Dec 122017
MS-Kermit v3.0 terminal emulation & graphics info.
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MS-Kermit v3.0 terminal emulation & graphics info.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
TEKEMU.TXT 34790 11990 deflated
VTEMU.TXT 39740 13288 deflated

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Contents of the TEKEMU.TXT file

File TEKEMU.TXT 20 January 1990



The MS-DOS Kermit Tektronix terminal emulator has characteristics of
the real Tektronix 4010 and 4014 terminals plus extensive additions from the
DEC VT340 and Human Data Systems 2000/3000 series terminals. Please note that
the DEC VT340 can mix text and graphics on the same display but the hardware
design of IBM PC display adapters forbids this. Instead a best-effort scaling
is done to simulate text and graphics together. Real Tektronix 401x terminals
use storage tube technology which forbids erasure and colors; the MS-DOS
Kermit emulator bends these rules in favor of raster display technology and
the DEC VT340. The real Tektronix terminals display text by overwriting dots;
TRANSPARENT. Raster display devices fill each character cell with new dots;
use option OPAQUE in the above command to achieve the same effect. A real Tek
terminal writes two screens of text by overwriting the second screen on the
right half of the first; MS-DOS Kermit sounds a beep and waits for a keystroke
and then starts on a fresh screen. VT340 Sixel graphics is supported, but
ReGis graphics is not.

The kind of display adpater is normally sensed automatically. But the
user can specify a type with command SET TERMINAL GRAPHICS; if the type is not
present a fall back to CGA or ordinary monochrome text is performed.

Graphics screens are saved in display memory if the adapter has
sufficient quantity. CGA screens cannot be saved, and VGA (640x480) cannot
save the last 131 scan lines. Hercules adapters need graphics page 1 to save
an image; some clones do not seem to do this. The Wyse 700 display and
special adapter do not allow screen saving. MS-DOS Kermit attempts to save
the graphics screens whenever possible, even though this differs from DEC
VT340 practice (DEC merges text and graphics modes, IBM-PCs cannot). Use ALT
= or keyboard verb \Kreset to do a full screen clear and terminal reset, or
echo ^L to just clear the screen.

The VT320 main text terminal emulator is designed to switch to
Tektronix emulation whenever any of three commands is received:

1. ESC ^L Tektronix screen clear command
2. ESC [ ? 38 h VT340 command to enter Tek mode
3. DCS Pn q start of Sixel command string

The third case results in the VT320 emulator feeding a ^L (screen clear)
command to the Tek emulator, replaying the DCS lead-in characters, and then
placing the Tek emulator temporarily in charge to read subsequent characters.
Tek sub-mode persists until either:

1. the user toggles terminal types manually (ALT white minus, or
keyboard verb \Ktermtype)
2. ESC [ ? 38 l is read, VT340 command to exit Tek mode
3. ESC ^X is read

Entering Tek mode by the third method forces character-writing to be opaque,
the other two methods do not.


Characters of 80h and above (those with their high bit on) are converted as

80h..9fh converted to pair ESC . These are C1 control codes.
0a0h..0ffh converted to and become printable characters.

Control codes in C0 (no high bit) area
Name ASCII value
chart hex keyboard operation
NUL 0/0 00h ^@ Ignored
ENQ 0/5 05h ^E
BEL 0/7 07h ^G Sound DEC style beep
BS 0/8 08h ^H Backspace, move cursor left one character,
8 dots, can be destructive
HT 0/9 09h ^I Treated as a single space
LF 0/10 0ah ^J Linefeed, move cursor down one line, 8 dots
VT 0/11 0bh ^K Vertical Tab, treated as a line feed
FF 0/12 0ch ^L Formfeed, erase screen, Home cursor
CR 0/13 0dh ^M Carriage return, move cursor to col 1
DC1 1/1 11h ^Q XON flow control, resume communication
DC3 1/3 13h ^S XOFF flow control, suspend communication
CAN 1/8 18h ^X Return to text terminal, only if in sub-Tek
mode, else ignored if regular Tek terminal
SUB 1/10 1ah ^Z Treated as a CAN
ESC 1/11 1bh ^[ Escape, start escape seq, cancel any others
FS 1/12 1ch ^\ Enter point plotting mode
GS 1/13 1dh ^] Enter line drawing mode
RS 1/14 1eh ^^ Enter incremental line drawing mode
US 1/15 1fh ^_ Enter Tek text mode (leave line/point drawing)
All others are ignored

Control codes in C1 (high bit set, 80h - 9fh) area
Name ASCII value
chart hex operation
DCS 9/0 90h Expand to be ESC P Device Control String
ST 9/12 9ch Expand to be ESC \ String Terminator for DCS
CSI 9/13 9dh Expand to be ESC [ Control Seq Introducer
All others are expanded to be ESC and are generally ignored.

