Jan 152018
 
Corspeed is an excellent program that gives you a windows bench speed analysis for all functions of your computer.
File CSP610.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category System Diagnostics
Corspeed is an excellent program that gives you a windows bench speed analysis for all functions of your computer.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
CORSPEED.EXE 124466 56516 deflated
CORSPEED.TXT 57585 15303 deflated
TPCREAD.ME 199 165 deflated

Download File CSP610.ZIP Here

Contents of the CORSPEED.TXT file


SOFWIN LABORATORIES
Super Scalar Technologies


CORSPEED
version 6.1

PC COMPUTING SPEED MEASUREMENT TOOL

Sofwin Laboratories
613 Old Farm Road
Columbus, Ohio 43213

Telephone: (614) 866-9966 BBS/FAX (614) 866-9960
CompuServe 74431,1071

This file updated through: May 29, 1994
Copyright 1994 Sofwin Laboratories

============================================================================

DESCRIPTION

This high technology computer performance measurement tool is part of Sofwin
Laboratories' new SuperScalar technology package. This is a full scale tool
suitable for professional, engineering, and personal use in the assessment of
PC Core Engine ( CPU <-> Memory ) performance.

SHAREWARE REGISTRATION $29

While CORSPEED is being offered as shareware, it is neither free nor a toy.
This is a fully functional, professional grade measurement tool. If you
want to use this tool for more than 90 days, want to receive full
professional documentation, or want to be included in Sofwin's Update
Notification Program you need to register this software. Registration of
this shareware version is only $29. Send your check in the amount of $29 to
CORSPEED Registration, Sofwin Laboratories, 613 Old Farm Road, Columbus,
Ohio 43213, or call (800) 339-2579 to use your credit card.

PROFESSIONAL VERSION WITH FULL SOFWIN DOCUMENTATION $39

If you'd prefer to have the full professional ( serialized ) version of
CORSPEED delivered to your door on 1.44 MB 3.5 floppy disk including both
printable and browsable documentation for all current Sofwin measurement
tools, the price is only $39. Ask for PROFESSIONAL CORSPEED PACKAGE.

PRINTING INFORMATION

This document has been prepared with form feeds embedded for easy printing on
any standard printer. Including the header and footer, there are 55 lines
per page. A simple DOS command may be used to print this file.

C:>COPY CSP.DOC PRN

CORSPEED DOCUMENTATION Page 1

Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION I -- OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

TECHNOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
WHAT CORSPEED DOES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
HOW CORSPEED IS DIFFERENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
PROCESSORS SUPPORTED. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
PROCESSOR FAMILY EXPANSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

SECTION II -- OPERATING INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
COMMAND LINE OPTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
KEYBOARD ASSIGNMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
FUNCTION KEYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
SYSTEM CONFIGURATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
PROCESSOR INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
MEMORY CONFIGURATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
SYSTEM INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
FOR BEST RESULTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
LOW SPEED LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
EFFECTIVE RUNNING SPEEDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
MEMORY WINDOWS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
UNDERSTANDING EFFECTIVE DATA WIDTH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
HIGH PERFORMANCE MEMORY SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
HOW CORSPEED DIFFERS FROM BENCHMARKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
HOW TO ESTIMATE HOW FAST MULTIPLE TASKS WILL RUN. . . . . . . . . . 13
CORE ENGINE PERFORMANCE IS NOT THE WHOLE STORY. . . . . . . . . . . 14
THE IMPORTANCE OF SUPERSCALAR TECHNOLOGY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
SOFWIN FORUM MESSAGE SUPPORT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
FILE NAMES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
RECORDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
USING THE SOFWIN COMMENTS EDITOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
KEYBOARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
PRINTER OUTPUT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

SECTION III -- HOW VERSION 6.1 DIFFERS FROM 6.0x releases. . . . . . . . 17
CHANGES TO EXISTING FEATURES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
NEW FEATURES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
EFFECTIVE READ-WRITE DATA WIDTH DISPLAY. . . . . . . . . . . . 17
UNDERSTANDING EFFECTIVE DATA WIDTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
HISTOGRAM COLOR SCHEME. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
SOFWIN FORUM MESSAGE SUPPORT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
FORUM RECORDING PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
RECORDING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
COMMENT MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
SAMPLE FORUM RECORDING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
HOW TO COPY CORSPEED RECORDING TO A FORUM MESSAGE . . . . . . . . . 20
USING COMPUSERVE'S WINCIM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
USING A FORUM NAVIGATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


CORSPEED DOCUMENTATION Page 2

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SECTION IV -- OPERATING PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
MEMORY CONFIGURATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
SYSTEM INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
HIGH PERFORMANCE MEMORY SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
HOW TO ESTIMATE HOW FAST MULTIPLE TASKS WILL RUN . . . . . . . . . 22
CORE ENGINE PERFORMANCE IS NOT THE WHOLE STORY. . . . . . . . . . . 23
THE IMPORTANCE OF SUPERSCALAR TECHNOLOGY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
PROCESSOR FAMILIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

SECTION V -- ABOUT SOFWIN LABORATORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
WANT TO KNOW MORE?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
SOFWIN REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
TOOL CATALOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

SECTION VI -- SHAREWARE REGISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26



































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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


SECTION I -- OVERVIEW

This high technology computer performance measurement tool is part of Sofwin
Laboratories' new SuperScalar technology package. This is a full scale tool
suitable for professional, engineering, and personal use in the assessment of
PC Core Engine ( CPU <-> Memory ) performance.


