Dec 172017
MicroEMACS - 5 of 5 - ASCII text version of MicroEMACS Manual.
File UE311TXT.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category C Source Code
MicroEMACS – 5 of 5 – ASCII text version of MicroEMACS Manual.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
EMACS.TXT 262301 66482 deflated

Download File UE311TXT.ZIP Here

Contents of the EMACS.TXT file


Full Screen Text Editor
Reference Manual

Version 3.11
October 29, 1991

(C)Copyright 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991 by Daniel M. Lawrence
Reference Manual (C)opyright 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
by Brian Straight and Daniel M. Lawrence
All Rights Reserved

(C)Copyright 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991 by Daniel M. Lawrence
____________ _____ _____ _____ ____ __ ______ __ ________
MicroEMACS 3.11 can be copied and distributed freely for any
__________ ____ ___ __ ______ ___ ___________ ______ ___ ___
non-commercial purposes. Commercial users may use MicroEMACS
______________ _________ __________ _____ ___ ___ __________
3.11 inhouse. Shareware distributors may redistribute
____ ________ _________ ____________ ___ ____________
MicroEMACS 3.11 for media costs only. MicroEMACS 3.11 can only
__________ ____ ___ _____ _____ _____ __________ ____ ___ ____
be incorporated into commercial software or resold with the
__ ____________ ____ __________ ________ __ ______ ____ ___
permission of the current author.
__________ __ ___ _______ _______


MicroEMACS is a tool for creating and changing documents, programs, and
other text files. It is both relatively easy for the novice to use, but also
very powerful in the hands of an expert. MicroEMACS can be extensively
customized for the needs of the individual user.

MicroEMACS allows several files to be edited at the same time. The
screen can be split into different windows and screens, and text may be moved
freely from one window on any screen to the next. Depending on the type of file
being edited, MicroEMACS can change how it behaves to make editing simple.
Editing standard text files, program files and word processing documents are all
possible at the same time.

There are extensive capabilities to make word processing and editing
easier. These include commands for string searching and replacing, paragraph
reformatting and deleting, automatic word wrapping, word move and deletes, easy
case controlling, and automatic word counts.

For complex and repetitive editing tasks editing macroes can be written.
These macroes allow the user a great degree of flexibility in determining how
MicroEMACS behaves. Also, any and all the commands can be used by any keystroke
by changing, or rebinding, what commands various keys invoke.

Special features are also available to perform a diverse set of
operations such as file encryption, automatic backup file generation, entabbing
and detabbing lines, executing operating system commands and filtering of text
through other programs (like SORT to allow sorting text).


EMACS was originally a text editor written by Richard Stallman at MIT in
the early 1970s for Digital Equipment computers. Various versions, rewrites and
clones have made an appearance since.

This version of MicroEMACS is derived from code written by Dave G.
Conroy in 1985. Later modifications were performed by Steve Wilhite and George
Jones. In December of 1985 Daniel Lawrence picked up the then current source
(version 2.0) and made extensive modifications and additions to it over the
course of the next six years. Updates and support for the current version are
still available. Commercial support and usage and resale licences are also
available. The current program author can be contacted by writing to:

USMAIL: Daniel Lawrence
617 New York St
Lafayette, IN 47901

UUCP: pur-ee!mdbs!dan
ARPA: [email protected]

Support is provided through:

The Programmer's Room
Opus 201/10
300/1200/2400 and 9600 (Hayes V series only)
(317) 742-5533 no parity 8 databits no stop bits


Many people have been involved in creating this software and we wish to
credit some of them here. Dave Conroy, of course, wrote the very first version
of MicroEMACS, and it is a credit to his clean coding that so much work was able
to be done to expand it. John Gamble is responsible for writing the MAGIC mode
search routines, and for maintaining all the search code. Jeff Lomicka wrote the
appendix on DEC VMS and has supplied a lot of code to support VMS and the ATARI
1040ST versions. Curtis Smith wrote the original VMS code and help support the
Commodore AMIGA. Also Lance Jones has done a lot of work on the AMIGA code.
Professor Suresh Konda at Carnegie Mellon University has put a lot of effort
into writing complex macros and finding all the bugs in the macro language
before anyone else does.

A special thanks to Dana Hoggatt who has provided an almost daily
sounnding board for ideas, algorithyms and code. He is responcible for the
encryption code directly and has prodded me into adding many features with
simple but poignant questions (Dan? How do we move the upper left corner of the
screen? . . . which forced me to write the text windowing system).

As to people sending source code and text translations over computer
networks like USENET and ARPA net, there are simply more than can be listed
here. [The comments in the edit history in the history.c file mention each and
the piece they contributed]. All these people should be thanked for the hard

work they have put into MicroEMACS.

Daniel M. Lawrence
Basic Concepts MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 1
Chapter 1

Basic Concepts
Basic Concepts

The current version of MicroEMACS is 3.11 (Third major re-write,
eleventh public release), and for the rest of this document, we shall simply
refer to this version as "EMACS". Any modifications for later versions will be
in the file README on the MicroEMACS distribution disk.

1.1 Keys and the Keyboard
1.1 Keys and the Keyboard

Many times throughout this manual we will be talking about commands and
the keys on the keyboard needed to use them. There are a number of "special"
keys which can be used and are listed here:

NewLine which is also called RETURN, ENTER, or , this key
is used to end different commands.

^ The control key can be used before any alphabetic character
and some symbols. For example, ^C means to hold down the
key and type the C key at the same time.

^X The CONTROL-X key is used at the beginning of many different

META or M- This is a special EMACS key used to begin many commands.This
key is pressed and then released before typing the next
character. On most systems, this is the key, but it can
be changed. (consult appendix E to learn what key is used for
META on your computer).

Whenever a command is described, the manual will list the actual
keystrokes needed to execute it in boldface using the above conventions, and
also the name of the command in italics.

1.2 Getting Started
1.2 Getting Started

In order to use EMACS, you must call it up from your system or
computer's command prompt. On UNIX and MSDOS machines, just type "emacs" from
the command prompt and follow it with the or key (we will refer
to this key as for "new-line" for the remainder of this manual). On the
Macintosh, the Amiga, the ATARI ST, and under OS/2 and other icon based
operating systems, double click on the uEMACS icon. Shortly after this, a screen
similar to the one below should appear.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Basic Concepts

1.3 Parts and Pieces
1.3 Parts and Pieces

The screen is divided into a number of areas or windows. On some systems
the top window contains a function list of unshifted and shifted function keys.
We will discuss these keys later. Below them is an EMACS mode line which, as we
mode line
will see, informs you of the present mode of operation of the editor--for
example "(WRAP)" if you set EMACS to wrap at the end of each line. Under the
mode line is the text window where text appears and is manipulated. Since each
text window
window has its own mode line, below the text window is it's mode line. The last
line of the screen is the command line where EMACS takes commands and reports on
command line
what it is doing.

f1 search-> f2 <-search | MicroEMACS: Text Editor
f3 hunt-> f4 <-hunt |
f5 fkeys f6 help | Available function key Pages include:
f7 nxt wind f8 pg[ ] | WORD BOX EMACS PASCAL C cObal Lisp
f9 save f10 exit | [use the f8 key to load Pages]
MicroEMACS 3.11 () Function Keys

---- MicroEMACS 3.11 () -- Main ----------------------------------------------
Fig 1: EMACS screen on an IBM-PC

1.4 Entering Text
1.4 Entering Text

Entering text in EMACS is simple. Type the following sentence fragment:

Fang Rock lighthouse, center of a series of mysterious and

The text is displayed at the top of the text window. Now type:

terrifying events at the turn of the century

Notice that some of your text has dissapeared off the left side of the
screen. Don't panic--your text is safe!!! You've just discovered that EMACS

Basic Concepts MicroEMACS Reference Manual

doesn't "wrap" text to the next line like most word processors unless you hit
. But since EMACS is used for both word processing, and text editing, it has
a bit of a dual personality. You can change the way it works by setting various
modes. In this case, you need to set WRAP mode, using the add-mode command, by
modes WRAP ________
typing ^XM. The command line at the base of the screen will prompt you for the
mode you wish to add. Type wrap followed by the key and any text you now
enter will be wrapped. However, the command doesn't wrap text already entered.
To get rid of the long line, press and hold down the key until the
line is gone. Now type in the words you deleted, watch how EMACS goes down to
the next line at the right time. (In some versions of EMACS, WRAP is a default
___ ____ ________ __ ______ WRAP __ _ _______
mode in which case you don't have to worry about the instructions relating to
____ __ _____ ____ ___ _____ ____ __ _____ _____ ___ ____________ ________ __
adding this mode.)
______ ____ ______

Now let's type a longer insert. Hit a couple of times to tab down
from the text you just entered. Now type the following paragraphs. Press
twice to indicate a paragraph break.

Fang Rock lighthouse, center of a series of mysterious and terrifying
events at the turn of the century, is built on a rocky island a few
miles of the Channel coast. So small is the island that wherever you
stand its rocks are wet with sea spray.

The lighthouse tower is in the center of the island. A steep flight of
steps leads to the heavy door in its base. Winding stairs lead up to
the crew room.

1.5 Basic cursor movement
1.5 Basic cursor movement

Now let's practice moving around in this text. To move the cursor back
to the word "Winding," enter M-B previous-word. This command moves the cursor
M-B _____________
backwards by one word at a time. Note you have to press the key combination
every time the cursor steps back by one word. Continuously pressing META and
toggling B produces an error message. To move forward to the word "stairs" enter
M-F next-word, which moves the cursor forward by one word at a time.
M-F _________

Notice that EMACS commands are usually mnemonic--F for forward, B for
backward, for example.

To move the cursor up one line, enter ^P previous-line, down one line ^N
^P _____________ ^N
next-line. Practice this movement by moving the cursor to the word "terrifying"
in the second line.

The cursor may also be moved forward or backward in smaller increments.
To move forward by one character, enter ^F forward-character, to move backward,
^F _________________
^B backward-character. EMACS also allows you to specify a number which is
^B __________________
normally used to tell a command to execute many times. To repeat most commands,
press META and then the number before you enter the command. Thus, the command
META 5 ^F (M-5^F) will move the cursor forward by five characters. Try moving
around in the text by using these commands. For extra practice, see how close

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Basic Concepts

you can come to the word "small" in the first paragraph by giving an argument to
the commands listed here.

Two other simple cursor commands that are useful to help us move around
in the text are M-N next-paragraph which moves the cursor to the second
M-N ______________
paragraph, and M-P previous-paragraph which moves it back to the previous
M-P __________________
paragraph. The cursor may also be moved rapidly from one end of the line to the
other. Move the cursor to the word "few" in the second line. Press ^A beginning-
^A __________
of-line. Notice the cursor moves to the word "events" at the beginning of the
line. Pressing ^E end-of-line moves the cursor to the end of the line.
^E ___________

Finally, the cursor may be moved from any point in the file to the end
or beginning of the file. Entering M-> end-of-file moves the cursor to the end
M-> ___________
of the buffer, M-< beginning-of-file to the first character of the file.
M-< _________________

On the IBM-PC, the ATARI ST and many other machines, the cursor keys can
__ ___ _______ ___ _____ __ ___ ____ _____ _________ ___ ______ ____ ___
also be used to move the cursor.
____ __ ____ __ ____ ___ _______

Practice moving the cursor in the text until you are comfortable with
the commands we've explored in this chapter.

1.6 Saving your text
1.6 Saving your text

When you've finished practicing cursor movement, save your file. Your
file currently resides in a BUFFER. The buffer is a temporary storage area for
your text, and is lost when the computer is turned off. You can save the buffer
to a file by entering ^X^S save-file. Notice that EMACS informs you that your
^X^S _________
file has no name and will not let you save it.

To save your buffer to a file with a different name than it's current
one (which is empty), press ^X^W write-file. EMACS will prompt you for the
^X^W __________
filename you wish to write. Enter the name fang.txt and press return. On a
micro, the drive light will come on, and EMACS will inform you it is writing the
file. When it finishes, it will inform you of the number of lines it has written
to the disk.

Congratulations!! You've just saved your first EMACS file!

Basic Concepts MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 1 Summary
Chapter 1 Summary

In chapter 1, you learned how to enter text, how to use wrap mode, how
to move the cursor, and to save a buffer. The following is a table of the
commands covered in this chapter and their corresponding key bindings:

Key Binding Keystroke Effect
___ _______ _________ ______

abort-command ^G aborts current command

add-mode ^XM allows addition of EMACS
mode such as WRAP

backward-character ^B moves cursor left one character

beginning-of-file M-< moves cursor to beginning of file

beginning-of-line ^A moves cursor to beginning of line

end-of-file M-> moves cursor to end of file

end-of-line ^E moves cursor to end of line

forward-character ^F moves cursor right one character

next-line ^N moves cursor to next line

next-paragraph M-N moves cursor to next paragraph

next-word M-F moves cursor forward one word

previous-line ^P moves cursor backward by one line

previous-paragraph M-P moves cursor to previous paragraph

previous-word M-B moves cursor backward by one word

save-file ^X^S saves current buffer to a file

write-file ^X^W save current buffer under a new name

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Basic Editing--Simple Insertions and Deletions

Chapter 2
Chapter 2

Basic Editing--Simple Insertions and Deletions
Basic Editing--Simple Insertions and Deletions

2.1 A Word About Windows, Buffers, Screens, and Modes
2.1 A Word About Windows, Buffers, Screens, and Modes

In the first chapter, you learned how to create and save a file in
EMACS. Let's do some more editing on this file. Call up emacs by typing in the
following command.

emacs fang.txt
emacs fang.txt

On icon oriented systems, double click on the uEMACS icon, usually a
__ ____ ________ ________ ______ _____ __ ___ ______ _____ _______ _
file dialog box of some sort will appear. Choose FANG.TXT from the appropriate
____ ______ ___ __ ____ ____ ____ _______ ______ FANG.TXT ____ ___ ___________

Shortly after you invoke EMACS, the text should appear on the screen
ready for you to edit. The text you are looking at currently resides in a
buffer. A buffer is a temporary area of computer memory which is the primary
unit internal to EMACS -- this is the place where EMACS goes to work. The mode
line at the bottom of the screen lists the buffer name, FANG.TXT and the name of
the file with which this buffer is associated, FANG.TXT

The computer talks to you through the use of its screen. This screen
usually has an area of 24 lines each of 80 characters across. You can use EMACS
to subdivide the screen into several separate work areas, or windows, each of
which can be 'looking into' different files or sections of text. Using windows,
you can work on several related texts at one time, copying and moving blocks of
text between windows with ease. To keep track of what you are editing, each
window is identified by a mode line on the last line of the window which lists
mode line
the name of the buffer which it is looking into, the file from which the text
was read, and how the text is being edited.

An EMACS mode tells EMACS how to deal with user input. As we have
already seen, the mode 'WRAP' controls how EMACS deals with long lines (lines
with over 79 characters) while the user is typing them in. The 'VIEW' mode,
allows you to read a file without modifying it. Modes are associated with
buffers and not with files; hence, a mode needs to be explicitly set or removed
every time you edit a file. A new file read into a buffer with a previously
specified mode will be edited under this mode. If you use specific modes
frequently, EMACS allows you to set the modes which are used by all new buffers,
called global modes.

Basic Editing--Simple Insertions and Deletions MicroEMACS Reference Manual

2.2 Insertions
2.2 Insertions

Your previously-saved text should look like this:

Fang Rock lighthouse, center of a series of mysterious and terrifying
events at the turn of the century, is built on a rocky island a few
miles of the Channel coast. So small is the island that wherever you
stand its rocks are wet with sea spray.

The lighthouse tower is in the center of the island. A steep flight of
steps leads to the heavy door in its base. Winding stairs lead up to
the crew room.

Let's assume you want to add a sentence in the second paragraph after
the word "base." Move the cursor until it is on the "W" of "Winding". Now type
the following:

This gives entry to the lower floor where the big steam generator
throbs steadily away, providing power for the electric lantern.

If the line fails to wrap and you end up with a '$' sign in the right
margin, just enter M-Q fill-paragraph to reformat the paragraph. This new
M-Q ______________
command attempts to fill out a paragraph. Long lines are divided up, and words
are shuffled around to make the paragraph look nicer.

Notice that all visible EMACS characters are self-inserting -- all you
had to do was type the characters to insert and the existing text made space for
it. With a few exceptions discussed later, all non-printing characters (such as
control or escape sequences) are commands. To insert spaces, simply use the
space bar. Now move to the first line of the file and type ^O open-line (Oh, not
^O _________
zero). You've just learned how to insert a blank line in your text.

2.3 Deletions
2.3 Deletions

EMACS offers a number of deletion options. For example, move the cursor
until it's under the period at the end of the insertion you just did. Press the
backspace key. Notice the "n" on "lantern" disappeared. The backspace
implemented on EMACS is called a destructive backspace--it removes text
immediately before the current cursor position from the buffer. Now type ^H
delete-previous-character. Notice that the cursor moves back and obliterates the
"r"--either command will backspace the cursor.

Type in the two letters you erased to restore your text and move the
cursor to the beginning of the buffer M-> beginning-of-file. Move the cursor
M-> _________________
down one line to the beginning of the first paragraph.

To delete the forward character, type ^D delete-next-character. The "F"
^D _____________________
of "Fang" disappears. Continue to type ^D until the whole word is erased EMACS
also permits the deletion of larger elements of text. Move the cursor to the

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Basic Editing--Simple Insertions and Deletions

word "center" in the first line of text. Pressing M- delete-previous-
M- ________________
word kills the word immediately before the cursor. M-^H has the same effect.
____ M-^H

Notice that the commands are very similar to the control commands you
used to delete individual letters. As a general rule in EMACS, control sequences
affect small areas of text, META sequences larger areas. The word forward of the
cursor position can therefore be deleted by typing M-D delete-next-word. Now
M-D ________________
let's take out the remainder of the first line by typing ^K kill-to-end-of-line.
^K ___________________
You now have a blank line at the top of your screen. Typing ^K again or ^X^O
^K ^X^O
delete-blank-lines deletes the blank line and flushes the second line to the top
of the text. Now exit EMACS by typing ^X^C exit-emacs. Notice EMACS reminds you
^X^C __________
that you have not saved your buffer. Ignore the warning and exit. This way you
can exit EMACS without saving any of the changes you just made.

Basic Editing--Simple Insertions and Deletions MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 2 Summary
Chapter 2 Summary

In Chapter 2, you learned about the basic 'building blocks' of an EMACS
text file--buffers, windows, and files.