TEKTRONIX COORDINATE SYSTEM (the PC screen is scaled to fit a Tek screen):

The plot commands are characters which specify the absolute position to move
the beam. All moves except the one immediately after the GS character
(Control-]) are with a visible trace.

For 4010-like devices - The positions are from 0 to 1023 for both X and Y,
although only 0 to 780 are visible for Y due to screen geometry. The screen
is 10.23 by 7.80 inches, and coordinates are sent as 1 to 4 characters.

For 4014-like devices - The positions are from 0 to 4096, but each movement
is a multiple of 4 positions unless the high-resolution LSBXY are sent. This
makes it compatible with the 4010 in that a full sized plot fills the screen.

HIX,HIY = High-order 5 bits of position
LOX,LOY = Middle-order 5 bits of position
LSBXY = Low-order 2 bits of X + low-order 2 bits of Y (4014 mode)

Hi Y Lo Y Hi X LSBXY Characters sent (Lo-X always sent)
---- ---- ---- ----- ----------------------------------
Same Same Same Same Lo-X
Same Same Same Diff LSB, Lo-Y, Lo-X 4014
Same Same Diff Same Lo-Y, Hi-X, Lo-X
Same Same Diff Diff LSB, Lo-Y, Hi-X, Lo-X 4014
Same Diff Same Same Lo-Y, Lo-X
Same Diff Same Diff LSB, Lo-Y, Lo-X 4014
Same Diff Diff Same Lo-Y, Hi-X, Lo-X
Same Diff Diff Diff LSB, Lo-Y, Hi-X, Lo-X 4014
Diff Same Same Same Hi-Y, Lo-X
Diff Same Same Diff Hi-Y, LSB, Lo-Y, Lo-X 4014
Diff Same Diff Same Hi-Y, Lo-Y, Hi-X, Lo-X
Diff Same Diff Diff Hi-Y, LSB, Lo-Y, Hi-X, Lo-X 4014
Diff Diff Same Same Hi-Y, Lo-Y, Lo-X
Diff Diff Same Diff Hi-Y, LSB, Lo-Y, Lo-X 4014
Diff Diff Diff Same Hi-y, Lo-Y, Hi-X, Lo-X
Diff Diff Diff Diff Hi-y, LSB, Lo-Y, Hi-X, Lo-X 4014
Offset for byte: 20h 60h 60h 20h 40h

Note that LO-Y must be sent if HI-X has changed so that the TEKTRONIX knows
the HI-X byte (in the range of 20h-3fh) is HI-X and not HI-Y. LO-Y must
also be sent if LSBXY has changed, so that the 4010 will ignore LSBXY and
accept LO-Y. The LSBXY byte is 60h + MARGIN*10h + LSBY*4 + LSBX. (MARGIN=0)

Control-] (GS) Tek coordinates. Enter Tek line plot mode.
The first move will be with beam off (a moveto command), subsequent
coordinates will be reached with the beam on (a drawto command).
Note: this is also Kermit's Connect mode escape character so beware
if typing GS by hand; SET ESCAPE to something else before the test.
Exit drawing upon reception of CR,LF,RS,US,FS,CAN.

Control-caret (^, RS) Tek coordinates. Enter Tek line incremental plot mode.
RS space move with pen up (invisible)
RS P move with pen down (write dots)
letter motion letter motion
A right (East) B left (West)
B right and up (NE) J left and down (SW)
D up (North) H down (South)
F left and up (NW) I right and down (SE)
Exit drawing upon reception of CR,LF,RS,US,FS,CAN.
Example: RS J J J means move three Tek positions left and down
(three southwest steps) with the pen up (move invisibly).

