Category : Dbase (Clipper, FoxBase, etc) Languages Source Code
Archive   : DSCAR3.ZIP
Filename : DSCAR.DOC

Output of file : DSCAR.DOC contained in archive : DSCAR3.ZIP

dBASE Source Code Analyzer & Reporter
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Version 3.0

Designed and written by Ryan Katri

2575 Drake Hill Road
Fortuna, CA 95540
(707) 725-5559

Copyright (c) 1986-89 by Ryan Katri.
All Rights Reserved.


INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

UNREGISTERED VERSION OF dSCAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

ORDERING dSCAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS & DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

INSTALLING THE FILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

STARTING dSCAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

THE MENU SCREEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

MENU OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Diagramming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Line Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Controls Only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Errors Only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Suppress Comments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Proc/Funct:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Lines 1 to END . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
X-Reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Word Fix-Up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Your Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Comment Condition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Printer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Output Print-Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 20
Non-stop Scroll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Analyze Another. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Install Temporary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Save Defaults. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Quit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Begin Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

BATCH MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

MODULES PROCESSING QUEUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

CODING ERRORS dSCAR REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

ADDING RESERVED WORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

OTHER FEATURES & TIPS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

CONFIGURING dSCAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Miscellaneous Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Install Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Printer Setup and Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34


dSCAR is a set of utilities for all versions of dBASE, FoxBase,
Clipper, FrontRunner, and other dBASE clones. All of the utilities
are contained in one user interface and are turned on and off through
command line options or the dSCAR menu system.

The dSCAR utilities perform a variety of tasks, with these being a few
of the highlights:

þ PRETTY-PRINTS SOURCE CODE -- Your code will be more readable
with these clean-up functions dSCAR performs:

- Properly indents code, lining up all structural statements
- Changes variables and reserved words as specified to
UPPERCASE/lowercase/SIGNificant case/Proper case
- Can comment conditional statements if specified
- Optionally removes user comments from source code

þ UNCOVERS ERRORS -- dBASE and its clones do not catch all errors in
source code, especially structural errors. dSCAR flags
those errors dBASE misses.

þ CREATES FLOW DIAGRAMS -- To aid in reading your source code,
dSCAR will add graphic flow diagrams lining up structural
statements (like DO WHILE...ENDDO, IF...ENDIF).

cross-references can be created:

- Local cross-references display the line numbers where
variables are found within a specific module.
- Global cross-references are for an entire system, and tell
which modules each variable is found in.

þ ADDS LINE NUMBERS -- Line numbering source code is necessary
for cross-references, yet it is also useful when analyzing
printouts and debugging code.

variety of devices:

- Screen output for quick checking of errors, with all
errors being highlighted in specified color.
- Printer output adds user-defined header on each page,
optionally include page number, module name, system name,
copyright notice, and more. A table of contents is also
created if a whole system is being documented.
- File output so that you can execute your pretty-printed
code, or send to a file with printer codes intact for
later printing.

Page 1


The unregistered version of dSCAR is fully functional with no features
disabled. The difference between the registered and unregistered
versions of dSCAR are the opening and closing screens.

The unregistered version has two opening screens: a title screen and
an information screen. Pressing any key will page you through the
screens. After these screens are displayed the dSCAR menu is

The unregistered closing screen is displayed only if you operate dSCAR
for more than five minutes at a time. The closing screen urges you to
register dSCAR and gives you the option of printing a registration
form by pressing the 'R' key. Please do not use this registration
form unless the ORDER.EXE program is NOT included with the dSCAR
package you received.

By registering dSCAR you get the latest version of dSCAR without the
opening and closing screens. In addition you will receive a printed
manual and unlimited support by phone or by mail. You will also be
informed of major dSCAR upgrades and be entitled to updating to newer
versions at a nominal charge.

See the chapter "ORDERING dSCAR" (next page) for ordering

Page 2


Use the ORDER.EXE program to print a registration form. ORDER will
request the information needed to register: your name, your company
name, your address, and other pertinent information. In addition, it
will ask if you are overseas and if you will be sending a purchase
order. Both incur additional costs.

ORDER will compute sales tax if you are in California and add in the
extra cost of overseas shipping and purchase order handling. The
total registration cost is displayed on the screen. A check or money
order for that amount should be made out and mailed to:

Ryan Katri
2575 Drake Hill Road
Fortuna, CA 95540

ORDER also allows the entry of optional comments. If you have any
suggestions, complaints, or kudos about dSCAR, enter them in the
comment area.

When all the information is collected, ORDER will print a registration
form. Please include the form with your check, money order, or
purchase order.

This is the current price list for dSCAR v3.0 (prices are subject to

dSCAR with printed manual..........$ 49.95 each
dSCAR without printed manual.......$ 39.95 each
dSCAR Unlimited Site License.......$400.00

Add the following if applicable:

Sales tax in California............6% on dSCAR base price only
Purchase orders less than $100.00..$ 5.00
Overseas shipping..................$ 2.00

Do not compute sales tax on the purchase order handling and overseas
shipping costs.

Site licenses are unlimited within a single company. dSCAR is
supplied on a single disk and with a single printed manual.
It is the responsibility of the purchaser to copy disks and print
or photocopy manuals.

Page 3


dSCAR will run on any of the IBM-PC family of computers, including the
PC, PC/XT, PC/AT, and PS/2. It should also run on most IBM-compatible

If your computer will run dBASE or a dBASE-compatible compiler or
interpreter (such as FoxBase, Clipper, etc), then it should also work
with dSCAR.

The unregistered version of dSCAR is distributed in either the .ZIP or
.ARC archive formats. The following files should be included in this

DSCAR.EXE - the executable program
DSCAR.DOC - dSCAR documentation
READ.ME - important last-minute info you should read
ORDER.EXE - program to create registration form
INSTALL.BAT - installation batch file
USE_FOX.BAT - part of installation for FoxBase
USE_CLIP.BAT - part of installation for Clipper
ASKYN.EXE - used in installation batch file

If you received dSCAR on a disk and not in an archive, say from an
associate or a software distributor, make sure that all of the above
files are present. If any of these files are missing then you
received an incomplete package.

The READ.ME file may contain some important information which did not
get into the manual, so it is recommended that you read this file.

If you wish to distribute dSCAR to your associates, distribute only
DSCAR??.ZIP. It is illegal to give away a copy of the registered
version of DSCAR.EXE. The dSCAR program contained in the .ZIP file
contains a functional copy of dSCAR. The only drawback is that it
bears two sign-on screens and a closing screen urging the user to

DSCAR.EXE is the only file necessary to run dSCAR. All other files
are optional and dSCAR can operate independent of all of them.

Page 4


To copy the dSCAR files over to another floppy disk or hard disk,
first log into the drive and directory you want to put dSCAR on. Then,
put the distribution disk in another drive and type:


is the drive letter where the dSCAR distribution disk is
located. If this is drive A:, you would type:


Install performs two functions. First, it copies DSCAR.EXE from the
distribution disk to the current drive and directory. Secondly, it
asks if you are using Clipper or FoxBase.