Key binding Keystroke Effect
___ _______ _________ ______
^H deletes character immediately before
the current cursor position

delete-next-character ^D deletes character immediately after
current cursor position

delete-previous-word M-^H deletes word immediately before
current cursor position

delete-next-word M-D deletes word immediately after
current cursor position

kill-to-end-of-line ^K deletes from current cursor
position to end of line

insert-space ^C inserts a space to right of cursor

open-line ^O inserts blank line

delete-blank-lines ^X^O removes blank line

exit-emacs ^X^C exits emacs

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Using Regions

Chapter 3
Chapter 3

Using Regions
Using Regions

3.1 Defining and Deleting a Region
3.1 Defining and Deleting a Region

At this point its time to familiarize ourselves with two more EMACS
terms--the point and the mark. The point is located directly behind the current
point mark
cursor position. The mark (as we shall see shortly) is user defined. These two
elements together are called the current region and limit the region of text on
region region
which EMACS performs many of its editing functions.

Let's begin by entering some new text. Don't forget to add wrap mode if
its not set on this buffer. Start EMACS and open a file called PUBLISH.TXT. Type
in the following text:

One of the largest growth areas in personal computing is electronic
publishing. There are packages available for practically every machine
from elegantly simple programs for the humble Commodore 64 to
sophisticated professional packages for PC and Macintosh computers.

Electronic publishing is as revolutionary in its way as the Gutenburg
press. Whereas the printing press allowed the mass production and
distribution of the written word, electronic publishing puts the means
of production in the hands of nearly every individual. From the class
magazine to the corporate report, electronic publishing is changing
the way we produce and disseminate information.

Personal publishing greatly increases the utility of practically every
computer. Thousands of people who joined the computer revolution of
this decade only to hide their machines unused in closets have
discovered a new use for them as dedicated publishing workstations.

Now let's do some editing. The last paragraph seems a little out of
place. To see what the document looks like without it we can cut it from the
text by moving the cursor to the beginning of the paragraph. Enter M-
set-mark. EMACS will respond with "[Mark set]". Now move the cursor to the end
of the paragraph. You have just defined a region of text. To remove this text
from the screen, type ^W kill-region. The paragraph disappears from the screen.
^W ___________

On further consideration, however, perhaps the paragraph we cut wasn't
so bad after all. The problem may have been one of placement. If we could tack
it on to the end of the first paragraph it might work quite well to support and
strengthen the argument. Move the cursor to the end of the first paragraph and
enter ^Y yank. Your text should now look like this:
^Y ____

Using Regions MicroEMACS Reference Manual

One of the largest growth areas in personal computing is electronic
publishing. There are packages available for practically every machine
from elegantly simple programs for the humble Commodore 64 to
sophisticated professional packages for PC and Macintosh computers.
Personal publishing greatly increases the utility of practically every
computer. Thousands of people who joined the computer revolution of
this decade only to hide their machines unused in closets have
discovered a new use for them as dedicated publishing workstations.

Electronic publishing is as revolutionary in its way as the Gutenburg
press. Whereas the printing press allowed the mass production and
distribution of the written word, electronic publishing puts the means
of production in the hands of nearly every individual. From the class
magazine to the corporate report, electronic publishing is changing
the way we produce and disseminate information.

3.2 Yanking a Region
3.2 Yanking a Region

The text you cut initially didn't simply just disappear, it was cut into
a buffer that retains the 'killed' text appropriately called the kill buffer. ^Y
kill buffer ^Y
"yanks" the text back from this buffer into the current buffer. If you have a
long line (indicated, remember, by the "$" sign), simply hit M-Q to reformat the

There are other uses to which the kill buffer can be put. Using the
method we've already learned, define the last paragraph as a region. Now type M-
W copy-region. Nothing seems to have happened; the cursor stays blinking at the
W ___________
point. But things have changed, even though you may not be able to see any

To see what has happened to the contents of the kill buffer, move the
cursor down a couple of lines and "yank" the contents of the kill buffer back
with ^Y. Notice the last paragraph is now repeated. The region you defined is
"tacked on" to the end of your file because M-W copies a region to the kill
M-W copies
buffer while leaving the original text in your working buffer. Some caution is
needed however, because the contents of the kill buffer are updated when you
delete any regions, lines or words. If you are moving large quantities of text,
complete the operation before you do any more deletions or you could find that
the text you want to move has been replaced by the most recent deletion.
Remember--a buffer is a temporary area of computer memory that is lost when the
machine is powered down or switched off. In order to make your changes
permanent, they must be saved to a file before you leave EMACS. Let's delete the
section of text we just added and save the file to disk.

Chapter 3 Summary
Chapter 3 Summary

In Chapter 3, you learned how to achieve longer insertions and
deletions. The EMACS terms point and mark were introduced and you learned how to
point mark
manipulate text with the kill buffer.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Using Regions

Key Binding Keystroke Effect
___ _______ _________ ______

set-mark M- Marks the beginning of a region

delete-region ^W Deletes region between point and mark and
places it in KILL buffer

copy-region M-W Copies text between point and mark into
KILL buffer

yank-text ^Y Inserts a copy of the KILL buffer into
current buffer at point

Search and Replace MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 4
Chapter 4

Search and Replace
Search and Replace

4.1 Forward Search
4.1 Forward Search

Load EMACS and bring in the file you just saved. Your file should look
like the one below.

One of the largest growth areas in personal computing is electronic
publishing. There are packages available for practically every machine
from elegantly simple programs for the humble Commodore 64 to
sophisticated professional packages for PC and Macintosh computers.
Personal publishing greatly increases the utility of practically every
computer. Thousands of people who joined the computer revolution of
this decade only to hide their machines unused in closets have
discovered a new use for them as dedicated publishing workstations.

Electronic publishing is as revolutionary in its way as the Gutenburg
press. Whereas the printing press allowed the mass production and
distribution of the written word, electronic publishing puts the means
of production in the hands of nearly every individual. From the class
magazine to the corporate report, electronic publishing is changing
the way we produce and disseminate information.

Let's use EMACS to search for the word "revolutionary" in the second
paragraph. Because EMACS searches from the current cursor position toward the
end of buffers, and we intend to search forward, move the cursor to the
beginning of the text. Enter ^S search-forward. Note that the command line now
^S ______________

"Search [] :"

EMACS is prompting you to enter the search string -- the text you want
search string
to find. Enter the word revolutionary and hit the META key. The cursor moves to
revolutionary META
the end of the word "revolutionary."

Notice that you must enter the key to start the search. If you
simply press the command line responds with "". Although this may seem
infuriating to users who are used to pressing the return key to execute any
command, EMACS' use of to begin searches allows it to pinpoint text with
great accuracy. After every line wrap or carriage return, EMACS 'sees' a new
line character (). If you need to search for a word at the end of a line,
you can specify this word uniquely in EMACS.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Search and Replace

In our sample text for example, the word "and" occurs a number of times,
but only once at the end of a line. To search for this particular occurrence of
the word, move the cursor to the beginning of the buffer and type ^S. Notice
that EMACS stores the last specified search string as the default string. If you
press now, EMACS will search for the default string, in this case,


To change this string so we can search for our specified "and" simply
enter the word and followed by . The command line now shows:

"search [and]:"

Press and the cursor moves to "and" at the end of the second last


4.2 Exact Searches
4.2 Exact Searches

If the mode EXACT is active in the current buffer, EMACS searches on a
case sensitive basis. Thus, for example you could search for Publishing as
distinct from publishing.

4.3 Backward Search
4.3 Backward Search

Backward searching is very similar to forward searching except that it
is implemented in the reverse direction. To implement a reverse search, type ^R
search-reverse. Because EMACS makes no distinction between forward and backward
stored search strings, the last search item you entered appears as the default
string. Try searching back for any word that lies between the cursor and the
beginning of the buffer. Notice that when the item is found, the point moves to
the beginning of the found string (i.e., the cursor appears under the first
letter of the search item).

Practice searching for other words in your text.

4.4 Searching and Replacing
4.4 Searching and Replacing

Searching and replacing is a powerful and quick way of making changes to
your text. Our sample text is about electronic publishing, but the correct term
is 'desktop' publishing. To make the necessary changes we need to replace all
occurrences of the word "electronic" with "desktop." First, move the cursor to
the top of the current buffer with the M-< command. Then type M-R replace-string
M-< M-R ______________
The command line responds:

"Replace []:"

where the square brackets enclose the default string. Type the word
electronic and hit . The command line responds:

Search and Replace MicroEMACS Reference Manual

"with []"

type desktop. EMACS replaces all instances of the original word
with your revision. Of course, you will have to capitalize the first letter of
"desktop" where it occurs at the beginning of a sentence.

You have just completed an unconditional replace. In this operation,
unconditional replace
EMACS replaces every instance of the found string with the replacement string.

4.5 Query-Replace
4.5 Query-Replace

You may also replace text on a case by case basis. The M-^R query-
M-^R ______
replace-string command causes EMACS to pause at each instance of the found

For example, assume we want to replace some instances of the word
"desktop" with the word "personal." Go back to the beginning of the current
buffer and enter the M-^R query-replace command. The procedure is very similar
M-^R _____________
to that which you followed in the unconditional search/replace option. When the
search begins however, you will notice that EMACS pauses at each instance of
"publishing" and asks whether you wish to replace it with the replacement
string. You have a number of options available for response:

Response Effect
________ ______
Y(es) Make the current replacement and skip to the next
occurrence of the search string

N(o) Do not make this replacement but continue

! Do the rest of the replacements with no more queries

U(ndo) Undo just the last replacement and query for it
again (This can only go back ONE time)

^G Abort the replacement command (This action does not
undo previously-authorized replacements

. Same effect as ^G, but cursor returns to the point at
which the replacement command was given

? This lists help for the query replacement command

Practice searching and searching and replacing until you feel
comfortable with the commands and their effects.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Search and Replace

Chapter 4 Summary
Chapter 4 Summary

In this chapter, you learned how to search for specified strings of text
in EMACS. The chapter also dealt with searching for and replacing elements
within a buffer.

Key Binding Keystroke Effect
___ _______ _________ ______

search-forward ^S Searches from point to end of buffer.
Point is moved from current location to
the end of the found string

search-backward ^R Searches from point to beginning of buffer.
Point is moved from current location to
beginning of found string

replace M-R Replace ALL occurrences of search string with
specified (null) string from point to the
end of the current buffer

query-replace M-^R As above, but pause at each found string
and query for action

Windows MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 5
Chapter 5


5.1 Creating Windows
5.1 Creating Windows

We have already met windows in an earlier chapter. In this chapter, we
will explore one of EMACS' more powerful features -- text manipulation through
multiple windowing. Windows offer you a powerful and easy way to edit text. By
manipulating a number of windows and buffers on the screen simultaneously, you
can perform complete edits and revisions on the computer screen while having
your draft text or original data available for reference in another window.

You will recall that windows are areas of buffer text that you can see
on the screen. Because EMACS can support several screen windows simultaneously
you can use them to look into different places in the same buffer. You can also
use them to look at text in different buffers. In effect, you can edit several
files at the same time.

Let's invoke EMACS and pull back our file on desktop publishing by

emacs publish.txt

When the text appears, type the ^X2 split-current-window command. The
^X2 ____________________
window splits into two windows. The window where the cursor resides is called
the current window -- in this case the bottom window. Notice that each window
has a text area and a mode line. The command line is however, common to all
command line
windows on the screen.

The two windows on your screen are virtually mirror images of each other
because the new window is opened into the same buffer as the one you are in when
you issue the open-window command. All commands issued to EMACS are executed on
___________ _______
the current buffer in the current window.

To move the cursor to the upper window (i.e., to make that window the
current window, type ^XP previous-window. Notice the cursor moves to the upper
^XP _______________
or previous window. Entering ^XO next-window moves to the next window. Practice
previous ^XO ___________ next
moving between windows. You will notice that you can also move into the Function
Key menu by entering these commands.

Now move to the upper window. Let's open a new file. On the EMACS disk
is a tutorial file. Let's call it into the upper window by typing:


MicroEMACS Reference Manual Windows

and press return.

Enter the filename emacs.tut.

In a short time, the tutorial file will appear in the window. We now
have two windows on the screen, each looking into different buffers. We have
just used the ^X^F find-file command to find a file and bring it into our
^X^F _________
current window.

You can scroll any window up and down with the cursor keys, or with the
commands we've learned so far. However, because the area of visible text in each
window is relatively small, you can scroll the current window a line at a time.

Type ^X^N move-window-down
^X^N ________________

The current window scrolls down by one line -- the top line of text
scrolls out of view, and the bottom line moves towards the top of the screen.
You can imagine, if you like, the whole window slowly moving down to the end of
the buffer in increments of one line. The command ^X^P move-window-up scrolls
^X^P ______________
the window in the opposite direction.

As we have seen, EMACS editing commands are executed in the current
window, but the program does support a useful feature that allows you to scroll
the next window. M-^Z scroll-next-up scrolls the next window up, M-^V scroll-
next M-^Z ______________ M-^V _______
next-down scrolls it downward. From the tutorial window, practice scrolling
the window with the desktop publishing text in it up and down.

When you're finished, exit EMACS without saving any changes in your

Experiment with splitting the windows on your screen. Open windows into
different buffers and experiment with any other files you may have. Try editing
the text in each window, but don't forget to save any changes you want to keep
-- you still have to save each buffer separately.

5.2 Deleting Windows
5.2 Deleting Windows

Windows allow you to perform complex editing tasks with ease. However,
they become an inconvenience when your screen is cluttered with open windows you
have finished using. The simplest solution is to delete unneeded windows. The
command ^X0 delete-window will delete the window you are currently working in
^X0 _____________
and move you to the next window.

If you have a number of windows open, you can delete all but the current
window by entering ^X1 delete-other-windows.
^X1 ____________________

5.3 Resizing Windows
5.3 Resizing Windows

During complex editing tasks, you will probably find it convenient to
have a number of windows on the screen simultaneously. However this situation

Windows MicroEMACS Reference Manual

may present inconveniences because the more windows you have on the screen the
smaller they are; in some cases, a window may show only a couple of lines of
text. To increase the flexibility and utility of the window environment, EMACS
allows you to resize the window you are working in (called, as you will recall,
the current window) to a convenient size for easier editing, and then shrink it
when you no longer need it to be so large.

Let's try an example. Load in any EMACS text file and split the current
window into two. Now type ^X^(Shift-6), grow-window. Your current window should
^X^(Shift-6) ___________
be the lower one on the screen. Notice that it increases in size upwards by one
line. If you are in the upper window, it increases in size in a downward
direction. The command ^X^Z, shrink-window correspondingly decreases window size
^X^Z _____________
by one line at a time.

EMACS also allows you to resize a window more precisely by entering a
numeric argument specifying the size of the window in lines. To resize the
window this way, press the META key and enter a numeric argument (remember to
keep it smaller than the number of lines on your screen display) then press ^XW
resize-window. The current window will be enlarged or shrunk to the number of
lines specified in the numeric argument. For example entering:

M-8 ^XW
M-8 ^XW

will resize the current window to 8 lines.

5.4 Repositioning within a Window
5.4 Repositioning within a Window

The cursor may be centered within a window by entering M-! or M-^L
M-! or M-^L
redraw-display. This command is especially useful in allowing you to quickly
locate the cursor if you are moving frequently from window to window. You can
also use this command to move the line containing the cursor to any position
within the current window. This is done by using a numeric argument before the
command. Type M- M-^L where is the number of the line within the window
M- M-^L
that you wish the current line to be displayed.

The ^L clear-and-redraw command is useful for 'cleaning up' a 'messy'
^L ________________
screen that can result of using EMACS on a mainframe system and being
interrupted by a system message.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Windows

Chapter 5 summary
_______ _ _______

In Chapter 5 you learned how to manipulate windows and the editing
flexibility they offer.

Key Binding Keystroke Effect
___ _______ _________ ______

open-window ^X2 Splits current window into two windows if
space available

close-windows ^X1 Closes all windows except current window

next-window ^XO[oh] Moves point into next (i.e. downward) window

previous-window ^XP Moves point to previous (i.e. upward) window

move-window-down ^X^N Scrolls current window down one line

move-window-up ^X^P Scrolls current window up one line

redraw-display M ! or Window is moved so line with point
M !
M ^L (with cursor) is at center of window
M ^L

grow-window M-X ^ Current window is enlarged by one
M-X ^
line and nearest window is shrunk by
one line

shrink-window ^X^Z Current window is shrunk by one line
and nearest window is enlarged by one line

clear-and-redraw ^L Screen is blanked and redrawn. Keeps
screen updates in sync with your commands

scroll-next-up M-^Z Scrolls next window up by one line

scroll-next-down M-^V Scrolls next window down by one line

delete-window ^X0 Deletes current window

delete-other-windows ^X1 Deletes all but current window

resize-window ^X^W Resizes window to a given numeric argument

Using a Mouse MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 6
Chapter 6

Using a Mouse
Using a Mouse

On computers equipped with a mouse, the mouse can usually be used to
make editing easier. If your computer has a mouse, let's try using it. Start
MicroEMACS by typing:

emacs publish.txt

This brings EMACS up and allows it to edit the file from the last
chapter. If the function key window is visible on the screen, press the F5 key
to cause it to disappear. Now use the ^X2 split-current-window command to split
^X2 ____________________
the screen into two windows. Next use the ^X^F find-file command to read in the
^X^F _________
fang.txt file. Now your screen should have two windows looking into two
different files.

Grab the mouse and move it around. On the screen an arrow, or block of
color appears. This is called the mouse cursor and can be positioned on any
character on the screen. On some computers, positioning the mouse cursor in the
extreme upper right or left corner may bring down menus which allow you to
access that computers utilities, sometimes called Desk Accessories.
Desk Accessories

6.1 Moving around with the mouse
6.1 Moving around with the mouse

Using the mouse button (or the left button if the mouse has more than
one), position the mouse over some character in the current window. Click the
mouse button once. The point will move to where the mouse cursor is. If you
place the mouse cursor past the end of a line, the point will move to the end of
that line.

Move the mouse cursor into the other window and click on one of the
characters there. MicroEMACS will automatically make this window the current
window (notice that the mode line changes) and position the point to the mouse
cursor. This makes it very easy to use the mouse to switch to a different window

6.2 Dragging around
6.2 Dragging around

Besides just using the mouse to move around on the screen, you can use
the same button to move text. Move the mouse cursor to a character in one of the
windows, and click down... but don't let the button up yet! The point will move
to where the mouse cursor is. Now move the mouse cursor up or down on the
screen, and release the button. The point will again move to where the mouse

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Using a Mouse

cursor is, but this time it will bring the text under it along for the ride.
This is called dragging, and is how you can make the text appear just where you
want it to. If you try to drag text out of the current window, EMACS will ignore
your attempt and leave the point where you first clicked down.

