Dec 112017
 
NorthCAD-3D is a design and modeling program that enables you to create, view, and edit three-dimensional objects and images.
File NORTHCAD.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Printer + Display Graphics
NorthCAD-3D is a design and modeling program that enables you to create, view, and edit three-dimensional objects and images.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
BUILDING.N3D 14156 4158 deflated
FBPLANE.N3D 1311 392 deflated
GAZEBO.N3D 13947 4076 deflated
LRPLANE.N3D 1363 429 deflated
MANUAL.DOC 84226 20905 deflated
NORTHCAD.CFG 32 23 deflated
NORTHCAD.EXE 178400 84953 deflated
NORTHCAD.N3D 608 98 deflated
OFFICE.N3D 30430 7064 deflated
PYRAMIDS.N3D 3964 1035 deflated
README.DOC 929 448 deflated
REGFORM.DOC 2263 695 deflated
STATION.N3D 12413 3122 deflated
TBPLANE.N3D 1311 411 deflated
TEMPLE.N3D 5314 1372 deflated

Download File NORTHCAD.ZIP Here

Contents of the README.DOC file





N O R T H C A D - 3 D
Shareware Release
Version 4.2

The users manual for NorthCAD-3D is located in the MANUAL.DOC
file. The manual is 35 pages in length, and is formatted for
output on standard 8 1/2" x 11" paper, (or 9 1/2" x 11"
perforated edged computer paper). There are 1" margins on the
Top, Left, and Right, and a 1/2" margin on the bottom.

To print the manual:

Align your printer paper to the top edge of a new sheet of paper.
Use the DOS "PRINT" command, or the DOS "COPY" command to send
the NorthCAD-3D Manual file to your printer. For Example, COPY
MANUAL.DOC PRN.

You can also load the file into your word processor for more
print control. Simply set all the margins in your wordprocessor
to 0" and then begin printing.




Contents of the MANUAL.DOC file





N O R T H C A D - 3 D
Shareware Release
Version 4.2

The users manual for NorthCAD-3D is located in the MANUAL.DOC
file. The manual is 35 pages in length, and is formatted for
output on standard 8 1/2" x 11" paper, (or 9 1/2" x 11"
perforated edged computer paper). There are 1" margins on the
Top, Left, and Right, and a 1/2" margin on the bottom.

To print the manual:

Align your printer paper to the top edge of a new sheet of paper.
Use the DOS "PRINT" command, or the DOS "COPY" command to send
the NorthCAD-3D Manual file to your printer. For Example, COPY
MANUAL.DOC PRN.

You can also load the file into your word processor for more
print control. Simply set all the margins in your wordprocessor
to 0" and then begin printing.










N O R T H C A D - 3 D

Version 4.2
Shareware Release

User Manual
Copyright (c) 1987-1991 The Quest Company

------------------------------------------------

TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION AND SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

2 Introduction
2 System Requirements
3 Disk Contents

INSTALLING AND SETTING UP THE PROGRAM

3 Installing NorthCAD-3D:
Floppy Disk Systems
Hard Disk Systems
5 Program Configuration

HOW TO OPERATE THE PROGRAM

6 Using The Menus
6 Keyboard Reference

REGISTERED USERS

7 Version 8 Features
11 Registration Form

3D DESIGN: THE BASIC CONCEPTS

12 3D Space: The Drawing Environment
12 Cursor Movement On The Drawing Planes
12 Drawing Planes And Your Viewpoint
13 Automatic Drawing Plane Selection

COMMANDS AND OPERATION

13 The NORTHCAD.N3D File
14 Command Reference

APPENDICES AND INDEX

32 Appendix A: Drawing Specifications
33 Appendix B: Error Messages
35 Index

Page 1









-----------------------------------------------------------------
* INTRODUCTION AND SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS *
-----------------------------------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION
------------

Welcome to NorthCAD-3D!

NorthCAD-3D is a design and modeling program that enables you to
create, view, and edit three-dimensional objects and images.

The program is completely menu driven, easy to learn and use, and
features versatile commands with primary emphasis on conceptual
design and illustration.

NorthCAD-3D also features the ability to create drawings from any
viewpoint around your drawing, and uses a simultaneous command
architecture that allows you to use several viewpoint commands
even during the drawing functions.

Included with the program are a number of sample files that help
illustrate the program's capabilities for both conceptual design
and graphic arts applications.



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
-------------------

NorthCAD-3D Version 4.2 requires the following:

IBM PC, XT, AT, 386, 486, PS/2, or 100% Compatible

MS-DOS or PC-DOS 3.0 or later

Two Floppy Disk Drive or Hard Disk

512K RAM

CGA Mode - Color Graphics Adapter and Color Monitor.

EGA Mode - Enhanced Graphics Adapter and EGA Color Monitor.

VGA Mode - VGA display adapter and VGA Color Monitor.

Optional: 8087/80287/80387 Math Coprocessors supported.
(3 to 10 fold speed enhancement if present)

Notes

Printing your drawings using only the Shareware release will
require a memory resident screen printing utility. Screen
Capture Programs can also be used to import drawings into
several Paint Programs.

Page 2









DISK CONTENTS
-------------

Filename Description

NORTHCAD.EXE The NorthCAD-3D Program
NORTHCAD.CFG Configuration File
MANUAL.DOC Version 4.2 Users Manual
README.DOC Printing instructions for the manual
REGFORM.DOC Duplicate User Registration Form
NORTHCAD.N3D Drawing template file
FBPLANE.N3D Illustration file (tutorial file)
LRPLANE.N3D Illustration file (tutorial file)
TBPLANE.N3D Illustrated file (tutorial file)
TEMPLE.N3D A Greek temple (sample file)
PYRAMIDS.N3D Pyramids (sample file)
STATION.N3D Space Station (sample file)
BUILDING.N3D Small boutique style building (sample file)
OFFICE.N3D Large office building (sample file)
GAZEBO.N3D Backyard Gazebo (sample file)



-----------------------------------------------------------------
* * INSTALLING AND SETTING UP THE PROGRAM * *
-----------------------------------------------------------------


INSTALLING NORTHCAD-3D
----------------------

The following installation procedures contain the instructions
for setting up the NorthCAD-3D program for Floppy Disk or Hard
Disk operation.

FLOPPY DISK SYSTEM

Format Two (2) Floppy Disks.

Insert the NorthCAD-3D Shareware Disk into Drive A, and a newly
formatted diskette into Drive B. At the DOS prompt, enter the
following commands:

A> COPY NORTHCAD.EXE B:

A> COPY NORTHCAD.CFG B:

These are the two main program files needed to run NorthCAD-3D.
Once they have been copied to your "new working program disk" in
Drive B, remove the disk from Drive B, and insert the other newly
formatted disk into Drive B. (Do not place a write protect label
on your working program Disk.) At the DOS prompt, enter the
following.

A> COPY *.N3D B:

Page 3









This will copy the Drawing Template File (NORTHCAD.N3D) and all
the sample files to the disk in Drive B. When completed, remove
the Shareware program disk from Drive A, and store it for safe
keeping.

Now place your new working program disk into Drive A. The
installation of the program disks are complete, you are now ready
to start the program and configure it to your system. At the
DOS prompt, enter the following:

A> NORTHCAD

NorthCAD-3D will now be loaded into memory. When the opening menu
is displayed, proceed to the section below titled: CONFIGURATION.


