensely bright." --Allen
Alpha Virginis (Spica)
Spica signifies (from the Latin), and marks, the ear of wheat shown in the
Virgin's left hand. It was to the observations of this star and of Regulus
(Alpha Leonis) about 300 B.C. that after comparison with observations recorded
150 years earlier, Hipparchus was indebted for the great discovery attributed
to him of the precession of the equinoxes. It lies but 2 degrees south of the
ecliptic and 10 degrees south of the celestial equator. With Denebola (Beta
Leonis), Arcturus (Alpha Bootis), and Cor Caroli (Alpha Canum Venaticorum), it
forms the "Diamond of Virgo," 50 degrees in extent north and south. --Allen
Eta Ursae Majoris (Alkaid)
"Alkaid" is from the Arabic for "The Chief of the Mourners," as the stars
Alioth (Epsilon), Mizar (Zeta), and Alkaid were known. Alkaid is 7 degrees
from Mizar and 26 degrees from Dubhe (Alpha), and with Mizar it forms another
pair of pointers--towards Arcturus (Alpha Bootis). It is noted as marking the
radiant of one of the richest minor meteor streams, the Ursids of 10 November.
Beta Centauri (Hadar)
"Hadar" is from the Arabic for "ground," applied to this star on account of
its proximity to the horizon. Hadar and Rigil Kentaurus (Alpha) are "The
Southern Pointers," i.e., toward the Southern Cross. --Allen
Alpha Bootis (Arcturus)
"Arcturus" is from the Greek for "The Bear-Guard." This is the first star
on record as having been observed in the daytime with the telescope (1635). It
is interesting to know that the first photograph of a comet was of Donati's,
near this star, in 1858. --Allen
Alpha Centauri (Rigil Kentaurus)
"Rigil Kentaurus" is from the Arabic for "The Centaur's Foot," on the toe of
the right front hoof. It lies in the Milky Way, 60 degrees south of the
celestial equator, culminating with Arcturus, but is invisible from north of
the 29th parallel. It is of the greatest interest to astronomers, being, so
far as is known, the nearest to our system of all the stars, although more than
275,000 times the distance of the earth from the sun. Were our sun removed to
the distance of Alpha Centauri, it would be seen only as a point of light of
the 2nd magnitude near the chair of Cassiopeia. --Allen
Alpha Scorpii (Antares)
"Antares" is from the Greek for "similar to," or "rival of," Mars, in
reference to its color. Some have asserted that it was the first star observed
through the telescope in the daytime, although this claim is also made for
Arcturus (Alpha Bootis). Ptolemy lettered it as of the 2nd magnitude, so that
in his day it may have been inferior in brilliancy to the now very much fainter
Zubeneschamali (Beta Librae). It was here, 2 or 3 degrees north of Antares,
that Coddington's comet was discovered in 1898, the third comet made known
by the camera. --Allen
Alpha Trianguli Australis (Atria)
Alpha, Beta, and Gamma form the "Southern Triangle," with sides of 8, 8, and
6.5 degrees. It is a larger and also more nearly equilateral triangle than its
northern counterpart. --Allen
Lambda Scorpii (Shaula)
"Shaula" is probably from the Arabic for "The Sting," where it lies. An
imaginary line extended from Jabbah (Nu) through Shaula serves to point out the
nearby clusters Messier 6 and 7 and NGC 6475, visible together in binoculars.
Theta Scorpii (Sargas)
"Sargas" is from the ancient Babylonian title. This star and Eta, 4 degrees
apart, are the two southernmost stars in the curving tail of Scorpius.
Epsilon Sagittarii (Kaus Australis)
"Kaus Australis" is "The Southern [Part of the] Bow." This is the brightest
star in the constellation, located about 4.6 degrees to the south of Kaus Media
(Delta). About 35' southeast is the spot where Nova V909 Sagitarii flared up
in 1941, reaching a maximum magnitude of about 6.8; it is now fainter than
16.0. --Allen, Burnham
Alpha Lyrae (Vega)
"Vega" is from the Arabic for "The Falling Eagle [or Vulture]." Owing to
precession, it will be the pole-star of about 11000 years hence, by far the
brightest in the whole circle of successive pole-stars, 4.5 degrees from the
exact pole, as it was about 15000 years ago. This was the first star submitted
to the camera (1850). It lies on the western edge of the constellation figure.
With all its splendor, it affords but 1/9 of the light of Sirius (Alpha
Canis Majoris). Still, it is supposed to be enormously larger than our sun,
and proportionately very much hotter. In large refractors having a slight
"blue excess" in color correction, Vega is nearly pure blue, an amazing sight.
It is visible at some hour of every clear night throughout the year from the
northern hemisphere. --Allen, Mullaney, McCall
Alpha Aquilae (Altair)
"Altair" is from the Arabic for "The Flying Eagle [or Vulture]." Ptolemy
noted this star as of the 2nd magnitude, whence some think that it has
increased in light since his day. It marks the junction of the right wing with
the body. Near it appeared in A.D. 389 an object, whether a supernova or a
comet is not known, said to have equalled Venus in brilliancy, which vanished
after three weeks' visibility. 5 degrees to the eastward of Altair lies the
radiant point of the Aquilids, the meteor stream visible from 7 June to 12
August. --Allen
Alpha Pavonis (Peacock Star)
The name "Peacock Star" honors the bird sacred to Juno. --Burnham
Alpha Cygni (Deneb)
"Deneb" is from the Arabic for "The Hen's Tail." Its proper motion toward
the earth will eventually carry it past our system at about 1/100 of its
present distance, making it the nearest and the brightest of the earth's
neighbors. It lies so far to the north that it is visible at some hour of
every clear night throughout the year in the northern hemisphere. --Allen
Alpha Gruis (Al Na'ir)
"Al Na'ir" is from the Arabic for "The Bright One." Marking the body of the
bird, it is the conspicuous 2nd-magnitude star southwest from Formalhaut (Alpha
Piscis Austrini). --Allen
Alpha Piscis Austrini (Formalhaut)
"Formalhaut" is from the Arabic for "The Fish's Mouth." It lies in about 30
degrees of south declination and so is the most southerly of all the prominent
stars visible in the latitude of New York City, but it is in the zenith of
Chile, the Cape of Good Hope, and South Australia. To the uninstructed
observer it seems a full 1st-magnitude, perhaps from the absence of nearby
stars. --Allen
Copyright 1984, 1985, 1986 AstroSoft, Inc.

  3 Responses to “Category : Science and Education
Archive   : ACE120-2.ZIP
Filename : STARCOM.DAT

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: