File TEXTMAP.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Printer + Display Graphics
A diagram and discussion on how to write programs employing texture mapping.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
IDEA.GIF 8120 8120 stored
TEXTURE.TXT 6239 2770 deflated

## Contents of the TEXTURE.TXT file

From: [email protected] (Robert Schmidt)
Newsgroups: rec.games.programmer
Subject: Re: Texture mapping sources wanted

This is not a source file, but rather a short document containing what
little I know about texture mapping arbitrarily positioned and rotated
prallellograms in 3D space. It also contains a GIF file which probably
is needed to understand what is going on. I know one person who has
used the formulas presented to implement correct texture mapping
of 3D triangles.

Concerning Digital Image Warping: on the subjects of texture mapping,
it contains little more than what you can read below. It does provide
some faster approximations though, but they don't look to good in the
general case.

---------------------------------------------- use a chainsaw here

My idea of texture mapping
Mapping a 2D bitmap to a 3D parallellogram

by Robert Schmidt ([email protected]) of Ztiff Zox Softwear

This is an introductory text which might not be particularly useful, but it
might get you started, and might be the start of some good (I mean FAST!)
public domain source code for texture mapping. No source code is
included, but a 640x480 B&W GIF-sketch is appended uuencoded at the
end of this text.

See the accompanying IDEA.GIF when you get bewildered. I'll use lower
case letters for scalars, and capital letters for vectors in this text.
I drew the image before trying to incorporate underlining in this ASCII
text... 🙂 Thus:

In this text:
a is a scalar,
A is a vector (NOT a matrix).
In the drawing:
a is a scalar,
a-underlined is the vector.

Assume the following:

o The origo (0,0,0) of our world is positioned right in your eye.
(Ouch!) Choose left or right yourself. The x axis points right of
of you.

o A four sided parallellogram, is spanned out in 3D space by two vectors
U and V. The common base of the two vectors is given by the base vector
B.

o Your computer screen is positioned a fixed distance from your
eye/origo. The origo of the screen is at (0,0,zs). The xy-plane of
your screen is parallell to the world xy-plane.

o Stored somewhere else is a bitmap, which is to be mapped onto the
parallellogram, so that the base of the bitmap coincides with the base
(B) of the parallellogram, and the edges of the two fall together.

Now our goal is made up of two smaller goals:

1) Map the bitmap to the parallellogram.
2) Map the parallellogram to the screen.

I assume you are familiar with drawing a 3D polygon on screen, i.e.
performing a perspective transform of the coordinates and rasterizing
the edges. This process, i.e. goal 2, isn't really the issue here.

The idea is that for each point S= on the screen that is
contained in the polygon, we have to find the coordinates (u,v) along
the vectors (U,V). The corresponding point in space is given by

P = B + uU + vV

u and v will be in the interval [0,1] if P is within the polygon. This
is crucial.

Now if the 3D point P is to map to the screen pixel S, the vectors P and
S have to be parallell. Moreover, since they both are based in origo,
they lie on the same line in space, thus:

P = tS

for some constant t. Thus:

tS = B + uU + vV

Now we have 3 equations in 3 unknowns, t, u and v:

t sx = bx + u ux + v vx
t sy = by + u uy + v vy
t sz = bz + u uz + v vz

t is of no interest to us, so I'll just show the solutions for u and v:

d sx + e sy + f sz
u = ------------------
a sx + b sy + c sz
(1)
g sx + h sy + i sz
v = ------------------
a sx + b sy + c sz

where a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i are all constants which are calculated once each
time the bitmap is moved/redrawn:

a = uy vz - vy uz
b = vx uz - ux vz
c = ux vy - vx uy

d = vy bz - by vz
e = bx vz - vx bz
f = vx by - bx vy

g = by uz - uy bz
h = ux bz - bx uz
i = bx uy - ux by

The straightforward algorithm to draw the bitmap is as follows:

for (ys=0; ys<200; ys++)
for (xs=0; xs<320; xs++)
calculate u,v from (1)
if (u in [0,1) and v in [0,1)
putpixel (xs, ys, bitmap[u*xsize, v*ysize])

This will scan through each pixel on the screen, check wether the pixel
is mapped inside the bitmap, and plot the bitmap pixel to the screen
if it is.

Calculating (1) for each pixel is time consuming, but there are facts to
exploit for significant speed gains:

1) sz (the eye z-coordinate of the screen pixel) is constant, so all
products involving sz can be calculated outside all loops.

2) sy is constant on each raster line, so the products involving sy need
be calculated only once per line, i.e. outside the xs loop.

3) Scan convert the polygon (parallellogram) to screen coordinates, and
calculate (u,v) only for pixels inside the polygon. I'm not going to

4) The denominators in (1) are equal for u and v, so it need only be
evaluated once for each pixel.

5) Try to incrementalize. Instead of calculating (d sx) when x
increases, just add d to the previous value, for example.

The problem is I still can't get away with less than 1 divsion and 2
multiplications per pixel, alternatively 2 divisions. There are ways to
approximate this, for example by subdividing the polygon and using first
or second degree Taylor polynomials, combined with the use of forward
differences. Third degree polynomials don't give much quality gain over
second degree polynomials, and take more initial calculations. These are
all approximations, and will give visible artifacts and errors.
Subdividing helps on this, but is expensive.

I'm looking for an incremental algorithm similar to the Bresenham
algorithms for drawing straight lines or ellipses. This would give an
exact perspective mapping and *not* an approximation. At the moment, I'm
literaly halfway there, it's just that the second half seems impossible
to figure out. I am able to get it right as long as each and every pixel
in the texture bitmap is used at least once. If one or more bitmap
pixels are to be skipped, my algorithm fails. Interested persons
mail me.

Mail any comments and ideas to [email protected].

December 9, 2017