Applications Program Interface (API)
A set of functions that a program uses to interact with
A customized program that performs tasks required by
a specific situation.
Any procedure for bringing a computer system back to
where it was prior to a system malfunction. In the microcomputer
environment, backup refers to the process of copying data files to
a second, or backup, disk.
One or more Transact-SQL statements terminated by an
end-of-batch signal, which submits them to the SQL Server for processing.
The logical equivalent of a field, which contains an
individual data item within a row or record.
An instruction that specifies an operation to be performed
by the computer.
Accuracy and reliability of data provided through transaction
logging, stored procedures, and triggers in SQL Server.
A set of related data tables and other database objects
that are organized and presented to serve a specific purpose.
database management system (DBMS)
A consistent method for storing, organizing, retrieving,
and calculating data in database files.
One of the components of a database: a table, view, index,
procedure, trigger, column, default, or rule.
The user who created the database. A Database Owner
has control over all the database objects in that database.
A set of C functions and macros that allow your application
to interact with SQL Server.
Any part of the computer that is capable of sending or
receiving information. The keyboard is an example of input device;
the video monitor and printer are output devices.
A column(or combination of columns) whose values are
required to match a primary key in some other table.
A set of pointers that are logically ordered by the values
of a key. Indexes provide quick access to data and can enforce uniqueness
on the rows in a table.
A field used to identify a record, often used as the
index field for a table.
Local Area Network
A system that enables PCs to have access to common data
and peripherals. LANs typically consist of PCs with adapter cards,
file servers, a network operating system, printers, and gateways to
departmental or corporate computers.
Having no explicitly assigned value. NULL is not equivalent
to zero or blank. A value of NULL is not considered to be greater
than, less than, or equivalent to any other value, including another
value of NULL.
The second generation operating system co-developed by
Microsoft and IBM to exploit the power and speed of personal computers
based on the Intel 80286 and 80386 microprocessors.
The column or columns whose values uniquely identify
a row in a table.
A request for the retrieval of data with a SELECT statement.
The rules governing data consistency, specifically the
relationships among the primary keys and foreign keys of different
tables. SQL Server addresses referential integrity with user-defined
A Transact-SQL statement used with a user-defined transaction
(before a COMMIT TRANSACTION has been received) that cancels the transaction
and undoes any changes that were made to the database.
A set of related columns that describes a specific entity,
also called a record.
A computer on a Local Area Network that controls access
to resources such as files, printers, and modems.
An acronym for Structured Query Language, a database
query and programming sub-language originally developed for IBM mainframe
computers. There is now an ANSI standard SQL definition of all computer
Part of the SQL Server language that begins with a keyword
that names the basic operation to be performed.
A collection of SQL statements and optional control-of-flow
statements stored under a name. Stored procedures supplied by SQL
Server are called system procedures.
The person or persons responsible for the administrative
and operational functions that are independent of any particular application. The
System Administrator is likely to be a person with the best overview
of all the applications. The System Administrator advises application
designers about the data that already exists on SQL Server, makes
recommendations about standardizing data definitions across applications,
and so on.
One of the data dictionary tables. The system tables
keep track of information about SQL Server as a whole and about each
user database. The master database contains some system tables that
are not in user databases.
A collection of rows (records) that have associated columns
(fields). A table is the logical equivalent of a database file.
A series of processing steps that result in a specific
function or activity being completed. A mechanism for ensuring that
a set of actions is treated as a single unit of work.
A system table (syslogs) in which all changes to the
database are recorded.
A special form of stored procedure that goes into effect
when an INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE is applied to a table or column.
Triggers are often used to enforce referential integrity.
An addition, deletion, or change to data involving INSERT,
DELETE, TRUNCATE TABLE, or UPDATE statements.
A program provided with SQL Server to perform housekeeping
tasks. Utility programs are executed from the operating system program
An alternative way of looking at the data in one or more
tables. A view is usually created as a subset of columns and/or rows
from one or more tables.
A portion of the display that appears as a separate viewing
area outlined by a frame or border.
A computer used by a user to work on a local area network. Also
known as client, satellite, node, or station.