HARD DISK SYSTEM

To run NorthCAD-3D from your hard disk, it is suggested that you
first create a subdirectory for the NorthCAD-3D program files.
From this new directory containing the program files, create
another subdirectory that will contain your Drawing files. This
will help keep your hard disk organized, and make it easier to
selectively backup or copy the drawing files you create.

Procedure

Be sure you are in the root directory of your hard disk.

C> CD\

Next, create a subdirectory for the NorthCAD-3D program files:

C> MD NORTHCAD

Go to this new directory and create another subdirectory:

C> CD NORTHCAD

C> MD DRAWINGS

While still in the NORTHCAD directory, insert the NorthCAD-3D
Shareware Disk into Drive A, and issue the following commands:

C> COPY A:NORTHCAD.EXE C:

C> COPY A:NORTHCAD.CFG C:

These are the two main program files needed to run NORTHCAD-3D.
Once they have been copied to your Hard Disk, go to your new
DRAWINGS subdirectory:

C> CD DRAWINGS



Page 4









And, copy all of the sample files (and the Drawing Template file
NORTHCAD.N3D) from the Shareware program disk to this
subdirectory:

C> COPY A:*.N3D C:


When completed, remove the Shareware program disk from Drive A,
and store it for safe keeping. The installation of the program
files are complete. You are now ready to start the program and
configure it to your system.

Go back to the NORTHCAD directory:

C> CD C:\NORTHCAD

and issue the following command to start the program:

C> NORTHCAD

NorthCAD-3D will now load into memory. When the opening menu is
displayed, proceed to the section below titled: CONFIGURATION.



CONFIGURATION
-------------

Your Graphics Display Adapter:

NorthCAD-3D supports the three standard IBM graphics adapters:
CGA, EGA, and VGA. Using the cursor keys, move the menu selector
to the menu option: GRAPHICS MODE CONFIGURATION, and press ENTER.
A submenu will appear, and display a menu option for each of the
Display adapters mentioned above.

Select the menu option for the Display adapter you have installed
in your system. (MCGA users, select the CGA option). Once you
have selected an option, you are returned to the Main Menu.


Your Drawing File Disk or Directory:

NorthCAD-3D allows you to specify any disk drive or directory for
the storage of your drawing files. Select the menu option: FILE
DIRECTORY CONFIGURATION. You are now prompted to enter the Disk
Drive or Directory for your drawing files.

If you are using a Floppy Disk system where Drive A contains the
NorthCAD-3D program, and Drive B the drawing files disk, then
simply enter: B:

If you are using a Hard Disk, and you have installed the program
as described above in the Hard Disk Installation procedure, then
enter the following: C:\NORTHCAD\DRAWINGS

Page 5









Saving the configurations:

To save your current system configurations, so NorthCAD-3D can
use them each time the program is started, select SAVE CURRENT
CONFIGURATION from the menu. A pop-up display box will show your
current settings. Select YES to save the configurations. The
program is now installed, configured, and ready to be used to
create or view 3-D images.


-----------------------------------------------------------------
* * * HOW TO OPERATE THE PROGRAM * * *
-----------------------------------------------------------------

USING THE MENUS
---------------

COMMAND MENUS: Using the UP and DOWN cursor keys, position the
menu selector to the desired menu option and press ENTER. On the
Main Menu, the selector is a highlight bar, and on the graphics
menus, the selector consists of a pointer that moves along both
sides of the menu. Program operations that prompt you to select a
filename, or enter input from the keyboard, may be cancelled by
simply pressing ESCAPE.


FILE DIRECTORY MENUS: One other type of menu used in the program
is the File Directory Menu. This menu lists the drawing files you
have on disk when you select the 3D MODELING menu option. The
screen displays the name of the file, its size in bytes, and the
date and time it was last saved. If you have any files in the
directory, or on the disk, they will be listed here on the
screen.

The File Directory Menu may contain a maximum of 400 files. If
you need to "page" through the directory display, you may use the
PGUP, PGDN, HOME, and END keys to move through the listing. The
UP and DOWN keys can also be used to scroll through the listing.


KEYBOARD REFERENCE
------------------

F1 - Filename input (text) F2 - Previous Viewpoint
On-Line Reference (graphics)

F3 - Left View F4 - Right View

F5 - Top View F6 - Front View

F7 - Perspective (Ver8 only) F8 - Axes Grid

F9 - Units/Degrees F10 - Redraw

F11 - Coordinate Type F12 - Cursor Type

Page 6









CURSOR KEYS

HOME, PGUP, PGDN, UP, DOWN, LEFT, RIGHT
Moves the graphics cursor during the Drawing commands. Moves
your viewpoint during the XYZ VP and PAN-ZOOM commands.

LEFT, RIGHT
Cycles the color palette during the COLOR-FORE command.


CHARACTER KEYS

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, +, -
During PAN-ZOOM, jumps to or increments the Zoom Factor.

. (period punctuation key)
Executes the Snap-to-nearest-point function when using any
of the LINES or editing LN commands.

D
During any of the Drawing commands, toggles the selection of
one of the three Drawing Planes.

P or Z
Activates the PAN-ZOOM command.

R
During PAN-ZOOM command, resets Pan and Zoom to Normal.

O
Coordinate display type, Absolute or Relative. (Same as F11)

T
Cursor type, Target or Full Screen Cursor. (Same as F12)

ESCAPE
Where appropriate, cancels a command, exits a drawing or
editing command, or cancels an input prompt.



-----------------------------------------------------------------
* * * * REGISTERED USERS * * * *
-----------------------------------------------------------------


NorthCAD-3D Version 4.2 is a shareware program designed to
introduce the principles of 3D graphics.

A far more advanced level release of NorthCAD-3D, Version 8, is
sent to users who contribute a registration fee to help support
its production and development costs.

Version 8 incorporates a full set of professional-level 3D design
tools which include the following:

Page 7









MORE DRAWING COMMANDS
---------------------
Circles, Arcs, Polygons, Surfaces, Curves, and B-Spline Curve
fitting commands.

NEW SURFACE MODELING COMMANDS
-----------------------------
Automatic 2D to 3D surface extrusions with user selectable
relative, or absolute, distances along any axis. For example, a
2D floor plan can be turned instantly into a 3-dimensional house
as NorthCAD-3D automatically extends the floor plan into surfaces
to create walls.

Automatic 2D to 3D circular extrusions with user selectable
degrees of revolution and surface sections. NorthCAD-3D
automatically performs circular extrusions on 2D contours to
create cylindrical objects - everything from spheres, cones, to
elaborate circular objects can be created. Options also include
horizontal and vertical expansion whereby complex cylindrical
objects such as coils and springs can also be created
automatically.

Mold and reshape objects into other shapes using a command that
allows the interactive repositioning of surfaces vertices. Users
can specify the movement of just one specific surface vertex, or
all vertices and line endpoints common to the same coordinate can
be moved simultaneously. It's like pushing and pulling an object
into another shape.

ADVANCED VIEWING OPTIONS
------------------------
Version 8 colors your imagination. The surface rendering feature
automatically "paints" each surface in a drawing, transforming
wire-frame drawings into completely painted scenes of solid
models. Options include the rendering of surfaces with or without
edge highlighting, and the rendering of scenes using the viewport
or the entire screen. When rendering to the viewport, access to
the COLORS MENU is available to instantly change color palettes
while the completed rendering is displayed on the screen - giving
users the ability to experiment with different colors for mood,
lighting, or seasonal effects.

Automatic Hidden Line and Surface Removal can be performed which
dramatically enhances the clarity of scenes, and displays your
drawing in "solid" form. As in reality, only those lines, or line
segments, visible from your viewpoint and not blocked by surfaces
will be displayed. These enhanced views may also be output to a
plotter, or exported in either DXF or HPGL format for use in
other programs.