TECHNOLOGY

Recent advances in the computer industry which are applicable to processor
and/or memory system technology are increasingly incompatible with prior art
in this field. While the future of PC technology, as it combines with and
merges with video, mini-computer technology, distributed processing, and high
powered engineering workstations, lies in diverse processor and memory
technologies ( such as the DEC Alpha, MIPS 6000, Cyrix M5, NexGen 586 and
other processors ). There is no backwards compatibility from Intel's x86
architecture, for example, to Digital new Alpha processor -- or for that
matter to the PowerPC, or MIPS RISC processors. New technology is required
which is not only capable of assessing hardware performance on the new
processor families, but more importantly which can make direct comparisons
between systems possible.

Where single thread, inline, segmented, real memory operations were once the
only game in town in the PC business, the introduction of new processor
technologies, including Intel's PENTIUM goes beyond the pipelined abilities
of the 486 series processors. The new processor families are not all x86
compatible. While most of the new processors, including Intel's Pentium are
fully x86 compatible in one operating mode, many provide one or more
additional modes which may be not x86 compatible. The Pentium, for example,
can make better use of its superscalar capabilities when running recompiled
code that is optimized for dual pipeline execution.

So, while the native operating mode of Cyrix' new M5 is x86 based, other
processor families such as the PowerPC run x86 instructions in compatibility
modes which are not indemic to the x86 instruction set. Tools which are to
work across multiple processor families and operating system environments
must meet stringent operating requirements that assure compatibility and
consistency from one processor family to another.

As part of Sofwin Laboratories completely new SuperScalar technology,
CORSPEED is at once a continuation of the past as well as a major shift in
direction to focus on the future. Superscaler, multi pipelined instruction
execution is a new ballgame and CORSPEED is designed, wherever there is any
conflict, to adhere to the emerging standards.





CORSPEED DOCUMENTATION Page 4

Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


WHAT CORSPEED DOES

The performance of variable logic memory systems ( cached memory )
degrades as the magnitude of active memory addresses is increased.
Variable logic memory performance drops off as the active address area
increases due to the increasing need for lower memory information to be
located and copied into higher levels of cache. While some PC systems are
efficient, capable of uploading a cache line in as little as 6 clock
cycles at 33 MHz, other designs may require as many as 46 clock cycles to
upload one 16 byte line of data or instructions. Since the processor is
halted while cache housekeeping is underway, the system that can upload
memory into the cache in 6 cycles is going to appear to be running faster
than one that takes 46 clocks to do the same work.

CORSPEED makes comparing PC system performance straightforward and easy by
computing the EFFECTIVE RUNNING speed you can expect in any of four major
operating system environments. Since memory footprint ( the extent of
active memory area required by an application ) size, the number of
running tasks, and even the memory dispersion characteristics of the
operating system directly impact memory - cache management, it's useful to
know how applications of different sizes will be impacted by the core
engine performance curves.

The fundamental principle behind CORSPEED is Effective Running Speed. A
50 MHz 486 that never has a cache miss ( hence no cache updating or
housekeeping ) runs your applications at its full 50 MHz speed. But when
cache misses increase things can start to slow down very quickly. For
example a 50 MHz 486 that is stopped 50% of the time for cache system
housekeeping may be running at 50 MHz while it is running, but since it is
stopped half the time, its effective running speed is only 25 MHz.


HOW CORSPEED IS DIFFERENT

CORSPEED is vastly different in technology, architecture, operation and
appearance than prior Sofwin measurement tools. Here's how:

1) Sofwin's new SuperScalar, parallel processing technology can measure and
evaluate single, dual and quad pipelines in a single processor. This
development was required for Pentium ( dual pipeline capability )
qualification as well as to permit forward technology development to
radically different processors such as the DEC Alpha, MIPS 6000, Cyrix M5
series, and others. CORSPEED directly monitors the performance impact the
Pentium's U and the V pipes, where the U pipe can execute all
instructions, and the V pipe is limited to simple integer and floating
point instructions. CORSPEED is required to recognize conflicts between
these two unequal channels, so new in-line assembly code was required to
assure control of which pipe is executing and whether the V pipe is held
off due to sequencing conflict(s).

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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


Sofwin's SP/ESP technology can measure, track and analyze processor
operations which are pipelined and simultaneously executed by the
processor, regardless of whether they are in-sequence or out-sequence at
time of execution. Where required, SP/ESP modifies the binary instruction
set to measure operations as fully Pentium optimized.

SP/ESP measurement technology is backwards compatible with prior versions
of the x86 instruction set only to the 486 series. Support for all prior
versions of the x86 architecture is incompatible with SP/ESP and
measurement of those systems has been abandoned in this product.

SP/ESP has also been modified to properly handle simultaneous floating
point operations, whether in parallel with integer operations, or in
parallel with compatible floating point operations. While simultaneous
executions may require recompilation of applications code, CORSPEED is
now fully qualified for multiple simultaneous operations/measurements.
This implies that CORSPEED's integer and floating point measurements
represent the execution timing of fully qualified PENTIUM binaries.

Standard, integer and floating point code, ( not PENTIUM optimized ) will
execute slower, but the exact degree to which it executes slower is
determined by the random placement of compatible and incompatible opcodes
in the data stream. CORSPEED cannot predict random, unqualified opcode
performance levels, so keep in mind, that when measuring PENTIUM based
systems, the performance indicators are for PENTIUM optimized binaries.

