Dec 112017
Graphic Workshop 7.0b. The best Workshop yet. Converts, prints, views, dithers, transforms, flips, rotates, scales, crops, colour adjusts, quantizes, catalogs and wreaks special effects on MacPaint, IMG, PCX, GIF, JPEG, TI

Full Description of File

*GPH* Graphic Workshop 7.0b
The best Workshop yet! Converts,
prints, views, dithers, transforms,
flips, rotates, scales, crops, colour
adjusts, quantizes, catalogs and
wreaks special effects on MacPaint,
IFF/LBM, BMP, RLE, Halo CUT, Targa,
ART, HRZ, EXE, TXT and EPS files.
Drives most display cards and
printers. From Alchemy Mindworks Inc.

File GWS70B.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Printer + Display Graphics
Graphic Workshop 7.0b. The best Workshop yet. Converts, prints, views, dithers, transforms, flips, rotates, scales, crops, colour adjusts, quantizes, catalogs and wreaks special effects on MacPaint, IMG, PCX, GIF, JPEG, TI
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
EXAMPLE1.IMG 62630 45949 deflated
EXAMPLE2.GIF 24311 24311 stored
EXAMPLE3.GIF 27878 27364 deflated
FILE_ID.DIZ 495 320 deflated
GWS.DOC 164752 50862 deflated
GWS.EXE 334815 124033 deflated
GWS.RES 329573 89192 deflated
GWSDRV.RES 207123 15491 deflated
GWSHELP.RES 36920 13229 deflated
GWSINSTL.EXE 59324 28997 deflated
GWSPDR.RES 93016 5919 deflated
ORDER.FRM 3653 1162 deflated
STACK 6 6 stored
VGACARD.COM 4014 1608 deflated
VGACARD.DOC 2702 1218 deflated
VIEW-ME.GIF 17727 17727 stored

Download File GWS70B.ZIP Here

Contents of the GWS.DOC file

Graphic Workshop

If you like this program, please:

Send us $40.00, the normal user fee for Graphic Workshop.

Registered users of Graphic Workshop are entitled to phone support,
notification of upgrades and good karma. When you register it,
we'll send you a copy of the latest version. Please tell us the
platform and version number of your copy of Graphic Workshop
when you register. Our address can be found in the Registration
section of this document.

NOTE: You can register Graphic Workshop with an American Express
or Visa card by calling 1-800-263-1138 (toll free) from the
United States and Canada or 1-905-729-4969 from other places.

NOTE: CompuServe users can register Graphic Workshop by typing
GO SWREG at any CompuServe prompt. You can contact us directly
over CompuServe at 70451,2734.

Overseas distributors:

PEARL AGENCY Osterreich, Grunburgerstr. 7a, A-4540 Bad Hall

The Public Domain & Shareware Library Ltd., Winscombe House,
Beacon Road, Crowborough, Sussex, TN6 1UL, England, telephone
0892 663298, FAX 0892 667473, BBS 0892 661149.

JIMAZ s.r.o., Hermanova 37, 170 00 Praha 7, Czech Republic
Telephone: +42-2-379-498, FAX: +42-2-378-103.

Prof Shareware, Benloese Skel 4 G, DK 4100, Ringsted, Denmark.

DP Tool Club, 102 rue des fusilles, 59650 Villeneuve
d'Ascq, France, telephone (33) 20 56 55 33, fax (33) 20 56 55 25.

1. Der PD-Profi, Schulstraae 13, D-86666, Burgheim-Wengen
Telephone 8432-1296, FAX 8432-8674
2. PEARL AGENCY Tel 07631 120 91-99, Fax 07631 120 08-9

P&A Shareware, 302 Bellwins, 1367-23, Nakagami, Akishima, Tokyo,
JAPAN 196, telephone (81) 425-46-9141, FAX (81) 425-46-9142

NOTE: We now have a bulletin board system. See the section on
contacting Alchemy Mindworks for more information.

NOTE: Registered users of Graphic Workshop will receive the
Graphic Workshop accessory disk and the Graphic Workshop screen
capture utility at no extra cost.

NOTE: With release seven of Graphic Workshop we've changed the
registration numbers required to establish a registered copy. We
did this because it appears that the program which generated the
old numbers has fallen into unfriendly hands. If you have
previously registered Graphic Workshop for DOS version 6.1 any
time on or after the summer's solstice... June 21, 1993... please
write us and we'll provide you with a new number at no cost. We
are unable to provide registration numbers by phone, electronic
mail or FAX.



New Features in Release Seven

Hardware and Software

Frequently Asked Questions

File Formats
PC Paintbrush PCX
CompuServe GIF
TIFF (including group III, group IV and LZW)
WordPerfect Graphics WPG
Deluxe Paint/Amiga IFF/LBM
PC Paint Pictor PIC
Truevision Targa
Windows 3 BMP
Microsoft Paint MSP
Encapsulated PostScript EPS
Self-displaying EXE pictures
Text files
Halo CUT
Windows 3 RLE
PFS:First Publisher Art files
Sun Raster
HRZ slow scan television

24-bit files

Using the Main Menu
Control keys
Viewing and colour adjustment
Getting file information
Special effects

Screen Capture

Runtime editing
Screen driver selection
Printer driver selection

DesqView, QEMM and Other Environments

Script Language

Ventura Tricks

Corel Draw Tricks

A Word About Memory

A Word About Mice

If you Encounter a Problem

Contacting Alchemy Mindworks Inc.

Shareware Registration

Technical Support -- IN CASE OF EMERGENCY READ THIS --

Bundling Graphic Workshop


Graphic Workshop Accessory Disk

Shareware Distributors

Revision History

Legal Dogma


Graphic Workshop is a program for working with bitmapped graphic files.
It will handle most of the popular formats, as listed in the
contents section of this document.

Graphic Workshop is a simple, menu driven environment which will
let you perform the following operations on the aforementioned

- View them.
- Convert between any two formats (with a few restrictions).
- Print them to any LaserJet Plus compatible or PostScript laser
and most dot matrix printers. Graphic Workshop can print colour
pictures to colour PostScript and inkjet printers.
- Dither and threshold the colour ones to black and white.
- Reverse them.
- Rotate and flip them.
- Scale them.
- Reduce the number of colours in them and do colour dithering.
- Sharpen, soften and otherwise wreak special effects on them.
- Crop them down to smaller files
- Create catalogs of a collection of images.
- Adjust the brightness, contrast and colour balance of the
colour ones.
- Capture your screen to a PCX file in most of the popular VGA
and super VGA text and graphic modes.

Using Graphic Workshop, you can have your image files in the
formats that your software recognizes, all without keeping track
of numerous funky utilities. In addition, using the halftoning
and dithering facilities of Graphic Workshop, you can convert
full colour digitized photographs for use as superb black and
white clip art, suitable for inclusion in your documents.

Graphic Workshop will handle image files of any size. It will use
extended or expanded memory if you have some, and disk space if
you don't. It has a fast and easily understood user interface.
Hopefully, it lacks even the merest vestiges of bugs... a likely
story, but we hope so.

Graphic Workshop will work with a Microsoft-compatible mouse if you
have a suitable mouse driver loaded in your system prior to
running GWS.EXE.

Graphic Workshop will drive all of the popular display cards. A
complete discussion of display cards can be found later in this

As it comes out of the box... or out of the ZIP...
Graphic Workshop is configured like as follows. If you want to
change some of these parameters, see the installation section of
this document.

- It attempts to autodetect the display card type.
- It uses virtual memory.
- It uses colour text.
- It prints titles on its hard copy.
- It uses the commonly required file format defaults.
- It does not prompt for a destination directory.
- It creates dithered, three-dimensional catalog images.


Release seven of Graphic Workshop represents a major rewrite
of the software. Its new features include:

- Support for JPEG compression and the Independent JPEG Group's
JFIF file format.
- Additional colour reduction and dithering options.
- Better memory management.
- PFS:First Publisher ART file support.
- Sun raster file support.
- Expanded TIFF options, including group III, group IV and LZW.
- HRZ slow scan TV support.
- High colour PIC support.
- Easier setup installation.
- In-session parameter overrides.
- Improved and expanded VESA drivers, now including true colour.
- Catalog function.
- Optional prompt for destination directories.
- Monitor gamma compensation.
- Plus numerous other improvements...

Note that with release seven of Graphic Workshop scanner support
has been removed from the package.


Graphic Workshop will run on any PC compatible system with at
least 640 kilobytes of memory. A few megabytes of extended or
expanded memory will make Graphic Workshop a lot faster and more
useful if you'll be working with large files. Some functions may
not work, or may work very slowly, in restricted memory.

In the absence of extra memory, a lot of free hard drive space
will help.

Graphic Workshop can drive most graphic cards. A more complete
discussion of graphic cards can be found later in this document.
If you have a CGA, EGA, stock VGA or Hercules card in your
system, Graphic Workshop will probably be able to detect it and
set itself up accordingly. If you have a super-VGA card in your
system, Graphic Workshop must be configured to use it. If you do
not do this, it will default to treating it as a stock VGA card.

Configuration is discussed in detail later in this document.

Graphic Workshop will run under DOS 2.0 or better. We recommend
that you use at least DOS 3.3. You will need a suitable expanded
or extended memory driver in your system for Graphic Workshop to
recognize your extra memory.

You should have received the following files in the
Graphic Workshop package:

- GWS.EXE - The Graphic Workshop program itself.
- GWS.RES - The Graphic Workshop resource file.
- GWS.DOC - Yes, you're reading it now.
- GWSHELP.RES - The on line help resource.
- GWSDRV.RES - All the super-VGA screen drivers.
- GWSPDR.RES - All the dot matrix printer drivers.
- GWSINSTL.EXE - The Graphic Workshop configuration utility.
- EXAMPLE1.BMP - A monochrome picture file.
- EXAMPLE2.GIF - A sixteen-colour picture file.
- EXAMPLE3.GIF - A 256-colour picture file.
- VIEW-ME.GIF - View this file.
- VGACARD.COM - A tool to help select a screen driver.
- VGACARD.DOC - Read this before you use VGACARD.COM.
- ORDER.FRM - Order form to register Graphic Workshop

There is no EXAMPLE4, a 24-bit picture file, as the smallest one
we could find ran to over 400 kilobytes. There are several 24-bit
files on our bulletin board, should you want one to look at.

Registered users will also receive:

- ACCESS.ZIP - The Graphic Workshop accessory disk contents.
- GWSCAP.COM - The GWSCAP screen capture utility.
- GWSCAP.DOC - The documentation for the screen capture.

It's inadvisable to run Graphic Workshop for DOS while shelled
out of other applications, such as Microsoft Windows, DOSSHELL,
Norton Commander, Quarterdeck and so on.


If you encounter a problem with Graphic Workshop, please read this
document, and the following section particularly, before you get
in touch with us.


Graphic Workshop will create EPS files from bitmapped graphics
and it will display the EPS preview images of EPS files from
other sources which have previews. It will not read the
PostScript data from EPS files, and if there is no preview header
available it will display an error message.


No. This requires an optical character recognition package.


It's not likely. In creating Graphic Workshop, we chose to have
it do one thing well... working with bitmapped graphics... rather
than several things badly. Formats such as CDR, WMF, CGM and EPS
are vector graphics, which require completely different


The WPG format can support both bitmapped and vector graphics.
Graphic Workshop will deal with the bitmapped ones only. The Get
Info function will tell you which files contain bitmaps and which
one only have vector graphics in them.