Control-\ (FS) Tek coordinates. Draw a dot at the coordinate. Point plotting
mode. Like GS but does not join end points with lines.
Exit drawing upon reception of CR,LF,RS,US,FS,CAN.

Control-underline (_, US) Exit Tek line plot mode and return to text mode.

Escape sequences (ESC intermediates Final)

Escape Seq Mnemonic Description of Action
ESC ^E Request Tek status report
Report is
20h Tek-X Tek-Y 0dh for non-text mode
24h Tek-X Tek-Y 0dh for text mode
Tek-X Tek-Y is Tek style cursor position

ESC ^L Enter Tektronix sub-mode, clear Tek screen
ESC ^X Turn on Bypass mode (no screen chars)
ESC ^Z Turn on GIN crosshairs
ESC ? Substitute for DEL, for 7-bit systems
ESC P Device Control Sequence introducer (DCS)
See below.
ESC Z Report terminal type (as a VT320/VT340)
Response is
ESC [ ? 63; 1; 2; 4; 8; 9; 15 c a VT300 series, level 3, etc

ESC @ .. ESC M (@,A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M) Select
rectangular fill pattern 1..14. See ESC /..y

ESC \ String Terminator (ST, of DCS items)

ESC ` .. ESC e, ESC x, .. ESC z (accent grave,a,b,c,d,e,x,y,z)
Select line drawing pattern
ESC letter line type, bits, least significant bit plotted first
accent 11111111 11111111
a 10101010 10101010
b 11110000 11110000
c 11111010 11111010
d 11111111 11001100
e 11111100 10010010
x user defined (by ESC / Pn a)
y user defined (by ESC / Pn b)
z user defined (by ESC / Pn c)

Control sequences (ESC / or ESC [ or CSI)
(ESC / is an HDS 2000/3000 sequence, ESC [ is ANSI form)

Control Seq Mnemonic Description of Action

ESC / P1; P2;...; P8 C Define user fill pattern. Use low 8-bits of
each Pn. P1 is top of fill, plotted lsb first.
pattern is 8x8 dots. Omitted Pn are 0's.

ESC / P1; P2;...; P8 D Define second user fill pattern, as above

ESC / Pn a Set user definable line drawing bit pattern
ESC / Pn b Ditto, lsb drawn first, 16 bits overall
ESC / Pn c Ditto

ESC / Pd d Set pixel operation code
Pd pixel operation
0 draw 1's in foreground color, skip 0's
1 draw 1's in background color, skip 0's
2 XOR 1's with foreground color, skip 0's
3 write absolute, 1's in foreground and 0's in background color

ESC / Pn h Set, see table below
ESC / Pn l Reset, set table below
Pn item
2 destructive space (writes all dots in 8x8 character cell)
9 destructive backspace (clears all dots in 8x8 character cell)

Note: both are default off. If Tek mode is entered by receiving a
Sixel DCS while in text mode then both are turned on. If SET TERMINAL
GRAPHICS CHARACTER-WRITING OPAQUE is stated then both are turned on.

ESC / Px; Py; Ph; Pw x Draw rectangle, Px,Py is lower left corner
line is drawn as foreground dots only.

ESC / Px; Py; Ph; Pw; Pp y Fill a rectangle, Px,Py is lower left corner
Ph is height, Pw is width, Pp is fill pattern
number (1..14), all in Tek coordinates.
Pp pattern Pp pattern
0 use default
1 solid 8 vertical cross-hatch
2 grey (50% dots) 9 checkerboard
3 left to right slant 10 dotted, sparse
4 right to left slant 11 horizontal herringbone
5 horizontal lines 12 vertical herringbone
6 vertical lines 13 user defined (by ESC / Pn C)
7 slanted cross-hatch 14 user defined (by ESC / Pn D)
All are 8x8 tiling pixel patterns locked to the top left of the screen
and are drawn using the current pixel operation code (ESC / Pd d).

ESC / Px; Py; Ph; Pw; Pp z Fill a rectangle, as for ESC / ...y and then
add a line border as for ESC / ...x.
Each rectangle command, ESC /...(x, y, z) does not change the "text" cursor.