Automatic 3-Point Perspective display. Turn On Perspective Mode
and your drawing will be displayed in 3-Point Perspective. And
because NorthCAD-3D maintains a true 3D database on every entity
in a drawing (including, circles, curves, and text), everything
in your drawing will be adjusted for full visual realism.

Page 8









MANIPULATE OBJECTS INDEPENDENTLY
--------------------------------
Objects and/or Groups of objects can be controlled independently.
Version 8 allows the designation of up to 100 different objects
in each drawing! They can be Moved, Scaled, Edited, and even
Rotated to any angle you desire, enabling users to control the
exact location and orientation of any object in a drawing.

No control points to set or manual input required - the commands
have all been optimized for fast interactive control through the
menu. And when needed, even the names of your objects appear
directly in the menu - picking the object you want to manipulate
is as easy as selecting a command.

Copy, and Mirror Copy, commands are also included to quickly, and
effortlessly, create duplicate objects.

GRAPHICS LIBRARY SUPPORT
------------------------
Objects or shapes can be saved to disk and later merged into
drawings whenever needed, saving valuable design time by never
having to recreate objects.

COMPATIBILITY WITH OTHER PROGRAMS
---------------------------------
NorthCAD-3D is designed to integrate easily into your current and
future design system. Drawings or Views can be exported to other
CAD and Desktop Publishing software via HPGL, PCX, or DXF file
formats. Additionally, DXF files created from 2D CAD programs can
also be imported into Version 8, where the surface extrusion
commands can turn your 2D drawing into a 3D image automatically.

ADDITIONAL EDITING COMMANDS
---------------------------
Erase Last and Undo Last commands give you one key operation to
erase or restore any entity (circle, lines, curves, etc.) that
has just been drawn or erased.

TEXT
----
Version 8 will automatically generate text for any character,
word, or phrase input by the user (1-40 characters at a time).
The text is created using individual line segments and can be
manipulated just like any other object in 3D space.

MOUSE SUPPORT
-------------
Mouse support is included (Microsoft Mouse compatibles).

PLOTTER SUPPORT
---------------
Hewlett Packard and Houston Instrument Plotters are supported to
provide high quality hardcopy output. Other plotters, or output
devices, using either the Hewlett Packard HP-GL or the Houston
Instrument DM/PL command languages are also supported.

Page 9









PRINTER SUPPORT
---------------
190 printers are currently supported, including HP LaserJet and
compatibles. Portrait or Landscape page orientation can be used.
Also features the use of patterns and gray-scales to represent
solid colors in drawings that have been displayed using Version
8's surface rendering command.

LAYOUT MODULE
-------------
Create customized layouts using multiple views of your drawings -
all on a single page or screen. Layout views can be saved while
you're working in the 3D Modeling program. Layouts can contain
not only multiple views from one drawing, but also from many
other drawings as well. As with the 3D Modeling program, the
Layout module contains full plot and printing capability, as well
as file export functions.

AND MORE
--------
A 170 page printed manual is included with the Version 8 program,
and contains illustrations and a tutorial. Installation is easy,
it comes with its' own installation program. Free Technical
Support is provided to registered users only. Additionally,
registered users receive information on all future updates as
they become available.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTERED USER RELEASE
-----------------------------------------------

VERSION 8 REQUIRES A HARD DISK, and a system equipped with 640K.
This differs from the v4.2 Shareware Release, which can run on
floppy drive systems and requires only 512K. (Version 8 uses
approximately 535K of RAM and 1 megabyte of disk space).


How to become a registered user:

By Mail: Fill out the registration form on the next page, and
send it along with the Registration Fee to the address
below. VISA and MASTERCARD are accepted.

By Phone: The Registration Fee is payable by credit card. VISA
and MASTERCARD are accepted.


THE QUEST COMPANY
3117 W. Holland Ave.
Fresno, CA 93722


Ph. (209) 222-5301
9:00 AM - 5 PM (Pacific Time Zone)
Monday - Friday, except Holidays


Page 10









REGISTRATION FORM


NorthCAD-3D Registration $79.95
Package includes Version 8 Program Disks,
Library Files, Sample Files, and Printed Manual.

ADD Shipping and Handling: (check one)
______ U.S. destination - First Class Mail $ 5.00
______ U.S. destination - UPS Ground $ 7.00
______ U.S. destination - UPS Blue $ 9.00
______ Canada/Mexico destination - AIR MAIL $ 7.00
______ Foreign destination - AIR MAIL $15.00
_______

California Residents Only: ADD Sales Tax $5.20 _______


TOTAL .................... $_______


Payment may be by Check or Money Order in U.S. Dollars payable on
a U.S. Bank. Make Check or Money Order payable to: The Quest
Company. VISA and MASTERCARD is accepted. Sorry no C.O.D.'s.
Purchase Orders must be accompanied with payment.

Desired Disk Size: (Circle) 5 1/4 or 3 1/2

SHIP TO:

Name: ___________________________________________________________

Company (if applicable) _________________________________________

Address: ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________


If payment is by VISA or MASTERCARD, please provide the following
information:

Card Number: ___________________________________ Exp. Date ______

Name as it appears on card _________________________________

Signature ____________________________________________

Daytime Telephone ____________________________

Page 11









-----------------------------------------------------------------
* * * * * 3D DESIGN: THE BASIC CONCEPTS * * * * *
-----------------------------------------------------------------

3D SPACE: THE DRAWING ENVIRONMENT

To create true three-dimensional images requires the ability to
select points in 3D space. To identify these points (the end
points for lines or surface vertices) a coordinate system is used
that represents the point's location. The coordinate system must
specify how far to the side, how close or far back, and how high
or low the point is. A coordinate format of X,Y,Z identifies
this location.

The "X" represents the location from side to side (the X-Axis).
The "Y" represents the location's length (the Y-Axis). And the
"Z" represents the height or depth of the point (the Z-Axis).
Together these three Axes form the three separate "Drawing
Planes" that you can draw on, or through, when creating images.

The planes are sometimes referred to as the X-Y Plane, the Y-Z
Plane, and the X-Z plane. However, to make it easier and more
understandable, NorthCAD-3D uses names for these Drawing Planes
that in reality correspond to the sides of an image. They are the
Left-Right Plane (the Y-Z Plane), the Front-Back Plane (the X-Z
Plane), and the Top-Bottom Plane (the X-Y Plane).

CURSOR MOVEMENT ON THE DRAWING PLANES

When creating a drawing, you will be able to choose the Drawing
Plane on which you want the graphics cursor to travel. Simply
determine which side of your image the cursor must travel on to
get to your desired location, and select that Drawing Plane.
Drawing Planes can be selected while using the LINES command, and
pressing the letter "D" on your keyboard. The current drawing
plane is displayed below the "Model Menu."

During the LINES command, the movement of the graphics cursor can
be controlled by any of the cursor keys. Each time you press a
cursor key, the graphics cursor will move to a new location.

When the graphics cursor moves, it moves by a Drawing Unit
increment that can be specified by using the F9 KEY. This
allows you to set the movement of the graphics cursor to a
specific scale. The F9 KEY can be activated whenever the LINES
command is in use. The current drawing unit is displayed below
the "Model Menu."

DRAWING PLANES AND YOUR VIEWPOINT

NorthCAD-3D is designed to allow the creation of images from any
viewpoint. To accomplish this, NorthCAD-3D not only moves the
graphics cursor on the current drawing plane in the direction of
the cursor key, but also moves the graphics cursor in relation to
your 3D viewpoint.