The extension EXE is normally used to indicate actual application
files, that is, programs. Graphic Workshop uses it to indicate
pictures which it has converted into programs as well... which it
must do, such that DOS will recognize them as programs when you
choose to run them. Unfortunately, one file name looks pretty
much like another when Graphic Workshop is assembling its file
list, and it can't tell which EXE files are programs and which
are pictures.


The TIFF standard is a huge, fairly confusing thing which allows
applications which create TIFF files to do so in an almost
limitless variety of ways. It's probably technically impossible
to write software that will read all of them... at the very
least, such an application would be huge. Graphic Workshop
attempts to read a sensible range of TIFF files, and we improve
on its TIFF handling frequently. However, there will probably
always be unusual TIFF files it won't be able to handle. In
creating TIFF files to be read by Graphic Workshop, we recommend
that you begin by trying the simplest defaults, such as no


In creating release seven of Graphic Workshop we were confronted
with a space problem. The available 640 kilobytes of memory in a
conventional PC was getting full. Something had to go, and
scanner support seemed to be the function which was the least


Your current display adapter or display adapter driver can display
fewer colours than the image contains. Graphic Workshop is
offering to dither or otherwise modify the image to make it


By default, Graphic Workshop configures itself for standard VGA
mode. The only 256-colour mode available in this case is the
coarse 320 by 200 pixel mode. Use VGACARD and GWSINSTL to select
a screen driver for your display card.


Choose a lower resolution print option or the appropriate
Autosize selection.


Graphic Workshop works exclusively with bitmapped image files.
This is as opposed to vector or line art files. Vector files
include DXF, GEM, CDR, Harvard Graphics, Lotus PIC and CGM files,
among others. Graphic Workshop does not support vector files, nor
is it likely to in the immediate future.

In most cases, the specifications for image files are pretty
standardized, and Graphic Workshop will reliably import image
files in its supported formats without difficulty. There are a
few exceptions to this, as will be discussed in detail throughout
this section.

Each of the formats listed here also includes the maximum number
of bits of colour the format will support. You can work out the
number of colours this represents as 2 to the power of the number
of bits. Hence, an eight-bit file has 2^^8 possible colours, or
256. Twenty-four bit files have essentially an infinite number of
possible colours.


These can come in two flavours. The most common one is straight
ported MacPaint files, that is, files having the "MacBinary"
header. The other is "headerless" files, these being the ones
used with PFS:First Publisher. Graphic Workshop reads both types,
but if you convert a file from a different format to MacPaint
format the file will be written in accordance with the setting of
the MacBinary header field in GWSINSTL. You can override this
with the appropriate command line switches.

Files converted to the MacPaint format from other formats will be
cropped or padded out as necessary to fit in the MacPaint
format's 576 by 720 format. Only monochrome files can be
converted to MacPaint files, since MacPaint in a monochrome-only


There are actually quite a few variations on IMG files... they
handle monochrome and grey level images. The primary application
for IMG files is as the bitmapped image file format of Ventura
Publisher. Graphic Workshop supports files with up to 256 levels
of grey and 24-bit colour IMG files. Note that 24-bit IMG files
are only read and written by Ventura Publisher version 4.0 or


These are the files used to hold images for Z-Soft's PC
Paintbrush package. These can range from monochrome to 24-bit
images. All the various formats are supported by
Graphic Workshop.

Note that some FAX boards which export PCX files do so in a
peculiar way... they include one fewer lines of image data than
the files purport to contain. Graphic Workshop regards these as being
corrupted files. If you encounter these files, the PCXPATCH
utility available on the Graphic Workshop accessory disk,
discussed elsewhere in this document, will fix the problem.


These can range from monochrome to 256-colour images in any size
you can find 'em. Graphic Workshop supports both the 87a and 89a
versions of the GIF standard. It will read the first image of GIF
files having multiple images.

The Details function of the Get Info box will display the entire
structure of a GIF file. Many newer GIF files contain text
information along with their images.

By default Graphic Workshop writes GIF 89a files. If you require
GIF 87a files, use the /G87 command line switch or set
up Graphic Workshop appropriately with GWSINSTL.


The TIFF options in Graphic Workshop can get a bit involved. The
TIFF format offers lots of options to make it applicable to a
wide variety of applications... which entails a certain amount of
confusion, as well. Registered users of Graphic Workshop are
welcome to contact us for help in unraveling the TIFF options if
needs be.

Graphic Workshop supports monochrome, colour and grey scale TIFF
files. Grey scale TIFF files can be created by converting any
colour format into TIFF with Graphic Workshop set up to produce
grey scale TIFF files, either through GWSINSTL or by using the
/TCG switch. These import into desktop publishing packages such
as Ventura for sharp looking PostScript halftones.

Note that as of this writing Ventura will read grey scale TIFF
files correctly. Some versions seem to invert colour TIFF files.

Colour TIFF files are useful in Corel Draw, among other places.
Corel Draw 2.0 will import colour TIFF files for inclusion in
CDR graphics. This is preferable to importing colour PCX files,
as the size of a TIFF file in Corel Draw is preserved.

Some applications have trouble reading grey scale TIFF files
which have been compressed... Gray F/X chokes on them as of this
writing, for example. Others read 'em fine. For this reason,
Graphic Workshop defaults to creating compressed grey scale TIFF
files but you can tell it not to compress them if you're not sure
that whatever you'll be importing them into will read them. There
are command line switches to set up these options.

Note that due to the wide variations among the programs which
produce TIFF files, Graphic Workshop would be lying rather badly
if it claimed to be able to read all TIFF files.

When you're creating TIFF files which will be used as desktop
publishing art or in other situations wherein they'll be printed
to a PostScript printer, you should create them with greyscale
expansion enabled. If they will be displayed on a monitor or
edited in a paint program, you may want to create them with
greyscale expansion disabled.

Whether you create colour or grey scale TIFF files will be
largely dependant on the application you want your TIFF files to
be read by. Here are a few guidelines:

- If you want to import TIFF files into Ventura or PageMaker so
they'll output as halftones to a PostScript printer, use grey
scale TIFF files with grey scale expansion enabled.

- If you want to import colour TIFF files into Corel Draw to
print to a colour output device, use colour TIFF files... the
grey scale expansion doesn't matter.

- If you want to import colour TIFF files into Corel Draw to
print to a monochrome output device, use grey scale TIFF files
with the grey scale expansion enabled.

- If you want to import grey scale TIFF files into a paint or
image editing package, such as ImageIn or Desktop Paint 256,
use grey scale TIFF files with the grey scale expansion

Note also that Graphic Workshop packs TIFF files with an eye to
maximum unpacking speed, rather than for optimum compression. As
such, pictures with between 32 and 256 colours will be promoted
to 256 colours. Pictures with between four and sixteen colours
will be promoted to sixteen colours.


These are the native import graphic files for WordPerfect. These
files can contain both bitmaps and line art, or vector graphics.
Graphic Workshop can only deal with the bitmapped parts of them.
If you view, print or convert a WPG file containing both
bitmapped and vector elements, the vector elements will be

WPG files which refuse to read with Graphic Workshop are usually
those which contain only vector elements and no bitmaps. If you
use the F4 function on a WPG file which does not read, the
comments field of the file information box will say "Vector file"
if this is the case, or display an error message.

Graphic Workshop will deal with WPG files having one, four or
eight bits of colour information, that is, monochrome files,
sixteen-colour files and 256-colour files.

The WPG specification allows for 256-colour files. As of this
writing, WordPerfect itself would not read them. If you wish to
use 256-colour images in a WordPerfect document, you might want
to either reduce them to sixteen colours or dither them to
monochrome, depending upon what you'll be outputting them to.


These are the image files used by the paint program which came
with Microsoft Windows version 2. Don't confuse these with PCX
files... some versions of Windows 2 came with a Windows
implementation of PC Paintbrush from ZSoft as well. The two
programs... and the two file formats... are not compatible. MSP
files are monochrome only.


These started out on the Amiga. The IFF file standard is
extremely flexible, and allows all sorts of things besides
images to be stored in IFF files. IFF files are found on the PC
having been ported from Amiga systems. They are also created on
the PC by several applications such as Electronic Arts' Deluxe
Paint package and Digital Vision's Computer Eyes video scanner
board. In the first case they are given the extension LBM. In
the second they are given the extension CE. The basic file
structure is the same, however.

Deluxe Paint is a bit of a problem in the way it deals
with IFF files, actually. This affects 256 colour files. Its
native format is a subclass of IFF called PBM, and compresses its
images as bytes. It's somewhat unique to Deluxe Paint, and
Electronic Arts won't tell anyone quite how it works. You can
actually work it out to a large degree, but every so often a file
created in this format in the way it seems like it should be done
refuses to load into Deluxe Paint.

The standard form for IFF image files is called ILBM,
compressing all images as planes. This is much slower, but it
means that files thus compressed will be readable by pretty well
all IFF readers... even if you port 'em back to the Amiga. This
is how Graphic Workshop creates IFF files. Unfortunately, there's
a problem with old versions of Deluxe Paint which will
occasionally cause them to stop reading one of these files part way
through the image. This happens to IFF files from sources other
than Graphic Workshop, so it's probably a bug in these versions
of Deluxe Paint. It appears to have been rectified in more recent

If you encounter an image which when converted into an
IFF file will not read into Deluxe Paint, use the /IFN command
line switch when you run Graphic Workshop. This will disable the
IFF compression. Uncompressed files read into Deluxe Paint with
no difficulty.

You can permanently set IFF compression off when you install
Graphic Workshop if you like.

Note that Graphic Workshop only reads "pure" IFF files, and will
not handle the countless variations on the format which have
appeared on the Amiga. Specifically, it does not read hold and
modify, or HAM, files.


These are the files which are used as "wallpaper" under Windows
3. They can be created using the version of PC Paintbrush
supplied with Windows.

BMP files use no image compression, as the intention appears to
be to make them fast to load. Plan on your BMP files being very

There is a very important aspect of colour BMP files which you
should bear in mind when you use this format. Windows uses a
fixed palette which Windows Paint cannot go about changing, as
doing so would make the screen and border colours change too.

This means that transferring an image to the BMP format will
generally result in some colour shifts when BMP files are
imported into Windows applications.

The BMP format can support 24-bit files, which Graphic Workshop
does generate. However, as of this writing importing a 24-bit
BMP image into Windows Paint results in a noticeable colour
shift. This appears to be a peculiarity of Windows Paint.


These should not be confused with Lotus 1-2-3 PIC drawing files.

PIC files are created by PC Paint (not PC Paintbrush) and are
used by Grasp, among other things. They come in many flavours.
Graphic Workshop has been tested with the most common ones. In
theory it should support them all, but that's only a theory.

PIC files are structured exceedingly weirdly, especially in their
sixteen-colour manifestations. For this reason, it's necessary
for Graphic Workshop to create a temporary scratch file while
it's packing or unpacking a sixteen-colour PIC file. You will
note that upon beginning to read or write one, the bar graph will
appear to pause for a few seconds before it starts to move.

By default, the temporary file will be written to the current
directory. However, you can direct it to somewhere else by
including the following line in your environment, for example:


This will cause the temporary file to be written to the root
directory of drive H:. You can, of course, specify any path you
like. If drive H: is a RAM drive, this will speed up the packing
and unpacking of sixteen-colour PIC files considerably.