2) SP/ESP is configured for multiple cache facilities, where the number of
parallel caching systems may be 1, 2, or 4. The Pentium uses only the
dual cache facility with its parallel 8 kb data and 8 kb opcode cache
units. Cache line sizes have been widened for 16 bits in prior versions
of CORSPEED to 64 bits in this version. Cache line size limits have been
increased from 16 bytes in prior versions to 128 bytes in this version.

3) State machine level analysis confirms that the resulting opcode stream
generated by CORSPEED fully complies with Intel's Branch Prediction rules
so that no branch events ( in the primitive routines ) are unaccounted for
at runtime.













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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


PROCESSORS SUPPORTED IN THIS VERSION

INTEL 486sx, 486dx, 486dx2, Intel4DX, Pentium, 486SL, etc.

IBM 486sx, 486dx, 486dx2, 486dx3, etc.

AMD 486sx, 486dx, 486dx2, etc

Cyrix Cx486SLC, Cx486DLC, Cx486SL2, Cx486DL2, Cx486SR,
Cx486DR, Cx486SR2, Cx486DR2, Cx486S, Cx486S2,
Cx486SE, Cx486S2E, Cx486DX, Cx486DX2, CxM1



PROCESSOR FAMILY EXPANSION

As demand warrants, Sofwin tool processor support will be expanded to new
processor families. Here are the processor families currently being
considered for support:

NexGen 586 series

PowerPC 601, 602, 620

Digital Equip Alpha series

MIPS 6000 series























CORSPEED DOCUMENTATION Page 7

Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


SECTION II -- OPERATING INFORMATION

CORSPEED is a high performance performance assessment tool. As a result,
CORSPEED MAY NOT OPERATE PROPERLY ON LOW PERFORMANCE PC SYSTEMS.

In general, use of this tool should be restricted to High Performance PC
systems running at 33 Mhz and higher that are equipped with floating point
processors. Equipment who's performance falls below the design operating
envelope or which is not equipped with a high speed floating point
coprocessor facility may cause unexpected program termination.



COMMAND LINE OPTIONS

CORSPEED [ opt1 ] [ optn ] < ENTER >

Where:

-b Forces the automatic color display into black and white mode.

-c xxx Specifies L2 cache size from 32 kb to real memory limit
[ in kb ]. Use this option if the L2 cache is larger than
256 kb.

-e Use this option if high performance memory such as EDRAM is
installed, or if you want to simulate how it would affect
system performance.

-t xx Use this option if you want the results scaled to a per task
basis.

-m xxxx Use this option if main memory is larger than 64 mbytes.

-s Enables the optional sound effects system.

-o Disables odometer display feature.

-h Invokes this help display directly from the command line.

-$ xx.xx Use this to input cost for cost/performance computation.









CORSPEED DOCUMENTATION Page 8

Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


KEYBOARD ASSIGNMENTS

FUNCTION KEYS

F1 invokes HELP system.

SHIFT + F1 Displays serial number and licensee information

F3 Records measurement data in Sofwin Forum format

F4 Create or Edit Forum record comments

F7 Prints screen image to LPT1.

F8 Appends screen image to CORSPEED.SCR file.

ESC Quit CORSPEED and return to DOS.

ALT + S Toggle the SOUND and VIDEO EFFECTS on/off.

ALT + X Unconditional return to DOS.


SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

The boxed area at the top of the screen is filled in by CORSPEED during
hardware and software analysis operations. The three system configuration
areas which are critical to proper operation of CORSPEED are Processor,
Memory, and operating system.


PROCESSOR INFORMATION

Processor type and extension give you important information about potential
computing capacity. While CORSPEED will show about the same level of Core
Engine performance for either SX or DX class processors, DX processors are
required for optimum floating point performance in graphics, drawing, and
spreadsheet applications. Use the CLOCK information to confirm that the PC
is operating at the proper speed. While CORSPEED will operate in all proces-
sor modes, REAL mode generally provides the most accurate measurements.

If the processor is doubly or triply clocked, a number may appear at the end
of the processor type. A '2' means double clocking, etc.







CORSPEED DOCUMENTATION Page 9

Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


MEMORY CONFIGURATION

The memory cache levels used in 486 based PCs are numbered L1 and L2,
according to their proximity to the processor. The on-chip cache is called
L1, while a secondary cache [ logically residing between the processor and
main memory ] is called L2.

CORSPEED measures and analyzes the organization of each cache level and its
size is displayed in kilobytes. Cache size, speed, and organization are
instrumental in determining program operating speeds. In general, memory
caching systems provide the biggest benefit when program code and data are
frequently accessed from the cache. That's because the CPU must wait
whenever new data is uploaded from main memory -- thereby yielding some of
its speed advantage. In general, the more the software's memory address span
exceeds cache size, the less effective the cache.

For complex, multi-tasking operating systems, or very large memory spans,
cache miss penalties can effectively cancel some or all of the benefits of
cache memory.

SYSTEM INFORMATION

Accurate performance measurement requires that there be nothing else going on
that might interfere with the measurement routines in CORSPEED.

CORSPEED derives its information by directly manipulating all of the
principal hardware systems. To do its job, CORSPEED must be operated at the
equivalent of Intel's PL-0. While operating at the O/S kernel level, and
actively interleaving with and preempting DOS interrupts, it is possible for
the measurement primitives to accurately measure hardware operations at the
electrical event level.