If you are using Clipper or FoxBase then the install program will
create a RESERVED file in the current directory. The RESERVED file
contains language extensions for the cross-reference feature of dSCAR.
See the chapter titled "ADDING RESERVED WORDS" (page 25) for more
information. For now you can ignore the RESERVED file.

You do not have to use the install program to copy dSCAR. DSCAR.EXE
is the only necessary file to operate dSCAR, and it may be copied to
other directories and disks using the Dos COPY command. If you are
using a hard disk it is recommended you just put DSCAR.EXE in a
directory found in your path statement.

If you wish to configure dSCAR at this point, turn to the chapter
heading "CONFIGURING dSCAR" (page 28). It is recommended, however,
that you run and familiarize yourself with dSCAR before making any
changes in configuration.

Page 5


To start dSCAR, at the DOS prompt type:


If dSCAR is in the current directory or one of your path statements,
the options menu will be displayed and the second line of the screen
will prompt:

dBASE file to process: *.PRG

'*.PRG' is the default file mask. Press if you want to get a
list of all of the files with a .PRG extension. Or, type in the name
of the dBASE program file you wish to process. Path designations are
acceptable. will exit dSCAR.

A quicker way to bring up dSCAR is to include the file to process on
the command line. The syntax is:


Where is the name of the dBASE file to be processed.

Wildcards are acceptable in filenames. If a wildcard is entered at
the 'dBASE file to process' prompt, dSCAR will open up a window
displaying a list of the files matching the filespec. You can then
scan the list using the , , , Down>, , and keys. Pressing a letter 'A'-'Z' will move
the cursor to the first filename beginning with that letter.
will select the file the cursor is positioned on.

Page 6


The dSCAR menu screen is divided into three areas: the status lines,
the selection window, and the installation window. Each of these
areas is explained in detail:

þ Status Lines

The status lines are the top three lines of the screen. They contain
the dSCAR version number and copyright notice, the file which is
selected to be processed, and the output device or filename.
A sample status line is shown:

dSCAR v3.0 (Copyright (c) 1986-89 Ryan Katri)
dBASE file to process: MAIN.PRG
Output file: (screen)

The output file will show a filename if output is to a file. It will
display '(printer)' or '(screen)' if output is to one of these two

þ Selection Window

The selection window displays the options which may be turned on or
off. The window looks like this:

º º
º D Diagramming X X-Reference º
º L Line numbers M Modules º
º C Controls only W Word fix-up º
º E Errors only Y Your reserved º
º * Suppress comments & Comment condition º
º = Proc/Funct: º
º # Lines 1 to END º
º º
º º
º S Screen A Analyze another º
º P Printer I Install temporary º
º F File ! Save defaults º
º O Output print-style Q Quit º
º N Non-stop scroll º
º º
º RETURN: Begin Processing º

Selected (turned on) options are highlighted. 'Flow Controls',
'Documentation', 'Output Options', and 'Actions' are the option

Page 7

You can toggle options on and off by hitting the key next to the
option. For example, to turn Diagramming on and off, hit the 'D' key.
Some options are not toggles, specifically those under the Actions
heading. Pressing will start processing the selected program

þ Installation Window

The installation window resembles the following:

³ ³
³ Indent Count : 3 ³
³ Diagram Type : G ³
³ Reserved Case : U ³
³ Variables Case : P ³
³ Printer Port : 1 ³
³ Screen Length : 22 ³
³ Printer Length : 63 ³
³ Printer Width : 80 ³
³ File Width : 79 ³
³ Module Extension: PRG ³
³ Print-Style Ext.: PRN ³
³ Output Extension: FLO ³
³ X-Ref Extension : XRF ³
³ Truncate Lines : N ³
³ ³
³ # Own Reserved : 4 ³

Contained under the Configuration heading of this window are many of
the settings you can control through dSCAR's configuration program.
These settings can be modified for a single dSCAR session, however, by
selecting the option Install Temporary. Thus, you can on-the-fly
change many of dSCAR's setting, such as the printer port to use or the
indent count. If you change these settings from the menu screen, they
are changed for that session only. To make permanent changes you must
run dSCAR's built-in configuration program.

The Reserved Words heading tells how many reserved words are defined.
This feature is explained in a later section.

Page 8


þ DIAGRAMMING -- 'D' key toggles on/off

One of the most useful features of dSCAR is its ability to line up all
your control statements to make sure they are structurally sound.
This makes it easy, for example, to see where you might have an open
CASE or a missing IF.

dBASE will not catch structural errors, yet structural errors usually
result in erratic operation of your program. If your program is
making some weird returns or executing loops improperly, dSCAR can be
called upon to see if the problem is structural. Most dBASE language
compilers (ie Clipper) will warn of structural errors themselves.

Below is a sample of code before it has been processed with dSCAR's
Diagramming option:

³ ³
³ DO WHILE .T. ³
³ ACCEPT 'What is your name?' TO Myname ³
³ IF UPPER(Myname) <> 'JOE' ³
³ ? 'Only Joe is allowed access!' ³
³ ELSE ³
³ ? 'Hello Joe' ³
³ CASE Myname = 'JOE' ³
³ ? 'You typed in uppercase' ³
³ CASE Myname = 'joe' ³
³ ? 'You typed in lowercase' ³

The resulting output with Diagramming on would look something like

³ ³
³ º ACCEPT 'What is your name?' TO Myname ³
³ º ÚIF UPPER(Myname) <> 'JOE' ³
³ º ³ ? 'Only Joe is allowed access!' ³
³ º ÃELSE ³
³ º ³ ? 'Hello Joe' ³
³ º ³ ÕDO CASE ³
³ º ³ ÆCASE Myname = 'JOE' ³

Page 9

³ º ³ ³ ? 'You typed in uppercase' ³
³ º ³ ÆCASE Myname = 'joe' ³
³ º ³ ³ ? 'You typed in lowercase' ³
³ º ³ ÔENDCASE ³
³ º ÀENDIF ³

The above example assumes that graphic flow diagrams are selected.
Graphic diagrams use single and double lines to show how your
program's flow is structured. Double lines are used for DO WHILE and
DO CASE statements, while single lines for IF statements. Horizontal
lines are used to indicate where the flow jumps to when a RETURN,
LOOP, or EXIT is encountered.

You can change from graphic flow diagrams to text diagrams through the
configuration or temporary installation. Text diagrams are not as
attractive, but they are more informative if you are trying to figure
out the flow of a program.