As of this writing, the PIC format supports high-colour images
having fifteen or sixteen bits of colour and in theory supports
true colour, with twenty-four bits of colour. In fact, the latter
is still a bit flaky, and is not supported in Graphic Workshop.

True colour images converted to the PIC format will be written as
fifteen-bit high-colour files.


The Truevision Targa format is used by several high end paint
programs and things like ray tracing packages. It can handle
images with up to sixteen million unique colours. You might want
to read the discussion of images with 24-bit colour elsewhere in
this document.

There are a lot of variations on TGA files, and Graphic Workshop
does not handle them all as yet. Specifically, it only handles
uncompressed and run length compressed files. It ignores all
alpha channel information.

You can configure Graphic Workshop to write 24-bit images to the
Targa format with either 24 or 16 bits of colour. Selecting 24
bits will give you the best colour fidelity, but it will also
create pretty large files. Selecting 16 bits will reduce the file
size by about a third, at the the cost of a bit of colour
resolution. In practice, it takes a pretty good eye to tell the
difference. If you're using a high colour screen driver with
Graphic Workshop you won't be able to tell the difference at all,
as high colour boards only show you 16 bits of colour.


The EPS format... encapsulated PostScript... isn't really a
bitmapped format at all. However, it may contain bitmapped data.

PostScript cannot be interpreted directly by most PC
applications. As such, an EPS file which is to be imported into
an application such as Ventura Publisher or PageMaker also
includes a "preview". A preview is a small black and white TIFF
image which will show you a rough idea of what the EPS file will
look like.

If you import an EPS file into Ventura, for example, the screen
image you see will be the preview but the data printed to your
printer will be the PostScript data itself.

Graphic Workshop can transform other file formats with between
one and eight bits of colour information... between two and 256
colours... into EPS files. Images with more than two colours will
be turned into PostScript halftones.

If you attempt to view or otherwise read an EPS file from within
Graphic Workshop, you will see the preview image, not the actual
PostScript data. This will look the same as the source data if
you have translated a monochrome file to EPS, and it will look
like a very coarse Bayer dither of the source otherwise.

Please note that the EPS files which Graphic Workshop creates are
only intended to be printed. You cannot read them into
applications such as Corel Draw or Adobe Illustrator. These
applications will not accept the large mounts of bitmapped data
which a Graphic Workshop EPS file contains.

For the most part, using EPS files in this way is no longer
necessary. Applications which import EPS files will usually allow
you to import TIFF files as well, which will provide you with
much better halftoning and screen control.

If you tell Graphic Workshop to include a preview image in the
EPS files it creates, it will write a temporary file to your disk
while it's writing the actual PostScript data. You will
note that the bar graph will pause for a while at the end of its
travel during the write process.

By default, the temporary file will be written to the current
directory. However, you can direct it to somewhere else by
including the following line in your environment, for example:


This will cause the temporary file to be written to the root
directory of drive H:. You can, of course, specify any path you
like. If drive H: is a RAM drive, this will speed up the packing
and EPS files with preview images considerably.

Note that if you attempt to convert or print an EPS file under
Graphic Workshop, the TIFF preview image will be read, not the
actual EPS information.

Note also that if you attempt to read an EPS file without a
preview, Graphic Workshop will tell you that it has encountered a
file read error. The EPS file itself may be fine...
Graphic Workshop however, can only read previews.


You can convert images with between two and 256 colours to files
with the extension EXE. Such files are self displaying pictures.
For example, if you have a file called PICTURE.GIF and you use
Graphic Workshop to translate it to PICTURE.EXE, typing PICTURE
from the command line will cause the picture to display on your

Pictures written into the EXE format can subsequently be read
back into any other format. However, note that Graphic Workshop
can only read EXE files which it has created. Use the F4 key to
check out EXE files if you aren't sure whether they're pictures
or programs.

Graphic Workshop will not read self displaying pictures written
by applications not created by Alchemy Mindworks.

In order for an EXE picture to display, the system which you
attempt to run it on must have a card which supports enough
colours to show the picture under Graphic Workshop. Specifically,
you will need a VGA card to display an EXE picture with 256
colours, at least an EGA card to display one with 16 colours and
so on.

EXE picture files support CGA, EGA, VGA and Hercules cards only.

Pictures displayed by converting them to EXE files and running
them can't be panned around, even if they're larger than your
screen. Hitting any key will return you to DOS.

An EXE picture created by Graphic Workshop will attempt to
autodetect the display card type in the machine it's run on. Some
cards are sufficiently weird that this isn't always possible. The
VGA cards in PS/2 systems are an example of this... IBMs are no
longer really IBM compatible in this regard. To get around this,
you can run EXE pictures with display card command line
overrides. These are the command line switches an EXE picture
will accept:

/CGA - Assume there's a CGA card in the system.
/EGA - Assume there's an EGA card in the system.
/VGA - Assume there's a VGA card in the system.
/HER - Assume there's a Hercules card in the system.
/VER - Display the version number of the EXE file.
/PAR - Assume there's a Paradise card in the system.
/ATI - Assume there's an ATI card in the system.
/TNG - Assume there's a Tseng 4000 card in the system.
/TRI - Assume there's a Trident 8900 card in the system.
/OAK - Assume there's an Oak Technologies card in the system.
/VSA - Assume there's a VESA card in the system.
/DIS - Disable the return to text mode.
/Wnn - Wait nn (00 through 99) seconds and then return to DOS.
/KEY - Allow keyboard hits to abort waiting
/FAD - Fade in and out (VGA cards only)

If you run an EXE picture with a question mark as its command
line argument, it will display a list of its command line
switches, just like Graphic Workshop itself.

The command line switches assume that you're using DOS 3.0 or

In its standard VGA or autodetection modes, a 256-colour EXE
picture will display at 640 by 480 by 256 colours if it detects a
super VGA card it recognizes, or at at 320 by 200 pixels. This
assumes that your card has at least 512 kilobytes of memory in
board and that your monitor will sync at this resolution.

If you have a super VGA card which the EXE pictures support, but
which they do not detect correctly, you can force them into the
appropriate mode with one of the switches from the foregoing

You can create EXE picture files either compressed or
uncompressed. This can be selected either permanently through
GWSINSTL or by using the appropriate command line
switches when you run GWS.EXE. Uncompressed files
display quickly but take up a lot of disk space. Compressed files
usually save space but display a bit slower. Note that especially
in complex scanned or dithered images, you might find that
compression actually results in a larger file than leaving an
image uncompressed.

If you don't have need of self-displaying pictures, you might wish
to remove the EXE resource from Graphic Workshop's resource file,
as it will cause the main file finder screen to become cluttered
with other, unrelated EXE files which may be lying around your
directories. One EXE file looks pretty much like another until
Graphic Workshop attempts to unpack it. See the section on
resources in the accessory disk for help in doing this.

Note that when you hit a key to end the display of a picture, the
ASCII code of the key will be returned as a DOS error level,
which can be trapped in a batch file. If your picture terminates
because of the /Wnn switch instead, the error level will be zero.

You can use the /DIS, /Wnn, /KEY and /FAD switches to create
slide shows and interactive displays. Use a batch file to set up
the pictures you want to work with. The /DIS switch will make the
transition between images clean... just make sure you omit it
from the last image you display.

Here's a typical batch file:


Note that if you use the /W00 switch, your image will return
immediately to DOS or to whatever application spawned it. This is
useful, for example, should you want to use an EXE picture to
display an image and then have the program that called it further
modify the screen contents.

The /FAD switch times its fades based on the vertical refresh
rate of your monitor, something which doesn't change from system
to system. As such, its fades should take about the same amount
of time no matter what machine you run your EXE pictures on.
Likewise, the time delays set by the /Wnn switch are based on the
system clock, and are processor independent.


Graphic Workshop will create a 640 by 400 pixel, two colour image
from any ASCII text file. The text will by truncated at 80
columns and 25 lines if exceeds either dimension. It can contain
both alphabetic characters and high order IBM block graphic
characters. Tabs are expanded and all other control characters
except for carriage returns are ignored.

Note that a suitable text file must be in pure ASCII, not a
proprietary word processor format. It must have the extension

Note that the TXT format is only capable of reading files. You
cannot write a TXT file from Graphic Workshop... there's no
sensible way for Graphic Workshop to create a text file from a

Note that as long as you're attempting to read files, you can
treat text files just like other monochrome graphic files from
within Graphic Workshop. As such, you can view them, convert from
TXT and so on.

As with the EXE file format, you might wish to remove the TXT
resource from Graphic Workshop if you don't need it and find it's
causing a lot of spurious TXT files to be displayed in the
Graphic Workshop file finder screen... assuming you use the TXT
extension for something.


The CUT format is exceedingly awkward, and Graphic Workshop makes
a few assumptions about how CUT files will be used in order to
make it workable. To begin with, CUT files don't know how many
colours they have in them. They rely on a second file, called a
PAL file, to define their colours.

Graphic Workshop looks for a PAL file to decide whether a CUT
file has two bits or eight bits of colour. If it doesn't find a
PAL file with the same name as your CUT file, it assumes that the
CUT file in question only has two bits of colour. Otherwise, it
assumes that there are 256 colours in the file.

Files written to the CUT format from Graphic Workshop will appear
as two-colour files if they started out that way or as 256-colour
files if they had more than two colours initially.

If you're using CUT files and have any suggestions to improve
Graphic Workshop's handling of them, or if you encounter problems
with its CUT files, please get in touch with us. The CUT format,
while occasionally requested, turned out to be very weird.

You can use the CUT format to fool Graphic Workshop into
promoting monochrome pictures to 256 colour pictures. Here's how
to do it. In this example, we'll convert the EXAMPLE1.IMG file
included with this package to a 256-colour GIF file.

3. Hit S to shell to DOS.
5. Type EXIT to return to Graphic Workshop.

Having done this, EXAMPLE1.GIF will prove to have 256 colours.
You can delete all the CUT and PAL files involved.

This procedure works because it creates a PAL file for
EXAMPLE1.CUT, even though by rights it shouldn't have one.
Graphic Workshop will thereupon assume that EXAMPLE1.CUT is a
256-colour image, since there's a PAL file for it.

The original EXAMPLE2.GIF's palette has black for colour zero and
something approaching white for colour one... these are the
colours that will be assigned to the original black and white
pixels in EXAMPLE1.CUT. If you have Desktop Paint 256 or some
other paint package that will let you change colour values
around, you might want to create a version of EXAMPLE2.GIF with
its first colour set to pure black and its second colour set to
pure white for this procedure.


The RLE format is actually a variation on the BMP format
discussed previously. It has two primary uses under Windows. It
can be used to create compressed wallpaper files and it can be
used to replace the opening Windows logo screen with one of your
own choosing.

The RLE format uses compression, unlike BMP files, and as such
wallpaper created as RLE files will occupy less space on your
disk. At least, it should. If you store very complex scanned or
dithered images in the RLE format, they may confuse the run
length encoding procedure and actually result in larger files
than they would have created as BMP files.

To use an RLE file as wallpaper, place the file you wish to use
in your \WINDOWS subdirectory. Use the Windows control panel to
select your wallpaper file as you normally would... the only
difference is that you will have to type in the name of the RLE
file you wish to use, as the file selector in the control panel
only looks for BMP files.

Technically, RLE files used as wallpaper should take a little
longer to load. In practice, this is rarely noticeable.