Now, click down on a word in one of the windows, and drag it directly to
the left. Release the button and watch as the entire window slides, or scrolls
to the left. The missing text has not been deleted, it is simply not visible,
off the left hand side of the screen. Notice the mode line has changed and now
looks like:

==== MicroEMACS 3.11 [<12] () == fang.txt == File: fang.txt =========

The number insided the brackets [] shows that the screen is now scrolled
12 characters from the left margin.

Now grab the same text again, and drag it to the right, pulling the rest
of the text back into the current window. The [<] field will disappear, meaning
that the window is no longer scrolled to the left. This feature is very useful
for looking at wide charts and tables. Remember, MicroEMACS will only scroll
the text in the current window sideways if you drag it straight to the side,
otherwise it will drag the text vertically.

Now, place the mouse cursor over a character on the upper mode line,
click down, move the mouse cursor up or down a few lines and let go of the
button. The mode line moves to where you dragged it, changing the size of the
windows above and below it. If you try to make a window with less than one line,
EMACS will not let you. Dragging the mode lines can make it very fast and easy
for you to rearrange the windows as you would like.

If you have a number of different windows visible on the screen,
positioning the mouse over the mode line of one window and clicking the right
mouse button will cause that window to be deleted.

6.3 Cut and Paste
6.3 Cut and Paste

If your mouse has two buttons, then you can use the right button to do
some other things as well. Earlier, we learned how to define a region by using
the M- set-mark command. Now, position the mouse over at the beginning of
M- ________
a region you would like to copy. Next click and hold down the right mouse
button. Notice that the point jumps to the mouse cursor and EMACS reports "[Mark
Set]". Holding the button down move the mouse to the end of the text you wish to
copy and release the mouse button. Emacs reports "[Region Copied]" to let you
know it has copied the region into the KILL buffer. This has done the same job
as the M-W copy-region command.
M-W ___________

If you now click the right mouse button, without moving the mouse, the
region you defined dissapear, being cut from the current buffer. This works just
like the ^W kill-region command.
^W ___________

Using a Mouse MicroEMACS Reference Manual

If you move the mouse away from where you cut the text, and click the
right mouse button down and up without moving the mouse, the text in the KILL
buffer gets inserted, or pasted into the current buffer at the point.

6.4 Screens
6.4 Screens

MicroEMACS can use more than one screen at once. Each screen is a
collection of windows along with a mode line. These screens usually fill the
terminal or computer screen on text based systems, but can also be held in
different windows on graphically based systems like MicroSoft Windows, OS/2, the
Macintosh Finder and X-Windows. Don't be confused by the two different uses of
the term "window". Inside EMACS style editors, a window lets you view part of a
buffer. Under graphical operating systems, a window holds a "virtual terminal",
allowing you to manipulate more than one job, editing session or program at
once. Within MicroEMACS, these operating system windows are called screens. All
these screens are displayed on your current desktop.

6.5 Resizing a Screen
6.5 Resizing a Screen

You can change the size of a screen. Move the mouse to the last position
of the command line. Press the left mouse button down. Holding it, move the
mouse to the place you want the new lower right corner. Release the mouse. The
desktop redraws, with your newly resized screen. MicroEMACS will ignore size
changes that can not be done, like attempting to pull the lower left corner
above the upper right corner of the current screen.

6.6 Moving a Screen
6.6 Moving a Screen

To change where on the desktop a screen is placed, move the mouse to the
upper right corner of the screen, press the left mouse button down, move the
mouse and release it where you want the screen displayed. Again, MicroEMACS will
ignore placements that can not be done.

6.7 Creating a Screen
6.7 Creating a Screen

Creating a new screen is just like moving a screen, but using the right
button. Move to the upper right of an existing screen, press the right mouse
button down, and move the mouse, releasing the button where the new screen
should appear. A new screen will have a single window, containing the contents
of the current window in the copied screen, and will have that window's colors.
The new screen will have the copied screen's size.

6.8 Switching to a Screen
6.8 Switching to a Screen

This is simple. Any mouse command can be done in any screen by placing
the mouse on a visible part of the screen and clicking. The last screen the

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Using a Mouse

mouse is used on comes to front and is the current screen. Also, the A-C cycle-
A-C ______
screens command brings the rearmost screen to front.

6.9 Deleting a Screen
6.9 Deleting a Screen

Place the mouse on the command line of the screen you want to delete.
Click the right mouse button, the screen will disapear. If you delete the only
remaining screen on the desktop, MicroEMACS will exit.

Using a Mouse MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 6 Summary
Chapter 6 Summary

In Chapter 6, you learned how to use the mouse to move the point, switch
windows, drag text, and resize windows. You also learned how to use the right
mouse button in order to copy and delete regions and yank them back at other
places. And lastly, you learned how to control multiple screens with the mouse.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Using a Mouse

Action Mouse Directions
______ _____ __________

Move Cursor position mouse cursor over desired location
click down and up with left button

Drag Text position mouse cursor over desired text
click left button down
move to new screen location for text
release mouse button

Resize Windows position mouse cursor over mode line to move
click left button down
move to new location for mode line
release mouse button

Delete Window position mouse cursor over mode line of window to delete
click right mouse button

Activate Screen Move mouse over existing screen
click left button down and up

Resize Screen position mouse cursor over last character on message line
click left button down
move to new lower right corner of screen
release mouse button

Copy Region position mouse at beginning of region
click right button down
move to end of region
release mouse button

Cut Region position mouse at beginning of region
click right button down
move to end of region
release mouse button
click right button down and up

Paste Region position mouse at place to paste
click right button down and up

Create Screen position mouse at upper left corner of existing screen
click right button down
move to position of new screen
release mouse button

Resize Screen position mouse at lower right corner of screen
click left button down
move to new lower left corner
release mouse button

Move Screen position mouse at upper right corner of screen

Buffers MicroEMACS Reference Manual

click left button down
move to new screen position
release mouse button

Delete Screen position to command line of existing screen
click right button down
release mouse button

Chapter 7
Chapter 7


We have already learned a number of things about buffers. As you will
recall, they are the major internal entities in EMACS -- the place where editing
commands are executed. They are characterized by their names, their modes, and
names modes
by the file with which they are associated. Each buffer also "remembers" its
mark and point. This convenient feature allows you to go to other buffers and
mark point
return to the original location in the "current" buffer.

Advanced users of EMACS frequently have a number of buffers in the
computer's memory simultaneously. In the last chapter, for example, you opened
at least two buffers -- one into the text you were editing, and the other into
the EMACS on-line tutorial. If you deal with complex text files -- say,
sectioned chapters of a book, you may have five or six buffers in the computer's
memory. You could select different buffers by simply calling up the file with
^X^F find-file, and let EMACS open or reopen the buffer. However, EMACS offers
^X^F _________
fast and sophisticated buffering techniques that you will find easy to master
and much more convenient to use.

Let's begin by opening three buffers. You can open any three you choose,
for example call the following files into memory: fang.txt, publish.txt, and
fang.txt publish.txt
emacs.tut in the order listed here. When you've finished this process, you'll be
looking at a screen showing the EMACS tutorial. Let's assume that you want to
move to the fang.txt buffer. Enter:

^XX next-buffer
^XX ___________

This command moves you to the next buffer. Because EMACS cycles through
the buffer list, which is alphabetized, you will now be in the fang.txt buffer.
Using ^XX again places you in the publish.txt buffer. If you are on a machine
^XX publish.txt __ ___ ___ __ _ _______
that supports function keys, using ^XX again places you in the Function Keys
____ ________ ________ _____ _____ ^XX _____ ______ ___ __ ___ Function Keys
___ ________ ____
buffer. Using ^XX one last time cycles you back to the beginning of the list.
______ ^XX

If you have a large number of buffers to deal with, this cycling process
may be slow and inconvenient. The command ^XB select-buffer allows you to
^XB _____________
specify the buffer you wish to be switched to. When the command is entered,
EMACS prompts, "Use buffer:". Simply enter the buffer name (NOT the file name),

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Buffers

and that buffer will then become the current buffer. If you type in part of the
file name and press the space bar, EMACS will attempt to complete the name from
the list of current buffers. If it succeeds, it will print the rest of the name
and you can hit to switch to that buffer. If EMACS beeps the bell, there is
no such buffer, and you may continue editing the name on the command line.

Multiple buffer manipulation and editing is a complex activity, and you
will probably find it very inconvenient to re-save each buffer as you modify it.
The command ^X^B list-buffers creates a new window that gives details about all
^X^B ____________
the buffers currently known to EMACS. Buffers that have been modified are
identified by the "buffer changed" indicator (an asterisk in the second column).
You can thus quickly and easily identify buffers that need to be saved to files
before you exit EMACS. The buffer window also provides other information --
buffer specific modes, buffer size, and buffer name are also listed. To close
this window, simply type the close-windows command, ^X1.

To delete any buffer, type ^XK delete-buffer. EMACS prompts you "Kill
^XK _____________
buffer:". Enter the buffer name you want to delete. As this is destructive
command, EMACS will ask for confirmation if the buffer was changed and not
saved. Answer Y(es) or N(o). As usual ^G cancels the command.

Buffers MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 7 Summary
Chapter 7 Summary

In Chapter 7 you learned how to manipulate buffers.

Key Binding Keystroke Effect
___ _______ _________ ______
next-buffer ^X^X Switch to the next buffer in the
buffer list

select-buffer ^XB Switch to a particular buffer

list-buffers ^X^B List all buffers

delete-buffer ^XK Delete a particular buffer if it
is off-screen

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Modes

Chapter 8
Chapter 8


EMACS allows you to change the way it works in order to customized it to
the style of editing you are using. It does this by providing a number of
different modes. These modes can effect either a single buffer, or any new
buffer that is created. To add a mode to the current buffer, type ^XM add-mode.
^XM ________
EMACS will then prompt you for the name of a mode to add. When you type in a
legal mode name, and type a , EMACS will add the mode name to the list of
current mode names in the mode line of the current buffer.

To remove an existing mode, typing the ^X^M delete-mode will cause EMACS
^X^M ___________
to prompt you for the name of a mode to delete from the current buffer. This
will remove that mode from the mode list on the current mode line.

Global modes are the modes which are inherited by any new buffers which
are created. For example, if you wish to always do string searching with
character case being significant, you would want global mode EXACT to be set so
that any new files read in inherent the EXACT mode. Global modes are set with
the M-M add-global-mode command, and unset with the M-^M delete-global-mode
M-M _______________ M-^M __________________
command. Also, the current global modes are displayed in the first line of a
^X^B list-buffers command.
^X^B ____________

On machines which are capable of displaying colors, the mode commands
can also set the background and foreground character colors. Using add-mode or
delete-mode with a lowercase color will set the background color in the current
window. An uppercase color will set the foreground color in the current window.
Colors that EMACS knows about are: white, cyan, magenta, yellow, blue, red,
green, and black. If the computer you are running on does not have eight colors,
EMACS will attempt to make some intelligent guess at what color to use when you
ask for one which is not there.

8.1 ASAVE mode
8.1 ASAVE mode

Automatic Save mode tells EMACS to automatically write out the current
buffer to its associated file on a regular basis. Normally this will be every
256 characters typed into the file. The environment variable $ACOUNT counts down
to the next auto-save, and $ASAVE is the value used to reset $ACOUNT after a
save occurs.

8.2 CMODE mode
8.2 CMODE mode

CMODE is useful to C programmers. When CMODE is active, EMACS will try
to assist the user in a number of ways. This mode is set automatically with
files that have a .c or .h extension.

Modes MicroEMACS Reference Manual

The key will normally attempt to return the user to the next line
at the same level of indentation as the last non blank line, unless the current
line ends with a open brace ({) in which case the new line will be further
indented by one tab position.

A close brace (}) will search for the corresponding open brace and line
up with it.

A pound sign (#) with only leading white space will delete all the white
space preceding itself. This will always bring preprocessor directives flush to
the left margin.

Whenever any close fence is typed, IE )]>}, if the matching open fence
is on screen in the current window, the cursor will briefly flash to it, and
then back. This makes balancing expressions, and matching blocks much easier.

8.3 CRYPT mode
8.3 CRYPT mode

When a buffer is in CRYPT mode, it is encrypted whenever it is written
to a file, and decrypted when it is read from the file. The encryption key can
be specified on the command line with the -k switch, or with the M-E set-
M-E ____
encryption-key command. If you attempt to read or write a buffer in crypt mode
and now key has not been set, EMACS will execute set-encryption-key
automatically, prompting you for the needed key. Whenever EMACS prompts you for
a key, it will not echo the key to your screen as you type it (IE make SURE you
get it right when you set it originally).

The encryption algorithm used changes all characters into normal
printing characters, thus the resulting file is suitable for sending via
electronic mail. All version of MicroEMACS should be able decrypt the resulting
file regardless of what machine encrypted it. Also available with EMACS is the
stand alone program, MicroCRYPT, which can en/decrypt the files produced by
CRYPT mode in EMACS.

8.4 EXACT mode
8.4 EXACT mode

All string searches and replacements will take upper/lower case into
account. Normally the case of a string during a search or replace is not taken
into account.

8.5 MAGIC mode
8.5 MAGIC mode

In the MAGIC mode certain characters gain special meanings when used in
a search pattern. Collectively they are know as regular expressions, and a
limited number of them are supported in MicroEmacs. They grant greater
flexibility when using the search command. They have no affect on the
incremental search command.

The symbols that have special meaning in MAGIC mode are ^, $, ., &, ?,
*, +, [ (and ], used with it), and \.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Modes

The characters ^ and $ fix the search pattern to the beginning and end
of line, respectively. The ^ character must appear at the beginning of the
search string, and the $ must appear at the end, otherwise they loose their
meaning and are treated just like any other character. For example, in MAGIC
mode, searching for the pattern "t$" would put the cursor at the end of any line
that ended with the letter 't'. Note that this is different than searching for
"t", that is, 't' followed by a newline character. The character $ (and ^,
for that matter) matches a position, not a character, so the cursor remains at
the end of the line. But a newline is a character that must be matched like any
other character, which means that the cursor is placed just after it - on the
beginning of the next line.

The character . has a very simple meaning -- it matches any single
character, except the newline. Thus a search for "" could match "badger",
"badder" (slang), or up to the 'r' of "bad error".

The character [ indicates the beginning of a character class. It is
similar to the 'any' character ., but you get to choose which characters you
want to match. The character class is ended with the character ]. So, while a
search for "ba.e" will match "bane", "bade", "bale", "bate", et cetera, you can
limit it to matching "babe" and "bake" by searching for "ba[bk]e". Only one of
the characters inside the [ and ] will match a character. If in fact you want to
match any character except those in the character class, you can put a ^ as the
first character. It must be the first character of the class, or else it has no
special meaning. So, a search for [^aeiou] will match any character except a
vowel, but a search for [aeiou^] will match any vowel or a ^.

If you have many characters in order, that you want to put in the
character class, you may use a dash (-) as a range character. So, [a-z] will
match any letter (or any lower case letter if EXACT mode is on), and [0-9a-f]
will match any digit or any letter 'a' through 'f', which happen to be the
characters for hexadecimal numbers. If the dash is at the beginning or end of a
character class, it is taken to be just a dash.

The ? character indicates that the preceding character is optional. The
character may or may not appear in the matched string. For example, a search for
"bea?st" would match both "beast" and "best". If there is no preceding charcter
for ? to modify, it is treated as a normal question mark character.

The * character is known as closure, and means that zero or more of the
preceding character will match. If there is no preceding character,
* has no special meaning and is treated as a normal asterisk. The
closure symbol will also have no special meaning if it is preceded by the
beginning of line symbol ^, since it represents a position, not a character.

The notion of zero or more characters is important. If, for example,
your cursor was on the line

This line is missing two vowels.

Modes MicroEMACS Reference Manual

and a search was made for "a*", the cursor would not move, because it is
guaranteed to match no letter 'a' , which satisfies the search conditions. If
you wanted to search for one or more of the letter 'a', you could search for
"aa*", which would match the letter a, then zero or more of them. A better way,
however, is to use the + character.

The + character behaves in every respect like the * character, with the
exception that its minimum match range is one, not zero. Thus the pattern "a+"
is identical to "aa*".

Under older versions of MicroEMACS, the closure symbols would not
operate on newlines. The current versions no longer have this restriction.

The \ is the escape character. With the exception of groups, which are
explained below, the \ is used at those times when you want to be in MAGIC mode,
but also want a regular expression character to be just a character. It turns
off the special meaning of the character. So a search for "it\." will search for
a line with "it.", and not "it" followed by any other character. Or, a search
for "TEST\*+" would match the word TEST followed by one or more asterisks. The
escape character will also let you put ^, -, or ] inside a character class with
no special side effects.

The character pair \( represent the start of a group in a search string.
A group is ended by the character pair \). All characters matched within the \(
and \) are part of a numbered group, and may be referenced with the &GROUP
function, or with a \ followed by the group number in the replacement string of
replace-string or the query-replace-string commands. For example, a search for
______________ ____________________
"INDEX\([0-9]+\)", to be replaced by "getind(\1)" would change

indptr := INDEX42


indptr := getind(42)


There may be up to nine groups. Groups may be nested.

The character & (ampersand) is a replacement character, and represents
all the characters which were matched by the search string. When used in the M-
R replace-string or the M-^R query-replace-string commands, the & will be
R ______________ M-^R ____________________
substituted for the search string.

8.6 OVER mode
8.6 OVER mode

OVER mode stands for overwrite mode. When in this mode, when characters
are typed, instead of simply inserting them into the file, EMACS will attempt to
overwrite an existing character past the point. This is very useful for
adjusting tables and diagrams.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Modes

8.7 WRAP mode
8.7 WRAP mode

Wrap mode is used when typing in continuous text. Whenever the cursor is
past the currently set fill column (72 by default) and the user types a space or
a , the last word of the line is brought down to the beginning of the next
line. Using this, one just types a continuous stream of words and EMACS
automatically inserts s at appropriate places.

NOTE to programmers:

The EMACS variable $wraphook contains the name of the function which
executes when EMACS detects it is time to wrap. This is set to the

function wrap-word by default, but can be changed to activate
different functions and macros at wrap time.

8.8 VIEW mode
8.8 VIEW mode

VIEW mode disables all commands which can change the current buffer.
EMACS will display an error message and ring the bell every time you attempt to
change a buffer in VIEW mode.

Modes MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 8 Summary
Chapter 8 Summary

In Chapter 8 you learned about modes and their effects.