Page 12









Included with the program are three tutorial illustration files.
Each file illustrates one of the three drawing planes:

The FBPLANE.N3D file shows the Front-Back Drawing plane.
The LRPLANE.N3D file shows the Left-Right Drawing plane.
The TBPLANE.N3D file shows the Top-Bottom Drawing plane.

(For simplicity, only the Left, Right, Up, and Down cursor key
directions are illustrated, but you may also use the Home, End,
PgUp, and PgDn cursor keys to move the graphics cursor).

When viewing the three tutorial illustration files, use the XYZ
VP command to pick new viewpoints. Note the direction of the
arrows - the arrows indicate the path the graphics cursor will
take when either the Left, Right, Up, or Down, cursor key are
pressed when using that particular drawing plane.

ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWPOINT KEYS AND AUTO DRAWING PLANE SELECTION

NorthCAD-3D has also been designed to automatically select
drawing planes for you, but ONLY WHEN USING THE ORTHOGRAPHIC
VIEWPOINT KEYS (F3-F6). The drawing plane selected by NorthCAD-3D
will be the one most associated with that particular viewpoint,
i.e. Pressing F3 will change your viewpoint to the Left View and
also switch the drawing plane to the "Left-Right" drawing plane -
since that drawing plane would most likely be the one you wish to
use from a Left View. (If you wish to use another drawing plane,
you may still use the "D" key to switch the drawing plane -
similar to drawing from an arbitrary 3-D viewpoint.)

Also, using the F2 Key not only switches your viewpoint back to
your "Previous 3D View," but also switches you back to the
drawing plane you were using prior to using the F3-F6 Keys.

* * * * * * * * * * * *

Using the concepts described above, and trying out a drawing of
your own, you will quickly discover how the correlation between
the Drawing planes and your viewpoint, give you the freedom to
accurately create images from any location in 3D space. More
specific descriptions for each of the three drawing planes can be
found in the command reference section. See the commands: LEFT-
RIGHT, FRONT-BACK, and TOP-BOTTOM.




THE NORTHCAD.N3D FILE
---------------------

Whenever a new drawing is started, NorthCAD-3D automatically
loads a template file to initialize the default settings for the
new file. This file is called NORTHCAD.N3D. It is just like any
other drawing file, and that's what makes it so useful.


Page 13









If you find yourself always using certain settings, values, or
color assignments, you can make changes to the file by:

Loading the template file directly from the file
directory menu, just like you do for other existing
files.

Make your desired changes to the settings.

Then save the file, and exit back to the main menu.

The next time you start a new drawing, the settings in the
template file will be used to initialize the drawing.

Note: If you change drawing disks or directories, be sure to copy
the template file to the new directory or disk as well, it must
remain accessible to the program when starting new drawings.




-----------------------------------------------------------------
* * * * * * COMMANDS AND OPERATION * * * * * *
-----------------------------------------------------------------

In the section that follows, detailed descriptions of each
command used in NorthCAD-3D Version 4.2 are listed in
alphabetical order.



3D MODELING
-----------

Summary: Starts a new 3D Modeling session.

Menu(s): MAIN

Procedure

To begin a new drawing, or view and edit an existing one, the 3D
MODELING command will list all the files in the Drawings
Directory. Move the menu selector to the name of the file you
wish to edit or view. If you want to begin a new drawing, press
the F1 KEY and input a new filename. Do not include the ".N3D"
filename extension.

Following the selection or input of a filename, the program will
switch to graphics mode. If you entered a new filename, the
default drawing settings in the file NORTHCAD.N3D are loaded.
Once the Model Menu appears, you are free to begin creating your
new drawing. If you selected a file that already exists, the file
will be loaded into memory and displayed. You can then begin
selecting commands from the menu.


Page 14









To end a graphics session and return to the opening menu, select
MAIN MENU located at the bottom of the MODEL MENU. You will be
prompted to confirm your choice to "Return to Main Menu." Select
CANCEL if you wish to remain in graphics mode, or MAIN MENU to
end the current graphics session.

YOU CAN NOT SAVE YOUR DRAWING FROM THE MAIN MENU, SO BE SURE TO
SAVE YOUR FILE BEFORE SELECTING "MAIN MENU"

See Also: SAVE FILE, and Section: THE NORTHCAD.N3D FILE



COLOR-BACK
----------

Summary: Displays the Background Color Menu.

Menu(s): COLORS

Procedure

The Background Color Menu displays 16 colors (0-15). Next to each
color number is a color block so you can see which color is
currently set to each background color number. If you are using
an EGA or VGA system, selecting a color will immediately redraw
your drawing with the new background color. After selecting your
background color number, you will return to the Colors Menu.

EXPANDING THE BACKGROUND COLOR CHOICES

Even though you have only 16 background colors to choose from,
with NorthCAD-3D you can still use any one of the 64 colors (0-
63) as a background. For example, suppose you choose color number
12 and your drawing is redrawn but the colors don't look quite
right. On the Colors Menu, select COLOR-FORE. When the Foreground
Color Menu appears, move the menu selector down to color number
12 and press ENTER. This will activate the palette selector.

Using the LEFT or RIGHT cursor keys will allow you to instantly
change the background color. You can now cycle through all 64
colors and choose the background color that looks best with your
drawing. When you find it, just press ENTER. Your background
color is now set, and you can return to the Model Menu by
selecting CANCEL.

CGA users: The COLOR-BACK command is primarily for use with EGA
and VGA display systems. However access to the Background Color
Menu will allow you to reset the background color number to 0 if
you have obtained drawing files that were created on EGA or VGA
displays. If you load a file or perform a screen redraw while
using a background color number other than 0, the screen will
appear all white (white lines on a white background). If this
happens, simply use the COLOR-BACK command and select color
number: 0.

Page 15









COLOR BARS
----------

Summary: Full Screen display of current colors. EGA and VGA
display systems only.

Menu(s): COLORS

Procedure

Selecting COLOR BARS will clear the entire screen and display all
16 colors (0-15) from the current palette selection. This screen
allows you to better judge the range of colors you are currently
working with.

To resume the program, press any key and the graphics viewport
and Colors Menu will be redisplayed.



COLOR-FORE
----------

Summary: Allows you to set each foreground color to any one of 64
colors.

Menu(s): COLORS

Procedure

The Foreground Color Menu displays 16 colors (0-15). The color
numbers are listed, and next to each color number is yet another
number, this number corresponds to one of the EGA or VGA palette
colors (0-63). Next to each palette color number is also a color
block, so you can see which color is currently set to each color
number. (EGA and VGA only)

NorthCAD-3D always keeps the color Black assigned to color number
0, and is the only color number you can not change. The other 15
color numbers can be assigned any one of the 64 colors.

To change a foreground color assignment, move the menu selector
to the color number you want to change and press ENTER. A message
will be displayed at the top of the screen informing you to use
the RIGHT or LEFT cursor keys to cycle through the palette. Next
to the message is a much larger color block, and in front of it,
the number corresponding to one of the 64 colors (0-63).

As you press the cursor key, the color block will change color
and any line in your drawing using the selected color number (0-
15) will also change. When you find a color you like, press
ENTER. You can now repeat the procedure for another color number,
or return to another menu with CANCEL or COLORS. You may also
press ESCAPE during the palette cycling process to restore the
original color assignment you had before.

Page 16









NorthCAD-3D uses color number 13 for the viewport border, number
14 for the menu and setting titles, and number 15 for messages
and the menu pointers. Feel free to reassign their colors.