ESC [ Pn @ ICH Insert Pn spaces at and after cursor (8 dots)
ESC [ Pn A CUU* Cursor up Pn lines, does not scroll
ESC [ Pn B CUD* Cursor down Pn lines, does not scroll
ESC [ Pn C CUF Cursor forward, stays on same line (8 dots)
ESC [ Pn D CUB Cursor backward, stays on same line (8 dots)
ESC [ Pn E CNL* Next-line (same as cr/lf), do Pn times
ESC [ Pn F CPL* Previous-line (reverse index), do Pn times
ESC [ Pc G CHA* ANSI Cursor to absolute column Pc
ESC [ Pr; Pc H CUP* Set cursor to row, column (same as HVP)
ESC [ Ps J ED* Erase in display:
0 = cursor to end of screen, inclusive
1 = start of screen to cursor, inclusive
2 = entire screen, cursor does not move
ESC [ Ps K EL* Erase in line:
0 = cursor to end of line, inclusive
1 = start of line to cursor, inclusive
2 = entire line, cursor does not move
ESC [ Pn P DCH* Delete Pn chars from cursor to left, incl.
ESC [ Pn X ECH* Erase Pn chars at and to right of cursor
ESC [ Pn a CUF* ANSI Cursor forward Pn columns
ESC [ Pr d CVA* ANSI Cursor to row Pr, absolute
ESC [ Pn e CUD* ANSI Cursor down Pn rows
ESC [ Pr; Pc f HVP* Set cursor to row, column (same as CUP)
* means the row and column are scaled by assuming the screen has the
row and column dimensions of the text terminal emulator. Since the
two screens generally do not share common divisors some
mis-registration will occur. Successive cursor steering commands,
mixed with CR and LF's, will cause further mis-registration.
Tek emulator characters use an 8x8 dot bit mapped pattern.

ESC [ Pn; Pn m Set screen colors
Pn operation
0 set dim (normal) intensity
1 set high intensity
30-37 set foreground colors to Pn minus 30
40-47 set background colors to Pn minus 40
Colors are red=1, green=2, blue=4 and summations for others.
Note: this stores new values in palette 0 (background) and
palette 7 (foreground).

ESC [ 2; 2 $ u Request VT340 color palette report
Report is
ESC P 2 $ s //... ESC \
where is the palette color in the RBG system -
Pr; Pg; Pb for red, green, and blue percentages, resp.
black is 0; 0; 0
bold black is 20; 20; 20
dim (regular) hue is 40, bold hue is 80.
NOTE: this report is a very long string and may not be acceptable to
some communications channels (for example, Telnet). Further, the
host may request a report in the HLS system; MS-DOS Kermit always
reports in the RBG system.

Default VT340 color palettes are -
palette b/w color palette b/w color
0 backgnd black black 8 dim grey dim grey (bold black)
1 white bold blue 9 grey blue
2 white bold red 10 grey red
3 white bold green 11 grey green
4 white bold magenta 12 grey magenta
5 white bold cyan 13 grey cyan
6 white bold yellow 14 grey yellow/brown
7 foregnd grey grey 15 white white (bold)

ESC [ ? 34 h Invoke macro TerminalS, if defined, exits
connect mode.
ESC [ ? 34 l Invoke macro TerminalR, as above

ESC [ ? 38 l Exit Tek mode to text terminal emulator, only
if Tek mode were invoked from text emulator
by ESC [ ? 38 h or by a Sixel DCS.

ESC [ ? 256 n Request screen size report, MS-DOS Kermit only
Report is ESC [ ? 256; Ph; Pw; Pc n for graphics systems
where Ph is screen height in dots
Pw is screen width in dots
Pc is number of colors (0, 1 or 16, for none, b/w, ega/vga)
Report is ESC [ ? 24; 80; 0 n for pure text mono systems.