FOR BEST RESULTS USE THIS TOOL ONLY ON DOS BASED Pcs

CORSPEED is certified to operate with standard MSDOS, versions 3.1 and up.
Measurement activity will be adversely impacted in any operating environment
that preempts PL-0, loads CORSPEED at an unpredictable address, or interferes
with interrupt management. This means that CORSPEED will not provide satis-
factory results under other operating systems including Windows [any version]
or OS/2.

LOW SPEED LIMITATIONS

CORSPEED MAY NOT OPERATE PROPERLY ON LOW PERFORMANCE PC SYSTEMS. In general,
use of this tool should be restricted to High Performance PC systems running
at 33 Mhz and higher that are equipped with floating point processors.
Equipment who's performance falls below the design operating envelope or
which is not equipped with a high speed floating point coprocessor facility
may cause unexpected program termination.

CORSPEED DOCUMENTATION Page 10

Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


EFFECTIVE RUNNING SPEEDS

Your CPU runs at its advertised clocking rate except when it is stopped to
wait for cache system updates, line fills, or main memory operations. The
percentage of time the processor is stopped directly impacts how fast any
application can execute. For example, a 50 MHz 486 processor stopped 50% of
the time by memory system delays will execute a program at about the same
speed as a 25 MHz 486 which never has to wait for memory or cache updates.
The more often, and longer, a cpu has to wait, the lower its Effective
Running Speed. As cache size is decreased, or program memory requirements
increase, the percentage of time the cpu is stopped increases. Effective
Running Speeds are easy to understand. When comparing two systems,the one
with the higher number will execute programs proportionately faster.

Since the complexity of the application and operating system play a
deterministic role in how computing resources are utilized, software which
makes lesser demands on the hardware will execute faster. The more
complicated the application and operating systems, and the larger their
appetite for memory addresses, the higher the demand on hardware resources.
CORSPEED plots the software demands [ using an address range model called the
memory WINDOW ]against the operating curve of the core engine to determine
effective speed.


MEMORY WINDOWS

The aggregate addresses required by applications software is comprised of the
addresses where the instructions [ operating code ] and data reside. In
general the larger and more complex the application the larger the spatial
locality of code and data. Software with very limited spatial locality has a
smaller memory window than software with large, complex, memory and code
structures.

Memory windows are deterministic in their impact on overall program running
speed [ see Memory Configuration panel for explanation ]. For example, a
program who's code and data fit entirely within the confines of an L2 cache
can operate faster than one who's spatial memory requirements are 10, or 100
times larger. For a perfect PC, i.e. one with an infinite cache which never
requires updating, all programs would run at the same speed [ the processor's
clocking rate ].

Since cache system performance drops off sharply as memory demands increase,
the memory window of each application directly impacts execution speed.







CORSPEED DOCUMENTATION Page 11

Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


UNDERSTANDING EFFECTIVE DATA WIDTH

One of the most important qualities of memory system design is how well it
accommodates data and instruction transfers between processor and memory.
While the electrical path is a constant, i.e. 32 bits for 486 and Pentium PC
systems, the effective working width of the memory system is sometimes
constricted by cache management mechanics. When the time required to access
32 bit data is about the same as it is for 16 bit data it means that the
effective data width is a full 32 bits. However, if it takes twice as long
to access 32 bit data ( indicating that each 32 bit element has to be moved
in two 16 bit tranches ) the effective data width is only 16 bits.

CORSPEED analyzes both read and write memory access times and computes the
effective data width for each in bits. The data width pictograms show the
effective width of both the read and write channels. Read/Write pictograms
are colored RED when the width is 20 bits or less, YELLOW for 21 to 27 bits,
CYAN 28 - 30, and GREEN whenever the width is 31 bits or wider.


HIGH PERFORMANCE MEMORY SYSTEMS

CORSPEED can analyze core engine performance for both traditional dram based
PC systems as well as the new high performance memory systems such as EDRAM.
To compute core engine operating speeds for high performance memory systems,
use the command line /e option. While this option is intended to provide
improved accuracy for high performance memory systems, it is also useful for
estimating the relative impact high performance memory would have on ordinary
dram based PC systems.

High Performance memory systems make it possible for main memory systems to
perform as if they were one huge L2 cache. The performance benefits of
extremely fast read-write capabilities are only part of the story, since HPM
also eliminates processor stoppages due to L2 cache management as well.

High performance memory gains its advantage by operating at nearly the same
speed as the processor -- completely eliminating the overhead associated with
L2 cache loading and unloading. High Performance memory systems will be
increasingly important as CPU data bandwidth demands continue to grow.












CORSPEED DOCUMENTATION Page 12

Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


HOW CORSPEED DIFFERS FROM BENCHMARKS

This Core Engine version of Sofwin Laboratories' new SuperScalar measurement
technology is the most powerful tool of its kind ever developed. CORSPEED
extends 10 years of PC performance measurement tool development into
multiprocessor families, multi-tasking, and 32 bit operating systems.

CORSPEED is a fully Pentium qualified, state-of-the-art SuperScalar
measurement tool that reports how fast the core engine system of a PC runs in
each of the four principal operating system environments. CORSPEED is also a
multiple task emulator and high performance memory estimator -- making
CORSPEED, the most powerful, accurate, and useful performance assessment tool
ever made available to the general public.

But that's only the technical side -- CORSPEED can even compute the cost per
megahertz of achieved performance for wide range of situations ranging from a
single task DOS application to multiple tasks running under true 32 bit
environments such as OS/2 and Win32. Here's a tool that Tells It Like It Is.