Key Binding Keystroke Effect
___ _______ _________ ______
add-mode ^XM Add a mode to the current buffer

delete-mode ^X^M Delete a mode from the current buffer

add-global-mode M-M Add a global mode to the
current buffer

delete-global-mode M-^M Delete a global mode from the
current buffer

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Files

Chapter 9
Chapter 9


A file is simply a collection of related data. In EMACS we are dealing
with text files -- named collections of text residing on a disk (or some other
storage medium). You will recall that the major entities EMACS deals with are
buffers. Disk-based versions of files are only active in EMACS when you are
reading into or writing out of buffers. As we have already seen, buffers and
physical files are linked by associated file names. For example, the buffer
"ch7.txt" which is associated with the physical disk file "ch7.txt." You will
notice that the file is usually specified by the drive name or (in the case of a
hard drive) a path. Thus you can specify full file names in EMACS,

e.g. disk:\directories\filename.extension

If you do not specify a disk and directories, the default disk and the
current directory is used.

IMPORTANT -- If you do not explicitly save your buffer to a file, all
your edits will be lost when you leave EMACS (although EMACS will prompt you
when you are about to lose edits by exiting). In addition, EMACS does not
protect your disk-based files from overwriting when it saves files. Thus when
you instruct EMACS to save a file to disk, it will create a file if the
specified file doesn't exist, or it will overwrite the previously saved version
of the file thus replacing it. Your old version is gone forever.

If you are at all unsure about your edits, or if (for any reason) you
wish to keep previous versions of a file, you can change the name of the
associated file with the command ^XN change-file-name. When this file is saved
^XN ________________
to disk, EMACS will create a new physical file under the new name. The earlier
disk file will be preserved.

For example, let's load the file fang.txt into EMACS. Now, type ^XN. The
fang.txt ^XN
EMACS command line prompts "Name:". Enter a new name for the file -- say new.txt
and press . The file will be saved under the new filename, and your disk
directory will show both fang.txt and new.txt.
fang.txt new.txt

An alternative method is to write the file directly to disk under a new
filename. Let's pull our "publish.txt" file into EMACS. To write this file under
another filename, type ^X^W write-file. EMACS will prompt you "write file:".
^X^W __________
Enter an alternate filename -- desktop.txt. Your file will be saved as the
physical file "desktop.txt".

Note that in the examples above, although you have changed the names of
the related files, the buffer names remain the same. However, when you pull the

Files MicroEMACS Reference Manual

physical file back into EMACS, you will find that the buffer name now relates to
the filename.

For example -- You are working with a buffer "fang.txt" with the related
file "fang.txt". You change the name of the file to "new.txt". EMACS now shows
you working with the buffer "fang.txt" and the related file "new.txt". Now pull
the file "new.txt" into EMACS. Notice that the buffer name has now changed to

If for any reason a conflict of buffer names occurs,(if you have files
of the same name on different drives for example) EMACS will prompt you "use
buffer:". Enter an alternative buffer name if you need to.

For a list of file related commands (including some we`ve already seen),
see the summary page.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Files

Chapter 9 Summary
Chapter 9 Summary

In Chapter 9 you learned some of the more advanced concepts of file
naming and manipulation. The relationship between files and buffers was
discussed in some detail.

Key Binding Keystroke Effect
___ _______ _________ ______

save-file ^X^S Saves contents of current buffer with
associated filename on default disk/
directory (if not specified)

write-file ^X^W Current buffer contents will be
saved under specified name

^XN The associated filename is changed
(or associated if not previously
specified) as specified

find-file ^X^F Reads specified file into buffer and
switches you to that buffer, or switches
to buffer in which the file has previously
been read

read-file ^X^R Reads file into buffer thus overwriting
buffer contents. If file has already
been read into another buffer, you will
be switched to it

view-file ^X^V The same as read-file except the buffer
is automatically put into VIEW mode thus
preventing any changes from being made

Screen Formatting MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 10
Chapter 10

Screen Formatting
Screen Formatting

10.1 Wrapping Text
10.1 Wrapping Text

As we learned in the introduction, EMACS is not a word processor, but an
editor. Some simple formatting options are available however, although in most
cases they will not affect the appearance of the finished text when it is run
through the formatter. We have already encountered WRAP mode which wraps lines
longer than a certain length (default is 75 characters). You will recall that
WRAP is enabled by entering ^XM and responding to the command line prompt with

You can also set your own wrap margin with the command ^XF set-fill-
^XF _________
column. Notice EMACS responds "[Fill column is 1]." Now try typing some text.
You'll notice some very strange things happening -- your text wraps at every
word!! This effect occurs because the set wrap margin command must be preceded
by a numeric argument or EMACS sets it to the first column. Thus any text you
type that extends past the first column will wrap at the most convenient line

To reset the wrap column to 72 characters, press the key and

enter 72. EMACS will respond "Arg: 72". Now press ^XF. EMACS will respond "[Fill
column is 72]". Your text will again wrap at the margin you've been using up to
this point.

10.2 Reformatting Paragraphs
10.2 Reformatting Paragraphs

After an intensive editing session, you may find that you have
paragraphs containing lines of differing lengths. Although this disparity will
not affect the formatted text, aesthetic and technical concerns may make it
desirable to have consistent paragraph blocks on the screen. If you are in WRAP
mode, you can reformat a paragraph with the command M-Q fill-paragraph. This
M-Q ______________
command 'fills' the current paragraph reformatting it so all the lines are
filled and wrap logically.

10.3 Changing Case
10.3 Changing Case

There may be occasions when you find it necessary to change the case of
the text you've entered. EMACS allows you to change the case of even large
amounts of text with ease. Let's try and convert a few of the office
traditionalists to the joy of word processing. Type in the following text:

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Screen Formatting

Throw away your typewriter and learn to use a word processor. Word
processing is relatively easy to learn and will increase your
productivity enormously. Enter the Computer Age and find out just how
much fun it can be!!

Let's give it a little more impact by capitalizing the first four words.
The first step is to define the region of text just as you would if you were
doing an extensive deletion. Set the mark at the beginning of the paragraph with
M- set-mark and move the cursor to the space beyond "typewriter." Now
M- ________
enter ^X^U case-region-upper. Your text should now look like this:
^X^U _________________

THROW AWAY YOUR TYPEWRITER and learn to use a word processor. Word
processing is relatively easy to learn and will increase your
productivity enormously. Enter the Computer Age and find out just how
much fun it can be!!

If you want to change the text back to lower case, type ^X^L case-
^X^L _____
region-lower. You can also capitalize individual words. To capitalize the word
"fun", position the cursor in front of the word and type M-U case-word-upper.
M-U _______________
The word is now capitalized. To change it ck to lower case, move the cursor back
to the beginning of the word and type M-L case-word-lower.
M-L _______________

You may also capitalize individual letters in EMACS. The command M-C
case-word-capitalize capitalizes the first letter after the point. This command
would normally be issued with the cursor positioned in front of the first letter
of the word you wish to capitalize. If you issue it in the middle of a word, you
can end up with some strAnge looking text.

10.4 Tabs
10.4 Tabs

Unless your formatter is instructed to take screen text literally (as
MicroSCRIBE does in the 'verbatim' environment for example), tabs in EMACS
generally affect screen formatting only.

When EMACS is first started, it sets the default tab to every eighth
column. As long as you stay with default, every time you press the tab key a tab
character, ^I is inserted. This character, like other control characters, is
invisible -- but it makes a subtle and significant difference to your file and

For example, in default mode, press the tab key and then type the word
Test. "Test" appears at the eighth column. Move your cursor to the beginning of
the word and delete the backward character. The word doesn't move back just one
character, but flushes to the left margin. The reason for this behavior is
easily explained. In tab default, EMACS inserts a 'real' tab character when you
press the tab key. This character is inserted at the default position, but NO
SPACES are inserted between the tab character and the margin (or previous tab
character). As you will recall, EMACS only recognizes characters (such as spaces
or letters) and thus when the tab character is removed, the text beyond the tab
is flushed back to the margin or previous tab mark.

Screen Formatting MicroEMACS Reference Manual

This situation changes if you alter the default configuration. The
default value may be changed by entering a numeric argument before pressing the
tab key. As we saw earlier, pressing the META key and entering a number allows
you to specify how EMACS performs a given action. In this case, let's specify an
argument of 10 and hit the tab key.

Now hit the tab key again and type Test. Notice the word now appears at
the tenth column. Now move to the beginning of the word and delete the backward
character. "Test" moves back by one character.

EMACS behaves differently in these circumstances because the ^I handle-
^I _______
tab function deals with tabbing in two distinct ways. In default conditions, or
if the numeric argument of zero is used, handle-tab inserts a true tab
character. If, however, a non-zero numeric argument is specified, handle-tab
inserts the correct number of spaces needed to position the cursor at the next
specified tab position. It does NOT insert the single tab character and hence
any editing functions should take account of the number of spaces between tabbed

The distance which a true tab character moves the cursor can be modified
by changing the value of the $hardtab environment variable. Initially set to 8,
this will determine how far each tab stop is placed from the previous one. (Use
the ^XA set command to set the value of an environment variable).

Many times you would like to take text which has been created using the
tab character and change it to use just spaces. The command ^X^D detab-region
^X^D ____________
changes any tabs in the currently selected region into the right number of
spaces so the text does not change. This is very useful for times when the file
must be printed or transferred to a machine which does not understand tabs.

Also, the inverse command, ^X^E entab-region changes multiple spaces to
^X^E ____________
tabs where possible. This is a good way to shrink the size of large documents,
especially with data tables. Both of these commands can take a numeric argument
which will be interpreted as the number of lines to en/detab.

Another function, related to those above is provided for by the ^X^T
trim-region when invoked will delete any trailing white space in the selected
region. A preceding numeric argument will do this for that number of lines.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Screen Formatting

Chapter 10 Summary
Chapter 10 Summary

In Chapter 10 introduced some of the formatting features of EMACS. Text-
wrap, paragraph reformatting, and tabs were discussed in some detail. The
commands in the following table were covered in the chapter.

Key Binding Keystroke Effect
___ _______ _________ ______
add-mode/WRAP ^XM[WRAP] Add wrap mode to current buffer

delete-mode/WRAP ^X^M[WRAP] Remove wrap mode from current buffer

set-fill-column ^XF Set fill column to given numeric

fill-paragraph M-Q Logically reformats the current

case-word-upper M-U Text from point to end of the
current word is changed to uppercase

case-word-lower M-L Text from point to end of the
current word is changed to lowercase

case-word-capitalize M-C First word (or letter) after the
point is capitalized

case-region-upper ^X^U The current region is uppercased

case-region-lower ^X^L The current region is lowercased

handle-tab ^I Tab interval is set to the given
numeric argument

entab-region ^X^E Changes multiple spaces to tabs
characters where possible

detab-region ^X^D Changes tab characters to the
appropriate number of spaces

trim-region ^X^T Trims white space from the end
of the lines in the current region

Access to the Outside World MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 11
Chapter 11

Access to the Outside World
Access to the Outside World

EMACS has the ability to interface to other programs and the environment
of the computer outside of itself. It does this through a series of commands
that allow it to talk to the computer's command processor or shell. Just what
command processor shell
this is varies between different computers. Under MSDOS or PCDOS this is the command processor. Under UNIX it is the csh shell. On the Atari ST csh
is can be the Mark Williams MSH or the Beckmeyer shell. In each case, it is the
part of the computer's operating system that is responsible for determining what
programs are executed, and when.

The ^X! shell-command command prompts the user for a command line to
^X! _____________
send out to the shell to execute. This can be very useful for doing file
listings and changing the current directory or folder. EMACS gives control to
the shell, which executed the command, and then types [END] and waits for the
user to type a character before redrawing the screen and resuming editing. If
the shell-command command is used from within the macro language, there is no

^[email protected] pipe-command command allows EMACS to execute a shell command, and if
^[email protected] ____________
the particular computer allows it, send the results into a buffer which is
automatically displayed on the screen. The resulting buffer, called "command"
can be manipulated just like any other editing buffer. Text can be copied out of
it or rearranged as needed. This buffer is originally created in VIEW mode, so
remember to ^X^Mview in order to change it.

Many computers provide tools which will allow you to filter text, making
some modifications to it along the way. A very common tool is the SORT program
which accepts a file, sorts it, and prints the result out. The EMACS command,
^X# filter-buffer sends the current buffer through such a filter. Therefore, if
^X# _____________
you wished to sort the current buffer on a system which supplied a sort filter,
you would type ^X#sort. You can also create your own filters by writing
programs and utilities which read text from the keyboard and display the
results. EMACS will use any of these which would normally be available from the
current shell.

If you would like to execute another program directly, without the
overhead of an intervening shell, you can use the ^X$ execute-program command.
^X$ _______________
It will prompt you for an external program and its arguments and attempt to
execute it. Like when EMACS looks for command files, EMACS will look first in
the HOME directory, then down the execute PATH, and finally in the current
directory for the named program. On some systems, it will automatically tack the
proper extension on the file name to indicate it is a program. On some systems
that don't support this function, ^X$ will be equivalent to ^X! shell-command.
^X$ ^X! _____________

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Access to the Outside World

Sometimes, you would like to get back to the shell and execute other
commands, without losing the current contents of EMACS. The ^XC i-shell command
^XC _______
shells out of EMACS, leaving EMACS in the computer and executing another command
shell. Most systems would allow you to return to EMACS with the "exit" command.

On some systems, mainly advanced versions of UNIX, you can direct EMACS
__ ____ ________ ______ ________ ________ __ _____ ___ ___ ______ _____
to "go into the background" with the ^XD suspend-emacs command. This places
__ ___ ____ ___ ___________ ____ ___ ^XD _____________ ________ ____ ______
EMACS in the background returning you to the original command shell. EMACS can
_____ __ ___ __________ _________ ___ __ ___ ________ _______ ______ _____ ___
then be returned to at any time with the "fg" foreground command.
____ __ ________ __ __ ___ ____ ____ ___ ____ __________ ________

Access to the Outside World MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 11 Summary
Chapter 11 Summary

In Chapter 11 introduced different ways to access the computers shell or
command processor from within EMACS. The commands in the following table were
covered in the chapter.

Key Binding Keystroke Effect
___ _______ _________ ______
execute-program ^X$ Execute an external program

filter-command ^X# Send the current buffer through
a shell filter

i-shell ^XC Escape to a new shell

pipe-command ^[email protected] Send the results of an external
^[email protected]
shell command to a buffer

shell-command ^X! Execute one shell command

suspend-emacs ^XD Place EMACS in the background
(some UNIX systems only)

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Keyboard Macros

Chapter 12
Chapter 12

Keyboard Macros
Keyboard Macros

In many applications, you may need to repeat a series of characters or
commands frequently. For example, a paper may require the frequent repetition of
a complex formula or a long name. You may also have a series of EMACS commands
that you invoke frequently. Keyboard macros offer a convenient method of
recording and repeating these commands.

Imagine, for example, you are writing a scholarly paper on Asplenium
platyneuron, the spleenwort fern. Even the dedicated botanist would probably
find it a task bordering on the agonizing to type Asplenium platyneuron
_________ ___________
frequently throughout the paper. An alternative method is 'record' the name in a
keyboard macro. Try it yourself.

The command ^X( begin-macro starts recording the all the keystrokes and
^X( ___________
commands you input. After you've typed it, enter Asplenium platyneuron. To stop
Asplenium platyneuron
recording, type ^X) end-macro. EMACS has stored all the keystrokes between the
^X) _________
two commands. To repeat the name you've stored, just enter ^XE execute-macro,
^XE _____________
and the name "Asplenium platyneuron" appears. You can repeat this action as
often as you want, and of course as with any EMACS command, you may precede it
with a numerical argument to repeat it many times.

Because EMACS records keystrokes, you may freely intermix commands and
text. Unfortunately, you can only store one macro at a time. Thus, if you begin
to record another macro, the previously defined macro is lost. Be careful to
ensure that you've finished with one macro before defining another. If you have
a series of commands that you would like to 'record' for future use, use the
procedure facilities detailed in chapter 13.

Keyboard Macros MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 12 Summary
Chapter 12 Summary

Chapter 12 covered keyboard macros. You learned how to record keystrokes
and how to repeat the stored sequence.

Key Binding Keystroke Effect
___ _______ _________ ______

start-macro ^X( Starts recording all keyboard input

end-macro ^X) Stops recording keystrokes for macro

execute-macro ^XE Entire sequence of recorded
keystrokes is replayed

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Procedures

Chapter 13
Chapter 13

MicroEMACS Procedures
MicroEMACS Procedures

Procedures, or macros, are programs that are used to customize the
editor and to perform complicated editing tasks. They may be stored in files or
buffers and may be executed using an appropriate command, or bound to a
particular keystroke. Portions of the standard start-up file are implemented via
procedures, as well as the built in help system. The M-^E run command causes
M-^E ___
named procedures to be executed. The execute-file command allows you to execute
a procedure stored in a disk file, and the execute-buffer command allows you to
execute a procedure stored in a buffer. Procedures are stored for easy execution
by executing files that contain the store-procedure command.

In a command file, the store-procedure command takes a string argument
which is the name of a procedure to store. These procedures than can be executed
with the M-^E run command. Also, giving the name of a stored procedure within
M-^E ___
another procedure will executed that named procedure as if it had been called up
with the run command.

Some fairly length examples of MicroEMACS procedures can be seen by
examining the standard files that come with EMACS. The emacs.rc file (called
.emacsrc) under UNIX) is the MicroEMACS command file which is executed when
EMACS is normally run. It contains a number of different stored procedures along
with the lines to setup and display the Function key window and to call up other
procedures and command files using function keys.

There are many different aspects to the language within MicroEMACS.
Editor commands are the various commands that manipulate text, buffers, windows,
et cetera, within the editor. Directives are commands which control what lines
get executed within a macro. Also there are various types of variables.
Environmental variables both control and report on different aspects of the
editor. User variables hold string values which may be changed and inspected.
Buffer variables allow text to be placed into variables. Interactive variable
allow the program to prompt the user for information. Functions can be used to
manipulate all these variables.

13.1 Constants
13.1 Constants

All constants and variable contents in EMACS are stored as strings of
characters. Numbers are stored digit by digit as characters. This allows EMACS
to be "typeless", not having different variables types be legal in different
contexts. This has the disadvantage of forcing the user to be more careful about
the context of the statements variables are placed in, but in turn gives them

MicroEMACS Procedures MicroEMACS Reference Manual

more flexibility in where they can place variables. Needless to say, this also
allows EMACS's expression evaluator to be both concise and quick.

Wherever statements need to have arguments, it is legal to place
constants. A constant is a double quote character, followed by a string of
characters, and terminated by another double quote character. To represent
various special characters within a constant, the tilde (~) character is used.
The character following the tilde is interpreted according to the following

Sequence Result
________ ______
~n EMACS newline character (breaks lines)
~r ^M carriage return
~l ^J linefeed
~~ ~ tilde
~b ^H backspace
~f ^L formfeed
~t ^I tab
~" " quote

Any character not in the table which follows a tilde will be passed
unmodified. This action is similar to the ^Q quote-character command available
^Q _______________
from the keyboard.