Here is what a text flow diagram looks like:

³ ³
³ DO WHILE .T. ³
³ W ACCEPT 'What is your name?' TO Myname ³
³ W IF UPPER(Myname) <> 'JOE' ³
³ W T ? 'Only Joe is allowed access!' ³
³ <--------RETURN ³
³ W ELSE ³
³ W F ? 'Hello Joe' ³
³ W F CASE Myname = 'JOE' ³
³ W F 1 ? 'You typed in uppercase' ³
³ W F CASE Myname = 'joe' ³
³ W F 2 ? 'You typed in lowercase' ³
³ <------------RETURN ³

Notice that each control statement has a corresponding character to
represent it. For example, a WHILE structure is lined up with a W.
Below is what each character in the text flow diagram represents:

W - DO WHILE; terminates with ENDDO

T - IF is true; terminates with ENDIF or ELSE

F - ELSE is false; terminates with ENDIF

Page 10

S - SCAN; terminates with ENDSCAN

C - DO CASE; terminates with first CASE, OTHERWISE, or

# - Number of the case statement; terminates with next

O - OTHERWISE; terminates with ENDCASE

P - PRINTJOB; terminates with END PRINTJOB

L - FOR; terminates with NEXT

If you don't quite understand these, try running some of your dBASE
code through dSCAR with Diagramming on and you will get the picture.

If you want runnable code that is simply indented without the flow
diagramming, then turn Diagramming off. Code processed with all flow
control options turned off is still indented and can be executed by
dBASE and interpreted by a compiler.

þ LINE NUMBERS -- 'L' key toggles on/off

Line Numbering will add line numbers to your source code. If
Variables Cross-Reference is on, then it is recommended to have Line
Numbering on, as the variables are referenced with the corresponding
line numbers.

There are two ways to line number. The default method is to have each
complete line of source code assigned its own number. The second
method gives each continuation line its own number. For example, if a
long line of code will not fit on a single line, dSCAR will
automatically break it up into several lines using the dBASE
continuation feature; each continued line would be assigned a new line

An example of numbering if each complete line of source code is to
have a single line number:

³ ³
³ 1 do while .not. eof() ³
³ 2 replace first with mfirst, last with mlast,; ³
³ 2 company with mcompany, phone with mphone,; ³
³ 2 address1 with maddress1, address2 with maddress2 ³
³ 3 skip ³
³ 4 enddo ³

An example of numbering if continuation lines are assigned new

Page 11

³ ³
³ 1 do while .not. eof() ³
³ 2 replace first with mfirst, last with mlast,; ³
³ 3 company with mcompany, phone with mphone,; ³
³ 4 address1 with maddress1, address2 with maddress2 ³
³ 5 skip ³
³ 6 enddo ³

The numbering method can be specified through the dSCAR configuration.

þ CONTROLS ONLY -- 'C' key toggles on/off

This option tells dSCAR to only include the control lines in the
output. These control lines would be commands such as DO
usually used in conjunction with the Diagramming function.

The utility of Controls Only is that you can view the structure of
your program without having to read through the extraneous code which
has no effect on structure.

Below are examples of source code with Controls Only off and with
Controls Only on (in both cases Diagramming is turned on):

³ ³
³ Ödo while .t. ³
³ º accept 'What is your name?' to myname ³
³ º Úif upper(myname) <> 'JOE' ³
³ º ³ ? 'Only Joe is allowed access!' ³
³ ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄreturn ³
³ º Ãelse ³
³ º ³ clear ³
³ º ³ ? 'Hello Joe' ³
³ º ³ ? 'Do you wish to check your messages now? ³
³ º ³ accept to CheckMsg ³
³ º ³ Õdo case ³
³ º ³ Æcase CheckMsg = 'Y' ³
³ º ³ ³ do CheckIt ³
³ º ³ Æcase CheckMsg = 'N' ³
³ º ³ ³ ? 'Thank you for logging in.' ³
³ º ³ Ôendcase ³
³ º Àendif ³
³ Óenddo ³

Page 12

³ ³
³ Ödo while .t. ³
³ º Úif upper(myname) <> 'JOE' ³
³ ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄreturn ³
³ º Ãelse ³
³ º ³ Õdo case ³
³ º ³ Æcase CheckMsg = 'Y' ³
³ º ³ Æcase CheckMsg = 'N' ³
³ º ³ Ôendcase ³
³ º Àendif ³
³ Óenddo ³

Notice how much easier it is to follow the flow when Controls Only is
turned on.

þ ERRORS ONLY -- 'E' key toggles on/off

With Errors Only on, only errors that are found in the dBASE code are
displayed. When Errors Only is selected, the following options are
automatically turned off: Line Numbers, Controls Only, Suppress
Comments, and Diagramming.

See "CODING ERRORS dSCAR REPORTS" (page 24) for a list of the errors.

þ SUPPRESS COMMENTS -- '*' toggles on/off

You can filter the comments out of your code by turning this option
on. Useful to see only the necessary code for debugging.

þ PROC/FUNCT: -- '=' prompts for entry of procedure or function

dSCAR will process only the selected procedure or function if you
indicate it here. dSCAR will scan through your dBASE program files
until it encounters the selected procedure or function. Only that
procedure or function will be processed.

When you select this option dSCAR will ask for the procedure or
function to process. The maximum length of a procedure name is 10
characters. If you wish to turn this features off (it is not a
toggle) after already entering a procedure, just delete the procedure
name you had entered using the DELete key on the keyboard.

þ LINES 1 TO END -- '#' prompt for a beginning and ending line

You can optionally select to have dSCAR process only a specific range
of line numbers in a module. For example, you may want to process
only up through line 50 in your program. Or, if you want to process
only lines 100 to 150, you can save time by skipping the first 99

Page 13

lines and everything after line 150.

When entering a beginning line number, an entry of '0' or '1' means to
start from the beginning of the program.

To have dSCAR process all the way to the end of the program, enter '0'
when prompted for the ending line number.

This option only works with single modules. Turning it on will
automatically turn Modules off.

þ X-REFERENCE -- 'X' toggles on/off

Turning Variables Cross-Reference on will instruct dSCAR to prepare a
cross-reference of all variables as it processes each module.

There are two types of cross-references: local and global. A local
cross-reference includes only variables found in one module or
procedure, and indicates on which line numbers found. A global cross-
reference displays the modules each variable is found in.

If Variables Cross-Reference is toggled on, it is recommended that
Line Numbers be turned on, as variables are referenced by their line
numbers in a local cross-reference. If Modules is selected, then a
global cross-reference will be created; otherwise, only a local cross-
reference is generated.

The local cross-reference is displayed after each individual module or
procedure is processed. The listing for a local cross-reference is in
a format similar to this:

³ ³
³ Variable Line number in file ³
³ -------- ------------------- ³
³ CheckMsg: 11 13 15 ³
³ myname: =2 3 4 ³

'CheckMsg' and 'myname' are variables. 'CheckMsg' occurs in lines 11,
13, and 15. 'myname' is found in lines 2, 3, and 4. Notice the equal
sign (=) next to the 2 after 'myname.' The equal sign indicates that
on line 2 'myname' is assigned a new value. All variable assignments
are indicated with the equal sign, as well as being highlighted if
output is to the screen.