HOW TO ESTIMATE HOW FAST MULTIPLE TASKS WILL RUN

One of the most useful aspects of CORSPEED is its ability to accurately
project the effective running speed for one or several tasks or applications
running concurrently. To see how multiple tasks will impact your computer's
performance use the /t xx option where xx is the total number of concurrently
running tasks or applications. CORSPEED defaults to 1 task, but it can
project the impact of up to 16 applications running under OS/2 or Win32.
While single foreground tasks are more typical of DOS and Win3 operations,
CORSPEED projects the impact additional tasks would have in existing 16 bit
operating system environments as well.

Many will be surprised to learn that when two tasks are operating, the
combined operating speed of both is less than that of a single task. The
reason is that multiple tasks do more than share the processor time between
them. Cache churning, time slice administration, and out of sequence
interrupt processing consume increasing amounts of raw computing power as
more tasks are activated. Increased memory resources, especially if its high
performance memory, is particularly important in multi-tasking situations.











CORSPEED DOCUMENTATION Page 13

Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


CORE ENGINE PERFORMANCE IS NOT THE WHOLE STORY

Computer system performance is the result of many complex variables. As
important as processor type, clocking rate, cache facilities, and memory size
may be, the two other principal computing theaters, video/graphics and mass
storage [ disk ], are also critical to how fast programs will execute. The
reason is, that for the moment at least, the video channel is typically only
20% as fast as typical core engines, while the disk channel is very often
less than 5% as fast. Since video/graphics and disk access are increasingly
critical to applications programs -- due to the popularity of graphics and
DLL's -- very fast core engine systems can be dramatically slowed by poor
performance outside of the core engine [ processor, cache, and memory ].

For example, as the memory resource demands of large applications, or
multiple tasks increase, so does the probability and frequency of virtual
memory swapping. Sofwin Laboratories Professional Tools, such as PCPOWER,
have built in Expert Systems that can analyze the performance of every
hardware system -- making it possible to project how the target computer will
perform under different loads and operating system environments.


THE IMPORTANCE OF SUPERSCALAR TECHNOLOGY

1994 marks the beginning of the SuperScalar revolution. Beginning with the
Intel Pentium, the SuperScalar age is upon us. No longer will CPUs be
limited to executing a single instruction at a time. In the future, we'll
have a choice between a wide range of SuperScalar processors from Digital
Equipment, IBM-Apple-Motorola, MIPS, Cyrix and others. The day of the
simple, one-thing-at-a-time CPU is quickly fading. SuperScalar technology,
at first dual pipelined -- but soon perhaps offering many pipes -- is
radically different -- requiring new ways of looking at and evaluating
computing system performance. CORSPEED is totally SuperScalar in its design
and operation -- capable of instigating, managing and measuring many
different operations at once.

This version, for example, not only supports all existing 486 processor
designs, but a wide range of processors from Cyrix, AMD, IBM, and other x86
compatible CPU families. Sofwin's Professional tools are also fully
SuperScalar -- so we'll be able to add new SuperScalar processor families
such the ALPHA, MIPS and PowerPC processors in the months to come.










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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


SOFWIN FORUM MESSAGE SUPPORT

CORSPEED is designed to record performance information in a format suitable
for CompuServe forum messages. If you don't have a CompuServe account from
which you can access the Sofwin Forum area, call CompuServe toll-free at (
800 ) 524-3388 to enroll. Ask for Representative # 593 to sign up!

FILE NAMES

CORSPEED names forum records using the following system:

CSP$mdd#.TXT,

Where: m = month ( from 0 -> C ),
dd = day of month ( from 01 -> 31 )
# = daily index code ( from 0 -> z ).

RECORDING

To record PC performance in a forum compatible format, press F3. This will
generate a sequentially numbered record suitable for use with CIS interfacing
software such as CompuServe's popular WinCim. To capture the data OPEN the
recording file, block the entire table and copy it to a forum or email
message.


USING THE SOFWIN COMMENTS EDITOR

The SOFWIN line editor permits the input editing or deleting of information
using the keyboard and the mouse. Cursor manipulation and keyboard input is
handled in the customary DOS ways.

KEYBOARD

Arrow Keys Non destructive positioning of the edit cursor.

HOME KEY Moves cursor to first character on the line.

END KEY Moves cursor to the last character on the line.

INS KEY Toggles between INSERT and TYPEOVER input mode.

ESCAPE KEY Terminates edit and restores original contents.

ENTER KEY Terminates edit, prompts for approval if any changes.

DEL KEY Deletes the character at cursor position.

BACKSPACE Destructive cursor move over previous character.

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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


PRINTER OUTPUT

There are several ways to cause the screen to be printed to the LPT1 device.
From the keyboard either F7 or the PrtSc key may be pressed. All screens may
be printed as a group with the SHIFT F7 key.

If you have not used the printer during the current session, CORSPEED will
ask you to verify that the printer is on-line and ready or work. You may
then select the character set supported by your printer.

For printers supporting the IBM PC character set select the PC8 option.
Press the 'P' key to select PC8 character set output. If your printer does
not support the complete PC character set select the ASCII option.

Press the 'A' key to select the ASCII character set. This will translate
those characters above 127 to alternate characters for better looking
results.

Press either the 'C' key or the ESC key if the printer is not ready or you
decide not to print the current screen.






























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SECTION III -- HOW VERSION 6.1 DIFFERS FROM 6.0x releases


This version of CORSPEED was developed specifically for the Sofwin Forum on
CompuServe. While it is operationally identical to previous versions,
several new features and capabilities have been added.