See Also: COLOR-BACK, NEW COLOR


DP B&W
------

Summary: Clears the menu from the display and temporarily redraws
your drawing in full screen mode using a White background and
Black lines.

Menu(s): VIEW

Procedure

DP B&W redraws your currently selected view without a menu or
message area by using the entire screen as the drawing viewport.
The program displays your drawing with Black lines on a White
background to better simulate the way your drawing might appear
in a Desktop Publishing program, or how it will appear when
printed.

To end the DP B&W command, press any key, and the viewport
redraws and returns you back to the View Menu.

See Also: FULL SCRN


ERASE ALL
---------

Summary: To erase the entire drawing from memory.

Menu(s): MODEL

Procedure

After selecting the command, a confirmation menu will appear. YES
will erase every line from the drawing and set the drawing up as
though it were a new file. This command erases only the data in
memory, not the data that may still be stored on disk. Therefore,
until the SAVE FILE command is executed, the disk file will
remain unchanged.


ERASE LN
--------

Summary: Allows you to pick a line or surface to erase.

Menu(s): MODEL

Procedure
Page 17









After selecting the command, Position the cursor on, or very
near, the line or edge of the surface you want to erase and press
Enter. The program will then highlight the line in the editing
line style. The message: "Line selected. Return selects, ESC
exits, any other key continues." will then be displayed.

You can either cancel the erase procedure by pressing ESCAPE, or
you can erase the currently highlighted line by pressing ENTER.
Additionally, by pressing any other key, you can instruct the
routine to continue evaluating the rest of your drawing for the
"next" line that is also close to the cursor.

If the graphics cursor is not close enough to a line, the routine
will simply scan through the database and return program control
to the Model Menu.

If you are editing among a tightly grouped area of lines, you may
wish to use the ZOOM or SNAP-PT commands to position the cursor
more precisely.

See Also: PAN-ZOOM, PICK LN, SNAP-PT


F1 KEY
------

Summary: On-line Keyboard Reference. And is also used on the File
Display screens for entering new filenames.

Menu(s): Nearly all.

Procedure

IN GRAPHICS MODE

Clears the graphics viewport, and displays a listing of keyboard
commands. There are two pages (screens) you can review. Page 1
displays the Function Keys usage, and Page 2 displays character
key usage. To return back to graphics operation, press Escape.
The F1 Key command can also be activated "during" any of the
drawing commands.

ON THE FILE DISPLAY SCREEN

On file operations which ask you to select or enter a filename,
the F1 Key is used to initiate the "enter" routine. After
pressing F1, the cursor bar is removed from the file listing
display, and an input prompt appears on the top row of the
screen. You can then enter a new filename. If you change your
mind, press Escape, and the cursor bar will reappear on the list
of files.





Page 18









F2 KEY
------

Summary: Redraws your drawing using the last XYZ VP command
viewpoint.

Menu(s): Nearly all.

Procedure

The viewport is cleared, and your drawing is redrawn using the
rotation and tip values of your last selected XYZ VP viewpoint
(the viewpoint selected from the XYZ VP command). This Function
Key command can be used to return to your Previous 3D Viewpoint
after having used one of the four Orthographic Views.

You can use this command even during the drawing commands, which
gives you the versatility for example, to jump from view to view,
and then back to your 3D View.

This command also sets the previous Drawing Plane that was last
selected or used from this 3D Viewpoint.

See Also: F3-F6 KEYS, XYZ VP


F3-F6 KEYS
----------

Summary: Selects an Orthographic Viewpoint, and automatically
selects a Drawing Plane for the view.

Menu(s): Nearly all.

Procedure

The viewport is cleared and your drawing is redrawn using one of
the preset Orthographic Views. The views are assigned to a
separate Function Key as follows:

F3 LEFT VIEW F4 RIGHT VIEW

F5 TOP VIEW F6 FRONT VIEW

You can use this command even during the drawing commands. If a
drawing command is in use, you can use this command to assist you
in the positioning of the graphics cursor more quickly and
precisely, since you can jump from one view to another.

Also, using the F3-F6 Keys automatically selects the Drawing
Plane that is most likely to be used at such a view. For example,
when the F3 Key is pressed, the Drawing Plane will be switched to
LEFT-RIGHT, whereas if the F6 Key is pressed, the Drawing Plane
will become FRONT-BACK.


Page 19









(If needed, you can also override the drawing plane selection by
using the "D" key).

Orthographic Views are also useful when you are positioning an
image with the MOVE command.

To return to a Previous 3D Viewpoint and Drawing Plane use the F2
KEY.

See Also: F2 KEY, XYZ VP


F8 KEY
------

Summary: Toggles the display of an Axes Grid ON and OFF.

Menu(s): Nearly all.

Procedure

If Axes Grid is OFF, it is now turned ON and your drawing is
redrawn with the Axes Grid. If Axes Grid is ON, it is now turned
OFF and your drawing is redrawn without the Axes Grid.

The Axes Grid is created by drawing a line along each Axes (X-
Axis, Y-Axis, and Z-Axis) and is useful when aligning your
drawing to the center of the rotation point located at (0,0,0).

Notes

PLAN VIEW temporarily turns the Axes Grid OFF when drawing the
four views.

See Also: MOVE



F9 KEY
------

Summary: Allows the specification of Drawing Units, or Degrees,
during the commands that use these increments.

Menu(s): NONE. Active only during the corresponding command
operation.

Procedure

DURING THE DRAWING OR EDITING COMMANDS

Used to specify the distance the graphics cursor will move each
time you press a cursor key. The F9 KEY is pressed while the
LINES command is being used.


Page 20










The Draw Menu displays your Drawing Units down in the lower
right-hand corner of the screen. Pressing F9 will suspend the
LINES command and allow you to enter a new drawing unit in the
range of 1 to 500. After specifying your new drawing unit, you
will then resume with the LINES command. If you wish to cancel
the F9 command, press Escape.

DURING THE XYZ VP COMMAND

While rotating the XYZ VP Axes, you may find that you would like
to change the degree of rotation the Axes moves each time. The F9
KEY can be used to specify a new degree increment. You can
specify a degree within the range of 1 to 45.

The current Degree increment is displayed on the right-hand side
of the screen. Pressing F9 will suspend the XYZ VP command and
allow you to enter a new degree increment. After specifying your
new increment, you will then resume with the XYZ VP command. If
you wish to cancel the F9 command, press Escape.


F10 KEY
-------

Summary: Clears the viewport and Redraws your drawing.

Menu(s): Nearly all.

Procedure

The viewport is cleared, and your drawing is redrawn. Redraw does
not perform any rotation, tip, or perspective calculations and
therefore redraws the screen much faster than the XYZ VP command.



F11 KEY
-------

Summary: Toggles the use of either Absolute or Relative
coordinate display.

Menu(s): NONE. Active only during the LINES command.

Procedure

When entering the graphics editor, the cursor coordinates are
displayed in "Absolute" coordinates. These coordinates specify
the exact position of the graphics cursor in your drawing.

Another method of tracking the position of the graphics cursor is
through the use of "Relative" coordinates. With this method, the
display of coordinates indicate the "distance from the last point
entered." This assists you in drawing entities to a specific
size, by simply checking the coordinate display to see the value
differences from each point.
Page 21









Pressing the F11 Key, or the "O" Key, while using the LINES
command, enables you to switch between the use of either Absolute
and Relative coordinate display.



F12 KEY
-------

Summary: Toggles the display of either the Target Graphics Cursor
or the Full Screen Cross Hairs Cursor.