If Modules is toggled on also, then a global cross-reference of
variables will also be generated. The global cross-reference quickly
shows which variables occur in which modules. If a variable occurs in
a procedure, then the procedure name is displayed with the module name
in parenthesis beside it. A sample global cross-reference is shown:

Page 14

³ ³
³ Variable occurs in Modules ³
³ -------- ------- ³
³ CheckMsg: TEST.PRG ³
³ TempName: GETNAME.PRG ³

'CheckMsg' occurs only in the TEST.PRG module. 'myname' occurs in two
modules and one procedure. The procedure name is SHOWNAME, and
SHOWNAME is in the module GETNAME.PRG. 'NoName' is found solely in a
procedure, and TempName occurs in a single module.

þ MODULES -- 'M' key toggles on/off

Turning Modules on will instruct dSCAR to process all modules that may
call each other in a complete dBASE system.

Any time dSCAR encounters a DO , SET FORMAT TO ,
or SET PROC TO it will add the filename to a list of
modules to be processed. Thus, if you had several modules to process,
and they are all eventually called somewhere in the system, you could
start with the top module and dSCAR will work down from there. To
illustrate this:

You have a module called MAIN.PRG, which calls ACCOUNTS.PRG and

ACCOUNTS.PRG in turn calls EDIT.PRG, and INVENT.PRG also calls

If you turn Modules on and start with the file MAIN.PRG, then all of
these would get processed: MAIN.PRG, ACCOUNTS.PRG, INVENT.PRG, and

A module will NOT be processed twice!

The current module being processed is written at the bottom of the
screen. This makes it easy to see what modules have errors in them
with a glance at the status line.

Depending on what you specified in the configuration, drive
designators and path names will or will not be stripped from
filenames. If pathnames are stripped, then dSCAR will search for
modules first in the current directory. If a module is not found in
the current directory, dSCAR will search the directory in which the
top module was specified to be in.

If a file cannot be found a warning message is displayed to the

Page 15

screen. Sometimes dSCAR will not find a module because the module is
really a procedure. In this case, ignore the warning message.

If you wish to process a module as part of a system but that module is
not being called by the system, use the MODULES file. This is a file
containing a list of modules you want added to the processing queue.
See the chapter heading "MODULES PROCESSING QUEUE" (page 23) to see
how to do this.

þ WORD FIX-UP -- 'W' key toggles on/off

Word Fix-up will fix your code cosmetically by changing the case of
reserved words and variables in your code. For example, you may opt
to capitalize all reserved words and lowercase variables. You specify
the case for reserved words and variables in dSCAR configuration. It
may also be changed through the temporary installation.

There are five different ways to change the case of reserved words and
variables: upper, lower, proper, significant, and no change. Upper
and lower are self-explanatory.

In proper case, the first letter of each word is capitalized. For
example, 'do while' becomes 'Do While' and 'REPLACE' becomes

Significant case will capitalize only the first four letters of a
word. 'do while' becomes 'DO WHILe' and 'replace' becomes 'REPLace.'

No change will leave all reserved words or all variables as they are
found in the code. This is especially useful if you want to change
the case of reserved words, but leave variables as you entered them.

Below is an example of code before and after processing with Word Fix-
up on. In this case, reserved words are capitalized and variables are
made proper case.

³ ³
³ do while .T. ³
³ Accept 'What is your name?' to myname ³
³ IF upper(MYNAME) <> 'JOE' ³
³ ? 'Only Joe is allowed access!' ³
³ return ³
³ ELSE ³
³ ? 'Hello Joe' ³
³ retu ³
³ endif ³
³ enddo ³

Page 16

³ ³
³ DO WHILE .T. ³
³ ACCEPT 'What is your name?' TO Myname ³
³ IF UPPER(Myname) <> 'JOE' ³
³ ? 'Only Joe is allowed access!' ³
³ ELSE ³
³ ? 'Hello Joe' ³
³ RETU ³

Keep in mind that Word Fix-up will not add or delete any code. If you
always use only the first four letters for dBASE commands and
functions, dSCAR will not expand the word. For example, if you used
'retu' in your code, dBASE would make that 'RETU' (as shown in the
code sample above). It will not expand it to be 'RETURN'.

þ YOUR RESERVED -- 'Y' key toggles on/off

In order to support the ever-changing and expanding dBASE language and
dBASE clones, dSCAR allows you to add your own reserved words to its
own list. The main purpose of this is to keep those new commands
which dSCAR does not recognize out of the cross-reference.

Your own reserved words are contained in a file called RESERVED (no
extension). If dSCAR finds this file in the current directory then
Your Reserved is automatically toggled on. The words contained in
RESERVED are read into dSCAR's list of reserved words and will no
longer be added to a cross-reference of variables.

If you do not wish to use the reserved words in RESERVED, then turn
Your Reserved off. The point of this is if you happen to be using two
different dBASE compatible languages. For example, you might use
Clipper at times and dBASE IV at other times. You will need the extra
reserved words when processing Clipper code, so you would want Your
Reserved toggled on. However, when processing dBASE IV code you would
want it toggled off, as all of dBASE IV's reserved words are part of
dSCAR's internal list.

See the chapter "ADDING RESERVED WORDS" (page 25) for instructions on
creating your own reserved words list.

þ COMMENT CONDITION -- '&' toggles on/off

dSCAR can aid in commenting your source code. If Comment Condition is
on, dSCAR will append the condition for an IF, DO WHILE, SCAN, and FOR
to the finishing ENDIF, ENDDO, ENDSCAN and NEXT. For example, take
the following statement:

IF x = 10

Page 17

When dSCAR encounters the ENDIF, it will add a comment like this:

ENDIF && x = 10

By doing so, it makes it easy to see what an ENDIF, ENDDO, or NEXT is
terminating. If there is already a comment on the ENDIF, ENDDO, or
NEXT line, then dSCAR will leave the original comment intact and not
add its own comment.

þ SCREEN -- 'S' key turns on, 'P', 'F', or 'O' turns off

Hit the 'S' key if you want all output to go to the screen. dSCAR
will pause after a screen page is displayed unless Non-stop Scroll is
toggled on. After a page is displayed, dSCAR will prompt with the
following message:

Q to quit, N for non-stop, any other key to continue.

Hitting 'Q' or will return you to the dSCAR main menu. 'N' will
make the display non-stop so it will not pause after each page.
However, you can force a pause at any time by hitting the key;
you can then turn non-stop scrolling off if you wish. Pressing a key
besides 'Q' or 'N' will display the next screen page.

At the end of processing the entire system, dSCAR will display this

[END OF ANALYSIS] Q to quit dSCAR, any other key for menu

Pressing 'Q' or at this point will exit dSCAR completely. Any
other key will return you to the main menu.

þ PRINTER -- 'P' key turns on, 'S', 'F', or 'O' turns off

Hit the 'P' key if you want all output to be directed to the printer.

When sending output to the printer, dSCAR will initially send the
optional codes specified to set up the printer. At the end of
printing it will send the codes to reset the printer. These printer
codes are specified in the dSCAR configuration.