CHANGES TO EXISTING FEATURES

More than 100 changes have been made to correct operational problems or bugs.
Some of the more obvious changes include:

The command line separator '=' has been eliminated.

The quick escape and termination facilities have been improved.

The processor clock multiple, ROM remap and memory width annunciators have
been eliminated to reduce user confusion when used on differing processor
families.

The image storage ( to file ) system has been updated to include date and
time of screen image storage.

Display anomalies when run in black and white mode have been corrected.


NEW FEATURES

EFFECTIVE READ-WRITE DATA WIDTH DISPLAY

This version of CORSPEED displays histograms which represent the effective
reading and writing data width as seen from the processor's point of view.
This information is derived from the average read and write to memory access
times.


UNDERSTANDING EFFECTIVE DATA WIDTH

One of the most important qualities of memory system design is how well it
accommodates data and instruction transfers between processor and memory.
While the electrical path remains constant, i.e. 32 bits for 486 and Pentium
PC systems, the effective working width of the memory system can appear to be
constricted by imbalance between processor and memory system bandwidth or
cache management mechanics. When the time required to access 32 bit data is
about the same as it is for 16 bit data it means that the effective data
width is a full 32 bits. However, if it takes twice as long to access 32 bit
data ( indicating that each 32 bit element has to be moved in two 16 bit
tranches ) then the effective data width is only 16 bits.

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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


HISTOGRAM COLOR SCHEME

CORSPEED analyzes both read and write memory access times and computes the
effective data width for each in bits. The data width pictograms show the
effective width of both the read and write channels. Read/Write pictograms
are colored RED when the width is 20 bits or less, YELLOW for 21 to 27 bits,
CYAN 28 - 30, and GREEN whenever the width is 31 bits or wider.

SOFWIN FORUM MESSAGE SUPPORT

Sofwin Forum members found the screen image display generated by previous
versions of CORSPEED to be difficult to capture and format within the
confines of the CompuServe messaging and posting system. To overcome this
problem, this version of CORSPEED includes two entirely new functions, forum
message generation and forum comment capture. These features have been
assigned the following function key assignments:

F3 Use this key to record performance information in a file format suitable
for importations into a CompuServe email or forum message structure.

F4 Use this key to define a comment line that describes the system being
evaluated. This comment line is automatically included in all forum
recording files.

FORUM RECORDING PROCEDURES

CORSPEED is designed to record performance information in a format
suitable for CompuServe forum messages. If you don't have a CompuServe
account from which you can access the Sofwin Forum area, call CompuServe
toll-free at ( 800 ) 524-3388 to enroll. Ask for Representative # 593 to
sign up!

FILE NAMES: Forum recording files are written to the default direction
from which CORSPEED was run. Files are named in accordance
with the following system:

CSP$mdd#.TXT,

Where: m = month ( from 0 -> C ),
dd = day of month ( from 01 -> 31 )
# = daily index code ( from 0 -> z ).

RECORDING

To record PC performance in a forum compatible format, press F3. This will
generate a sequentially numbered record suitable for use with CIS interfacing
software such as CompuServe's popular WinCim. To capture the data OPEN the
recording file, block the entire table and copy it to a forum or email
message.

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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools

COMMENT MANAGEMENT

It is particularly helpful, when several recordings are made or stored
together, to be able to identify which recording goes with which equipment.
To make certain that the operator is given an opportunity to enter comments
about each system, whenever the forum recording key ( F3 ) is pressed,
CORSPEED checks to see if any operator comments have been defined. If
comments already exist they are automatically inserted in the recording file.
If no comments have been made by the operator, CORSPEED automatically opens
the comments input box and waits for the operator to make a note about the
system being recorded. For information on using the comments line editor see
USING THE SOFWIN COMMENTS EDITOR section.

SAMPLE FORUM RECORDING

|-----------------------------------------------------------|
| |
| THE SOFWIN FORUM |
| CORSPEED PERFORMANCE RECORD |
| Recorded Sunday May 29, 1994 @ 10:21:48 |
| |
|-----------------------------------------------------------|
| |
| CPU FAMILY | CPU MODEL | CLOCK SPEED | CPU MODE |
| Intel+ | 486DX | 33.01 | VIRTUAL |
| |
|L1 CACHE SIZE |L2 CACHE SIZE | MEMORY SIZE | ROM REMAP |
| 8 | 64 | 16.0 | OK |
| |
| O/S SYSTEM | TASK COUNT |EXTENSION BUS | CSP VERSION |
|MSDOS 6.2 | 1 | ISA | 6.1 |
| |
| - - - - - - DOS - - - - - - | - - - - Windows 3.x - - - - |
|SPEED < MHz > | CLOCK % |SPEED < MHz > | CLOCK % |
| 31.64 | 95.85 | 31.37 | 95.02 |
| 28.90 | 87.56 | 24.80 | 75.12 |
| 20.69 | 62.68 | 16.75 | 50.74 |
| |
| - - - - - OS/2 - - - - - - | - - - - - Win32 - - - - - |
|SPEED < MHz > | CLOCK % |SPEED < MHz > | CLOCK % |
| 27.67 | 83.83 | 19.60 | 59.36 |
| 20.55 | 62.27 | 14.04 | 42.53 |
| 15.39 | 46.63 | 14.04 | 42.53 |
| |
| LOCAL BUS | CPU REGISTER |CPU -> MEMORY | MEMORY -> CPU|
| 32 | 32 | 32 | 22 |
| |
|-----------------------------------------------------------|
|This is an AMI 486DX-33 system with 64 k of L2 cache |
|-----------------------------------------------------------|

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HOW TO COPY CORSPEED RECORDING TO A FORUM MESSAGE

USING COMPUSERVE'S WINCIM:

Select FILE then OPEN from the WinCim control panel to invoke the text
editor. Select the drive and directory where CORSPEED resides. All files
with the .TXT extension will appear in the file selector box. CORSPEED forum
recordings can be easily identified from their naming format:

CSP$xxxx.txt

Select the desired forum recording file to load it into the text editor.
Pull down the EDIT menu and click on the SELECT ALL option to mark the forum
recording text. Click on COPY then close the Notepad editor and return to
WinCim.