Device Control Strings (ESC P or DCS)

DCS P1; P2; P3 q string ST or in 7-bit form
ESC P P1; P2; P3 q string ESC \ a Sixel Graphics command

P1 and P3 are ignored.
P1 = 1 means draw 0 bits in background, else skip them.
string is a Sixel command string, containing mixtures of -

Sixel characters (3fh..7eh, lower 6 bits+3fh, displayed as six dots
vertically, least significant bit at the top after subtracting 3fh).
"?" is all zeros, "@" is top line only, "~" is all 6 bits on.
The initial Sixel char is placed at the top left of the current 8x8
text cell, subsequent chars work to the right without wrapping.
Writing below the screen bottom results in overwriting the bottom

! Pn sixel char Draw Sixel char Pn times (Pn is repeat count)

" Pc; Pad; Ph; Pv Raster attributes (all ignored)

$ (dollar sign ) Go to left margin

- (minus) Go to left margin and 6 dots down

Control characters Perform the function, stay in Sixel mode. Note
that LF increments by 8 dots (text cell size)

Escape sequences are permitted within string and occur without disruption

# Pc; Pu; Px; Py; Pz Set palette color, as follows,
Pc is color palette, 0..15 (0 is background, 7 is normal foreground)
Pu is color system, 1 = HLS, 2 = RGB
For Hue Lightness Saturation:
Px = Hue angle, 0-360 degrees. The colors are mapped around
the color wheel in 60 degree segments as Hues:
0-29 deg = blue, 30-89 = magenta (blue + red), 90-149 = red,
150-209 = yellow (red + green), 210-269 = green,
270-329 = cyan (green + blue), 330-359 = blue.

Py = Lightness, 0-100%, Pz = Saturation, 0-100%
Lightness Sat = 51-100 Sat = 11-50 Sat = 0-10
86-100 bold white bold white bold white
71-85 bold hue bold white bold white
57-70 bold hue grey (dim white) grey
43-56 bold hue dim hue black
29-42 dim hue grey grey
14-28 dim hue black black
0-13 black black black
Note that Py = Pz = 50 gives the widest spectrum.

For RGB: Px = red, 0-100%, Py = green, 0-100%, Pz = blue, 0-100%
If any color exceeds 50% then the bold bit is turned on for
the ensemble (IBM ega display adapter constraint for iRGB).

Palette registers can be selected by the substring
# Pc followed by a non-numeric char other than ";"
and Pc is the palette register, 0..15.

Example of dynamic palette register selection -

ESC P ;1 q AAAA#2BBBBBB#3!6C ESC \ (omit the spaces)

Displays Sixel char A four times in the default foreground
color (palette 7), then B five times in colors of palette 2,
then C six times in palette 3 colors. The ";1" says skip
coloring dots with 0 bits.
Exception from DEC: color of black always writes all dots in
black (an erasure or clearing).

Suggestion: when possible ask for a palette report and store the reponse,
change palettes as desired for a plot, and then restore the palettes.

Sixel character plotting begins at the upper left of the current text
cell. Thus, either Tek or ANSI cursor steering commands can be employed
to locate the starting position. ESC [ ..m coloring escape sequence can
occur withing a Sixel string and it acts on the current fore/background
colors and stores them in palettes 7 and 0. Sixel dots are stored by
ORing the palette value with the palette value already existing in that
dot, with the exception that all black writes black absolutely. At the
completion of a Sixel DCS the screen colors are reset to palette 7 and 0
for foreground and background, respectively.


These follow Aldus/Microsoft TIFF version 5.0 specifications. The
output filename is always TEKPLTnn.TIF, where nn starts at 01 and increments
by one for each new screen dump. The files are in uncompressed format and
thus EGA/VGA screens yield 100KB+ files. Monochrome graphics are written
as one bit per pixel TIFF type B format, with the screen divided into 25 or
fewer strips. EGA and VGA screens use TIFF type P palette format and a
supplementary color palette to RGB table. They too are divided into 25 or
fewer strips and use four bits per pixel. The color palette contents are iRGB,
to match normal IBM PC display adapter conventions.

When dumping a screen via Control End or keyboard verb \Kdump the
graphics screen needs to be visible; otherwise, an ordinary text screen is
written to the Kermit.scn file.

TIFF v5 specifications are available directly from Aldus or Microsoft
and by anonymous ftp from site as file
PD1:[MSDOS.GRAPHICS]TIFF-5.ARC, or in Kermit Distribution A area as


Tek 4010 line drawing:

Suppose is point y = 300, x = 500 in Tektronix coordinates. Split each
10-bit coordinate into 5-bit groups, add add the Kind code to each. Send the X
part last.