Menu(s): NONE. Active only during the LINES command. Can also be
activated by the "T" character key.

Procedure

While using the LINES command, or the editing LN commands, the
current X,Y,Z coordinate position on the screen is marked by the
graphics cursor. There are two types of graphics cursors
available in the program. The selection of which one to use
depends solely on your own preference.

The TARGET CURSOR appears as a small cross on the screen, the
vertical and horizontal alignment are always the same no matter
which drawing plane you are working on.

The FULL SCREEN CURSOR is a set of cross hairs, and the vertical
and horizontal alignment "are always in relation to your 3D
viewpoint and your current drawing plane." The cross hairs extend
in each direction to the end of 3D space at +-7000 units. When
using this cursor type from 3D viewpoints, drawing plane
orientation is visually reinforced, because both the vertical and
horizontal cursor directions are indicated by the alignment of
the cross hairs.



FRONT-BACK
----------

Summary: Selects the drawing plane that is associated with the
Front or Back Side of your drawing. (the X-Z Plane)

Menu(s): NONE. Selected during the LINES command using the "D"
key, or by using the F6 KEY.

Procedure

While using the LINES or editing commands from a 3D viewpoint,
you can switch your drawing plane to Front-Back using the "D"
character key. Additionally, using the F6 KEY will also select
the Front-Back Drawing Plane automatically.

The last message displayed below the Model Menu indicates your
current drawing plane.
Page 22









The Front-Back drawing plane will cause any subsequent movement
of the graphics cursor to move in relation to this plane and your
viewpoint.

The LEFT and RIGHT cursor keys will move the graphics cursor
along the "Width" of your drawing (the X-Axis), while the UP and
DOWN cursor keys will move the graphics cursor along the "Height"
of your drawing (the Z-Axis).

The current Y coordinate value (the location along your drawing's
length) will be locked in place as you draw on the Front-Back
Plane. (To move along the length of your drawing, you can use the
LEFT-RIGHT or TOP-BOTTOM drawing plane).

See Also: LEFT-RIGHT, TOP-BOTTOM, F6 KEY



FULL SCRN
---------

Summary: The FULL SCREEN command clears the menu from the
display, and temporarily redraws your drawing using the entire
screen.

Menu(s): VIEW

Procedure

FULL SCREEN redraws your currently selected view without a menu
or message area by using the entire screen as the drawing
viewport. The program is paused temporarily, and pressing any key
will reset the viewport and return you back to the View Menu.

To end the FULL SCREEN command, press any key, and the viewport
redraws and returns you back to the View Menu.

See Also: DP B&W, PAN-ZOOM


LEFT-RIGHT
----------

Summary: Selects the drawing plane that is associated with the
Left or Right Side of your drawing. (the Y-Z Plane)

Menu(s): NONE. Selected during the LINES command using the "D"
key, or by using the F3 KEY or F4 KEY.

Procedure

While using the LINES or edit LN commands from a 3D viewpoint,
you can switch your drawing plane to Left-Right using the "D"
character key. Additionally, using the F3 KEY or the F4 KEY will
also select the Left-Right Drawing Plane automatically.

Page 23









The last message displayed below the Model Menu indicates your
current drawing plane.

The Left-Right drawing plane will cause any subsequent movement
of the graphics cursor to move in relation to this plane and your
viewpoint.

The LEFT and RIGHT cursor keys will move the graphics cursor
along the "Length" of your drawing (the Y-Axis), while the UP and
DOWN cursor keys will move the graphics cursor along the "Height"
of your drawing (the Z-Axis).

The current X coordinate value (the location along your drawing's
width) will be locked in place as you draw on the Left-Right
Plane. (To move along the width of your drawing, you can use the
FRONT-BACK or TOP-BOTTOM drawing plane).

See Also: FRONT-BACK, TOP-BOTTOM, F3 and F4 KEYS



LINES
-----

Summary: Used for drawing lines in your drawing.

Menu(s): MODEL

Procedure

When using the LINES command, you will first be prompted to "Set
starting point for line(s)." Move the graphics cursor to the
desired location and then press ENTER. The prompt "Set next point
for line(s)." will then be displayed. During the positioning of
the second point, and the next series of points, a line will be
drawn by stretching it from its starting point to the current
location of the graphics cursor.

When you have drawn a line to the position you want, press ENTER.
The line number displayed with the X, Y, Z coordinates will
advance by one, indicating the line you will be working on next
(your actual line count will be one less). You may have a maximum
total of 3000 lines per drawing file.

After pressing ENTER, you remain in the line drawing mode and can
continue drawing more lines. To stop drawing, press ESCAPE. If
you ESCAPE before selecting your line with ENTER, the unselected
line will be erased and the cursor will move back to the last
starting point, you will then return to the Model Menu.

Displayed below the Model Menu is the current Drawing Unit, the
increment the graphics cursor will move each time you press a
cursor key. You can change this value by using the F9 KEY while
the LINES commands.


Page 24









The center of 3D drawing space is at X, Y, Z coordinate: 0, 0, 0
and the drawing space extends 7,000 units in each direction. You
should try to keep your drawing boundaries between -3000 to
+3000, since this is the maximum size of the viewport.

See Also: LEFT-RIGHT, FRONT-BACK, TOP-BOTTOM, F10 KEY, SNAP-PT



MOVE
----

Summary: Displays the Move Menu, where you can reposition your
drawing in 3D space.

Menu(s): MODEL

Procedure

The current Move Unit is displayed below the Move Menu. You can
move your drawing, LEFT and RIGHT (X-Axis), FORWARD and BACKWARD
(Y-Axis), and UP and DOWN (Z-Axis). Choosing any of these six
directions causes the drawing to be recalculated and displayed in
the new position.

The distance of movement can be set by selecting either 200, 500
or 1000 units from the menu, or by using the SPECIFY command to
enter your own increment in the range of 1-3000 drawing units.

Notes

The program calculates your viewpoint using the center coordinate
0,0,0. Centering your drawing with the MOVE command allows your
drawing to have an equal rotation and tip transformation. Using
Orthographic Views such as a front and side views, (F3-F6 KEYS)
will help center your drawing.

Selecting SCALE from this menu, allows you to jump directly to
the SCALE menu.

See Also: SCALE, F3-F6 KEYS, F8 KEY, F10 KEY



NEW COLOR
---------

Summary: To select a new line color for drawing.

Menu(s): COLORS

Procedure

The Line Color Menu displays all 16 (0-15) colors that are
available for use in your drawing. Color blocks will appear next
to each color number on EGA and VGA systems.
Page 25









Select the color in which you want your next line or lines to be
drawn. This color will remain in effect until you select a new
color. After choosing a new line color, you will return directly
to the Model Menu.

Use the COLOR-FORE command to change the palette color associated
with any of the line colors.



PAN-ZOOM
--------

Summary: To Pan or Zoom the graphics viewport.

From nearly any menu, and as part of NorthCAD-3D's simultaneous
command architecture, you can also activate PAN-ZOOM "during" any
drawing or editing command. PAN-ZOOM allows you to move your
viewpoint (PAN), or enlarge the view of your drawing (Zoom).
Pressing either the "Z" or "P" keys activates the command. To
exit the PAN-ZOOM command, press ESCAPE.

ZOOM

There are 8 Zoom Levels that can be selected. While the Pan and
Zoom Mode is Active, you can move from one Zoom Level to the next
by pressing the "+" key for "Zoom In" and the "-" key for "Zoom
Out." You can also jump to various Zoom Levels by pressing any
of the numeric keys 1 thru 8. This lets you to jump, for example,
from Level 2 to Level 7 at the touch of a key. Zoom Level 1 is
normal while Zoom Level 8 is maximum enlargement.