Using an RLE file to change the startup Windows logo is a bit
tricky, but it's arguably worth the effort if you're tired of
looking at the Microsoft ad. You will need a sixteen-colour RLE
image of the dimensions 640 by 480... 640 by 350 if you use an
EGA card. The RLE file should be no larger than 40 or 50
kilobytes, and smaller if possible. For this example, we'll allow
that the file is called NEWLOGO.RLE, located in the \WINDOWS

Go to the \WINDOWS\SYSTEM subdirectory and issue the following
command at the DOS prompt.


This will create a new program called WIN2.COM. If you start
Windows by typing WIN2, rather than WIN, you will see your logo
rather than Microsoft's. This will not affect your normal WIN.COM

There are several things to be aware of in this procedure. The
most important is that the resulting WIN2.COM cannot be bigger
than 65535 bytes, which is why you must keep your RLE file down
to a modest size. If it exceeds these limits, WIN2.COM will
refuse to run.

Secondly, if your RLE file is of dimensions other than those of
your screen, it will appear incorrectly placed.

Thirdly, if you will be using an EGA card, replace the
VGALOGO.LGO file, above, with EGALOGO.LGO.

Note that when a file is converted to the sixteen-colour RLE
format by Graphic Workshop, it is permanently remapped to the
Windows default palette. This may result in a noticeable colour
shift for some images.

Graphic Workshop will read most RLE files from other sources. One
known exception is the VGALOGO.RLE file provided with Windows


These are files used by Spinnaker's PFS applications. They store
graphics as uncompressed monochrome images. Graphic Workshop will
only read and write uncompressed ART files. The F4 function will
tell you if you have a compressed ART file.


Sun raster files are native to the Sun unix environment. They can
be uncompressed or run length compressed. There are also a number
of obscure compression standards which Graphic Workshop does not
support at present. These rarely turn up... the Get Info function
will tell you if you've encountered one.

Sun raster files appear with a variety of file extensions.
Graphic Workshop uses the extension RAS. You might have to rename
your files to use this extension if they're named something else.
Extensions for Sun raster files on a unix system can include
ras, rast, im1, im8, im24 and im32.

Note that some 24-bit Sun raster files were created with their
red and blue colour values erroneously interchanged.


The JPEG format is actually a combination of several elements,
and it's important that you understand what it does before you
use it. The JPEG algorithm reduces the amount of space a
compressed image will occupy on disk by selectively removing
details from the image. Pictures with fewer details compress more
effectively. The amount of detail removal is defined by the JPEG
quality item of the Setup dialog box.

At the default value of 75, relatively little picture degradation
will take place, but a significant amount of compression will be
obtained. At lower values you'll experience still better
compression, but with a marked loss of image quality.

The Independent JPEG Group, from whom this JPEG algorithm was
obtained, have also defined a file format to hold JPEG files in,
called JFIF. It's typically stored with the extension JPG.

Note that several other programs, such as Lead Tools and Image
Alchemy have defined their own formats with the extension JPG.
They are not compatible with the JPEG functions in Graphic
Workshop. If you encounter an error reading a JPG file, you
probably have a file from one of these sources.

Once an image has been converted to JPEG, its lost details are
lost for good. Note also that repeatedly reading and writing the
same image in the JPG format will successively degrade it.

If you convert an image from another format, such as GIF, to JPG
and then from JPG back to GIF, the final GIF file will usually be
smaller than the original.

At present all images converted into the JPG format will have a
minimum of 256 colours.

The legal requirement for using IJG's code is that we state: This
software is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG
Group. (Thanks, lads... it was a fine bit of work.)


Images in the HRZ format always have 24 bits of colour and the
fixed dimensions 256 by 240 pixels. Images with differing
dimensions will be padded or cropped to fit in this space when
they're translated to HRZ. Images with fewer colours will be
promoted to 24 bits. This is a fairly specialized format... if
you aren't using slow scan television, you probably don't need
it. You might well ask what slow scan television is... damned if
we know. Conventional television seems slow enough.

Graphic Workshop only reads uncompressed HRZ files.


Registered users of Graphic Workshop will receive the Graphic
Workshop screen capture utility, GWSCAP. This will capture
graphic screens from most of the VGA and super VGA graphic screen
modes to PCX files. It will also capture text screens to sixteen-
colour PCX files, effectively making a picture out of your text.
It's very small... occupying about eight kilobytes of memory...
and dead easy to use.

Please read GWSCAP.DOC for more information about configuring and
using the screen capture.


Most of the image file formats commonly found in use on a PC
which support colour do so using a palette structure, as this is
the way most PC full colour display cards work. An image stored
in a palette structure file will have a maximum of 256 unique
colours, drawn from a potential palette of 16 million. In fact, a
VGA card can only support a potential palette of about a quarter
of a million colours. There is some theoretical loss in colour
resolution in displaying, say, a GIF file on a VGA card.

For practical purposes this colour arrangement is sufficient to
reproduce pretty convincing colour photographs. However, for a
number of reasons, high end photographic manipulation software,
colour separation software and so on works better with a non-
palette image, one in which every pixel is represented as a
distinct colour. In these images, every pixel consists of three
bytes of colour information, one each for the red, green and blue
components of the pixel's colour. Such pictures are referred to
as true colour, RGB or 24-bit pictures.

Among the formats which currently support 24-bit images are
Targa, PCX, BMP and TIFF.

Viewing a 24-bit image on a PC equipped with a VGA or super-VGA
card can present Graphic Workshop with something of a problem.
Such an image can have up to sixteen million different colours in
it, while many VGA cards can support only 256 different colours
at a time.

In order to deal with 24-bit images, Graphic Workshop may
have to "dither" them. Dithering involves creating a
simplified... albeit slightly coarser... version of the source
image. Dithered images in the view mode of Graphic Workshop will
give you an idea of what you 24-bit picture looks like, but
they're always an approximation.

If you attempt to view a 24-bit image on a system equipped with
an EGA or VGA card, a menu will appear to ask you how you'd like
the 24-bit file to be handled. You can display it as a grey scale
image if you just want to see what the picture looks like. This
is the fastest way to view such a picture. Alternately, you can
choose the Bayer colour dithering option

Note that the Bayer colour screen dither has been designed to be
reasonably fast, rather than accurate. When you create an error-
diffused colour dither, as discussed next, the results will be a
whole lot nicer to look at.

In order to convert a 24-bit image into a palette based format...
for example, to convert a 24-bit PCX file into a GIF file... you
must use the colour reduction function of the F9 special effects
key. This will perform a full 256-colour error-diffused dither,
which will usually result in a 256-colour image which is almost
as good as the original 24-bit image was.

The colour reduction function also contains options to allow you
to reduce a 24-bit file to lesser numbers of colours. Choosing
fewer than 256 colours will produce a smaller file in some cases,
but it will also leave you with a less faithful representation of
your original colour image.


Graphic Workshop will use whatever memory you have going. If you
ask it to do something which needs a large amount of memory, it
will attempt to allocate space in your extended or expanded
memory pool, or use DOS memory if there isn't enough extra
memory. If your extra memory type is set to virtual, it will try
to allocate DOS memory first.

There are three sorts of "extra" memory which Graphic Workshop
can use, to wit, extended, expanded and virtual. Extended memory
is also called XMS memory, and is only available on '286 and
better systems. Expanded memory, also called EMS or LIM memory, is
available if you have a LIM board and driver in your machine.
Virtual memory means using a big disk file and making believe
it's memory. Virtual memory is very slow compared to real

You must tell Graphic Workshop what to do about extra memory
when you install it. See the section on installation.

In addition to the three foregoing types of extra memory,
Graphic Workshop can be configured to use "extended or
virtual" or "expanded or virtual" memory. If one of these options
is chosen, Graphic Workshop will attempt to allocate a
buffer from extended or expanded memory if it can't do so with
DOS memory. If it's unable to allocate a buffer in extra memory,
it will switch to virtual memory and see if its luck improves. If
there's no room for a virtual memory buffer, it will give up and
return an error saying that it can't allocate memory.

By default, Graphic Workshop configured to use virtual memory
will use the current drive and directory to write its temporary
files. You can change this by adding a line to your environment
with the SET command such as:


In this case, any virtual memory temporary files which
Graphic Workshop wants to create will be written to the root
of drive H:. If you have a RAM disk, you should use the TEMP
environment variable to tell Graphic Workshop to use it for virtual
memory operations, as this will speed things up considerably.

Graphic Workshop might run in restricted memory, such as that
which is found on a really old PC or when running "shelled out"
of another program. However, it can do nasty things when it's
really starved for memory. Some virtual memory operations will
not work in this condition, and if it's really stuck for RAM...
if there's only a few tens of kilobytes free... it may manage to
crash. Try not to run it when there's almost no room left for it
to store things. The help menu will tell you how much memory is

Graphic Workshop frequently swaps blocks of code and data in and
out of memory. In addition to the memory required for your
pictures, Graphic Workshop must have memory to manage its
resources and to allocate small scratch buffers. This is called
memory "overhead". It's possible for Graphic Workshop to
allocate a lot of DOS memory for a picture file and subsequently
be unable to allocate enough memory for the resource which will
manipulate the picture.

To avoid this situation, Graphic Workshop reserves a fixed amount
of memory for its own use before it attempts to allocate an image
buffer. The amount of this fixed memory is adjustable through the
GWSINSTL program, as is discussed in the section on installation.
As it's set in the distribution version of the software, it
should be adequate for all the operations the package can
perform. There are a few hypothetical cases in which this might
not prove true, for example, in unpacking enormously wide GIF
files. If you run into problems with allocating scratch buffers or
resource buffers, try increasing the memory overhead.

Note that Graphic Workshop comes configured to use virtual memory.
Use GWSINSTL to change this when you're sure what sort of extra
memory is in your system.

Finally, note that in order to access the extended or expanded
memory in your system, Graphic Workshop must be able to locate a
suitable extended or expanded memory driver. Simply having
several megabytes of chips on your motherboard will not make that
memory accessible unless you have the appropriate driver in place
and working.

To help you better understand how Graphic Workshop is using the
memory in your system, have a look at the Wait box that appears
when a file is being processed. If extra memory of some type is
being used, the word "Wait" will be printed in the same colour as
the text below the status bar. If conventional DOS memory is
being used, the word "Wait" will be printed in a different


You can now use a mouse to operate Graphic Workshop, as well
as the conventional keyboard interface. Because Graphic Workshop is
primarily a text mode application, there are limits to what the
mouse support can provide. We've tried to apply mouse functions
where they made sense and to ignore the mouse where having it
available would have really meant stretching a point.

You must have a Microsoft-compatible mouse driver loaded for the
mouse to work under Graphic Workshop. This will be handled by
running MOUSE.COM... usually a fixture of your AUTOEXEC.BAT
file... or by having MOUSE.SYS included in your CONFIG.SYS file.
If no mouse functions are available under Graphic Workshop, you
don't have a mouse driver loaded or your mouse is not Microsoft

The mouse cursor will appear as a white diamond. Note that there
are two other mouse options available... no mouse support at all
or the conventional text mode block cursor. Alternate drivers to
handle these are available on the Graphic Workshop accessory disk,
discussed elsewhere in this document.

Here's a quick overview of what the mouse does under Graphic Workshop.