EMACS may use different characters for line terminators on different
computers. The ~n combination will always get the proper line terminating
sequence for the current system.

The double quotes around constants are not needed if the constant
contains no internal white space and it also does not happen to meet the rules
for any other EMACS commands, directives, variables, or functions. This is
reasonable useful for numeric constants.

13.2 Variables
13.2 Variables

Variables in MicroEMACS procedures can be used to return values within
expressions, as repeat counts to editing commands, or as text to be inserted
into buffers and messages. The value of these variables is set using the set ^XA
command. For example, to set the current fill column to 64 characters, the
following macro line would be used:

set $fillcol 64

or to have the contents of %name inserted at the point in the current
buffer, the command to use would be:

insert-string %name

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Procedures

13.2.1 Environmental Variables
13.2.1 Environmental Variables

"What good is a quote if you can't change it?"

These variables are used to change different aspects of the way the
editor works. Also they will return the current settings if used as part of an
expression. All environmental variable names begin with a dollar sign ($) and
are in lower case.

$acount The countdown of inserted characters until the next save-

$asave The number of inserted characters between automatic file-
saves in ASAVE mode.

$bufhook The function named in this variable is run when a buffer is
entered. It can be used to implement modes which are specific
to a paricular file or file type.

$cbflags Current buffer attribute flags (See appendix G for details).

$cbufname Name of the current buffer.

$cfname File name of the current buffer.

$cmdhook Name of function to run before accepting a command. This is
by default set to nop.

$cmode Integer containing the mode of the current buffer. (See
Appendix F for values).

$curchar Ascii value of the character currently at the point.

$curcol Current column of point in current buffer.

$curline Current line of point in current buffer.

$curwidth Number of columns used currently.

$curwind Current window number.

$cwline Current display line in current window.

$debug Flag to trigger macro debugging.

$deskcolor Color to use for current desktop, default to BLACK.

MicroEMACS Procedures MicroEMACS Reference Manual

$diagflag If set to TRUE, diagonal dragging of text and mode lines is
enabled. If FALSE, text and modelines can only be dragged
horizontally or vertically at one time.

$discmd Controls the echoing of command prompts. Default is TRUE.

$disinp Controls the echoing of input at the command prompts. Default
is TRUE.

$disphigh If set to TRUE, high-bit characters (single byte characters
that are greater than 127 in value) will be displayed in a
pseudo-control format. The characters "^!" will lead off the
sequence, followed by the character stripped of its high bit.
Default is FALSE.

$exbhook This variable holds the name of a function or macro which is
run whenever you are switching out of a buffer.

$fcol The current line position being displayed in the first column
of the current window.

$fillcol Current fill column.

$flicker Flicker Flag set to TRUE if IBM CGA set to FALSE for most

$fmtlead lists all formatter command leadin characters. Lines
beginning with these characters will be considered the
beginning of paragraphs.

$gflags Global flags controlling some EMACS internal functions (See
appendix G for details).

$gmode Global mode flags. (See Appendix F for values).

$hardtab Number of spaces between hard tab stops. Normally 8, this can
be used to change indentation only within the editor.

$hjump The number in here tells EMACS how many columns to scroll the
screen horizontally when a horizontal scroll is required.

$hscroll This flag determines if EMACS will scroll the entire current
window horizontally, or just the current line. The default
value, TRUE, results in the entire current window being
shifted left and right when the cursor goes off the edge of
the screen.

$kill This contains the first 127 characters currently in the kill
buffer and can be used to set the contents of the kill

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Procedures

$language [READ ONLY]Contains the name of the language which the
current EMACS's message will display. (Currently EMACS is
available in English, French, Spanish, Latin, Portuguese,
Dutch, German, and Pig Latin).

$lastkey [READ ONLY]Last keyboard character typed.

$lastmesg [READ ONLY]Contains the text of the last message which emacs
wrote on the command line.

$line The current line in the current buffer can be retrieved and
set with this environment variable.

$lterm Character(s) to write as a line terminator when writing a
file to disk. Default is null, which causes a '\n' character
to be written. Not all operating systems support this.

$lwidth [READ ONLY]Returns the number of characters in the current

$match [READ ONLY]Last string matched in a search.

$modeflag Determines if mode lines are currently displayed.

$msflag If TRUE, the mouse (if present) is active. If FALSE, no mouse
cursor is displayed, and no mouse actions are taken.

$numwind The number of windows displayed.

$oldcrypt Use the old method of encryption (which had a bug in it).
Default is FALSE.

$orgrow Desktop row position of current screen.

$orgcol Desktop column position of current screen.

$pagelen Number of screen lines used currently.

$palette string used to control the palette register settings on
graphics versions. The usually form consists of groups of
three octal digits setting the red, green, and blue levels.

$paralead Lists all paragraph start characters.

$pending [READ ONLY]Flag to determine if there are user keystrokes
waiting to be processed.

$popflag Use pop-up windows. Default is TRUE.

MicroEMACS Procedures MicroEMACS Reference Manual

$progname [READ ONLY]Always contains the string "MicroEMACS" for
standard MicroEMACS. Could be something else if EMACS is
incorporated as part of someone else's program.

$ram The amount of remaining memory if MicroEMACS was compiled
with RAMSIZE set. A debugging tool.

$readhook This variable holds the name of a function to execute
whenever a file is read into EMACS. Normally, using the
standard emacs.rc file, this is bound to a function which
places EMACS into CMODE if the extension of the file read is
.c or .h.

$region Contains the string of the current region. It will truncate
at the stringsize limit, 255.

$replace Current default replace string.

$rval This contains the return value from the last subprocess which
was invoked from EMACS.

$scrname The current screen name.

$search Current default search string.

$searchpnt Set the placement of the of the cursor on a successful search
match. $searchpnt = 0 (the default), causes the cursor to be
placed at the end of the matched text on forward searches,
and at the beginning of the text on reverse searches.
$searchpnt = 1 causes the cursor to be placed at the the
beginning of the matched text regardless of the search
direction, while $searchpnt = 2 causes the cursor to be
placed at the end.

$seed Integer seed of the random number generator.

$softtab Number of spaces inserted by EMACS when the handle-tab
command (which is normally bound to the TAB key) is invoked.

$sres Current screen resolution (CGA, MONO, EGA or VGA on the IBM-
PC driver. LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH or DENSE on the Atari ST1040,
NORMAL on most others).

$ssave If TRUE, when EMACS is asked to save the current file, it
writes all files out to a temporary file, deletes the
original, and then renames the temporary to the old file
name. The default value of this is TRUE.

$sscroll Changes EMACS, when set to TRUE, to smoothly scroll windows
(one line at a time) when cursoring off the ends of the
current window.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Procedures

$status [READ ONLY]Status of the success of the last command (TRUE or
FALSE). This is usually used with !force to check on the
success of a search, or a file operation.

$sterm This is the character used to terminate search string inputs.
The default for this is the last key bound to meta-prefix.

$target Current target for line moves (setting this fool's EMACS into
believing the last command was a line move).

$time [READ ONLY]Contains a string corresponding to the current
date and time. Usually this is in a form similar to "Mon May
09 10:10:58 1988". Not all operating systems will support

$tpause Controls the length of the pause to display a matched fence
when the current buffer is in CMODE and a close fence has
been typed.

$version [READ ONLY]Contains the current MicroEMACS version number.

$wchars When set, MicroEMACS uses the characters listed in it to
determine if it is in a word or not. If it is not set (the
default), the characters it uses are the upper and lower case
letters, and the underscore.

$wline Number of display lines in current window.

$wraphook This variable contains the name of an EMACS function which is
executed when a buffer is in WRAP mode and it is time to
wrap. By default this is bound to wrap-word.

$writehook This variable contains the name of an EMACS function or macro
which is invoked whenever EMACS attempts to write a file out
to disk. This is executed before the file is written,
allowing you to process a file on the way out.

$xpos The column the mouse was at the last mouse button press.

$yankflag Controls the placement of the cursor after a yank command or
an insert. When $yankflag is FALSE (the default), the cursor
is placed at the end of the yanked or inserted text. When it
is TRUE, the cursor remains at the start of the text.

$ypos The line which the mouse was on during the last mouse button

MicroEMACS Procedures MicroEMACS Reference Manual

13.2.2 User variables
13.2.2 User variables

User variables allow you to store strings and manipulate them. These
strings can be pieces of text, numbers (in text form), or the logical values
TRUE and FALSE. These variables can be combined, tested, inserted into buffers,
and otherwise used to control the way your macros execute. At the moment, up to
512 user variables may be in use in one editing session. All users variable
names must begin with a percent sign (%) and may contain any printing
characters. Only the first 10 characters are significant (IE differences beyond
the tenth character are ignored). Most operators will truncate strings to a
length of 128 characters.

13.2.3 Buffer Variables
13.2.3 Buffer Variables

Buffer variables are special in that they can only be queried and cannot
be set. What buffer variables are is a way to take text from a buffer and place
it in a variable. For example, if I have a buffer by the name of RIGEL2, and it
contains the text:

<*>Bloomington (where <*> is the current point)
=* MicroEMACS 3.11 (WRAP) == rigel2 == File: /data/rigel2.txt =====

and within a command I reference #rigel2, like:

insert-string #rigel2

MicroEMACS would start at the current point in the RIGEL2 buffer and
grab all the text up to the end of that line and pass that back. Then it would
advance the point to the beginning of the next line. Thus, after our last
command executes, the string "Bloomington" gets inserted into the current
buffer, and the buffer RIGEL2 now looks like this:

<*>Indianapolis (where <*> is the current point)
=* MicroEMACS 3.11 (WRAP) == rigel2 == File: /data/rigel2.txt =====

as you have probably noticed, a buffer variable consists of the buffer
name, preceded by a pound sign (#).

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Procedures

13.2.4 Interactive variables
13.2.4 Interactive variables

Interactive variables are actually a method to prompt the user for a
string. This is done by using an at sign (@) followed either with a quoted
string, or a variable containing a string. The string is the placed on the
bottom line, and the editor waits for the user to type in a string. Then the
string typed in by the users is returned as the value of the interactive
variable. For example:

set %quest "What file? "
find-file @%quest

will ask the user for a file name, and then attempt to find it. Note
also that complex expressions can be built up with these operators, such as:

set %default "file1"
@&cat &cat "File to decode[" %default "]: "

which prompts the user with the string:

File to decode[file1]:

13.3 Functions
13.3 Functions

Functions can be used to act on variables in various ways. Functions
can have one, two, or three arguments. These arguments will always be placed
after the function on the current command line. For example, if we wanted to
increase the current fill column by two, using emacs's set (^XA) command, we
would write:

set $fillcol &add $fillcol 2
\ \ \ \ \____second operand
\ \ \ \_________first operand
\ \ \_______________function to execute
\ \_____________________variable to set
\___________________________set (^XA) command

Function names always begin with the ampersand (&) character, and are
only significant to the first three characters after the ampersand. Functions
will normal expect one of three types of arguments, and will automatically
convert types when needed. Different argument types include:

an ascii string of digits which is interpreted as a numeric
value. Any string which does not start with a digit or a
minus sign (-) will be considered zero.

An arbitrary string of characters. At the moment, strings are
limited to 128 characters in length.

MicroEMACS Procedures MicroEMACS Reference Manual

A logical value consisting of the string "TRUE" or "FALSE".
Numeric strings will also evaluate to "FALSE" if they are
equal to zero, and "TRUE" if they are non-zero. Arbitrary
text strings will have the value of "FALSE".

A list of the currently available functions follows. Functions are
always used in lower case, the uppercase letters in the function table are the
short form of the function (IE &div for ÷).

Numeric Functions: (returns )

&ADD Add two numbers
&SUB Subtract the second number from the first
&TIMes Multiply two numbers
&DIVide Divide the first number by the second
giving an integer result
&MOD Return the reminder of dividing the
first number by the second
&NEGate Multiply the arg by -1
&LENgth Returns length of string
&SINdex Finds the position of within
. Returns zero if not found.
&ASCii Return the ascii code of the first
character in
&RND Returns a random integer between 1 and
&ABS Returns the absolute value of
&BANd Bitwise AND function
&BOR Bitwise OR function
&BXOr Bitwise XOR function
&BNOt Bitwise NOT function

String manipulation functions: (returns )

&CAT Concatenate the two strings to form one
&LEFt return the leftmost characters
&RIGht return the rightmost characters
Starting from position in ,
return characters.
&UPPer Uppercase
&LOWer Lowercase
&CHR return a string with the character
represented by ascii code
>C returns a string of characters
containing a EMACS command input from
the user
>K return a string containing a single
keystroke from the user
&ENV If the operating system is capable, this

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Procedures

returns the environment string associated
&BIND return the function name bound to the
&FINd Find the named file along the
path and return its full file specification
or an empty string if none exists
&TRIM Trim the trailing whitespace from a string

Logical Testing functions: (returns )

&NOT Return the opposite logical value
&AND Returns TRUE if BOTH logical arguments
are TRUE
&OR Returns TRUE if either argument
&EQUal If and are numerically
equal, return TRUE
&LESs If is less than , return
&GREater If is greater than, or equal to
, return TRUE.
&SEQual If the two strings are the same, return
&SLEss If is less alphabetically than
, return TRUE.
&SGReater If is alphabetically greater than
or equal to , return TRUE.
&EXIst Does the named file exist?

&ISNum Is the given argument a legitimate number?

Special Functions:

&GROup Return group as set by a MAGIC
mode search.

&SUPper Translate the first char in to
the first char in when uppercasing.

&SLOwer Translate the first char in to
the first char in when lowercasing.

&INDirect Evaluate as a variable.

This last function deserves more explanation. The &IND function
evaluates its argument, takes the resulting string, and then uses it as a
variable name. For example, given the following code sequence:

; set up reference table

MicroEMACS Procedures MicroEMACS Reference Manual

set %one "elephant"
set %two "giraffe"
set %three "donkey"

set %index "two"
insert-string &ind %index

the string "giraffe" would have been inserted at the point in the
current buffer. This indirection can be safely nested up to about 10 levels.

13.4 Directives
13.4 Directives

Directives are commands which only operate within an executing
procedure, IE they do not make sense as a single command. As such, they cannot
be called up singly or bound to keystroke. Used within command files, they
control what lines are executed and in what order.

Directives always start with the exclamation mark (!) character and must
be the first non-wite space placed on a line. Directives executed interactively
(via the execute-command-line command) will be ignored.

13.4.1 !ENDM Directive
13.4.1 !ENDM Directive

This directive is used to terminate a procedure or macro being stored.
For example, if a file is being executed contains the text:

; Read in a file in view mode, and make the window red

store-procedure get-red-viewed-file
find-file @"File to view: "
add-mode "view"
add-mode "red"

print "[Consult procedure has been loaded]"

only the lines between the store-macro command and the !ENDM directive
are stored in procedure get-red-viewd-file. Both named procedures and numbered
macroes (via the store-macro command) should be terminated with this directive.

13.4.2 !FORCE Directive
13.4.2 !FORCE Directive

When MicroEMACS executes a procedure, if any command fails, the
procedure is terminated at that point. If a line is preceded by a !FORCE
directive, execution continues whether the command succeeds or not. For example:

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Procedures

; Merge the top two windows

save-window ;remember what window we are at
1 next-window ;go to the top window
delete-window ;merge it with the second window
!force restore-window ;This will continue regardless
add-mode "red"
Often this is used together with the $status environment variable to
test if a command succeeded. For example:

set %seekstring "String to Find: "
!force search-forward %seekstring
!if &seq $status TRUE
print "Your string is Found"
print "No such STRING!"

13.4.3 !IF, !ELSE, and !ENDIF Directives
13.4.3 !IF, !ELSE, and !ENDIF Directives

This directive allows statements only to be executed if a condition
specified in the directive is met. Every line following the !IF directive, until
the first !ELSE or !ENDIF directive, is only executed if the expression
following the !IF directive evaluates to a TRUE value. For example, the
following commands creates the portion of a text file automatically. (yes
believe me, this will be easier to understand then that last explanation....)

!if &sequal %curplace "timespace vortex"
insert-string "First, rematerialize~n"
!if &sequal %planet "earth" ;If we have landed on earth...
!if &sequal %time "late 20th century" ;and we are then
write-message "Contact U.N.I.T."
insert-string "Investigate the situation....~n"
insert-string "(SAY 'stay here Sara')~n"
set %conditions @"Atmosphere conditions outside? "
!if &sequal %conditions "safe"
insert-string &cat "Go outside......" "~n"
insert-string "lock the door~n"
insert-string "Dematerialize..try somewhen else"

MicroEMACS Procedures MicroEMACS Reference Manual

13.4.4 !GOTO Directive
13.4.4 !GOTO Directive

Flow can be controlled within a MicroEMACS procedure using the !GOTO
directive. It takes as an argument a label. A label consists of a line starting
with an asterisk (*) and then an alphanumeric label. Only labels in the
currently executing procedure can be jumped to, and trying to jump to a non-
existing label terminates execution of a procedure. For example:

;Create a block of DATA statements for a BASIC program

insert-string "1000 DATA "
set %linenum 1000

update-screen ;make sure we see the changes
set %data @"Next number: "
!if &equal %data 0
!goto finish

!if &greater $curcol 60
2 delete-previous-character
set %linenum &add %linenum 10
insert-string &cat %linenum " DATA "

insert-string &cat %data ", "
!goto nxtin


2 delete-previous-character

13.4.5 !WHILE and !ENDWHILE Directives
13.4.5 !WHILE and !ENDWHILE Directives

This directive allows you to set up repetitive tasks easily and
efficiently. If a group of statements need to be executed while a certain
condition is true, enclose them with a while loop. For example,

!while &less $curcol 70
insert-string &cat &cat "[" #stuff "]"

places items from buffer "item" in the current line until the cursor is
at or past column 70. While loops may be nested and can contain and be the

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Procedures

targets of !GOTOs with no ill effects. Using a while loop to enclose a repeated
task will run much faster than the corresponding construct using !IFs.

13.4.6 !BREAK Directive
13.4.6 !BREAK Directive

This lets you abort out of the most executing currently inner while
loop, regardless of the condition. It is often used to abort processing for
error conditions. For example:

; Read in files and substitute "begining" with "beginning"

set %filename #list
!while ¬ &seq %filename ""
!force find-file %filename
!if &seq $status FALSE
write-message "[File read error]"
replace-string "begining" "beginning"
set %filename #list

This while loop will process files until the list is exhausted or there
is an error while reading a file.