Y=300d=012Ch= 01001 01100 X=500d=01F4h= 01111 10100
+Kind code +100000 +1100000 +kind code +100000 +1000000
Binary 101001 01101100 101111 1000100
ASCII ) l / D

So = (500,300) is sent or received in a GS command as ")l/D". An example
in C (program fragments):

/* File tek.c. Creates binary output file tek.tst. Replay that file. */
/* writes a Tek test file 'tek.tst', Lattice C */

#define ESC 0x1b
#define FF 0x0c
#define CAN 0x18
#define FS 0x1c
#define GS 0x1d
#define US 0x1f
#define ESCZ 0x1a
#define RED 1
#define GREEN 2
#define BLUE 4
#define color(c) fputc(ESC,fp);fputc('[',fp);fputc('1',fp);\
fputc(';',fp);fputc('3',fp); fputc('0'+c,fp);fputc('m',fp);
FILE *fp;

int i, x, y, xc = 750, yc = 500;
double radius = 125.0;

if ((fp = fopen("tek.tst", "wb")) == NULL) /* write binary mode */

fputc(ESC, fp); fputc(FF, fp); /* clear screen, enter graphics mode*/
for (i = 0; i < 40; i++) fputc('\0', fp); /* padding */
/* for mode switch */
fputc(GS, fp); coord(210,500); /* moveto */
fputc(US, fp); fputs("shallow fan",fp); /* text mode */
fputc(GS, fp); coord(50,500); coord(200,400); /* drawto's */
coord(50,500); coord(200,450);
coord(50,500); coord(200,500);
coord(50,500); coord(200,550);
coord(50,500); coord(200,600);

fputc(GS, fp); coord(460,500);
fputc(US, fp); fputs("steep fan", fp);
fputc(GS, fp); coord(400,200); coord(400,800);
coord(400,500); coord(450,200);
coord(400,500); coord(450,300);
coord(400,500); coord(450,400);
coord(400,500); coord(450,500);
coord(400,500); coord(450,600);
coord(400,500); coord(450,700);
coord(400,500); coord(450,800);
fputc(US, fp); fputc(' ', fp);

fputc(GS, fp); /* simple circle */
for (i = 0; i <= 360; i++)
x = radius * cos(PI * i / 180.0);
y = radius * sin(PI * i / 180.0);
coord(x+xc, y+yc);

fputc(GS, fp); coord(75, 65); /* moveto */
fputc(US, fp); fputs("This is a house\n", fp); /* text mode */
fputc(GS, fp); /* draw lines for house */
coord(50,50); coord(300,50);
coord(300,200); coord(50,200);
coord(175,250); coord(300,200);
fputc(GS, fp); coord(50,50); coord(50,200);
/* do some point plotting */
fputc(GS, fp); coord(350,50);
fputc(FS, fp); /* draw a dotted rectangle */
for (i = 350; i <= 600; i += 4) coord(i,50);
for (i = 50; i <= 200; i += 4) coord(600,i);
for (i = 600; i >= 350; i -= 4) coord(i,200);
for (i = 200; i >= 50; i -= 4) coord(350,i);
fputc(GS, fp); coord(50,10); /* move to */
fputc(US, fp); fputs(" the end.", fp); /* text mode */


coord(x, y) /* package coordinates Tek style */
int x, y;
fputc((y / 32) + 32, fp); /* high y */
fputc((y % 32) + 96, fp); /* low y */
fputc((x / 32) + 32, fp); /* high x */
fputc((x % 32) + 64, fp); /* low x */

Sixel file cat.six below is from an anonymous source. It uses only
Sixel commands. Please edit this file and replace with a real escape
code. Note the presence of CR/LF's in the file; they do adjust the cursor.
Two Sixel commands are present: a short one to set color palettes followed
directly by the main long one. The picture halts prematurely at the right
margin because it was designed for VT340 terminals which are wider and taller
than IBM PC screens. View the file via the REPLAY command.

Another example file is DEMO.TEK on the MS-DOS Kermit distribution disk. That
file has mixed Tek drawing and Sixel commands. WordPerfect Corporation made
DEMO.TEK for MS-DOS Kermit testing and demonstration.

File cat.six:

--------------------- End of file TEKEMU.TXT --------------------------------

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