- You can select a file from the main menu by clicking on it.
- You can toggle a file's tagged status by double clicking with
the left mouse button.
- You can view a file by double clicking with the right mouse
- You can select "Yes" for any dialog that prompts you for a
decision by clicking inside the box and "No" by clicking
outside it.
- You can banish a message box by clicking anywhere on the
- You can invoke the function of any key with a prompt by
clicking on the prompt.
- You can page up in the main menu by clicking at the right side
of the screen and page down by clicking at the left side of the
- You can exit the View mode by clicking with the right mouse


While we have tested Graphic Workshop thoroughly, it's possible
that you may encounter a situation we hadn't anticipated, and
perhaps a file which will not read. If this happens, we would be

interested in knowing about it so we can deal with it in the next
release of Graphic Workshop. Here's how to report a problem to

Copy your CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files onto a floppy.
Include a screen dump of each page of GWSINSTL as it was set up
when the problem occurred. Alternately, write down the settings.

Copy the image files which resulted in the problem and provide a
description of what you did and what happened.

If we can't recreate it, we probably won't be able to fix it.

Before you contact us with a problem in Graphic Workshop, please
make sure you've read this document thoroughly and that you
understand how the software should work. Many problem reports
which receive aren't problems with the software at all.

You can also ZIP up your problem files and upload them to our
bulletin board.


Graphic Workshop always shows you all the names of the image
files it knows how to deal with in the current directory, along
with all the visible subdirectory names, if any are present. If
you are in a subdirectory, you will also see a subdirectory entry
which is two periods.

The cursor mover keys will move the file selector bar around. If
you move it to a directory entry... shown in dim text... and hit
Enter, you will move into that directory. If you select the two
period entry, you will move back up your directory tree by one

You can also select a new directory by hitting Alt L. A directory
and drive selection dialog will appear. Navigate to the drive and
directory you wish to work in and then select the [ OK ] entry.

If there are too many files in your current directory to see all
at once, Graphic Workshop will organize them into pages. The PgUp
and PgDn keys will step you through the pages. Clicking at the
right and left sides of the main menu screen will also invoke the
paging functions.

Here are the keys which Graphic Workshop recognizes for basic
file handling and session functions. Clicking in the appropriate
prompts if you have a mouse will perform the same functions.

Hitting the question mark or clicking in the "? for Help" message
at the top of the screen will cause Graphic Workshop to display
a menu of the keys which control the main file screen
of Graphic Workshop. This box also tells you how much free memory is
available, the display card you have Graphic Workshop configured
to use and the type of extra memory it's set up for.

The Esc key will allow you to quit Graphic Workshop and return to

If you hit "T" the currently selected file name will be
"tagged". The "U" key will untag it. The batch operations
described later in this document will work with multiple
files if you have some of them tagged. If you hit "C", all the
tags will be cleared, and if you hit "A" all the files will be
tagged. Clicking on a file name with the left mouse button will
toggle its tagged status.

Note that for the graphic functions of Graphic Workshop... the
ones accessed by the function keys... the currently selected file
will be processed if there are no tagged files. Otherwise, each
of the tagged files will be processed in turn.

If you hit "L" Graphic Workshop will allow you to log in a new
disk drive. A box will appear prompting you for the drive letter
you want to log into. If you it Alt L, a more complex dialog will
appear allowing you to select a new drive and directory. This
will be useful, among other things, for users of Novell networks.

If you hit "D" you will be prompted to delete the current file.
Note that this is not a batch command... it only works on one
file at a time.

If you hit "R" you can rename the current file. Note that it the
renamed file will have the same extension as the old one, no
matter what extension you give it.

If you hit "S", Graphic Workshop will attempt to shell out to the
DOS prompt. If you do this, Graphic Workshop will still be in
memory. Type EXIT at the DOS prompt to return to it right where
you left off. If you change drives or subdirectories while you
have the DOS prompt active, Graphic Workshop will restore the
previous drive and subdirectory when you return to it.

If you hit "O", a list of configuration overrides will appear.
These pertain only to your current session, and will not change
the default configuration settings as chosen through GWSINSTL.
See the section of this document which deals with configuration
for help with the overrides.

The alphabetic control keys can be upper or lower case. Other
keys will be ignored.


If you get lost, hit ? for help, or click in the help prompt in
the upper right corner of the screen. Hit ? again or click in the
quick help screen for detailed topical help.

When the detailed help window opens, select a topic by using the
cursor mover keys to position the highlighted item selector or
just click on one of the dimmed topic names with the left button
of your mouse.

Clicking with the right button of the mouse or hitting Esc will
move backward through help topics. Clicking with the left mouse
button outside the help window will close the help and return to
the main menu of Graphic Workshop. Clicking in the prompts at the
bottom of the help window will invoke their functions.


If you place the selector bar on a file name and hit Enter,
Graphic Workshop will attempt to show you the file. It will start
by showing you a wait box, which has a bar graph in it to
indicate the status of what you've asked Graphic Workshop to do.
When the picture is fully unpacked, Graphic Workshop will switch
to your display card's graphic mode and show you the picture.

Double clicking on a file name with your right mouse button will
also invoke the View function.

You can always abort any operation when the wait box is visible
by hitting the Esc key.

If the picture is larger than your screen, the cursor keys will
allow you to pan around it. Normally you will pan around in small
increments. If you hold down the left Shift key when you hit a
cursor key, you will move around in increments of half your
screen dimensions.

Esc will return you to the main screen, as will clicking with
your right mouse button.

If the Ctrl key is held down when a file is selected for viewing,
you can control the screen mode it's displayed in... assuming
that your display card has more than one display mode. If your
card is supported by a driver of version 2.0 or lower, holding
down the Ctrl key will force the screen into its lowest
resolution mode. For example, if you're looking at a 256-colour
picture on a super VGA card, holding down the Ctrl key will force
the screen into the 320 by 200 pixel standard VGA mode.

If you're using a driver of version 2.1 or better, holding down
the Ctrl key will cause a menu to appear offering you a choice of
the available display modes with the most appropriate one
highlighted. Select a mode and hit Enter or hit Esc to let
Graphic Workshop select the most appropriate mode, that is, what
it would have done had you not held down the Ctrl key.

Note that you must take your finger off the Ctrl key before you
try to move the menu item selector. Note also that the Ctrl key
must be held down when you hit Enter to select a file... you can
release it thereafter. The menu will not appear until the wait
bar finishes its travel.

You can see what version your screen driver is by looking in the
"?" box from the main menu. Also, be aware that some drivers only
have one screen mode available.

Several things can go wrong in viewing a file. If you have
installed Graphic Workshop for the wrong kind of display card,
you might see random characters rather than a picture. In this
case, check your installation.

If Graphic Workshop could not find enough memory to unpack your
picture into, it will abort the process and say so.

Finally, if your picture requires more colours than your card can
display, Graphic Workshop will tell you this. Specifically, it
will pop up a menu which will ask you how you want it to deal
with the colour problem. The available options will vary with the
type of display adapter you're using and the number of colours in
your source image.

You can force this menu to appear when you view an image by
holding down the left Shift key when you hit the Enter key. You
might wish to do this to view some pictures in ways other than a
normal displayed. For example, you can preview an image dithered
this way.

This is what the menu options do:

Display normally
This will display the picture as if you hadn't reached this menu.
This option will always be disabled if the menu pops up by

Display as grey
This is the fastest way to see what a picture with too many
colours looks like. It will show you the image in grey scale.

Bayer dither mono

Floyd dither mono

Burkes dither mono

Stucki dither mono
These four options will dither your image down to monochrome. You
might want to see the discussion on dithering later in this
document to better understand them.

This will display your image as a high contrast black and white

Bayer dither colour
This option will display your image as a fixed eight-colour or
a 256-colour dither, the latter for viewing 24-bit pictures on
eight-bit displays. It's a pretty reasonable representation of a
colour image for a quick 'n nasty preview.

Display reversed
This option will display your image reversed. Colour images will
appear as negatives.

In the sixteen and 256 colour display modes, you can make
adjustments to the VGA colour palette while a picture is being
displayed. The 'r' and 'R' keys will increase and decrease the
amount of red in a picture, the 'g' and 'G' keys will adjust the
amount of green, the 'b' and 'B' keys will adjust the amount of
blue. The 'i' and 'I' keys will adjust the overall intensity of
the picture. The 'c' and 'C' keys will adjust the contrast. The
'=' key will return the picture to its normal state. Note that
these adjustments only affect the original picture that you're
viewing... they do not alter the palette in the file on your disk
unless you save the changes to a new file.

If you hold down the left shift key when you hit the Esc key to
leave the view mode, a file format menu will pop up. Select a
format and you can save the file you've viewed and adjusted the
colours of. The new file will be saved with "A_" before the file
name... if your viewed and adjusted PICTURE.GIF, it would be
saved as "A_PICTUR.GIF". In fact, you can have it saved as any
suitable file type.

If you hit the Esc key when the file format menu pops up your new
file will not be saved.

You can zoom in on a graphic in view mode by hitting the Z key.
This will cause it to be scaled to fill your screen. In fact, the
scale factor will be fiddled a bit such that it will usually fill
your screen in one dimension only, such that it isn't distorted.
Hitting Z again will unzoom it back to its normal perspective.
The zoom mode will allow you to see an overview large graphics
without a lot of panning around.

Note that there is usually a loss of displayed resolution when
you zoom in on graphics, especially if your image has been

None of the colour adjustments or panning functions will work
while an image is zoomed in. If you hit Shift Esc to save a file
while in zoomed mode, the un-zoomed image will be saved. To
create a permanently zoomed file, use the scale function.


You can print to any sort of LaserJet Plus compatible printer
with one megabyte of memory or more or any sort of PostScript
printer. You can print to any dot matrix or inkjet printer which
is supported by a Graphic Workshop external printer driver. Note
that if you attempt to print PostScript data to a LaserJet or a
dot matrix printer you'll get reams of meaningless ASCII text.

Graphic Workshop comes with built in PostScript and LaserJet
print drivers. This includes colour PostScript and LaserJet II,
III and IV series printers. You only need an external print
driver if you wish to print to a dot matrix or inkjet printer.

Having said this, if you will be printing colour or grey scale
pictures to a LaserJet-compatible printer you might want to
experiment with the external Laserjet III/4 driver supplied with
Graphic Workshop... it will, in fact, drive any series of
LaserJet-compatible printer. It's typically slower than the
internal drivers and prints larger images, but you might find you
like its results better. See the section on configuration later
in this document.

Graphic Workshop allows you to print a picture in four
resolution modes to laser printers. These will print your
pictures in four possible sizes. You might want to experiment
with them to see what they can do.

If you want your picture to fill as much of the printed page as
possible, select the appropriate autosize mode. This will cause
Graphic Workshop to choose the resolution and orientation which
is most appropriate for each picture you print. Note that it will
still select one of the four available resolutions, so your
picture probably will not print right to the edge of the page.

Colour and grey scale pictures printed to black and white
PostScript printers will be reproduced as halftones. If you
attempt to print a colour or grey scale picture to a LaserJet or
dot matrix printer, the image will be dithered for you. The
dither type is set using GWSINSTL. You might want to consult the
section on dithering elsewhere in this document to help you
choose a suitable dither.

Colour images can be printed in colour to a colour PostScript
device and to a colour inkjet or dot matrix printer with a
suitable driver. Colour PostScript printing can be enabled
through GWSINSTL or with the appropriate command line switches.

Graphic Workshop will drive several colour ink jet printers though
external drivers, as loaded through GWSINSTL, notably the
Hewlett Packard Desktjet 500C and PaintJet printers. Note that
these work a bit differently than monochrome printing does. They
run at the maximum resolution of the printer, and dither the
images printed to them. If you select a higher expansion factor,
each pixel of the source image will be presented by a larger
dither block, and as such will come closer to the source colour.
This means that printing pictures larger will not only result in
output that looks sharper, but it will also print with more
accurate colours.