13.4.7 !RETURN Directive
13.4.7 !RETURN Directive

The !RETURN Directive causes the current procedure to exit, either
returning to the caller (if any) or to interactive mode. For example:

; Check the monitor type and set %mtyp

!if &sres "CGA"
set %mtyp 1
set %mtyp 2

insert-string "You are on a MONOCHROME machine!~n"

Debugging MicroEMACS Procedures MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 14
Chapter 14

Debugging MicroEMACS Procedures
Debugging MicroEMACS Procedures

When developing new procedures, it is very convenient to be able to
trace their execution to discover errors. The $debug environment variable
enables procedure debugging. While this variable is TRUE, emacs will stop at
each line it intends to execute and allow you to view it, and issue a number of
different commands to help determine how the procedure is executing.

For example, we will step through the procedure which toggles the
function key window off. The first thing to do, is to set $debug, using the ^XA
set command. Type ^XA and emacs will prompt you on the command line with
"Variable to set: ". Type in "$debug" and press the enter key. Emacs will then
ask "Value: ". Type in "TRUE" (in capital letters) and press the enter key.

While macro debugging is enabled (as it is now) emacs will report each
time a variable is assigned a value, by displaying the variable and its value on
the command line. Right now,

((($debug <- TRUE)))

appears on the command line to tell you that $debug now has been
assigned the value of TRUE. Press the space bar to continue.

Now, lets try to debug a macro. Press function key 5 which normally
toggles the function key window. The first thing that appears is:

<<<[Macro 01]:!if %rcfkeys>>>

At this point, emacs is waiting for a command. It is prepared to see if
the user variable %rcfkeys is TRUE, and execute some lines if they are. Suppose
we want to see the value of this variable, type the letter "e" to evaluate an
expression. Emacs will prompt with "EXP: ". Type "%rcfkeys" followed by the
enter key. Emacs should then respond with "TRUE" to indicate that the function
key window is currently on screen.

Press the space bar to allow the !if directive to execute. Emacs will
decide that it is TRUE, and then display the next command to execute.

<<<[Macro 01]:!goto rcfoff>>>

Notice emacs tells us what procedure we are currently executing (in this
case, the macro bound to execute-macro-1). Press the space bar again to execute
the !goto directive.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Debugging MicroEMACS Procedures

<<<[Macro 01]:save-window>>>

Emacs is saving the position of the current window so that it can
attempt to return to it after it has brought up the function key window.


Key Bindings, What they are and why MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Chapter 15
Chapter 15

Key Bindings, What they are and why
Key Bindings, What they are and why

One of the features which makes MicroEMACS very adaptable is its ability
to use different keystrokes to execute different commands. The process of
changing the particular command a key invokes is called rebinding. This allows
us to make the editor look like other popular editors and programs.

Each command in MicroEMACS has a name which is used for binding
purposes. For example, the command to move the cursor down one page is called
next-line and is normally bound to the ^N key. If you decided that you also
wanted to use the ^D key to move the cursor down one line, you would use the M-K
bind-to-key command. EMACS would respond with ": bind-to-key " on the command
line and allow you to type in a command name. Then type in the name of the
command you want to change, in this case next-line, followed by the key.
EMACS will then wait for you to type in the keys you want to activate the named
function. Type a single ^D. From now on, typing ^D will cause EMACS to move down
one line, rather than its original function of deleting characters.

To find out the name of a command, consult the list of valid EMACS
commands in Appendix B. Also, you can use the ^X? describe-key command to look
up the name of a command. Type ^X? and then the key to use that command, and
EMACS will show you the name of the command.

After you have experimented with changing your key bindings, you may
decide that you want to change some bindings permanently. To have EMACS rebind
keys to your pleasure each time you start EMACS, you can add statements to the
end of your startup file (emacs.rc or .emacsrc depending on the system). For
emacs.rc .emacsrc

bind-to-key next-line ^D

Notice, that control D character in the startup file is represented
visibly as an uparrow key followed by a capital D. To know how to represent any
keys you want to bind, use the describe-key command on the key, and use the
sequence that is displayed.

bind-to-key split-current-window FN1

This example would make function key 1 activate the command that splits
the current window in two.

EMACS will let you define a large number of keys, but will report
"Binding table FULL!" when it runs out of space to bind keys. Normally EMACS

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Key Bindings, What they are and why

will allow up to 512 key bindings (including approx. 300 originally bound

If you want to get a current listing of all the commands and the keys
bound to them, use the describe-bindings command. Notice, that this command is
not bound to any keys!

MicroEMACS Command Line Switches and Startup Files MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Appendix A
Appendix A

MicroEMACS Command Line Switches and Startup Files
MicroEMACS Command Line Switches and Startup Files

When EMACS first executes, it always searches for a file, called
.emacsrc under most UNIX systems or emacs.rc on most other systems which it will
.emacsrc _____ ____ ____ _______ emacs.rc __ ____ _____ _______
execute as EMACS macros before it reads in the named source files. This file
normally contains EMACS macroes to bind the function keys to useful functions
and load various useful macros. The contents of this file will probably vary
from system to system and can be modified by the user as desired.

When searching for this file, EMACS looks for it in this order. First,
it attempts to find a definition for "HOME" in the environment. It will look in
that directory first. Then it searches all the directories listed in the "PATH"
environment variable. Then it looks through a list of predefined standard
directories which vary from system to system. Finally, failing all of these, it
looks in the current directory. This is also the same method EMACS uses to look
up any files to execute, and to find it's help file EMACS.HLP.

On computers that call up EMACS via a command line process, such as
MSDOS and UNIX, there are different things that can be added to the command line

to control the way EMACS operates. These can be switches, which are a dash ('-')
followed by a letter, and possible other parameters, or a startup file
specifier, which is an at sign '@' followed by a file name.

@ This causes the named file to be executed instead of the
standard emacs.rc file before emacs reads in any other files.
More than one of these can be placed on the command line, and
they will be executed in the order that they appear.

-C The following source files on the command line can be changed
(as opposed to being in VIEW mode). This is mainly used to
cancel the effects of the -v switch used previously in the
same command line.

-E This flag causes emacs to automatically run the startup file
"error.cmd" instead of emacs.rc. This is used by various C
compilers for error processing (for example, Mark Williams

-G Upon entering EMACS, position the cursor at the line of
the first file.

-I Initialize an EMACS variable with . This can be useful
to force EMACS to start in a particular mode. (For example,

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Command Line Switches and Startup Files

invoke EMACS with "emacs -i$sres VGA" to edit file in VGA 50 line mode on an IBM-PC).

-K This key tells emacs to place the source files in CRYPT mode
and read it in using as the encryption key. If no key
is listed immediately after the -K switch, EMACS will prompt
for a key, and not echo it as it is typed.

-R This places EMACS in "restricted mode" where any commands
allowing the user to read or write any files other than the
ones listed on the command line are disabled. Also all
commands allowing the user access to the operating system are
disabled. This makes EMACS very useful as a "safe"
environment for use within other applications and especially
used as a remote editor for a BBS or electronic bulletin
board system.

-S After EMACS is started, it automatically searches for
in the first source file.

-V This tells EMACS that all the following sources files on the
command line should be in VIEW mode to prevent any changes
being made to them.

Command Completion MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Appendix B
Appendix B

Command Completion
Command Completion

Some versions of MicroEMACS will allow you to abbrieviate buffer names,
command names and file names as you enter them. To use this, type in the first
few characters of the name you wish, and then hit either the space bar, the META
key or the TAB key. MicroEMACS will then attempt to look at the list of all the
availible names and if there is only one which will fit, it will choose that
name. If there are several names that quailify, as many characters as are common
to ALL of them will be entered. If there are no possible matches, the bell will
ring to indicate MicroEMACS can not complete the command.

For example, if you have several files in your current directory with
the following names:


and you enter the ^X^F find-file command, if you type 'p' and then hit
^X^F _________
the space bar, EMACS will respond by typing the 'r' that is common to all the
above file names begining with 'p'. If you then type 'ogr' and hit the tab key,
EMACS will respond with '' and automatically hit the enter key for you.

If you were to instead type an 'a' and hit the space bar, EMACS will
beep, informing you that there is no possible match.

If you type a 'te' and hit the space bar, EMACS will then type the
following 's', but it will not automatically enter it because it is possible you
mean to get to the test.c file.

Buffer name, and command name completion is available in all versions of
MicroEMACS. File name completion is available on UNIX BSD4.3, the Atari ST, the
AMIGA and under MSDOS.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Commands

Appendix C
Appendix C

MicroEMACS Commands
MicroEMACS Commands

Below is a complete list of the commands in EMACS, the keys normally
used to do the command, and what the command does. Remember, on some computers
there may also be additional ways of using a command (cursor keys and special
function keys for example).

Command Binding Meaning
_______ _______ _______
abort-command ^G This allows the user to abort out of any
command that is waiting for input

add-mode ^XM Add a mode to the current buffer

add-global-mode M-M Add a global mode for all new buffers

append-file ^X^A Write a buffer to the end of a file

apropos M-A List out commands whose name contains
the string specified

backward-character ^B Move one character to the left

begin-macro ^X( Begin recording a keyboard macro

beginning-of-file M-< Move to the beginning of the file in
the current buffer

beginning-of-line ^A Move to the beginning of the current line

bind-to-key M-K Bind a key to a function

buffer-position ^X= List the position of the cursor in the
current window on the command line

case-region-lower ^X^L Make a marked region all lower case

case-region-upper ^X^U Make a marked region all upper case

case-word-capitalize M-C Capitalize the following word

case-word-lower M-L Lower case the following word

case-word-upper M-U Upper case the following word

MicroEMACS Commands MicroEMACS Reference Manual

change-file-name ^XN Change the name of the file in the
current buffer

change-screen-size (none) Change the number of lines of the screen
currently being used

change-screen-width (none) Change the number of columns of the
screen currently being used

clear-and-redraw ^L Clear the physical screen and redraw it

clear-message-line (none) Clear the command line

copy-region M-W Copy the currently marked region into
the kill buffer

count-words M-^C Count how many words, lines and
characters are in the current marked region

ctlx-prefix ^X Change the key used as the ^X prefix

cycle-screens A-C Bring the rearmost screen to front

delete-blank-lines ^X^O Delete all blank lines around the cursor

delete-buffer ^XK Delete a buffer which is not being
currently displayed in a window

delete-mode ^X^M Turn off a mode in the current buffer

delete-global-mode M-^M Turn off a global mode

delete-next-character ^D Delete the character following the cursor

delete-next-word M-D Delete the word following the cursor

delete-other-windows ^X1 Make the current window cover the entire

delete-previous-character^H Delete the character to the left of the

delete-previous-word M-^H Delete the word to the left of the cursor

delete-screen A-D Delete a screen

delete-window ^X0 Remove the current window from the screen

describe-bindings (none) Make a list of all legal commands

describe-functions (none) Make a list of all legal functions

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Commands

describe-variables (none) Make a list of all environment
and user variables

describe-key ^X? Describe what command is bound to a
keystroke sequence

detab-region ^X^D Change all tabs in a region to the
equivalent spaces

display ^XG Prompts the user for a variable and
displays its current value

dump-variables none Places into a buffer the current values
of all environment and user variables

end-macro ^X) stop recording a keyboard macro

end-of-file M-> Move cursor to the end of the current buffer

end-of-line ^E Move to the end of the current line

end-of-word (none) Move the point just past the end of
the current word

entab-region ^X^E Change multiple spaces to tabs where

exchange-point-and-mark ^X^X Move cursor to the last marked spot,
make the original position be marked

execute-buffer (none) Execute a buffer as a macro

execute-command-line (none) Execute a line typed on the command
line as a macro command

execute-file (none) Execute a file as a macro

execute-macro ^XE Execute the keyboard macro (play back
the recorded keystrokes)
execute-macro- (none) Execute numbered macro where is
an integer from 1 to 40

execute-named-command M-X Execute a command by name

execute-procedure M-^E Execute a procedure by name

execute-program ^X$ Execute a program directly (not through
an intervening shell)

exit-emacs ^X^C Exit EMACS. If there are unwritten,
changed buffers EMACS will ask to confirm

MicroEMACS Commands MicroEMACS Reference Manual

fill-paragraph M-Q Fill the current paragraph

filter-buffer ^X# Filter the current buffer through an
external filter

find-file ^X^F Find a file to edit in the current window

find-screen A-F Bring the named screen to front,
creating it if needed

forward-character ^F Move cursor one character to the right

goto-line M-G Goto a numbered line

goto-mark M-^G Goto a numbered mark

goto-matching-fence M-^F Goto the matching fence

grow-window ^X^ Make the current window larger

handle-tab ^I Insert a tab or set tab stops

hunt-forward A-S Hunt for the next match of the last
search string

hunt-backward A-R Hunt for the last match of the last
search string

help M-? Read EMACS.HLP into a buffer and display it

i-shell ^XC Shell up to a new command processor

incremental-search ^XS Search for a string, incrementally

indent-region M-( Indent the current region one tab

insert-file ^X^I insert a file at the cursor in the
current file

insert-space ^C Insert a space to the right of the cursor

insert-string (none) Insert a string at the cursor

kill-paragraph M-^W Delete the current paragraph

kill-region ^W Delete the current marked region, moving
it to the kill buffer

kill-to-end-of-line ^K Delete the rest of the current line

label-function-key (none) Set the text on a function key label

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Commands

(HP150 only)

list-buffers ^X^B List all existing buffers

list-screens A-B List all existing screens

macro-to-key M-^K Bind a key to a macro

meta-prefix Key used to precede all META commands

mouse-move-down MSa

mouse-move-up MSb

mouse-resize-screen MS1

mouse-region-down MSe

mouse-region-up MSf

move-window-down ^X^N Move all the lines in the current window down

move-window-up ^X^P Move all the lines in the current window up

name-buffer M-^N Change the name of the current buffer

narrow-to-region ^X< hides all text not in the current region

newline ^M Insert a at the cursor

newline-and-indent ^J Insert a at the cursor and indent
the new line the same as the preceding line

next-buffer ^XX Bring the next buffer in the list into
the current window

next-line ^N Move the cursor down one line

next-page ^V Move the cursor down one page

next-paragraph M-N Move cursor to the next paragraph

next-window ^XO Move cursor to the next window

next-word M-F Move cursor to the beginning of the
next word

nop (none) Does nothing

open-line ^O Open a line at the cursor

MicroEMACS Commands MicroEMACS Reference Manual

overwrite-string (none) Overwrite a string at the cursor

pipe-command ^[email protected] Execute an external command and place
its output in a buffer

pop-buffer (none) Display a buffer temporarily, paging

previous-line ^P Move cursor up one line

previous-page ^Z Move cursor up one page

previous-paragraph M-P Move back one paragraph

previous-window ^XP Move the cursor to the last window

previous-word M-B Move the cursor to the beginning of the
word to the left of the cursor

print (none) Display a string on the command line
(a synonim to write-message)

query-replace-string M-^R Replace all of one string with another
string, interactively querying the user

quick-exit M-Z Exit EMACS, writing out all changed buffers

quote-character ^Q Insert the next character literally

read-file ^X^R Read a file into the current buffer

redraw-display M-^L Redraw the display, centering the
current line

remove-mark (none) Remove a numbered mark

resize-window ^XW Change the number of lines in the
current window

restore-window (none) Move cursor to the last saved window

replace-string M-R Replace all occurrences of one string
with another string from the cursor
to the end of the buffer

reverse-incremental-search^XR Search backwards, incrementally

run M-^E Execute a named procedure

save-file ^X^S Save the current buffer if it is changed

save-window (none) Remember current window (to restore later)

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Commands

scroll-next-up M-^Z Scroll the next window up

scroll-next-down M-^V Scroll the next window down

search-forward ^S Search for a string

search-reverse ^R Search backwards for a string

select-buffer ^XB Select a buffer to display in the
current window

set ^XA Set a variable to a value

set-encryption-key M-E Set the encryption key of the current buffer

set-fill-column ^XF Set the current fill column

set-mark Set the mark

shell-command ^X! Causes an external shell to execute
a command

show-files (none) Pop up a list of files from the
specified directory

shrink-window ^X^Z Make the current window smaller

source (none) Execute a file as a macro

split-current-window ^X2 Split the current window in two

store-macro (none) Store the following macro lines to a
numbered macro

store-procedure (none) Store the following macro lines to a
named procedure

transpose-characters ^T Transpose the character at the cursor
with the character to the left

trim-region ^X^T Trim any trailing white space from a region

unbind-key M-^K Unbind a key from a function

undent-region M-) Remove a leading indent from a region

universal-argument ^U Execute the following command 4 times

unmark-buffer M-~ Unmark the current buffer (so it is
no longer changed)

MicroEMACS Commands MicroEMACS Reference Manual

update-screen (none) Force a screen update during macro execution

view-file ^X^V Find a file,and put it in view mode

widen-from-region ^X> restores hidden text (see narrow-to-region)

wrap-word (none) Wrap the current word, this is an
internal function

write-file ^X^W Write the current buffer under a new
file name

write-message (none) Display a string on the command line

yank ^Y yank the kill buffer into the current
buffer at the cursor

MicroEMACS Reference Manual MicroEMACS Bindings

Appendix D
Appendix D

MicroEMACS Bindings
MicroEMACS Bindings

Below is a complete list of the key bindings used in MicroEMACS. This
can be used as a wall chart reference for MicroEMACS commands.