Create a forum message in the normal way and when you reach the point where
you want to insert the CORSPEED forum recording text, select EDIT and click
on COPY. This will insert the CORSPEED data into your forum message.


USING A FORUM NAVIGATOR

Given the proliferation of CIS Auto Navigator programs, it is not possible to
define a specific procedure for importing the CORSPEED data recording into a
forum message. In general, block move and file read operations typical of
most editors can be used to transfer the text.

It should be noted, however, that the space which occupies column 1 of the
forum recording file is there for a purpose and should be included when
placing this text in a forum message. Without the space at the beginning of
each line of the recording, unless the "Unformatted" method selected, CIS
will attempt to reformat the message causing it to be unreadable.

















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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


SECTION IV -- OPERATING PRINCIPLES


MEMORY CONFIGURATION

The memory cache levels used in 486 based PCs are numbered L1 and L2,
according to their proximity to the processor. The on-chip cache is called
L1, while a secondary cache [ logically residing between the processor and
main memory ] is called L2. CORSPEED measures and reports on the
organization of each cache level. Cache size is displayed in kilobytes.
Cache size, speed, and organization are instrumental in determining program
operating speeds. In general, memory caching systems provide the biggest
benefit when program code and data are frequently accessed from the cache.
That's because the CPU must wait when- ever new data is uploaded from main
memory -- thereby yielding some of its speed advantage. In general, the more
the software's memory address span exceeds cache size, the less effective the
cache. For complex, multi-tasking operating systems, or very large memory
spans, cache miss penalties can effectively cancel some or all of the
benefits of cache memory.


SYSTEM INFORMATION

Accurate performance measurement requires that there be nothing else going on
that might interfere with the measurement routines in CORSPEED. CORSPEED
derives its information by directly manipulating all of the core-engine
hardware systems. To do its job, CORSPEED must be operated at the equivalent
of Intel's PL-0. While operating at the O/S kernel level, and actively
interleaving with and preempting DOS interrupts, it is possible for
measurement primitives to accurately measure hardware operations at the
electrical event level. FOR BEST RESULTS USE THIS TOOL ONLY ON DOS BASED
PCs.

CORSPEED is certified to operate with standard MSDOS, versions 3.1 and up.
Measurement activity will be adversely impacted in any operating environment
that preempts PL-0, loads CORSPEED at an unpredictable address, or interferes
with interrupt management. This means that CORSPEED will not provide
satisfactory results under other operating systems including Windows [ any
version ], or OS/2.











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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


HIGH PERFORMANCE MEMORY SYSTEMS

CORSPEED can analyze core engine performance for both traditional dram based
PC systems as well as simulate the new high performance memory systems such
as EDRAM. To simulate core engine operating speeds for high performance
memory systems, use the command line /e option. High Performance memory
systems make it possible for main memory systems to perform as if they were
one huge L2 cache. The performance benefits of extremely fast read-write
capabilities are only part of the story, since HPM also eliminates processor
stoppages due to L2 cache management as well. High performance memory gains
its advantage by operating at nearly the same speed as the processor --
completely eliminating the overhead associated with L2 cache loading and
unloading. High Performance memory systems will be increasingly important as
CPU data bandwidth demands continue to grow.

NOTE: NOT ALL PC SYSTEM DESIGNS ARE EQUAL -- INCLUDING HIGH
PERFORMANCE DESIGNS. CORSPEED's simulation is no guarantee that any
PC system fully implements all of the performance benefits of EDRAM
or other memory systems.


HOW TO ESTIMATE HOW FAST MULTIPLE TASKS WILL RUN

One of the most useful aspects of CORSPEED is its ability to accurately
project the effective running speed for one or several tasks or applications
running concurrently. To see how multiple tasks will impact your computer's
performance use the /t=xx option where xx is the total number of concurrently
running tasks or applications. CORSPEED defaults to 1 task, but it can
project the impact of up to 16 applications running under OS/2 or Win32.
While single foreground tasks are more typical of DOS and Win3 operations,
CORSPEED projects the impact additional tasks would have in existing 16 bit
operating system environments as well. Many will be surprised to learn that
when two tasks are operating, the combined operating speed of both is less
than that of a single task. The reason is that multiple tasks do more than
share the processor time between , them. Cache churning, time slice
administration, and out of sequence interrupt processing consume increasing
amounts of raw computing power as more tasks are activated. Increased memory
resources, especially if it's high performance memory, is particularly
important in multi-tasking situations.