There are several other printer options which are specified in the
configuration. These include the left margin, page length and width,
the page heading, printer port to use, and whether or not a formfeed
is sent after each module is printed. See the chapter heading
"CONFIGURING dSCAR" (page 28) for more information on these options.

When Errors Only is toggled on and output is to the printer, each
module processed is separated by dashes instead of a formfeed.

Hitting will pause printing and ask if you wish to abort.

Page 18

þ FILE -- 'F' key turns on, 'S', 'P', or 'O' turns off

Hit the 'F' key to send output to disk.

Sending output to the disk is most useful when you want to pretty up
your source code to make it more readable as you work on it. To do
this and still have runnable code, you must turn Diagramming and Line
Numbers off.

Output to disk is sent to the same filename of each module but with a
new extension. For example, the source code will be written to the
same filename as the module being processed, but the extension will be
'.FLO'. The local cross-reference will go to the filename of the
referenced module but with an extension of '.XRF'. The global cross-
reference will be written to the same filename as the top file, but
with an extension of '.GBL'. All of these extensions may be changed
through the dSCAR configuration.

For example, if you process the file HELP.PRG, the output file will be
HELP.FLO. If a local cross-reference is generated it will go to
HELP.XRF. If Modules and X-Reference is turned on, then the global
cross-reference will be HELP.GBL if HELP.PRG is the top module.

þ OUTPUT PRINT-STYLE -- 'O' key turns on, 'S' 'P', or 'F' turns off

Hit the 'O' key to send output to disk but in printing format. This
is necessary if you want to print the documentation later from the
file, as all formfeeds, page headings, and margins will be left

When you select output to disk print-style, dSCAR will request a
filename to send the output to. If you enter a specific filename then
all output will go to a single file--this includes source code, local
cross-references, and the global cross-reference.

If '*.*' is entered as the output file, then each module and cross-
reference will go to a separate file, just like output to file
operates. For example, HELP.PRG will make two files: HELP.FLO and
HELP.XRF. The difference between these files and those generated by
output to file is that these will have printer codes inserted.

þ NON-STOP SCROLL -- 'N' key toggles on/off

Non-stop Scroll will restrict dSCAR from pausing after a full page is
displayed when output is to the screen. You can still press the
key at any time to pause the output.

þ ANALYZE ANOTHER -- 'A' key prompts for a new file to process

To get another file to process, hit the 'A' key. This will ask for a
new file to process. Hitting will abort the entry and return to
the original file being processed.

Page 19

þ INSTALL TEMPORARY -- 'I' key selects

You can change many dSCAR options on-the-fly by Installing Temporary.
Changes made here are for one session only. Once dSCAR is terminated
all temporary installation settings are lost. If you wish to make a
permanent change, use the dSCAR configuration.

When you hit the 'I' key to Install Temporary, you are thrown into the
installation window. Using the up and down arrow keys go to the
option you wish to change and enter the new value. Pressing
will save the temporary settings and return to the selection window.

For a detailed discussion of each setting, see the configuration
instructions under the chapter heading "CONFIGURING dSCAR" (page 28).

þ SAVE DEFAULTS -- '!' prompts for file and saves defaults

When dSCAR is initiated, the menu options have default settings. For
example, Diagramming and Comment Condition are turned on and output is
to the screen. You may find that you are continually using dSCAR with
different settings, such as Modules and Line Numbering turned on,
Diagramming off, and output to file. You can make these settings the
default with the Save Defaults command.

To save your defaults, toggle all menu options to the desired state.
When all the options are how you want them to permanently be, type
'!'. dSCAR will then prompt for the filename of dSCAR. This is
usually DSCAR.EXE, but if you renamed dSCAR then you must enter the
new name. The new menu defaults will be saved so that they are the
defaults the next time dSCAR is loaded.

Note that Save Defaults does NOT save the Temporary Installation

þ QUIT -- 'Q' or key

To exit dSCAR, press 'Q' or hit .

þ BEGIN PROCESSING -- begins processing

Hit to start processing the selected module with the desired

If output is to the printer and the printer is not ready or turned on,
dSCAR will not begin processing.

Page 20


dSCAR can be operated completely from the command line, bypassing the
menu screen. Thus, you can write a batch file for dSCAR to have it
process several systems at one time while you are away from the

The command line format for batch is:

{-begin line/}{+end line/}{(outfile)}

is the name of the dBASE file to process. Everything
between the curly braces ({}) are optional, except that there must be
at least one parameter after to send dSCAR into batch mode.
Spaces should not separate the parameters after .

To invoke dSCAR in batch mode with the default settings, use this


The above command line tells dSCAR to process in batch mode
('B' indicates batch). When in batch mode dSCAR will not pause after
displaying a page, nor will it return to the menu screen, but instead
exit back to DOS.

You can also set processing options from the command line. Do this by
including on the command line the selection key for the menu option
you wish to toggle from its default state. For example, if you wish
to toggle Diagramming off (on is the default) and send output to a
file instead of the screen, use this command line:


Notice that the 'B' is not needed. 'B' is only needed if you are not
toggling any options but wish to use the defaults. However, including
the 'B' parameter at other times will not hurt.

There are two things you must remember when operating in batch mode:
the selection keys for the menu options and the default menu settings.
For example, the 'D' key turns Diagramming off and on, and Diagramming
on is the default.

Several options are not supported from batch mode, for obvious
reasons. These include Non-stop Scroll, Analyze Another, Install
Temporary, and Save Defaults.

Specifying a procedure/function or beginning and ending line numbers
to process requires a special format. For a procedure or function,
include the name of the procedure/function between an equal sign (=)

Page 21

and a slash (/). For example, the following command will process the
procedure HELP with diagramming turned off:


To specify the low range of line numbers to process, include the
beginning line number between a minus sign (-) and a slash (/). This
command line will process beginning at line 113:

DSCAR -113/

The high range line number is included between a plus sign (+) and a
slash (/), like this:

DSCAR +200/

Suppose you wanted to process from line 110 to line 150. To do this
you would enter:

DSCAR +150/-110/

Notice that the order of the parameters makes no difference.

You can also specify an output file on the command line. Do this by
including the output filename between parenthesis. For example, to
send output print-style (option 'O') to the file PRINT.XYZ, use this
command line:


You will have to experiment with the batch mode in order to get the
hang of it. Here are a few more examples, as examples illustrate best
in this case:

DSCAR DMXL (Diagramming off, Modules on,
X-ref on, Numbering on)

DSCAR D+100/L (Diagramming off, end at line 100,
Numbering on)

DSCAR E=WRITE/ (Errors Only on, procedure WRITE)

Page 22


Even with Modules turned on dSCAR will not always process every module
in your system. The usual reason for this is macros. For example,
you may have some code which looks like this:

³ ³
³ IF Option = 1 ³
³ Do_file = 'MENU_1' ³
³ ELSE ³
³ Do_file = 'MENU_2' ³
³ DO &Do_file ³

dSCAR has no way of knowing that 'Do_file' is not the name of a file
and that MENU_1 and MENU_2 are files. To process these modules as
part of a system you can add them to a MODULES file. When dSCAR is
executed with Modules turned on, it looks for the existence of MODULES
and reads the filenames contained in it into the processing queue.