Default Key Bindings for MicroEmacs 3.11
Default Key Bindings for MicroEmacs 3.11

^A Move to start of line ESC A Apropos (list some commands)
^B Move backward by characters ESC B Backup by words
^C Insert space ESC C Initial capitalize word
^D Forward delete ESC D Delete forward word
^E Goto end of line ESC E Reset Encryption Key
^F Move forward by characters ESC F Advance by words
^G Abort out of things ESC G Go to a line
^H Backward delete
^I Insert tab/Set tab stops
^J Insert , then indent
^K Kill forward ESC K Bind Key to function
^L Refresh the screen ESC L Lower case word
^M Insert ESC M Add global mode
^N Move forward by lines ESC N Goto End paragraph
^O Open up a blank line
^P Move backward by lines ESC P Goto Begining of paragraph
^Q Insert literal ESC Q Fill current paragraph
^R Search backwards ESC R Search and replace
^S Search forward ESC S Suspend (BSD only)
^T Transpose characters
^U Repeat command four times ESC U Upper case word
^V Move forward by pages ESC V Move backward by pages
^W Kill region ESC W Copy region to kill buffer
^Y Yank back from killbuffer ESC X Execute named command
^Z Move backward by pages ESC Z Save all buffers and exit

ESC ^C Count words in region ESC ~ Unmark current buffer
ESC ^E Execute named procedure
ESC ^F Goto matching fence ESC ! Reposition window
ESC ^H Delete backward word ESC < Move to start of buffer
ESC ^K Unbind Key from function ESC > Move to end of buffer
ESC ^L Reposition window ESC . Set mark
ESC ^M Delete global mode ESC space Set mark
ESC ^N Rename current buffer ESC rubout Delete backward word
ESC ^R Search & replace w/query rubout Backward delete
ESC ^S Source command file
ESC ^V Scroll next window down

MicroEMACS Bindings MicroEMACS Reference Manual

ESC ^W Delete Paragraph
ESC ^X Execute command line
ESC ^Z Scroll next window up

^X < Narrow-to-region ^X ? Describe a key
^X > Widen-from-region ^X ! Run 1 command in a shell
^X = Show the cursor position ^X @ Pipe shell command to buffer
^X ^ Enlarge display window ^X # Filter buffer thru shell filter
^X 0 Delete current window ^X $ Execute an external program
^X 1 Delete other windows ^X ( Begin macro
^X 2 Split current window ^X ) End macro
^X A Set variable value
^X ^B Display buffer list ^X B Switch a window to a buffer
^X ^C Exit MicroEMACS ^X C Start a new command processor
^X ^D Detab line ^X D Suspend MicroEMACS (BSD4.2 only)
^X ^E Entab line ^X E Execute macro
^X ^F Find file ^X F Set fill column
^X ^I Insert file
^X K Delete buffer
^X ^L Lower case region
^X ^M Delete Mode ^X M Add a mode
^X ^N Move window down ^X N Rename current filename
^X ^O Delete blank lines ^X O Move to the next window
^X ^P Move window up ^X P Move to the previous window
^X ^R Get a file from disk ^X R Incremental reverse search
^X ^S Save current file ^X S Incremental forward search
^X ^T Trim line (Incremental search
^X ^U Upper case region not always available)
^X ^V View file
^X ^W Write a file to disk ^X W resize Window
^X ^X Swap "." and mark ^X X Use next buffer
^X ^Z Shrink window ^X Z Enlarge display window

Usable Modes
______ _____
WRAP Lines going past right margin "wrap" to a new line
VIEW Read-Only mode where no modifications are allowed
CMODE Change behavior of some commands to work better with C
EXACT Exact case matching on search strings
OVER Overwrite typed characters instead of inserting them
CRYPT Current buffer will be encrypted on write, decrypted on read
MAGIC Use regular expression matching in searches
ASAVE Save the file every 256 inserted characters

white/cyan/magenta/yellow/blue/red/green/black Sets background color

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Numeric Arguments

Appendix E
Appendix E

Numeric Arguments
Numeric Arguments

Numeric Arguments to Commands MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Appendix F
Appendix F

Numeric Arguments to Commands
Numeric Arguments to Commands

In general, preceding a MicroEMACS command with a numeric argument n
causes the command to be executed n times. However, there are a great many
commands for which this has no effect, simply because it would make no sense for
the command to be executed more than once. There are also commands that take
advantage of the numeric arguments to alter their behavior subtly or unsubtly.
The following is a list of these commands. Commands that are not affected at
all by numeric arguments are listed afterwards.

A negative argument invokes forward-character.

With no arguments, the number of rows defaults to the
largest. Otherwise, set the screen size to n.

With no arguments, the number of columns defaults to the
largest. Otherwise, set the screen width to n.

clear-and-redraw With an argument, centers the window around the current
cursor position.

A negative argument invokes delete-previous-character.

delete-next-word With an argument of 0, will not delete the whitespace
trailing the deleted word. A negative argument will cause
nothing to happen.

A negative argument invokes delete-next-character.

An negative or zero argument will cause nothing to happen.

detab-region Without an argument, detab-region changes hard tabs to spaces
in the lines between the mark and the cursor. With an
argument n, the commands detab n lines - forward if n is
n n n
positive, backwards if not.

end-of-word A negative argument invokes next-word.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Numeric Arguments to Commands

entab-region Without an argument, entab-region changes spaces to hard tabs
in the lines between the mark and the cursor. With an
argument n, the commands entab n lines - forward if n is
n n n
positive, backwards if not.

Swap the current cursor position and mark number n. Without
an argument, n defaults to 0.

exit-emacs Providing a numeric argument n causes two things to happen.
First, no checking for modified buffers will occur. Second,
MicroEMACS exits with a status of n.

forward-character A negative argument invokes backward-character.

goto-line An argument n will be taken as the line number to go to.
Without an argument, you will be asked for a line number. In
either case, the line number must be 1 or greater.

goto-mark Go to mark number n. Without an argument, n defaults to 0.
n n

grow-window A negative argument invokes shrink-window. An argument of 0
causes no action.

handle-tab Without an argument, handle-tab deals with the tab character,
whether it should be a single "hard" tab, or expanded as
spaces. With an argument n, $softtab is set to n.
n n

hunt-backward The command will hunt n times. The command will report
failure if it cannot find its pattern the nth time, even if
has found an occurrence of the pattern before number n. A
negative argument invokes hunt-forward.

hunt-forward The command will hunt n times. The command will report
failure if it cannot find its pattern the nth time, even if
has found an occurrence of the pattern before number n. A
negative argument invokes hunt-backward.

With no argument n, the command deletes all characters to the
end of the line. If it is already at the end of the line, it
will delete the newline. With a positive n as an argument,
the command will delete n complete lines, newline character
and all, starting from the cursor. With n equal to zero, the
command deletes all text from the cursor to the beginning of
the line, but will not delete past the newline character. A
negative n is illegal.

list-buffers With a numeric argument, INVISIBLE buffers are also listed.

move-window-down With a negative argument, invokes move-window-up.

Numeric Arguments to Commands MicroEMACS Reference Manual

move-window-up With a negative argument, invokes move-window-down.

next-buffer With an argument n, the nth buffer after the current one is
n nth
selected, and read in if necessary. Any buffers in between
the current buffer and the target buffer that have not yet
been read in are read.

next-line A negative argument invokes previous-line.

next-page Without an argument, the window is scrolled forward by a full
page. With an argument n, the window is scrolled forwards by
n lines. Negative arguments invoke previous-page.
n _____________

next-paragraph A negative argument invokes previous-paragraph.

next-window With a positive argument n, the nth window from the top
n nth
becomes the working window. With a negative argument, the
nth window from the bottom becomes the working window.

next-word A negative argument invokes next-word.

previous-line A negative argument invokes next-line.

previous-page Without an argument, the window is scrolled backward by a
full page. With an argument n, the window is scrolled
backwards by n lines. Negative arguments invoke next-page.
n _________

A negative argument invokes next-paragraph.

previous-window With a positive argument n, the nth window from the bottom
n nth
becomes the working window. With a negative argument, the
nth window from the top becomes the working window.

previous-word A negative argument invokes next-word.

With a numeric argument, n occurrences of the search string
may be replaced, depending upon the user's response. The
count is based on the number of occurrences found, not the
number of positive responses from the user.

quick-exit Saves all modifed buffers, and exits with a status of n.

redraw-display With no argument, or when n is 0, the window is adjusted so
that the cursor is in the center. When n is positive, the
window is adjusted so that the cursor is on the nth line of
the screen. When n is negative, the window is adjusted so
that the cursor is on the last line of the window, regardless
of the magnitude of n.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Numeric Arguments to Commands

remove-mark Remove mark number n. Without an argument, n defaults to 0.
n n

replace-string Will replace n occurrences of the search string with the
replacement string. Otherwise, with no argument, all
occurrences from the cursor position to the end of file are

resize-window Requires an argument which must be positive.

scroll-next-down Behavior is same as with next-page.

scroll-next-up Behavior is same as with previous-page.

search-forward The command will search n times. The command will report
failure if it cannot find its pattern the nth time, even if
has found an occurrence of the pattern before number n. A
negative argument invokes search-reverse.

search-reverse The command will search n times. The command will report
failure if it cannot find its pattern the nth time, even if
has found an occurrence of the pattern before number n. A
negative argument invokes search-forward.

select-buffer Without an argument, the buffer is simply displayed in the
window. With an argument, the buffer is not only displayed,
but also given the attribute INVISIBLE.

set If using the set command interactively, preceding the command
with a numeric argument then makes it unecessary for the
command to ask for the variable's value (it will still ask
for the variable's name). If used in a command line, then
the command


is identical to


set-fill-column With an argument, the fill column is set to n. The default
argument is 1.

set-mark Set mark number n. Without an argument, n defaults to 0.
n n

shrink-window A negative argument invokes shrink-window. An argument of 0
causes no action.

With n = 1, the new upper window becomes the current window.
Any other numeric argument makes the new lower window the
current window. With no argument, the current window becomes

Numeric Arguments to Commands MicroEMACS Reference Manual

the new upper or lower window depending upon whether the
cursor was in the upper or lower half of the old window.

store-macro Since macroes are numbered, a numeric argument must be
provided. These numbered macroes are being phased out in
preference for named macros.

store-procedure If the command is provided a numeric argument, it will assume
that store-macro is actually being called.

trim-region Without an argument, trim-region removes spaces and tabs from
the end of the lines between the mark and the cursor. With an
argument n, the commands trim n lines - forward if n is
n n n
positive, backwards if not.

F.1 Commands unaffected by numeric arguments.
F.1 Commands unaffected by numeric arguments.

abort-command describe-functions narrow-to-region
add-global-mode describe-key nop
add-mode describe-variables pipe-command
append-file display pop-buffer
apropos end-macro print
back-from-tag-word end-of-file re-tag-word
begin-macro end-of-line read-file
beginning-of-file execute-command-line restore-window
beginning-of-line execute-program reverse-incremental-
bind-to-key fill-paragraph search
buffer-position filter-buffer save-file
case-region-lower find-file save-window
case-region-upper find-screen set-encryption-key
change-file-name goto-matching-fence shell-command
clear-message-line help suspend-emacs
copy-region i-shell tag-word
count-words incremental-search transpose-characters
cycle-screens insert-file unbind-key
delete-blank-lines kill-region unmark-buffer
delete-buffer macro-to-key update-screen
delete-global-mode mouse-move-down view-file
delete-mode mouse-move-up widen-from-region
delete-other-windows mouse-region-down wrap-word
delete-screen mouse-region-up write-file
delete-window mouse-resize-screen write-message
describe-bindings name-buffer

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Supported machines

Appendix G
Appendix G

Supported machines
Supported machines

The following table lists all the hardware/compilers for which I
currently support MicroEMACS. This is not exclusive of all machines which
MicroEMACS will run on, but I have either run it myself, or had a first hand
report of it running.

Hardware OS Compiler Comments
________ __ ________ ________
VAX 780 UNIX V5 native
UNIX V7 native
BSD 4.2 native job control supported
VMS native SMG & ANSI support

SUN SUNOS 3 & 4 native

NCR Tower UNIX V5 native

IBM-RT PC BSD 4.3 native
AIX native

HP9000 UNIX V5 native

Fortune 32:16 UNIX V7 native

2.0 & 3.2 AZTEC 3.4e Large CODE/Large DATA
TURBO C 2.0 LARGE memory model
MSC 6.0
*MWC 86
SCO XENIX native

HP150 MSDOS Lattice 2.15 Function key labels
Turbo C 2.0 for the touch screen

HP110 MSDOS Lattice 2.15
Aztec 3.4e
Turbo C 2.0

*Data General 10
MSDOS Lattice 2.1 Texas Instruments Professional
MSDOS Lattice 2.15

Amiga Intuition Lattice 3.03

Supported machines MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Aztec 3.6

ST520 TOS Mark Williams C Spawns under MSH
Lattice 3.1 (no shell commands)

Fujitsu FMR MSDOS MSC 6.0

NEC 9800 MSDOS Turbo 2.0 Function key support
series MSC 6.0

HP3000 series MPE native

Systems to be supported (IE some code is already written:)
_______ __ __ _________ ___ ____ ____ __ _______ _________
Macintosh System 7 Lightspeed C

*means that I do not own or have access to the listed compiler and/or
machine and must rely upon others to help support it.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Function Keys

Appendix H
Appendix H

Function Keys
Function Keys

All environments now support a set of machine independant bindings for
function keys. Below is a list of these bindings (not all of these are supported
on all systems).

Function keys in MicroEmacs

function Function ^function Alt-function
f1) FN1 S-FN1 FN^1 A-FN1
f2) FN2 S-FN2 FN^2 A-FN2
f3) FN3 S-FN3 FN^3 A-FN3
f4) FN4 S-FN4 FN^4 A-FN4
f5) FN5 S-FN5 FN^5 A-FN5
f6) FN6 S-FN6 FN^6 A-FN6
f7) FN7 S-FN7 FN^7 A-FN7
f8) FN8 S-FN8 FN^8 A-FN8
f9) FN9 S-FN9 FN^9 A-FN9
f10) FN0 S-FN0 FN^0 A-FN0

home) FN< FN^<
5 )
End) FN> FN^>

Machine Dependent Notes MicroEMACS Reference Manual

Appendix I
Appendix I

Machine Dependent Notes
Machine Dependent Notes

This appendix lists some notes specific to individual implementations of
MicroEMACS. Every attempt has been made to allow EMACS to be identical on all
machines, but we have also tried to take advantage of function keys, cursor
keys, mice, and special screen modes where possible.

I.1 IBM-PC/XT/AT and its clones
I.1 IBM-PC/XT/AT and its clones

The IBM-PC family of computers is supported with a variety of different
display adapters. EMACS will attempt to discover what adapter is connected and
use the proper driver for it. Below is a list of the currently supported video

Adapter $sres Original mode used
_______ _____ ________ ____ ____
Monochrome Graphics Adapter MONO MONO
Color Graphics Adapter CGA CGA
Enhanced Graphics Adapter EGA CGA
Video Graphics Adapter VGA CGA

If a driver for a Microsoft compatable mouse is installed on the system,
EMACS will use the mouse in text mode and allow the user all the standard mouse
functions. The mouse cursor will appear to be a block of color in the color
opposite of it's background.

EMACS also takes advantage of various function keys and the keys on the
keypad on an IBM-PC. The function keys are initially not bound to any particular
functions (except by the emacs.rc startup file), but the keypad keys do default
to the following:

Keypad key Function
______ ___ ________
Home beginning-of-file
CSRS UP previous-line
Pg Up previous-page
CSRS LEFT backward-character
CSRS RIGHT forward-character
End end-of-file
CSRS DOWN next-line
Pg Dn Next-page

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Machine Dependent Notes

All these special keys are indicated in EMACS macroes by use of the FN
prefix. Below is a list of many of the keys and the codes used to specify them.
Also the codes may be gotten by using the describe-key (^X ?) command on the
suspect key.

Compiling under TURBO C
Compiling under TURBO C

To compile MicroEMACS under TURBO C, set the TURBO integrated
environment with the following options:

Memory model LARGE
Floating point NONE
Default char type UNSIGNED
Data alignment BYTE
Merge duplicate strings ON
Standard stack frame off
Test stack overflow off

Optimize for SIZE
Use register optimization ON
Register optimization ON
Jump optimization ON

Initialize segments OFF
Stack warnings OFF

Names: Code names
Segment name *

Machine Dependent Notes MicroEMACS Reference Manual

I.2 HP 150
I.2 HP 150

This machine from Hewlett Packard is very unusual for an MSDOS machine.
It has a touch screen and is very function key oriented. An additional command,
label-function-key allows you to place labels on the on screen function key
labels. A numeric argument indicates which function key to label (one through
eight) and then the program prompts for a 16 character label, which will be used
as two lines of eight characters. To label function key three with "save file"
from a macro, you would use:

3 label-function-key "save file"

Notice the 4 spaces after "save". This forces "file" to begin on the
second line of the label.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Machine Dependent Notes

I.3 Atari 520/1040ST
I.3 Atari 520/1040ST

The ATARI ST family of computers have a dual personality. They may use
either a monochrome or a color screen. EMACS supports two screen resolutions on
each monitor.


When you set MicroEMACS up on your system, please remember to install
it on the desktop as a GEM application. If you have EMACS set as a TOS
application, the mouse will not function properly, and EMACS will
alert you to this problem by beeping the bell.

Monitor $sres size #color $palette format
_______ _____ ____ ______ ________ ______
Color LOW 40x25 16 000111222333444555666777
MEDIUM 80x25 4 000111222333
Mono HIGH 80x25 2 000
DENSE 80x50 2 000

The $palette environment variable can be used to change what color is
associated with each color name. With a color monitor, each group of three
digits indicates an octal number specifying the RED, GREEN and BLUE levels of
that color. Each color digit can vary from 0 to 7. For example, the initial
setting of $palette in LOW resolution is:


which broken up is:

000 700 070 770 007 707 077 777

which means:

000 Black
700 Red
070 Green
770 Yellow
007 Blue
707 Magenta
077 Cyan
777 White

Also the mouse buttons are bound to mouse functions as described in the
chapter about mice. The cursor keys and the function keys are bound similarly to

Files generated by EMACS on the ATARI ST have a single return character
at the end of each line, unlike the desktop files which want to have two
returns. This makes it display files strangely from GEM's [SHOW] option, but

Machine Dependent Notes MicroEMACS Reference Manual

makes the files port to other computers much nicer. When compiling MicroEMACS,
the ADDCR symbol in estruct.h will cause emacs to generate line ending sequences
compatible with GEM.

Currently, when operating under the Mark Williams MSH program, EMACS can
shell out and perform external commands. This capability will be added later for
the Beckmeyer shell and under GEMDOS.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Machine Dependent Notes

I.4 Amiga 1000
I.4 Amiga 1000

The Commodore AMIGA 1000 version of MicroEMACS does fully support the
mouse, window resizing and the close gadget. It runs in medium resolution, using
the colors defined for the workbench.

Note about Compiling MicroEMACS

If you are compiling the sources on the AMIGA to produce an
executable image, and you are using the Lattice compiler, be sure to
give the CLI command 'STACK 40000' before compiling to make sure the
compiler has sufficient stack space to successfully complete

Machine Dependent Notes MicroEMACS Reference Manual

I.5 UNIX V5, V7, and BSD4.[23]
I.5 UNIX V5, V7, and BSD4.[23]

MicroEMACS under UNIX utilizes the TERMCAP library to provide machine
independent screen functions. Make sure that termcap is available and properly
set on your account before attempting to use MicroEMACS.

Under systems which support job control, you can use the ^XD suspend-
^XD ________
emacs command to place EMACS into the background. This carries a much smaller
overhead than bringing up a new shell under EMACS. EMACS will properly redraw
the screen when you bring it back to the foreground.

If the symbol VT100 has been set to 1 in the estruct.h options file,
EMACS will recognize the key sequence [ as the lead in sequence for the FN
function key prefix.