PAN

Using the cursor keys, you can "Pan" the display of your drawing.
Like the XYZ VP command, you are moving your viewpoint not the
drawing itself. Press the cursor key for the appropriate
direction you want "your viewpoint moved."

The Pan increment is controlled dynamically by the program, and
will Pan your viewpoint by One-Third the distance of the graphics
viewport on each press of a cursor key. The increment is also
based on your current Zoom Level, and will therefore eliminate
any possibility of Panning in too large an increment. If you
attempt to Pan farther than the limits of "3D space," the program
will simply sound a short "Beep" and will not continue to pan
farther than is possible.

Notes

While in the Pan and Zoom Mode, pressing "R" will Reset both Pan
and Zoom to Normal settings. Pan and Zoom settings remain in
effect even when redrawing your drawing after using the XYZ VP
command. Your viewpoint may therefore appear to have shifted
after using the XYZ VP command.

Page 26









PICK LN
-------

Summary: Allows you to pick a line for editing. (for instance to
change its' color with the CHG LINE color command).

Menu(s): MODEL

Procedure

After selecting PICK LN, position the cursor on, or very near,
the line you want to select for editing.

The program will then highlight the line in the editing line
style. The message: "Line selected. Return selects, ESC exits,
any other key continues." will then be displayed.

You can either cancel the command by pressing ESCAPE, or you can
pick the currently highlighted line by pressing ENTER. By
pressing any other key, you can instruct the routine to continue
evaluating the rest of your drawing for the "next" line that is
also close to the cursor.

Notes

The command finds the first item in the database it believes is
closest to the line you want to edit. If the graphics cursor is
not close enough, the routine will simply scan through the
database and return to the Model Menu. If you are editing among a
tightly grouped area of lines, you may wish to use the ZOOM or
SNAP-PT commands to position the cursor more precisely.

See Also: ERASE LN



PLAN VIEW
---------

Summary: Simultaneously displays three Orthographic Views and
your current 3D viewpoint using Full Screen Mode.

Menu(s): VIEW

Procedure

The screen is cleared and is divided into four equal sections. In
each section a different view of your drawing will be drawn.
Three of the views are Orthographic Views, which are "straight
on" views of your drawing. The fourth view will be the same view
that was previously displayed when you selected this command.

Top View Current 3D View

Front View Right Side View

Page 27









After viewing your drawing with PLAN VIEW, press any key and the
viewport redraws and returns you back to the View Menu.

Notes

If the Axes Grid is ON, it will be temporarily turned OFF for
this command.

See Also: F3-F6 KEYS, XYZ VP



SAVE FILE
---------

Summary: Saves your drawing and current settings on disk.

Menu(s): MODEL

Procedure

Your drawing is saved on disk. The file will have the name you
specified when you started drawing or editing, and will have the
.N3D filename extension.

All the main drawing settings will also be saved, including the
current drawing plane, graphics cursor location, and color
palette information. After the file has been saved, press any key
to continue.

Notes

Your drawing is saved as numerical data and not as a memory image
of the screen. The size of the file will be directly related to
the number of lines you have in your drawing. Should you ever
create an 3D drawing with the maximum amount of lines, the file
will probably require around 90K bytes of disk space.

After each save, the program also displays the amount of Free
Space available in your drawings directory.



SCALE
-----

Summary: To increase or decrease the size of your drawing,
including scaling each Axis independently.

Menu(s): MODEL

Procedure

The Scale Menu will appear and display the current Scale Factor
and Scale Type below the menu.

Page 28









To change your Scale Factor, select from the menu one of the
following: .99, .95, .75, .50. A Scale Factor of .50 will cause
the greatest amount of scaling occur, whereas a Scale Factor of
.99 will cause the least. You may also use SPECIFY to enter your
own Scale Factor between the range .1 - .99.

ALL SIDES indicates you want to scale all the sides of your
drawing equally by the same factor, and at the same time. HEIGHT
specifies that you want only the height (Z-Axis) scaled. LENGTH
indicates you want only the length (Y-Axis) scaled. And WIDTH
specifies you want only the width (X-Axis) scaled.

The SMALLER and LARGER commands will scale your drawing using the
Scale Type and by the Scale Factor currently displayed. Your
drawing is recalculated and then redrawn on the screen.

The MOVE command can be used to jump directly to the Move Menu.

Notes

Scaling your drawing down to a tiny dot on the screen will run
the risk of setting some of the X, Y, Z coordinates to Zero. If
this happens, you will be unable to bring your drawing back up to
its normal size or shape.

Scaling the drawing 3 to 4 times larger than the viewport will
run the risk of your drawing hitting the edge of 3D space (+-
7,000 units). The coordinates of your drawing will begin to reset
to +-7,000 and alter the shape of your drawing. Use the PAN-ZOOM
command to view drawings in closer detail.



SNAP-PT
-------

Summary: Automatically repositions the graphics cursor to the
nearest endpoint of a line segment.

Menu(s): MODEL, also during any drawing or editing command by
pressing the "." period key.

Procedure

SNAP-PT enables you to quickly reposition the graphics cursor to
the exact X, Y, and Z coordinates of the closest endpoint of a
line segment. Any subsequent drawing or editing command will
begin at this new position.

In addition to the menu option, the SNAP-PT can also be initiated
during any of the drawing or editing commands by pressing the "."
period key. This reduces drawing time, since you "snap" instantly
to the closest point and do not have to manually position the
graphics cursor.


Page 29









SNAP-PT also enables you to quickly change the coordinates of
your current drawing plane, since the drawing plane coordinates
are also shifted to those of the snap point.

Notes

SNAP-PT is an excellent command to use when you need to get back
"in scale" with a drawing you have just moved or scaled.

Drawing entities in the database consist of individual line
segments. Therefore, you can also "snap" to segments on curves,
arcs, etc., giving you greater precision in the placement of
drawing entities.



TOP-BOTTOM
----------

Summary: Selects the drawing plane that is associated with the
Top or Bottom Side of your drawing. (the X-Y Plane)

Menu(s): NONE. Selected during the LINES command using the "D"
key, or by using the F5 KEY.

Procedure

While using the LINES or editing LN commands from a 3D viewpoint,
you can switch your drawing plane to Top-Bottom using the "D"
character key. Additionally, using the F5 KEY will also select
the Top-Bottom drawing plane automatically. The last message
displayed below the Model Menu indicates your current drawing
plane.

The LEFT and RIGHT cursor keys will move the graphics cursor
along the "Width" of your drawing (the X-Axis), while the UP and
DOWN cursor keys move the graphics cursor along the "Length" of
your drawing (the Y-Axis).

The current Z coordinate value (the location along your drawing's
height) will be locked in place as you draw on the Top-Bottom
Plane. To move along the height of your drawing, you can use the
FRONT-BACK or LEFT-RIGHT drawing plane.

See Also: FRONT-BACK, LEFT-RIGHT, F5 KEY











Page 30









XYZ VP
------

Summary: Used to select a viewpoint around your drawing.

Menu(s): MODEL, VIEW

Procedure

The viewport clears, and displays an XYZ Axes Tripod. The current
degree of Rotation and Tip of your viewpoint is displayed on the
right-hand side of the screen, as well as the currently set Axes
Degree increment.

The Axes are labeled with a letter that corresponds to the sides
of your drawing, R (right), T (top), F (front). These labels will
help you track your viewing position.