MODULES is a straight ascii file. The filenames in it are separated
by a carriage return/linefeed pair. Thus, for the above example,
MODULES would looks like this:

³ ³
³ MENU_1.PRG ³
³ MENU_2.PRG ³

The filenames need not be in any particular order. Be sure to delete
the MODULES file when you are done with it or the modules contained in
it may be processed for systems they are not needed for.

Page 23


The following is a list and explanation of the structural errors
commonly found in source code which dSCAR reports.

þ Open IF from line #### -- if there is an IF statement without a
matching ENDIF dSCAR attempts to track down which IF statement was
left open.
þ Open WHILE from line #### -- DO WHILE has no terminating ENDDO
þ Open CASE from line #### -- DO CASE has no terminating ENDCASE
þ Open TEXT from line #### -- TEXT has no terminating ENDTEXT
þ Open FOR from line #### -- FOR has no terminating NEXT
þ Open SCAN from line #### -- SCAN has no terminating ENDSCAN
þ Open PRINT from line #### -- PRINT has no terminating END PRINTJOB
þ ENDIF without IF or ELSE -- an ENDIF has no matching IF or ELSE
þ ELSE without IF -- an ELSE statement was found with no matching IF
þ ENDDO without DO WHILE -- ENDDO has no matching DO WHILE
þ ENDCASE without DO CASE -- ENDCASE has no matching DO CASE
þ ENDSCAN without SCAN -- ENDSCAN has no matching SCAN
þ END PRINT without PRINT -- END PRINTJOB has no matching PRINT
þ NEXT without FOR -- NEXT has no matching FOR
þ ENDCASE without DO CASE -- ENDCASE has no matching DO CASE
þ Unexpected ENDTEXT -- ENDTEXT has no matching TEXT
þ Missing DO CASE statement -- a CASE or OTHERWISE statement is
missing the DO CASE
þ Empty DO CASE -- DO CASE is immediately followed by ENDCASE with no
þ DO CASE not followed by CASE -- a CASE should immediately follow a
þ Follows LOOP never executed -- the only valid code to immediately
þ Follows EXIT never executed -- the only valid code to immediately
þ After RETURN never executed -- code after a RETURN is ignored unless
the code is a procedure, an ELSE, ENDIF, CASE, OTHERWISE, or ENDCASE
þ Warning:At most 1 iteration -- a SCAN and DO WHILE will only
iterate once if a LOOP, EXIT, or RETURN is nested one level beneath
þ Redundant LOOP statement -- a LOOP nested one level beneath a DO
WHILE will cause the DO WHILE to be executed over and over again.
Make sure a LOOP is embedded in a conditional structure such as
þ Not within a DO WHILE -- an EXIT must be within a DO WHILE or LOOP
structure, and a LOOP must be within a DO WHILE structure
þ SET PROC not followed by TO
þ SET FORM not followed by TO

Page 24


Most dBASE compilers and dBASE-compatible interpreters have additional
commands and reserved words not supported by dBASE itself. dSCAR has
internal built-in support for dBASE. However, if you are using a
compiler such as Clipper or interpreter such as FoxBase, dSCAR
supports their language extensions through external files.

The file RESERVED (no extension) contains extra reserved words. The
words contained in this file will not be added to any cross-
references. RESERVED contains reserved words which are found within a
line. Examples include ALL, TO, WHILE, and STATUS. You do not need
to add commands (those words which appear first on a line), as dSCAR
will always recognize a command when it sees one. Therefore, command
words should not be added to the RESERVED list. Examples of commands
include DO, SET, CREATE, and RETURN.

Included in the distribution of dSCAR are two batch files:
USE_FOX.BAT and USE_CLIP.BAT. If you are using FoxBase then run the
batch file USE_FOX. This will create the necessary RESERVED file for
use with FoxBase. Executing the USE_CLIP batch file will do the same
for Clipper.

You can modify or create your own RESERVED file using a text editor.
The file is straight ascii. Each word is on a single line separated
by a carriage return/linefeed pair. The words do not have to be in
any particular order.

RESERVED must reside in the current directory. If you use both
Clipper and FoxBase or any other dBASE-compatible product, you can put
different RESERVED lists in different directories. Thus, when you are
processing Clipper code, dSCAR will use the appropriate reserved words
if you are in the Clipper directory. dSCAR will use the FoxBase set
of words when in the FoxBase directory.

dSCAR automatically detects if the RESERVED file is present and turns
Your Reserved on as needed.

Page 25

dSCAR's reserved word list includes all of those found in dBASE IV.
If you are unsure whether or not dSCAR supports a reserved word which
is found in your dBASE compiler or interpreter, check the following
list of dSCAR's internal reserved words:


Page 26


þ Table of Contents

dSCAR will create a table of contents for your completed documentation
if Modules is toggled on and output is to the printer or print-style
to disk.

The table of contents tells on which page numbers modules and cross-
references are found.

þ Can dSCAR indent my source code properly and still retain a runnable
file (without diagramming and line numbers and such)?

The answer is yes. To do this for a single file, turn all options off
and select file output. dSCAR will generate a file with no
diagramming but still indent your code. Error messages are written as
comments, thereby not interfering with any interpreter your code is
being run through. To do this for a whole system do the same thing
but toggle Modules on.

þ Setting Margins on Printer

There is a fairly easy way to have dSCAR leave top and bottom margins
on your printouts. For a top margin, include in your macro heading
several blank lines. For a bottom margin, set your page length to
less than it actually is. For example, if your page length is 66
lines, set it to 60--dSCAR will go to the next page at line 60 and
leave a bottom margin of six lines.

Page 27


The configuration part of dSCAR is built into the main program. There
are no separate configuration files, as the main DSCAR.EXE file will
be modified to use your new settings as defaults. The following areas
can be modified through configuration:

þ MISCELLANEOUS -- This includes defaults for indentation, file
extensions, screen width, printer width and length, printer
port, and output headings, to name a few.

þ COLOR -- The different color settings of dSCAR may be modified
to suit your monitor and preference. The default settings are set
so as to run on a variety of monitors. If you have a color monitor
you may opt to use more variety of colors to make the menu and
processing screens more appealing.

þ PRINTER SETUP AND RESET -- Define command codes to send to your
printer to put it in different modes before and after printing.

To run the configuration program, log into the same directory
containing DSCAR.EXE and at the DOS prompt type:


The 'C' parameter tells dSCAR to run the configuration.