The inkjet drivers will also handle monochrome graphics, although
the results aren't usually all that good. You can do
substancially better using the Hewlett Packard inkjet printers
if you use the black ink cartridge and select one of the internal
LaserJet drivers.

Laser output can be printed in either portrait or landscape
mode. You can set this up using GWSINSTL or the appropriate
command line switches. Note that if you print to a PostScript
printer in landscape mode, the printer itself will rotate the
image data. This isn't actually all that fast for many printers.
If you have a lot of images to print in landscape mode, you'll
probably find that it's quicker to have Graphic Workshop rotate
them and then print the rotated files.

The orientation setting has no effect for dot matrix printing.

You can print to ports LPT1, LPT2 or LPT3. The default printer
port can be set up using GWSINSTL or the appropriate command line
switches. Note that the printer port settings are ignored by
some external printer drivers. All of the standard dot matrix
drivers included with Graphic Workshop print to LPT1. The inkjet
drivers will print to the printer port selected through

You can cause Graphic Workshop to print to a file, rather than
directly to the disk, by using the appropriate command line
switch. The command line switches are discussed elsewhere in this
document. Print files are named using the name of your source
image file and the extension PRN. Note that you can only print to
a file for laser printer output. Dot matrix and inkjet drivers
will ignore the print to file switch.

Each page of Graphic Workshop output can include any combination
of data about the picture on it you like. See the installation
section for more information about enabling this feature.

The size and resolution of dot matrix printing is determined by
the driver being used.

Note that if you have a printer for which there is no driver
available, one of the Epson FX-80 drivers will probably work, as
most dot matrix printers support the Epson FX-80 standard. The
print might not be as good as your printer can manage, but it'll
be better than a blank sheet of paper.

In order to print correctly to most black and white laser
printers, colour and grey scale images must be "expanded", that
is, their grey scales must be adjusted to compensate for the non-
linear grey scale of the output device. The amount of
compensation varies among different laser printers. The
compensation values for Graphic Workshop have been chosen to
suit an average PostScript laser printer. However, you can fine
tune these by adjusting the Print halftone brightness and Print
halftone contrast values in GWSINSTL. There's a more complete
discussion of these fields in the configuration section elsewhere
in this document.

If you liked the older fixed contrast expansion curve from
previous versions of Graphic Workshop, change both these fields
to 65535.

Printing is a batch function. If you tag multiple files and then
hit F1, each will be printed.


Graphic Workshop allows you to convert a file of any format into
a file of any other format... with a few restrictions. The new
file will have the same name as the original but a new extension.
Converting PICTURE.MAC into an IMG file will create PICTURE.IMG.
PICTURE.MAC will not be affected.

You can batch convert any mixture of file types using
Graphic Workshop. Any files which are inappropriate for the
conversion you've requested will simply be ignored. The ongoing
status will appear at the bottom of the screen.

You cannot convert pictures having more bits of colour than the
destination format can handle. For example, you cannot convert a
24-bit Targa file directly to an 8-bit GIF file. You would have
to use the F9 colour reduction facility to do this. Likewise, to
convert a colour file to a monochrome one, you'd have to use the
F3 dithering function.

There are a few other useful things to note about conversion. You
can't convert to TXT files. You can convert from EXE files,

provided they were created by Graphic Workshop. You can convert
from EPS files, but the resulting image will be a monochrome
TIFF preview image, and probably won't look very good. You can't
convert from files which Graphic Workshop won't read. For
example, you can't convert from a vector WPG file.


Dithering is a sort of magical process by which colour images can
be converted into pretty attractive black and white versions for
reproduction on a monochrome screen or a black and white laser

Note that source files for dithering must have more than one bit
of colour information.

Dithering often works a lot better if you scale the original
image up. Graphic Workshop lets you dither with images of
anywhere from "size as" up to 500 percent expansion if you have
enough memory.

You can see what an image will look like dithered by using the
view options menu in the view mode.

Note that the F3 function only dithers to monochrome. Colour
dithering is handled by one of the functions of the F9 key.

Dithering is a fairly slow process, and the better the dithering
algorithm, the slower it gets. Big files and really good
dithering can take half an hour or more on a slower computer,
although the results are usually worth it.

At its best, dithering can look better than halftoning, and a
dithered file can be printed on both PostScript and LaserJet
printers. Dithered files sent to a PostScript printer will print
faster than halftoned files.

If you have Graphic Workshop dither a file, it will create a new
file for you of the type selected and with "D_" before the name.
Thus PICTURE.GIF could be dithered to D_PICTUR.IMG, for example.
PICTURE.GIF would be left untouched.

The simplest... and fastest... form of dithering is a Bayer
dither. This does not produce great results, but it's extremely

The remaining three dithering algorithms use what is called
"error diffusion". These produce really nice looking dithers, but
they're quite slow. The fastest... and least attractive... is
Floyd-Steinberg. The best... and by far the slowest... is Stucki.
The Burkes dither is somewhere in the middle.

All three of these dithers come in two flavours, UD...
unidirectional... and BD... bidirectional. These options will
produce slightly different results.

You should plan to experiment with the dithering options of
Graphic Workshop a bit to see what it's capable of.

Dithering scans an image line by line, starting in the upper left
corner and working down to the lower right corner. For this
reason, you will find that if you rotate an image by ninety
degrees, dither it and then rotate the dithered version by a
further two hundred and seventy degrees, you'll get different
results than you would have had you dithered the original image.

The dithering function also includes a thresholding option. This
will reduce a colour or grey scale image to a high contrast black
and white graphic. If you select this option, you will see a menu
allowing you to select the threshold level. This is the source
pixel intensity above which destination pixels will be white.
Setting it higher will make your destination image darker.

In dithering an image, the original brightness levels of the
source graphic will be expanded a bit to improve the quality of
the dither. The amount by which the grey levels are expanded is
set by the Dither brightness and Dither contrast items of
GWSINSTL. This will be discussed in detail later in this
document. You might want to experiment with these values if you
aren't happy with the quality of the dithered images Graphic
Workshop is producing. Note that you can use the old expansion
map by setting both these values to 65535.

Dithering is a batch function. You can tag a number of files and
then set them up to dither unattended.


This box will show you some basic information about one or more
selected files. Among other things, it will tell you how much
memory the file needs to unpack into. You can use this number to
figure out whether the file in question will fit in your
available DOS memory or whether extra memory will be required, as
was discussed previously. The amount of available DOS memory is
available by hitting the "?" key from within the main screen.

Having said this, it's worth mentioning that this number actually
represents the lowest memory requirement for the image in
question. Some functions will require significantly more memory.

The last field in the Get Info box displays the file comments if
there were any. The comments vary from format to format. In some
cases, having nothing better to say, they'll tell you what
software created the file.

Some file formats actually contain a lot more information than
can be displayed in the normal Get Info box. TIFF files, for
example, can contain the name of the artist responsible for them,
the type of software used to create them and so on. You can get
at this sort of optional information for formats which support it
by using the "details" option of the F4 box when it's available.
The arrow keys will scroll you through the detail window. Details
are available, for example, if you get information about GIF,
TIFF or IFF/LBM files.

If the Details option is available, hit F4 to invoke the details
option too. Once the details appear, clicking in the upper half
of the box will scroll up and clicking in the lower half will
scroll down.

Note that the Get Info and details information for EPS files
actually pertain to the TIFF preview.

You may need some external assistance in fully interpreting the


This function will prompt you for a destination file type and
then display your selected file on a dithered monochrome cropping
screen. Your image will be scaled to fit the screen, no matter
how big it is in real life. Initially, the exterior of the image
will be framed by a cropping box. If you hold down the left shift
key, the four arrow keys will adjust the upper left corner of the
box. Note that you'll have to use the down and right keys before
the up and left keys will do anything. If you hold down the right
shift key, the arrow keys will move the lower right corner of the
box. If you hit the Home key, the box will snap back to its
original position. The co-ordinates of the upper left and lower
right corners as well as the dimensions of the cropped fragment
will be displayed at the top of the screen.

If you hit F10, your cropped fragment will be written to a new
file. The file will have the name of your original file with "C_"
appended to the front of it and the extension of the destination
format you selected.

If you hit Esc no destination file will be written.

The cropping function requires a revision two screen driver.
Most of the current Graphic Workshop screen drivers will work...
a few of the unusual ones may not have been updated. The revision
level of revision two drivers can be found in the screen driver
installation screen of GWSINSTL.

Cropping is a batch function. Note that if you use Esc to abort
one cropped file in a batch, the rest of the batch will be

The Crop function does not have mouse support.


This function will create a reversed version of any image file.
The new file will have the same name as the original file, with
"R_" appended to the front of it. Thus, reversing PICTURE.MAC
will leave you with R_PICTUR.MAC. If you reverse a colour image,
you'll get a colour negative. These look weird... we haven't
found a use for them as yet.

Reversing is a batch function.


This key will pop up a menu offering you five image
transformations. You can rotate an image in ninety degree
increments and you can flip it horizontally or vertically. These
functions work on images of any number of colours.

Note that the ninety and two hundred and seventy degree rotation
functions will take a very long time if your images are large and
require the use of virtual memory... this assumes that you lack
extended or expanded memory. Them's the breaks.

Transformed images will be stored in files with "T_" in front of
the names. Thus PICTURE.GIF will become T_PICTUR.GIF after any of
the five transformations have been wrought upon it. If you rotate
it and then flip the rotated image, for example, it will become
T_T_PICT.GIF, and so on, with intermediate files along the way.

Transforming is a batch function.


This key will allow you to scale files from 25 to 500 percent or
to a specific dimensions.

Your original files will not be altered when you scale them. New
files with the prefix "S_" will be created. Thus, PICTURE.GIF
will produce S_PICTUR.GIF after scaling.

Scaling a picture can produce some really ugly results, depending
on what you scale. Bear in mind that scaling by integral
values... down to seventy five or fifty percent, up to two
hundred percent and so on... will produce less ugly results than
scaling by arbitrary values.

There are three scaling modes available... proportional,
anamorphic and by size. Proportional scaling will scale files by
a percentage in both directions. Anamorphic will scale them by
different percentages in each direction. Scaling by size will
scale files by whatever percentages are necessary to make them
fit in a defined number of pixels.

The scaling values you enter will be rounded to the nearest lower
integral value. Thus, 42.5 percent will really be 42 percent.

You can scale by size to any dimensions in the range of 16 though
32767 pixels.

Scaling is fairly time consuming.

You should probably avoid scaling dithered monochrome pictures
down. Nothing terribly bad will happen, but for reasons which
will become obvious if you think about it, the results will
almost always be really ugly.

Note that the scaling percentage you enter determines the size of
the destination image relative to the source image, not the
actual percentage of scaling. Thus, entering 25 will produce a
destination image which is one quarter... 25 percent... of the
original image. Entering 200 will create a destination image
twice as big... 200 percent of... the original. Entering 100 will
produce a destination image identical to the source image.

By default, scaling will be the same in both dimensions. If you
hit F8 while the scaling box is visible, you will be able to
enter independent horizontal and vertical values. Hit F8 again
and you will be able to enter the actual dimensions you want your
destination image scaled to.

Scaling is a batch function.


This function has a submenu which will allow you to access a
number of special tools for working with colour image files under
Graphic Workshop.