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CORE ENGINE PERFORMANCE IS NOT THE WHOLE STORY

Computer system performance is the result of many complex variables. As
important as processor type, clocking rate, cache facilities, and memory size
may be, the two other principal computing theaters, video/graphics and mass
storage [ disk ], are also critical to how fast programs will execute. The
reason is, that for the moment at least, the video channel is typically only
20% as fast as typical core engines, while the disk channel is very often
less than 5% as fast. Since video/graphics and disk access are increasingly
critical to applications programs -- due to the popularity of graphics and
DLL's -- very fast core engine systems can be dramatically slowed by poor
performance outside of the core engine [ processor, cache, and memory ]. For
example, as the memory resource demands of large applications, or multiple
tasks increase, so does the probability and frequency of virtual memory
swapping. Sofwin Laboratories Professional Tools, such as PCPOWER, have
built in Expert Systems that can analyze the performance of every hardware
system -- making it possible to project how the target computer will perform
under different loads and operating system environments.


THE IMPORTANCE OF SUPERSCALAR TECHNOLOGY

1994 marks the beginning of the SuperScalar revolution. Beginning with the
Intel Pentium, the SuperScalar age is upon us. No longer will CPUs be
limited to executing a single instruction at a time. In the future, we'll
have a choice between a wide range of SuperScalar processors from Digital
Equipment, IBM-Apple-Motorola, MIPS, Cyrix and others. The day of the
simple, one-thing-at-a-time CPU is quickly fading. SuperScalar technology,
at first dual pipelined -- but soon perhaps offering many pipes -- is
radically different -- requiring new ways of looking at and evaluating
computing system performance. CORSPEED is totally SuperScalar in its design
and operation -- capable of instigating, managing and measuring many
different operations at once. This version, for example, not only supports
all existing 486 processor de- signs, but a wide range of processors from
Cyrix, AMD, IBM, and other x86 compatible CPU families. Sofwin's
Professional tools are also fully SuperScalar -- so we'll be able to add new
SuperScalar processor families such the ALPHA, MIPS and PowerPC processors in
the months to come.












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PROCESSOR FAMILIES

Until recently, Intel was the only processor family found on PC systems. But
now there are several others including Cyrix, PowerPC, AMD, Digital, IBM,
MIPS etc. Sofwin's SST technology recognizes both processor type and family.
For some processors, such as clones of the Intel 486 made by AMD, or IBM,
there is no way to accurately determine who made the CPU since they are all
made from the same identical design. We call this processor family the
INTEL+ family since the processor may have been made by Intel or one of its
licensees. Parts which can be positively identified, including Pentium, and
Cyrix CPUs are reported as belonging to the Cyrix or Intel families and their
respective model designations. Where available, Sofwin tools also detect
hidden model, stepping and feature information as well.

Since processor model identification and family are essential to accurate
performance measurement, CORSPEED will generate an error message and return
to the DOS command line whenever an unknown processor model or family is
detected. REGISTERED users of CORSPEED will be notified when new versions of
CORSPEED are released which support additional CPU models.































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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


SECTION V -- ABOUT SOFWIN LABORATORIES


Sofwin Laboratories is an independent computer performance measurement and
consulting laboratory with facilities in the San Francisco Bay Area and an
Engineering Development facility in Columbus, Ohio. Sofwin's primary mission
is helping its consulting clients and technology licensees get the most
performance for their money. The laboratories also work with PC system
designers and builders in planing and designing high performance computing
systems and peripherals. The Sofwin measurement tools are designed and
developed specifically for use in our own laboratories as well as by
professionals responsible for the selection and maintenance of PC systems in
business and governmental agencies world-wide. Sofwin Laboratories also
sponsors a computer measurement Forum on CompuServe as well as Sofwin Reports
-- the Journal of Computing Performance and Productivity. For more
information on Sofwin Laboratory services, call our Columbus Engineering
Center at (614) 866-9966.


WANT TO KNOW MORE?

SOFWIN REPORTS

If you're interested in knowing more about PC system performance, you'll find
Sofwin Reports, the official publication of Sofwin Laboratories, an excellent
source of information on PC measurement systems, fleet operation, and
professional performance reviews. Every fact-filled issue of this
publication is geared to understanding the issues and the choices confronting
everyone who has to make product choices. Sofwin Reports subscriptions are
only $99 per year in the United States, or $129 elsewhere -- including Air
Mail delivery. To subscribe, send a check of money order, payable to Sofwin
Publishing Company, 613 Old Farm Road, Columbus, Ohio 43213. U. S. companies
and governmental agencies may fax their purchase order to (614) 866-9960 for
standard 30 day billing.


FREE PROFESSIONAL MEASUREMENT TOOL CATALOG

If you would like to have a copy of Sofwin Laboratories current measurement
tool catalog either mailed or faxed to your office call our Columbus
Engineering facility at (800) 339-2579.









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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools


SECTION VI -- SHAREWARE REGISTRATION

While CORSPEED is being offered as shareware, it is neither free nor a toy.
This is the same fully functional, professional grade measurement tool
included in our full professional tool kit [ ProPakSix ].

You may acquire a fully licensed copy of this software directly from Sofwin
Laboratories for only $39. Registrants receive a serial numbered copy of
CORSPEED on a 3.5 inch diskette and three free sample issues of Sofwin
Reports. Send your check in the amount of $39 to CORSPEED Registration,
Sofwin Laboratories, 613 Old Farm Road, Columbus, Ohio 43213, or call (800)
339-2579 to use your credit card.



Sofwin Laboratories
613 Old Farm Road
Columbus, Ohio 43213

Telephone: (614) 866-9966
BBS/FAX (614) 866-9960
CompuServe 74431,1071




























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Sofwin Laboratories SuperScalar Measurement Tools




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