Because dSCAR is self-modifying, it needs to know the name and
directory under which to find itself. dSCAR will first ask for the
.EXE file to modify, including path name. This defaults to DSCAR.EXE
in the current directory. However, if dSCAR is not in the current
directory or was re-named, you need to answer the question:

Name of file to modify (include path):

If the file specified is not found in the current directory or
directory specified, then dSCAR will tell you so and let you enter it
again. If you wish to abort the configuration process at this point,
hit . If the file to modify is found, then a configuration menu
is presented with these five options:

1 - Configure Miscellaneous settings
2 - Install colors
3 - Change printer set-up sequence
4 - Change printer reset sequence
5 - Quit & Save
0 - Quit with No Save

At this point select the configuration option you wish to modify. The
different configurable features of each section are outlined below.
The cursor keys are functional while changing configuration options.

Page 28


þ Upper, Lower, Proper, Significant, or No change reserved words

If Word Fix-Up is selected, dSCAR can change the case of reserved
words. Select here the case you wish reserved words to have.
Below are samples of each type of case:

UPPER: All reserved words are capitalized.

LOWER: Reserved words are put in lower case
ie do while, enddo, set talk, restore

PROPER: The first letter of each word is capitalized
ie Do While, Enddo, Set Talk, Restore

SIGNIFICANT: Only the first four letters are capitalized

NO CHANGE: Leave reserved words as they are found in the code

þ Upper, Lower, Proper, Significant, or No change variables

This is the same as above, but specifies what action to take on
variables. Thus, you may want to capitalize reserved words and
lowercase variables to make your code more readable.

þ Number of spaces to use for indentation

This is the indentation increment dSCAR uses when formatting
your code to look "pretty." Shown below are two pieces of the
same code, the first with an indentation of three and the
second with an indentation of five:

³ do while count < 100 ³
³ if count = 50 then ³
³ ? 'Halfway there!' ³
³ endif ³
³ x = x + 1 ³
³ enddo ³

³ do while count < 100 ³
³ if count = 50 then ³
³ ? 'Halfway there!' ³
³ endif ³
³ x = x + 1 ³
³ enddo ³

Page 29

þ Graphic or Text flow screen diagrams

Valid options here are 'G' and 'T'. Graphic diagrams use the
IBM extended character set. If your printer does not support
these graphic characters then you may wish to turn graphics off.
Text diagrams are better for documentation, although graphics are
more appealing. Here are two examples of the different flow

³ ³
³ º ACCEPT 'What is your name?' TO Myname ³
³ º ÚIF UPPER(Myname) <> 'JOE' ³
³ º ³ ? 'Only Joe is allowed access!' ³
³ º ÃELSE ³
³ º ³ ? 'Hello Joe' ³
³ º ³ ÕDO CASE ³
³ º ³ ÆCASE Myname = 'JOE' ³
³ º ³ ³ ? 'You typed in uppercase' ³
³ º ³ ÆCASE Myname = 'joe' ³
³ º ³ ³ ? 'You typed in lowercase' ³
³ º ³ ÔENDCASE ³
³ º ÀENDIF ³

³ ³
³ DO WHILE .T. ³
³ W ACCEPT 'What is your name?' TO Myname ³
³ W IF UPPER(Myname) <> 'JOE' ³
³ W T ? 'Only Joe is allowed access!' ³
³ <--------RETURN ³
³ W ELSE ³
³ W F ? 'Hello Joe' ³
³ W F CASE Myname = 'JOE' ³
³ W F 1 ? 'You typed in uppercase' ³
³ W F CASE Myname = 'joe' ³
³ W F 2 ? 'You typed in lowercase' ³
³ <------------RETURN ³

þ Truncate lines longer than specified width

If a processed line is longer than the specified width (ie 80

Page 30

for the screen, usually) then dSCAR can either break it up
using the dBASE continuation character (semicolon), or truncate
the line. It is sometimes useful to truncate lines when
output is to the screen for flow diagrams, as the output is
easier to read. However, for printer and file outputs lines
should not be truncated. It is recommended you set this to
'N', as you can set Truncate on temporarily from the dSCAR menu.

þ Use new line number for continuation lines

If line numbering is turned on and dSCAR must break up a line,
then the line numbering can take one of two formats. If this
option is set to 'N' then the continuation line will have the
same line number as the first line of the entire command.
However, if it is set to 'Y' then each continuation line will
have its own line number. Examples follow:

³ ³
³ 1 SELECT a ³
³ 2 RELEASE m0addrf,m0arecf,m0cashf,m0commf,m0custf,; ³
³ 2 m0glacf,m0glanf,m0gllkf,m0invof,m0invtf,m0itrnf,; ³
³ 2 m0passf,m0recrf,m0scomf,m0tranf,m0ycshf ³
³ 3 PUBLIC m0addrf,m0arecf,m0cashf,m0commf,m0custf,m0glacf ³
³ 4 USE &m0sysdr.sysdata ³

³ ³
³ 1 SELECT a ³
³ 2 RELEASE m0addrf,m0arecf,m0cashf,m0commf,m0custf,; ³
³ 3 m0glacf,m0glanf,m0gllkf,m0invof,m0invtf,m0itrnf,; ³
³ 4 m0passf,m0recrf,m0scomf,m0tranf,m0ycshf ³
³ 5 PUBLIC m0addrf,m0arecf,m0cashf,m0commf,m0custf,m0glacf ³
³ 6 USE &m0sysdr.sysdata ³

The second method is handy if you need to reference specific line
numbers of a file from within an editor, but the first method is
preferred for cross-references.

þ Are you using Clipper?

If you are processing mainly Clipper files then answer 'Y' to this
question. Clipper does not support comments which span more than one
line using the continuation character (;). Therefore, if output is to
a file and you are using Clipper, dSCAR will not use continuation
characters in the code unless it has to, thereby allowing your Clipper
code to be runnable after being processed by dSCAR.

If you find that another compiler or dBASE-compatible interpreter has
this same problem, then you can answer 'Y' to this question.

Page 31

þ Default extension for dBASE program files

dSCAR assumes program files to have an extension of .PRG.
However, if you are using a different naming convention you can
specify that extension here.

þ Default extension for dSCAR program files

When dSCAR sends the output of program and format files to disk,
it uses the same filename as the original file, but with a
different extension. This extension defaults to .FLO, but can be
changed here.

þ Default extension for dSCAR cross-references files

Cross-reference outputs will have the same filename as the module
being processed, but with a new extension. This extension defaults
to .XRF, but can be specified differently.

þ Default extension for dSCAR printer files

If output is to a file printer-style, then dSCAR writes to a file
with the same filename and new extension. This extension defaults
to .PRN, but can be changed.

þ Strip drive and path from filenames

Respond with 'Y' if you want to strip drive and pathnames from files
encountered in processing. If they are not stripped, dSCAR will
look in the paths specified. Regardless of what this option is set
to, dSCAR always recognizes and uses any path prefixed to the main
file you enter at start-up. This option is especially important
when the Modules option is turned on.

þ Number of lines to display per output screen

This should be defaulted to stop and wait for a keypress when one
full page has been displayed. But, if you happen to want to display
only ten lines before stopping, or perhaps two pages, you can change
it with this option.

þ Number of columns across output screen

This determines where to break a long line at. If want to break
lines at 40 characters, then specify 40. Or if you happen to have a
wide display then you can increase the number of columns. The
default is 80.