All of these are batch functions. The destination files will have
"X_" in front of their names. Note that these functions require
substantial amounts of memory.

Colour reduction
This function allows you to create destination files with fewer
colours than the source files they're derived from. You can use
this function, for example, to reduce a 256-colour file down to a
16-colour one. It's particularly useful for reducing 24-bit files
down to 256-colour files.

Whenever you reduce the number of colours in a file, some image
information will get lost. The simplest form of colour reduction
is "remapping". This simply means that the destination image will
have the best colour palette it can, and that all the pixels in
it will be replaced with colours from that palette. The results
aren't usually very attractive.

Colour dithering, also available in this function, can produce
decidedly better results. With colour dithering, you can reduce
24-bit files down to eight bits with very little loss of detail
or colour resolution.

The palette used in colour reduction can be either quantized or
fixed. A quantized palette is derived from the source image,
while a fixed palette is predefined. In theory a quantized
palette should be preferable, but in fact this is not always the
case. A picture with a wide range of colour or small details
which are markedly different from the rest of the image can fool
the quantization algorithm into assigning too few colours to
parts of your image you're interest in. In many cases you'll find
that the "256 colour orthogonal" palette choice will produce the
most attractive results.

Note that you can change the fixed palette to one of your own
devising using the NEWCMAP function of the Graphic Workshop
accessory disk, discussed elsewhere in this document.

The "Windows 16 colours" choice will use a palette identical to
the one used by a sixteen-colour Windows screen driver. This is
useful if you're creating files to be used as Windows wallpaper,
or in other applications wherein they'll be displayed by Windows
in sixteen colours.

Grey scale
This function creates a grey scale destination image from a
colour source image. The number of bits of colour will remain the

This function will create a destination image with more contrast
than its source image.

This function will create a destination image with less contrast
than its source image. This function is particularly useful for
minimizing the effects of scanning moire patterns caused when you
attempt to scan a previously screened original. In less technical
terms, if you scan pictures of nude women from magazines,
softening the image files will reduce the interference patterns.

This function will create a destination image which looks like
it's being viewed through water drops.

Spatial posterization
This function will create a destination image in which the image
is made up of large square areas. This effect is similar to the
one used by television news to obscure the faces of people whose
identities are to be kept secret.

Promote to 24 bits
This function will create a 24-bit file with the same image
information as a file with fewer colours.


This function will create pictures of your pictures. Tag a
number of images and hit F10. One or more files will be generated
containing thumbnails of the selected images. These can be very
helpful in keeping track of a lot of picture files.

Files created by the catalog function will be named CAT00000,
CAT00001, CAT00002 and so on. The catalog function will not
overwrite existing files... if the file CAT00000 exists, for
example, it will begin with CAT00001.

When you create a catalog you can select one of a number of sizes
for the final catalog files, in eight or twenty-four bit colour,
with the individual thumbnails set in either portrait or
landscape frames. Choosing twenty-four bit colour will create
nicer catalog images, but they'll be sort of huge.

If you create eight-bit catalogs you can choose to either remap
or dither the thumbnail images. As a rule, remapped images won't
represent the colours of your source graphics all that well and
dithered images will lose a bit of resolution. Of the two
dithering options, Bayer dithering is faster and somewhat less
attractive. Diffused dithering takes longer but arguably looks

Catalog files can be created with with a three-dimensional
appearance or with a flat black background.

You can define all the catalog parameters through GWSINSTL
or through the session overrides.


In addition to being run through its menus, Graphic Workshop can
handle script files. A script file is a list of Graphic Workshop
commands. Having been given a script file to work with,
Graphic Workshop can perform a number of functions and then
return to DOS or to the program which called it.

The Graphic Workshop script language facility is primarily for
use in situations in which another application wishes to call
Graphic Workshop, have it convert, print, view or otherwise
manipulate some files in the background and then return control
to the program which called it.

The Graphic Workshop script language and command line mode are
discussed in detail in the documentation for the Graphic Workshop
accessory disk, as found elsewhere in this document.


Making permanent changes to the modifiable features of
Graphic Workshop involves using the installer, GWSINSTL.EXE.
The configuration of Graphic Workshop is handled by a separate program in
order to keep GWS.EXE as small as possible, leaving lots of
memory for putting graphics in.

The GWSINSTL program actually modifies GWS.EXE. In order for it
to work, GWS.EXE and GWSINSTL.EXE must be in the same directory
and must be so named. Both programs must be of the same version.
Be aware that as it directly modifies GWS.EXE, there is the
outside chance that a bug in the installer might crop up and kill
GWS.EXE beyond repair. Make sure you have a virgin copy of
GWS.EXE somewhere before you use the installer.

Place GWSINSTL.EXE and GWS.EXE in the same directory and type
GWSINSTL. A menu will appear which will let you edit the runtime
settings, add or change your screen driver and add or change your
dot matrix printer driver.

Note that the screen drivers are contained in a file called
GWSDRV.RES. The printer drivers are contained in a file called
GWSPDR.RES. These files must be in the same directory as GWSINSTL
for it to be able to find them. If one or both of them is
missing, the corresponding options in the main screen of GWSINSTL
will not be available.


If you select this option, you'll see a screen which will allow
you to fine tune Graphic Workshop's performance to suit your
requirements and hardware. You can use the up and down arrow keys
and the Home and End keys to move through the items of this
screen. Hitting Enter when the cursor is over an item which toggles
will change its state. Hitting Enter when the cursor is over an
editable field will allow you to type in a new data.

Note that you can run GWSINSTL and select this screen as often as
you want to adjust the settings of its various parameters.

When you're done changing things, hit F10 to get back to the main

Note that these items can be overridden by using command line
switches when you run GWS.EXE, should you need them set
differently from time to time.

Screen colours
This item allows you to set the screen colours. By default, there
are two sets of screen colours, to wit, a colour set which is
predominantly blue and a monochrome set. If you don't like either
of these, hit F1 when the cursor is on this item to create a
custom set.

Memory type
Hit Enter when the cursor is on this item to move through the
available extra memory options. See the section dealing with
memory elsewhere in this document for more information about
selecting the correct memory type.

Display type
This item allows you to select the type of video card your system
will be using. It defaults to AUTODETECT, which will cause
Graphic Workshop to attempt to figure out what sort of card is in
your system. You may have to change this if you have a multiple
mode card which causes it to guess incorrectly. You will have to
change it if you have a super VGA card wish to use it in its
higher resolution modes.

If you have a super VGA card, set this field to SUPER VGA &
OTHER and use the screen driver setup screen, discussed later in
this section, to select a suitable driver.

Printer port
This item selects which parallel printer port to print images to.
Note that you can only select LP1, LPT2 or LPT3. Note also that
this selection only affects laser printers. See the section on
printing elsewhere in this document for more information.

Memory overhead (Kbytes)
This is an editable item. It selects the number of kilobytes of
memory overhead which Graphic Workshop will reserve. See the
section on memory elsewhere in this document for more

Colour PostScript printing
This item selects whether to assume that your PostScript printer
can print in colour.

Default print dither
This item selects the type of dithering to use if you attempt to
print a colour or grey scale picture to a LaserJet or dot matrix
printer. This defaults to BAYER, which is fast but ugly. Select
one of the other options if you'd like better results.

PostScript orientation
This item selects the default orientation for printing graphics
to a PostScript printer.

Print filenames

Print dates

Print image size

Print image colours

Print output resolution
These items allow you to determine what, if anything, will be
printed at the bottoms of pages which Graphic Workshop prints.

Display gamma
The display gamma field can be used to adjust the gamma
compensation for images displayed by Graphic Workshop.

File name underbars
The file name underbars option determines whether new files
created by the dither, crop, adjust, transform, scale and special
effects functions of Graphic Workshop will use underbars, as
discussed elsewhere in this document. If you turn this feature
off, the original base names of your images will be used. Be
careful... doing so may cause Graphic Workshop to overwrite your
source files.

Prompt for destination
If this option is enabled, a dialog will appear prompting your for
a destination directory each time you perform an action under
Graphic Workshop which will cause it to write files. If this
option isn't enabled, your destination files will be written to
the same directory as your source files reside in.

Drive map
The drive map field should contain the letter of every accessible
drive on your system.

Application path
This should be a complete path to the subdirectory and drive
where GWS.EXE and GWS.RES live. For example:


When this item is set correctly, you will be able to run
Graphic Workshop from anywhere on your hard drive if its location
is in your DOS path.

This field will initially default to the current directory when
you run GWSINSTL for the first time. This will be correct in most

Registration name
When you have registered Graphic Workshop, type your name into this field.
This, in conjunction with the registration number provided when
you registered the software will disable the closing beg notice.
Note that you must enter your name exactly as it is written on
the page with your registration number. Case, spaces and
punctuation matter.

Registration number
Enter your registration number in this field.


This page will let you fine tune the way Graphic Workshop writes
some types of files.

MacPaint header
This item allows you to determine whether MacPaint files
generated by Graphic Workshop will have MacBinary headers in
them. Leave this on if you don't know what these are. Note that
this does not affect how Graphic Workshop reads MacPaint files...
it will handle both types no matter you set this item.

IFF/LBM compression
This item determines whether IFF/LBM files will be compressed.
Some old versions of Deluxe Paint choked on compressed files.

EPS preview
This item determines whether EPS files will be created with TIFF

TIFF compression
This item determines the compression types to be used to create
TIFF files. The options are:

- NONE -- No compression.
- PBITS -- PackBits run-length compression.
- GRP4 -- CCITT group four compression.
- LZW -- LZW compression.

The three sections of this entry define the compression for two
colour images, images having between four and 256 colours and 24-
bit images respectively.

TIFF grey scale expansion
This item determines whether TIFF grey scale files should be
created with their grey scales expanded. This should be set ON if
you'll be importing grey scale files into a desktop publishing
package or otherwise using them to print with and to OFF if
you'll be editing them.

TIFF colour/grey scale
This item determines whether TIFF files with more than one bit of
colour will be created as colour or grey scale images. The grey
scale expansion item will be ignored if this item is set to

EXE file compression
This item determines whether self-displaying EXE pictures will be
compressed. See the section on EXE pictures elsewhere in this
document for more information.

GIF file type
This item allows you to determine whether Graphic Workshop should
write old-style GIF87a files or the newer GIF89a files.

Targa true colour bits
This item allows you to determine whether 24 bit images written
to Targa files should be written with 24 or 16 bits of colour.
See the discussion of Targa files elsewhere in this document for
more information.

Dither brightness

Dither contrast
In dithering an image, the original brightness levels of the
source graphic will be expanded a bit to improve the quality of
the dither. The amount by which the grey levels are expanded is
set by the Dither brightness and Dither contrast items. You
should experiment with these items if you aren't happy with the
quality of the dithered images Graphic Workshop is producing.
Note that you can use the original expansion map by setting both
these values to 65535.

Printed halftone brightness

Printed halftone contrast
In order to print correctly to most black and white laser
printers, colour and grey scale images must be "expanded", that
is, their grey scales must be adjusted to compensate for the non-
linear grey scale of the output device. The amount of
compensation varies among different laser printers. The
compensation values for Graphic Workshop have been chosen to suit
an average PostScript laser printer. However, you can fine
tune these if you like. These values should range from zero to
about sixty-four, with twenty or thirty being about right for
most output devices.

If you liked the older fixed contrast expansion curve from
previous versions of Graphic Workshop, change both these fields
to 65535.