Using the cursor keys, you can rotate and tip the Axes.

The rule to remember is:
YOU ARE MOVING YOUR VIEWPOINT, NOT YOUR DRAWING.

For example, if you press the Right cursor key you will move your
viewpoint to the right, and the Axes will actually spin to the
left. And, if you press the Up cursor key you will move your
viewpoint higher, and the Axes will actually spin down.

When you have selected your viewpoint, press ENTER. Your drawing
will be recalculated and displayed using your new viewpoint.

If you wish to exit the command and return to your previous
viewpoint, press ESCAPE.

Notes

The degree of movement the Axes rotates and tips each time you
press a cursor key, can be set using the F9 KEY - while you are
using the XYZ VP command.

If you have previously used the Pan or Zoom commands, you may
need to use them again to realign your view. The drawing rotates
around the point 0,0,0 and the area you were viewing may have
been rotated out of view.

See Also: F9 KEY










Page 31









-----------------------------------------------------------------
* * * * * * * APPENDICES AND INDEX * * * * * * *
-----------------------------------------------------------------


APPENDIX A: DRAWING REFERENCE
-----------------------------

This reference describes Version 4.2 & 8.0 drawing
specifications.

Database
3D Vector & Boundary-Rep Coordinate System. Object oriented.
Resolution and Display Independent. Layout files: 2D Vector.

Maximum Lines And Surfaces
3000 lines, 750 (4 vertex) to 1000 (3 vertex) surfaces.
Layout files: 8000 lines.

Contingency Drawing Space
-7000 to +7000 drawing units along each axis

Normal Drawing Space, Maximum Viewport
-3000 to +3000 drawing units along each axis. Viewport height
depends on the aspect ratio for the display. Aspect ratio
adjustable in Version 8.

Maximum Objects And Groups
100 individual objects. 20 individual group designations.
Version 8 only.

Disk Directory\Paths
4 user defined. Drawings, Library, Export, and Picture Files.
Version 4.2: Drawings only.

Maximum Drawing Colors
CGA Mode: 2, Black & White. EGA Mode: 16, user defined from
64 color palette. VGA Mode: 16, user defined from 64 color
palette.

Viewpoint Control
User controlled, 360 Degrees. 4 defined Orthographic views.

Drawing File Storage
Binary Format. Data Point, Line Vector, and Surface Boundary
database. N3D File Format. Layout files: N2D File Format.

Filename Extensions
Drawing Files: "N3D" Versions 4.2 and 8
Library Files: "N3D" Version 8 only
Picture Files: "PCX" Version 8 only
Plot to Disk Files: "PLT" Version 8 only
HP-GL Disk Files: "HPL" Version 8 only
DXF 2D and DXF 3D: "DXF" Version 8 only
Layout Files: "N2D" Version 8 only

Page 32









APPENDIX E: ERROR MESSAGES
--------------------------

The following is a list of error messages used by NorthCAD-3D.

Bad Filename

The filename contains characters that are invalid. Consult
your DOS manual. Also, remember not to include the filename
extensions when entering a filename.

Device unavailable

An attempt was made to access a device that is either not
"on-line" or does not exist. For example, setting a
directory specification to "C:" when in fact, a hard disk is
not in the computer.

Disk is full, unable to save file

NorthCAD-3D attempted to write a file on a disk which
contains insufficient free space. Replace the disk with
another that contains more free space and retry the command.

Disk media error

An attempt was made to write or read a file from your disk.
This error indicates your disk may be defective. Consult
your DOS manual for procedures to check your disk.

Disk not ready

An attempt was made to write or read a file from your disk.
Check to be sure the drive door is closed properly.

Disk write protect

An attempt was made to save a file to your disk and
encountered a write protect label, remove it and retry the
command.

File not found

The file you specified could not be found. Retry the command
and be sure the file is listed in the directory. If you are
starting a new drawing, be sure that the template file:
NORTHCAD.N3D is in your Drawings Directory.

File: NORTHCAD.CFG not found

The NORTHCAD.CFG file contains program settings and
configuration information, and must be kept on the same disk
or in the same directory as the NORTHCAD.EXE file.



Page 33









File: NORTHCAD.N3D not found

When starting a new drawing, the default settings in the
drawing file: NORTHCAD.N3D are loaded into memory and become
the initial drawing template for your new drawing.
NORTHCAD.N3D must be kept in your Drawings Directory.

Incompatible File

The specified file is not NorthCAD-3D Version 4.2/8
compatible.

Internal error 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, or 106

An internal error in the program has occurred. Please send a
description of the circumstances that has caused the error,
the error number, and the actions the program took after it
happened. However, if you receive an Internal error 105
message, first check to be sure you have properly configured
the program for your display adapter. The program is
specifically designed to work with CGA, EGA, and VGA systems
with color monitors.

Invalid Directory

The directory specification is not correct. Check to be sure
the proper syntax is being used, see program configuration
for more information about specifying directories.

Maximum drawing memory

You have executed a command that would exceed the current
maximum memory limits of the program. NorthCAD-3D allows up
to 3000 lines per drawing.

Out of Memory
Out of String Space

There is insufficient free RAM. Check to be sure you do not
have too many unnecessary memory resident programs currently
in memory. To check your available memory, use the DOS
command CHKDSK. If you do not have enough RAM, it will be
necessary to remove some of your memory resident programs
before running NorthCAD-3D.












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INDEX
-----

3D Space, 12-13, 24-25, 29 N
3D Modeling, command, 14-15 NEW COLOR, command, 25
NORTHCAD.N3D, file, 13-14
A
Axes Degrees, 20 O
Axis Grid, Key, 19 Orthographic, views, 18-19

C P
COLOR-BACK, command, 15 Palette, colors, 15-17
COLOR BARS, command, 16 PAN-ZOOM, command, 26
COLOR-FORE, command, 16-17 PCX Files, 9
Configuration, 5-6 Perspective, Key, 6, 8
PICK LN, command, 27
D PLAN VIEW, command, 27-28
Directory, files, 5 Printers, 10
DP B/W, command, 17
Drawing Planes, 12, 13, 19, R
22, 23, 30 Redraw, Key, 21
Drawing Units, 20 Registered Users, 7-11
DXF input/translation, 9
S
E Sample Files, 3
ERASE ALL, command, 17 SAVE FILE, command, 28
ERASE LN, command, 17-18 SCALE, command, 28-29
Error Messages, 33-34 Shareware, 7
Export, files, 9 SNAP-PT, command, 29-30
Starting The Program, 5
F Surface Rendering, 8
FRONT-BACK, command, 22 System Requirements, 2, 10
FULL SCRN, command, 23
Function Keys, 6, 18-22 T
Table Of Contents, 1
H Template File, 13-14
Height, scaling, 29 TOP-BOTTOM, command, 30
Hidden Lines, removal, 8
V
I Viewpoints, 18-19, 26, 31
Installing NorthCAD-3D, 3-5
Introduction, 2 W
Width, scaling, 29
K
Keyboard, reference, 6-7 X
XYZ VP, command, 31
L X-Axis, 12, 22, 23, 25, 29, 30
LEFT-RIGHT, command, 23-24
Length, scaling, 29 Y
Library Files, 9 Y-Axis, 12, 22, 23, 25, 29, 30
LINES, command, 24
Z
M Zoom, 26
Memory, 2 Z-Axis, 12, 22, 23, 25, 29, 30
Menus, 6
Mouse Compatible, 9
MOVE, command, 25 Page 35





 December 11, 2017  Add comments

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