þ Number of lines per page on your printer

The printer length tells dSCAR how many lines are on the paper so
that it can issue a formfeed at the proper time to skip over the

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perforation. The default should work for paper that is the
standard 11 inches long. You may have to experiment with this
setting if you are using a laser printer.

þ Column width of your printer

This is the number of printable characters across each printer page.
The default value of 80 should work with most printers. However,
you will have to change this if you are using a wide carriage
printer so that dSCAR will print all the way across the page. If
you set your printer to condensed mode you may have to change this

þ Left margin for printer output

Specify this value in number of spaces to indent. For example,
enter 5 to indent five spaces before printing each line, or 0 for
no left margin. Margins are especially useful if you plan on
hole-punching your reports.

þ Number of characters per line for file output

This is basically the same as the screen width, but instead
indicates when to break a long line when output is to a file.
Some people may want to display a screen width, but others may
want to go as far as 255 characters.

þ Default printer port

dSCAR supports printer ports 1, 2, and 3. dSCAR will send printer
output to the port specified.

þ Issue a formfeed after each module

If you wish each module and every cross-reference to appear on its
own page when output is to printer, then have dSCAR send a form feed
after each module. However, answer NO if you wish to save paper and
not start each module on a separate page.

þ Report heading for printer reports

On the top of each printer page, dSCAR can optionally print a
header containing such information as module name, dSCAR version,
current date, page number, and more. This header is user-definable,
and can contain straight text or macro commands. Macro commands
will print dynamic information such as page number, module being
processed, date, and dSCAR version number. Straight text can
contain a copyright notice, your company name, or anything else
you desire.

The header is entered in a three-line format. If you run out of
room for the header text and macros, hit to get to the next

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line and continue entering the header. Each of the three lines is
strung together and treated as one long heading line. Note that
each line of entry does NOT represent one line on the printer.

Macro commands are one uppercase character and are preceded by the
ampersand character (&), except for the new line macro which is a
single back slash (\). Macro values are printed exactly where they
are found in the header line configuration. Below is a list of the
macro commands available:

Macro Meaning Picture
&P page number 9999
&D date Mon DD, year
&T time 99:99am
&V version 9.99 BETA
&S system name
&M current module
&F path+module
&= procedure being displayed if specific procedure selected
&& print the ampersand character (&)
\ newline (use as many lines as you want in the heading)

Remember that macro characters MUST BE IN UPPERCASE!
Here are some example macro headings and how they would print:


dSCAR v3.0 Dec 29, 1988 10:41pm
MACRO: Copyright (c) 1989 by John Smith.\\&M\&F\Page &P\

Copyright (c) 1989 by John Smith.

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The second example shows how to use the new line character (\).
A newline can be placed anywhere, and doubling new line characters
will add a blank line. By putting several new line characters at
the end of a macro heading you can effectively space between the
header and the body of your report.


The colors dSCAR uses for its menus and output display can be
configured to your preference. When color installation is selected,

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the available colors are drawn across the screen with the letters A-P
denoting each color.

There are nine different color objects. For each object specify a
foreground and background color by selecting the letter representing
the desired color. Note that only colors A-H are available for
background colors!

Below is a description of each color item:

þ Source line -- this is the color for the display of your source code

þ Line numbers -- if line numbers is turned on, the line numbers will
be in this color

þ Error Messages -- any error messages, in processing or on the menu
screen, will show up as this color

þ Diagramming -- if diagramming is turned on, the screen diagrams will
be highlighted in this color

þ Footer message -- this is the message at the bottom of the
processing screen indicating the current module being processed

þ Selected options -- selected options on the menu screen will be
indicated by highlighting in this color

þ Un-selected options -- menu options which are turned off
(unselected) will be displayed in this color

þ Window color -- this is the color for the window border on the menu

þ Window titles -- the titles above menu options and title headings of
the different windows will show up in this color

The best way to configure the color is to select some appealing
colors, run dSCAR, and then try again if the colors did not turn out
how you like them.

Keep in mind that the main background color within a window and on the
processing screen will ALWAYS be black.


dSCAR can automatically send setup codes to your printer when output
to printer is selected. This is useful if you want your printer to go
into condensed mode, be reset, or have the page length reset before
any reports are printed.

In addition, dSCAR can optionally send codes after it is done

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printing, perhaps to reset the printer to its original settings.

To enter setup codes, select option 3 from the configuration menu.
Option 4 allows you to enter reset codes.

Upon entering either printer setup or reset, you are prompted to enter
print code #1. A print code is a single character--whether it be a
control character or alphanumeric character--which will be sent to the
printer. For example, the ESCape code and the letter 'A' both
represent single print codes. Up to 40 print codes may be sent for
the setup sequence, and an additional 40 for the reset sequence.

To enter an alphanumeric print code, just hit the key on the keyboard.
For example, to send the letter 'A' to the printer, hit the 'A' key.
To send the '@' symbol, hit that key on the keyboard.

Control codes are entered by typing the '#' key (pound sign). A '#'
tells dSCAR that the next characters are ascii codes. For example, to
enter ESCape as a print code, type '#' and then type in '27' (followed
by the key). To enter the '#' key as a print code, type '#'
and then '35', as 35 is the ascii code for the pound character.

When you are all done entering print codes, press the key
(remember, to have the ESCape character be a print code, you must
enter the ascii code for it).

Option 5 from the configuration menu will save your new settings to
the executable dSCAR file and then exit configuration. If you do not
want to save the changes made, then select option 0 to exit without
writing the configuration.

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The first version of dSCAR was released in 1986 as user supported
software. Version 1.0 was followed by 2.0 and then 2.3a. Version 3.0
is almost twice as fast as version 2.3 and has a multitude of
additional features.

In 1988 I was contacted by a large software publishing firm interested
in buying dSCAR. I turned down their offer with the idea that dSCAR
would be more successful if it continued to be marketed by me. In
successful I mean: 1) I could enhance the program to my
specifications and continue to update it at my convenience; and
2) financially I could do better selling dSCAR as user supported
software than to take what the publisher offered me.

During the 1989 summer break I did not seek a "real" job so that I
could release dSCAR v3.0. I am hoping sales of dSCAR will put me
through four years of college at Cal Poly in San Luis Obispo,
beginning in the fall of 1989.

Why was version 3.0 so slow in coming? Time was the number one
culprit. In addition to going to school I run track & field (10.7sec
for 100m, 21.9 for 200m, 48.50 for 400m). I hope to continue my
running at Cal Poly, but will have someone else handle the dSCAR

dSCAR was not a one-man effort. In addition to the registrants who
provided monetary support and comments before v3.0, I wish to thank
the following individuals for their beta-testing, support, or
suggestions: Randy Wallin, Gene Head, Todd Natkin, Bruce Bott, Kent
Riesen, Rod Ledbetter, P. Olympia, Ed Albert, Jon Love, Larry Taylor,
and Scott Ponder.

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