JPEG quality
This item allows you to set the quality factor used when writing
JPEG files. Set to 100, JPEG files will exhibit modest
compression and no loss of detail. Reduced below 100 the
compression will improve and the detail loss in your compressed
images will become more noticeable.

If you have the JPEG read RGB switch turned off, JPEG files will
be read as eight-bit images. If it's turned on, they'll be read
as true-colour 24-bit images.

JPEG dither on read
If you have the JPEG read RGB switch turned off, enable this
feature to produce attractive 256-colour dithered images from
JPEG files. Turn it off to generate fairly ugly remapped images.

Catalog landscape width

Catalog landscape depth

Catalog portrait width

Catalog portrait depth
These items define the dimensions in pixels of the thumbnail
frames in catalog images. They can range from 96 to 192 pixels.

Dither catalogs
If this item is enabled, the thumbnail images in 256-colour
catalogs will be dithered. This usually looks best. If it's off,
they'll be remapped.

Three-dimensional catalogs
If this item is enabled, catalogs will be created with a grey
background and a three-dimensional appearance. If it's off
they'll be created with a black background and red key lines
around the thumbnails.


This page will allow you to select a super-VGA screen driver. You
must select a driver which is in keeping with the super VGA card
you have in your system. If you attempt to display a large
graphic in Graphic Workshop and the display misbehaves, chances
are you have the wrong super-VGA screen driver installed.

Note that some drivers are intended for use with cards having a
half megabyte or more of memory. If you have a 256 kilobytes VGA
card, choose a suitable 256 kilobyte driver.

Note that not all the drivers support higher resolution modes. If
you have a card which can display pictures in 1024 by 768 pixel
resolution, you will also need a driver which can drive it in
that mode. As a rule, all the super VGA drivers will handle 640
by 480 pixels. Some can do better than this, but not all of them.
We're working on improving the high end drivers.

IMPORTANT: If you don't know what kind of display card is in your
system, and hence which driver to choose, run the VGACARD program
which comes with Graphic Workshop. It will tell you what's in
your system.

Note that the cropping and scanning functions require revision
2.0 screen drivers or better. The F3 screen display will show you
the revision numbers of drivers with revision two or better.

Finally, the drivers can set up a menu to allow you to select a
screen mode if you hold down the Ctrl key when you go to view a
file. This facility is only available if you have a driver of
version 2.1 or better for your card.

The following are some details about the drivers. Some of these
drivers have been written by users of Graphic Workshop. If you'd
like to write a driver, see the section on the Graphic Workshop
accessory disk.

Amstrad 16 colour 640x200
This driver was developed by Marcel Ward in Aberystwyth, Wales.
It allows owners of Amstrad PCs having the custom sixteen-colour
display cards supplied with these systems to look at colour
images. We haven't tested this driver, lacking an Amstrad, but
the source code looks right.

VGA in pseudo 640x480
This is a very clever driver by Gregory Weeks which displays 640
pixel wide 256-colour files on a 320 pixel wide screen by leaving
out every alternate pixel. As the author notes, nothing is free
and some detail is lost. However, if you have a VGA card with no
640 pixel wide, 256-colour mode... or one which there is no
driver for as yet... you'll find that this driver is often
preferable to the stock 320 by 200 pixel MCGA mode.

Ahead B
This is a driver for the Ahead B super VGA cards by David
Mikelson of Solvang, California. This is a fairly basic driver...
it does not support cropping, but it does handle the Ahead B
super VGA modes. The author notes:

This driver is for the SVGA card commonly referred to as
an "AHEAD B" card. The card might also be referred to as
a "Standard Technologies VGA800C", an "Ahead Systems VGA
V-5000B", or a "Standard Technologies VGA CARD, REV B".

The card must have at least 512K memory on board.

Note that an "AHEAD B" card is NOT the same as an "AHEAD
A". An Ahead A card uses different video modes, so this
driver won't work for an AHEAD A card.

Thanks to all these authors for their drivers.

VESA super VGA

VESA 32k colours

VESA 64k colours

VESA 16m colours
The VESA standard is supported by a number of super VGA cards in
addition to their own proprietary standards. If your card
supports VESA, either directly or through the use of a TSR, you
can use one of these driver. This is especially handy if your
card is not supported by a dedicated driver as yet. Note that
these drivers will only attempt to select display modes which
your card actually supports... if you call for a mode which does
not exist on your card, the nearest available mode will be used.

Use VGACARD to determine the extent of VESA support available for
your display card. You can use the 16m, 64k or 32k drivers if
VGACARD says your VESA BIOS can handle display modes with
16,777,216, 65,535 or 32,768 colours respectively. If the highest
colour depth VGACARD reports is 256 colours, select the VESA
super VGA driver.

These drivers may not work with some fairly flaky VESA
implementations, such as the one on the early Orchid Fahrenheit
1280 cards.

Orchid Fahrenheit 1280
This is a driver to support most Orchid Technologies Fahrenheit
1280 cards... some of the really early ones with very funky VESA
implementations may not behave themselves. This driver assumes
that your card has one megabyte of memory and a Sierra DAC for
the high colour modes. We've only been able to test it on a
limited number of Orchid cards, and we know that there have been
a lot of revisions to this hardware. Let us know if you have
difficulties with it. Also, note that Orchid Technologies was
providing free BIOS upgrades as of this writing for the older
cards... this cures a multitude of problems.

Users of other cards with VESA BIOSs should note that the Orchid
driver is a VESA driver at heart, with some modifications to make
it behave itself in this implementation.

This driver supports IBM XGA cards. It can display true-colour
pictures at a resolution of 640 by 480 pixels, 256-colour
pictures at resolutions up to 1024 by 768 pixels, sixteen-colour
pictures at resolutions of up to 800 by 600 pixels and monochrome
pictures at a resolution of 640 by 480 pixels.

We had to actually buy a PS/2 to write this driver, and if you
use it for an extended period of time with an unregistered copy
of Graphic Workshop we will most certainly send our leather
winged demon of the night after you, as outlined else where in
this document.

Oak Tech 640 by 480

Oak Tech 800 by 600
These drivers support cards which use the Oak Technologies chip
set. The higher resolution drivers also support the lower
resolution modes, and will select the appropriate mode

Tseng 4000 640 by 480

Tseng 4000 800 by 600

Tseng 4000 1024 by 768

Tseng 4000X 1024 by 768
These drivers support cards which use the Tseng Labs chip set.
The higher resolution drivers also support the lower resolution
modes, and will select the appropriate mode automatically. The
Tseng 4000X driver will support 1024 by 768 pixels at 256
colours, and 640 by 480 or 800 by 600 pixels of 24-bit colour.
You'll need a Tseng 4000 board with the Sierra DAC on it to use
this driver. It will allow you to view 24-bit images directly.

Paradise D 640 by 480

Paradise D 800 by 600

Paradise D 1024 by 768
These are drivers for the newer Paradise cards which use the D
series chips. You can tell if you have one by the markings on the
large chip... you'll find the number 90C30 thereon. The 1024 by
768 driver requires a megabyte on board. It supports the Paradise
true colour mode, which means that if you have a RAMDAC on your
card it will allow you to look at 24-bit images directly in 640
by 480 and 800 by 600 pixel resolution.

Drivers are included to drive Trident 8900 series cards to 1024
by 768 pixels in 256 colours and 800 by 600 in sixteen colours and
monochrome. Choose the one which is appropriate for your
hardware. The two lower resolution drivers have also been tested
on the older 8800 series Trident chips.

Hercules TIGA 31.5k
This driver supports the Hercules Graphic Station card. Note that
unlike a Graphic Station card, a VGA card only actually does 18-
bit colour. The 24-bit colour mode of the Graphic Station card
has a resolution of 512 by 480 pixels. Its aspect ratio isn't all
that good, but you can fiddle the monitor controls... for most
monitors... to get pretty reasonable pictures. This driver should
work on other cards supporting the Texas Instrument TIGA chip,
but no promises. Note that this is a VGA level driver only... it
does not do 24 bits directly.

Video Seven 1024i
This is a driver for the Headland Technologies Video Seven VRAM
and Video Seven 1024i cards. It supports the 640 by 480 line 256-
colour mode.

Paradise Plus Card
This is a driver for the old Western Digital Paradise
Plus card.

Paradise Pro Card
This is a driver for the old Paradise Professional card (and
clones thereof). It supports both the 640 by 400 and 640 by 480
pixel, 256 colour modes.

Dell Super VGA 256K
This is a version of the Paradise Plus driver for older Dell
systems. It has been modified so as not to use the 800 by 600
pixel EGA and monochrome modes of the Paradise card, as this
causes the super-VGA monitor on a Dell to click a (loud) internal
relay every time it changes modes. If you don't mind the relay,
or you want the 800 by 600 modes, use the Paradise Plus driver.

Dell Super VGA 512K
This is a 512K version of the Dell Super VGA driver for older
Dell systems, that is, a Paradise driver with the 800 by 600
pixel monochrome mode disabled.

ATI VGA Wonder
Drivers are included to drive ATI VGA Wonder series cards to 1024
by 768 pixels in 256 colours and 800 by 600 in sixteen colours and
monochrome, as well as to various lesser resolutions. Choose the
one which is appropriate for your hardware. There is also a
driver for the ATI-XL card, which adds 24-bit colour support at
640 by 480 pixels. This requires a full megabyte of memory on
your card.

Standard VGA 320 x 400
This is a "gadget" driver for a stock VGA card which reprograms
the beast into an undocumented 320 by 400 line mode. It should
work on any VGA card, but being undocumented one cannot be sure.
In any case, while interesting, this mode has such a squashed
aspect ratio that it's not really useful for anything. In
addition, having heavily interlaced memory, it's painfully slow
to update.

Standard VGA 360 x 480
This is another undocumented mode. It gets still more on the
screen, with still more distortion.


This page will allow you to select an external printer driver.
You do not need an external printer driver if you will be
printing to a PostScript printer or any sort of LaserJet or
LaserJet compatible printer.

For the most part, external printer drivers are used to drive
black and white dot matrix printers. Graphic Workshop does
support external colour printers. At present, the only colour
driver available is for the Hewlett-Packard PaintJet and Kodak
Diconix inkjet printers.

If you don't find a driver for your printer in the available list
of drivers, you can probably use the Epson FX-80 driver. Most dot
matrix printers emulate this standard. If you'd like to write a
driver, see the section on the Graphic Workshop accessory disk
elsewhere in this document.

Note that the Epson LQ and LX drivers, the IBM ProPrinter drivers
and the Panasonic and Roland drivers were all written by Chris
Rogers of Ashtree Software. They're particularly slick, in that
they will ask you what resolution you want to print at. We have
not tested these, but they look to be well written.

The LaserJet III/4 driver is an alternate way to print halftones from
colour and grey scale images to a LaserJet-compatible printer.
You might find that you like it better than the internal LaserJet
drivers. You should experiment with this one to see if it suits
your needs.


When you run Graphic Workshop by typing GWS at the command line,
it will run using the default settings, as configured by
GWSINSTL. There may be times when you'll want to override these
settings temporarily, and rather than running the installer, you
can use the command line switches. These only change the
configuration of Graphic Workshop when they're used. The next
time you run Graphic Workshop, it will return to its default

As a rule, command line switches should only be required in
special circumstances. Note that you can override many of the
Graphic Workshop options with the O command from the main screen.

You can always see a complete list of the command line switches
by running Graphic Workshop as


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