With the addition of some very machine/operating system specific code,
EMACS can prevent two or more people from modifying the same file at the same
time. The upper level of a set of functions to provide file locking exist in the
source file LOCK.C. It requires two machine specific functions written and
linked into EMACS for it to operate properly.

char *dolock(fname)

char *fname;

dolock() locks a file, preventing others from modifying it. If
it succeeds, it returns NULL, otherwise it returns a pointer to
a string in the form "LOCK ERROR: explanation".

char *undolock(fname)

char *fname;

undolock() unlocks a file, allowing others to modifying it. If
it succeeds, it returns NULL, otherwise it returns a pointer to
a string in the form "LOCK ERROR: explanation".

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Machine Dependent Notes

I.6 DEC VMS operating system
I.6 DEC VMS operating system


Depending upon the options set in ESTRUCT.H, MicroEMACS uses either the
capabilities of VMS SMG, working with any terminal that is defined in
SMGTERMS.TXT or TERMTABLE.TXT (see your SMG manual for more information), or the
ANSI escape sequences. Full keyboard support, with function keys and everything,
is provided for VT100 and VT200 series compatible terminals. Mouse support is
provided under the ANSI version only at this time. Mouse support is provided for
the VSII workstation's VT220 terminal emulator, and other terminal emulators
that use the same escape sequences for mouse control. (There is some partial
support for the BBN BitGraph mouse sequences in the sources, but this is not yet
complete). Terminals may have up to 100 lines and 160 columns.

The maximum terminal size is 256 columns and 72 row. If you run
MicroEMACS on a terminal that is larger than this, MicroEMACS will reduce it to
these limits while you are editing.

Flow control
Flow control
Some terminals will require the use of XON/XOFF flow control when used
with MicroEMACS. When XON/XOFF flow control is used, you will not be able to use
functions bound to ^S or ^Q, and should use bind-to-key to put these functions
on other keys. MicroEMACS does not change the flow control characteristics of
your terminal line while it is running. If your terminal requires flow control,
you should:


before entering MicroEMACS. If you are on a VSII emulated workstation
terminal, are using the SSU multi-session protocol (VT330 and VT340 with SSU
enabled), or are certain that your terminal does not require XON/XOFF flow
control, you should


This will allow you to use ^S and ^Q for MicroEMACS commands. Note that
if you are using a VSII with VWS V3.2 or later, you must leave the /HOSTSYNC
enabled in order for the cross/session cut and paste capability to work


The VMS version understands the LK201 functions of VT200 series, vt300
series, and compatible terminals and terminal emulators, and allows you to bind
to them as function keys. In addition, the VT100 numeric keypad, in application
mode, is available as function keys. MicroEMACS will only put the keypad into
application mode for you if the KEYPAD option is set in ESTRUCT.H. In this

Machine Dependent Notes MicroEMACS Reference Manual

situation, MicroEmacs will detect your kepad's state, and restore it to that
state upon exiting. If MicroEMACS has not been compiled with this option, you
may still put the keypad into application mode by issuing the command "SET TERM
/APPLICATION" before entering MicroEMACS.

VT200 keys
_____ ____

Note that F1 through F5 are local function keys on DEC terminals.

F9 = FN9 SELECT = [email protected]
F10 = FN0 PREV = FNZ
F11 = S-FN1 NEXT = FNV
F12 = S-FN2 Arrow Up = FNP
F13 = S-FN3 Arrow Down = FNN
F14 = S-FN4 Arrow Right = FNF
HELP (F15) = S-FN5 Arrow Left = FNB
DO (F16) = S-FN6
F17 = S-FN7
F18 = S-FN8
F19 = S-FN9
F20 = S-FN0

VT100 and VT200 numeric keypad in application mode
_____ ___ _____ _______ ______ __ ___________ ____

PF1 = FN^1 PF2 = FN^2 PF3 = FN^3 PF4 = FN^4
7 = A-7 8 = A-8 9 = A-9 - = A--
4 = A-4 5 = A-5 6 = A-6 , = A-,
1 = A-1 2 = A-2 3 = A-3 ENTER = A-E
0 = A-0 . = A-.


The VMS version contains code for interpreting function keys
that are sent as Ansi sequences that begin with the ESC character.
Because of this, MicroEMACS cannot process an incoming ESC until it
knows what character follows it. This can cause problems with
terminating search and replace strings. If you use ESC as the meta-
prefix character (which is the default) you must type one additional
keystroke following ESC before emacs will recognize that you have
edited the search command prompt, and are continuing. (The additional
character is processed normally be MicroEMACS, it is NOT discarded.)

MicroEMACS must wait long enough for the network delay that
might be involved between seeing the ESC and seeing the characters
that follow it. If holding down one of the arrow keys causes
characters to drop into your file, then you may want to alter the
delay yourself. The logical variable MICROEMACS$SHORTWAIT may be set

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Machine Dependent Notes

to vary that delay. The default delay is 400ms (4 tenths of a second).
The equivalent value in MICROEMACS$SHORTWAIT is 4000000.

Special case for BBN BItGraph
Special case for BBN BItGraph

If you are using the BBN BitGraph, execute the following commands before
entering MicroEMACS, and you will get mouse support:

$ esc[0,8] = 27
$ microemacs$mouse_enable == esc+":5;6;L"+esc+":0;63;;;;;;;;;9;16;c"
$ microemacs$mouse_disable == esc+":5;1;L"+esc+":0;0c"
$ exit

Do NOT do this for any other terminals.

Search List for EMACS.RC
Search List for EMACS.RC

VMS MicroEMACS will first search logical name MICROEMACS$LIB:, then
SYS$LOGIN:, then the current directory, and finally "sys$sysdevice:[vmstools]"
when looking for startup files or help files.

Please use MICROEMACS$LIB:, and allow the secondary search of [vmstools]
to become archaic. If desired, MICROEMACS$LIB may be defined to be a VMS search
list that first searches a user directory, and then a system directory.

Generally, you should create a private directory where you keep all your
.CMD files, and in your LOGIN.COM $DEFINE a logical name to point to this area.

In addition to whatever commands you have in your EMACS.RC file, one
command you should certainly include is "set $ssave FALSE". The "safe save"
mechanism, which writes a buffer to a temporary file, deletes the old version of
a file, and then moves the temporary file to its permanent name, works
wonderfully on most systems, but makes no sense on VMS, which maintains older
versions of a file.

Using MicroEMACS as a subprocess
Using MicroEMACS as a subprocess
MicroEmacs can now be kept in a subprocess. You can arrange to start
emacs only once in a job, and to re-attach to it each time you want to use it.
This is optional. To use this feature, install MicroEMACS in the following way:

1. MicroEMACS contains two images. ME.EXE is a small program for
starting and stopping the Emacs subprocess. The source for ME.
is in ME.C, and should not be linked into MESHR.EXE. MESHR.EXE
is the actual MicroEMACS image. The name "MESHR" is required for
MAIL/NOTES support, see next section for details.

2. Make sure that the SYS$SHARE search list includes MESHR.EXE. If you
don't have the privilages to move MESHR.EXE into SYS$SHARE, you
can $ DEFINE the MESHR logical name to be the full name and location of
the MESHR.EXE program. For example, you could store all of these
programs in the MICROEMACS$LIB: search list, and say:

Machine Dependent Notes MicroEMACS Reference Manual

$ DEFINE MESHR microemacs$lib:meshr.exe

3. Put ME.EXE in MICROEMACS$LIB and the following line in your LOGIN.COM:

$ me :== $microemacs$lib:me

4. Put a line in your EMACS.RC that will

bind-to-key suspend-emacs ^C ; use your usual exit-emacs key

Now, use the "$ ME" command to invoke microemacs. Subseqeuent
invocations in the same job will re-use the existing subprocess. You can use the
full capabilty of the microemacs command line in the first and in all subsequent
invocations of ME.


MicroEMACS will ALWAYS read in new copies of any files you specify on
the command line, even if you are already editing it. If you edit a file a
second time with the same MicroEMACS, you will get a NEW buffer with ANOTHER
copy of the file. The old buffer is still there also. It is easy, in this
situation, to accidently edit in a WRONG BUFFER, and if you write out an
obsolete buffer, you will loose earlier edits!

This is considered a bug and may be fixed in a later version of
MicroEMACS. To avoid this situation, do not specify a file on the command line
if MicroEMACS already has that file in a buffer. Use the "find-file" MicroEMACS
command instead.


With VMS V5 and later versions, the MAIL interface to Microemacs is much
simplified. With VMS V5, the MESHR.EXE image does NOT have to be installed as a
known image to be used as a callable editor from MAIL. Therefore, to use
MicroEMACS as your VMS MAIL editor, simply add the following lines to your


and make sure that the SYS$SHARE search list includes MESHR.EXE. If you
don't have privs or permission to move MESHR.EXE into SYS$SHARE, you can $
DEFINE the MESHR logical name to be the full name and location of the MESHR.EXE
program. For example, you could store all of these programs in the
MICROEMACS$LIB: search list, and say:

$ DEFINE MESHR microemacs$lib:meshr.exe

Note that this is the same location as is required for using kept

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Machine Dependent Notes

To abort sending a message, exit MicroEMACS without writing out the mail
message file.

To use MicroEMACS as your VAX NOTES editor, issue the following command


Note, if you are still in the dark ages of VMS V4, you will have to
either install MESHR as a known image, or following the original "Second way"
instructions given in the existing appendix F.6 of the older MicroEMACS manual
(previous to version 3.10).

Second way, as described in older versions
Second way, as described in older versions

In the event that you cannot get your system manager to INSTALL
MicroEMACS as known image, you can use the following technique:

1. In MICROEMACS$LIB:MEMAIL.COM, put the following command file:

$! Use on VAX/VMS as MAIL$EDIT for using MicroEMACS as mail editor.
$ if "''P1'" .NES. "_NL:" then if "''P1'" .NES. "" then copy 'P1' 'P2'
$ define/user sys$input sys$output
$ me 'P2'
$ exit

This file may have come with your MicroEMACS kit.

2. In your LOGIN.COM, put the following lines:

$ me :== $MICROEMACS$LIB:MESHR.EXE ! Assumes meshr.exe is there
$ define mail$edit microemacs$

3. In NOTES, give the command


Building MicroEMACS for VMS
Building MicroEMACS for VMS

The configuration options are set in file estruct.h:

- Under the category of "Machine/OS definitions", set VMS to "1" and all
others to "0".

- Under "Compiler definitions", set all selections to "0". Selecting
VMS implies that you are using VAXC.

- Under "Special keyboard definitions", be sure "VT100" is set to "0".
This option is not required for the VMS version, it is for other
systems using ANSI terminal support. VMS in combination with SMG or
ANSI already handles the special characteristics of Ansi keyboards.

Machine Dependent Notes MicroEMACS Reference Manual

- Under "Terminal Output definitions", set either ANSI or SMG to "1"
and all others to "0". As stated previously, only ANSI supports the
mouse at this time.

- Under "Configuration options", you may select as you wish, with the
following notes:

- COLOR support does not exist for VMS, even when using
color workstations.
- MOUSE support should be enabled if you have any VSII
workstations. Only supported under the ANSI driver.
- KEYPAD support recognises whether your keypad is already
in application mode or not, and puts your keypad
in its correct state on exit.
- XNONOFF automatically allows you to use control-S or
control-Q in MicroEMACS, by disabling the TTSYNC
characteristic. This option should not be set if
MicroEMACS might be used on DecStations or VT100s.
It also should not be used with slow terminals or
terminal emulators connected to fast terminal lines.
- RMSIO support should absolutely be used. This option
allows the writing and reading of files in VMS's
variable-length format, as opposed to STREAM-LF,
and cuts down on file writing and reading time by
approximately two thirds.
- OPTMEM support may be used on VMS versions 5.0 and higher.
It substitutes the C library's memory allocation
calls for the native VAX calls, and gives a speed

If you have MMS, you can use the supplied DESCRIP.MMS to build
MicroEMACS. Otherwise, the command file MEMAKE.COM has been provided. These
files assume that you are using SMG as your terminal driver. If you are using
ANSI, then you must replace SMG with ANSI in the command and opt files. If you
do not have MMS or are missing MEMAKE.COM, simply compile each module with "CC",
and link with the command:


Note that the executable filename must end in "SHR" in order for
MicroEMACS to be used as a callable editor from MAIL or NOTES. (Method 1

If you edit any of the Emacs sources, note that any global or external
data must be declared as "noshare" in order for the VMS callable editor support
to work properly. This applies to all global data used in the VMS version, but
not to routines or to "static "data. The "noshare" declaration is #define'd
away on non-VMS systems. If you fail to do this, VMS will not allow you to
INSTALL MicroEMACS as a sharable library.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Mode Flags

Appendix J
Appendix J

Mode Flags
Mode Flags

The two environment variables, $cmode and $gmode, contain a number the
corresponds to the modes set for the current buffer and the editor as a whole.
These are encoded as the sum of the following numbers for each of the possible

WRAP 1 Word wrap
CMODE 2 C indentation and fence match
SPELL 4 Interactive spell checking (Not Implemented Yet)
EXACT 8 Exact matching for searches
VIEW 16 Read-only buffer
OVER 32 Overwrite mode
MAGIC 64 Regular expressions in search
CRYPT 128 Encryption mode active
ASAVE 256 Auto-save mode

So, if you wished to set the current buffer to have CMODE, EXACT, and
MAGIC on, and all the others off, you would add up the values for those three,
CMODE 2 + EXACT 8 + MAGIC 64 = 74, and use a statement like:

set $cmode 74

or, use the binary or operator to combine the different modes:

set $cmode &bor &bor 2 8 64

Internal Flags
Internal Flags

Some of the ways EMACS controls its internal functions can be modified
by the value in the $gflags environment variable. Each bit in this variable will
be used to control a different function.

GFFLAG 1 If this bit is set to zero, EMACS will not
automatically switch to the buffer of the
first file after executing the startup macros.
GFSDRAW 2 If this bit is set to one, supress redraw events.

Current buffer flags
Current buffer flags

The $cbflags environment variable allows the user to modify some of the
characteristics of the current buffer. The various characteristics are encoded
as the sum of the following numbers:

Mode Flags MicroEMACS Reference Manual

BFINVS 1 Internal invisible buffer
BFCHG 2 Changed since last write
BFTRUNC 4 buffer was truncated when read
BFNAROW 8 buffer has been narrowed

Only the invisible and changed flags can be modified by setting the
$cbflags variable. The truncated file and narrowed flags are read only.

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Index


!BREAK Directive 62 case-word-upper 40
!ENDM Directive 59 change-file-name 36
!FORCE Directive 59 Changing Case 39
!GOTO Directive 61 clear-and-redraw 19
!IF CMODE mode 30
!ELSE color 30
and !ENDIF Directives color pallette 52
60 command line 17
!RETURN Directive 62 command processor 43
Directives 61 Commands unaffected by
$cbflags 102 numeric arguments. 85
$debug 63 Constants 48
$gflags 102 control key 1
.emacsrc 48, 67 control-x 1
13 copy-region 11
Creating a Screen 23
A Creating Windows 17
A Word About Windows CRYPT mode 31, 68
Buffers cshell 43
Screens cursor keys 4
and Modes 6 cut 22
add-global-mode 30 Cut and Paste 22
add-mode 3, 30 cycle-screens 24
Amiga 1000 94
ASAVE mode 30 D
Atari 520/1040ST 92 debugging 63
DEC VMS operating system 96
B default string 14
Backward Search 14 Defining and Deleting a
backward-character 3 Region 10
Basic cursor movement 3 delete-blank-lines 8
BBS 68 delete-buffer 28
begin-macro 46 delete-global-mode 30
beginning-of-file 4, 7 delete-mode 30
beginning-of-line 4 delete-next-character 7
bind-to-key 65 delete-next-word 8
buffer 4, 6, 27 delete-previous-character 7
Buffer Variables 55 delete-previous-word 8
Deleting a Screen 24
C Deleting Windows 18
case-region-lower 40 Deletions 7
case-word-capitalize 40 describe-bindings 66
case-word-lower 40 describe-key 65

Index MicroEMACS Reference Manual

desk accessories 21 IBM-PC/XT/AT and its clones
desktop 23 89
detab-region 41 Insertions 7
Directives 59 Interactive variables 56
dragging 22
Dragging around 21 K
Keys and the Keyboard 1
E kill buffer 11
emacs.rc 48, 67 kill-region 10
encryption 31 kill-to-end-of-line 8
end-macro 46
end-of-file 4 L
end-of-line 4 label-function-key 91
entab-region 41 list-buffers 28, 30
Entering Text 2
Environmental Variables 50 M
error parsing 67 MAGIC mode 31
EXACT mode 31 mark 10
Exact Searches 14 meta key 1
execute-buffer 48 mode line 2, 6
execute-file 48 modes 3, 30
execute-macro 46 mouse 21, 52
execute-program 43 mouse cursor 21
exit-emacs 8 move-window-down 18
move-window-up 18
F Moving a Screen 23
file locking 95 Moving around with the mouse
fill column 34 21
fill-paragraph 7, 39
filter 43 N
filter-buffer 43 newline 1
find-file 18, 27 next-buffer 27
Forward Search 13 next-line 3
forward-character 3 next-paragraph 4
function key window 48 next-word 3
Functions 56 numeric arguments 81

Getting Started 1 open-line 7
grow-window 19 open-window 17
OVER mode 33
handle-tab 41 P
Help File 67 Parts and Pieces 2
HOME environment variable 67 paste 23
horizontal scrolling 22 PATH environment variable 67
HP 150 91 pipe-command 43
point 10
I previous-line 3
i-shell 44 previous-paragraph 4

MicroEMACS Reference Manual Index

previous-window 17 special keys 1
previous-word 3 split-current-window 17
startup files 67
Q store-procedure 48
Query-Replace 15 suspend-emacs 44, 95
query-replace-string 15, 33 switches 67
Switching to a Screen 23
rebinding 65 T
redraw-display 19 tab handling 41
Reformatting Paragraphs 39 Tabs 40, 51, 53
region 22 termcap 95
regular expressions 31 text window 2
replace-string 14, 33 trim-region 41
Repositioning within a
Window 19 U
resize-window 19 UNIX V5
Resizing a Screen 23 V7
Resizing Windows 18 and BSD4.[23] 95
restricted mode 68 User variables 55
run 48
S Variables 49
save-file 4 vertical scrolling 22
Saving your text 4 VIEW mode 34
screen 6, 23
screen resolution 53 W
Screens 23 window 6
scroll-next-down 18 windows 2, 17
scroll-next-up 18 Creating 17
search-forward 13 Deleting 18
search-reverse 14 Resizing 18
Searching and Replacing 14 WRAP mode 34
select-buffer 27 wrap-word 34
set 41 Wrapping Text 39
set-encryption-key 31 write-file 4
set-fill-column 39 writefile 36
set-mark 10
shell 43 Y
shell-command 43 yank 10
shrink-window 19 Yanking a Region 11



Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 1

Chapter 2 Basic Editing--Simple Insertions and Deletions 6

Chapter 3 Using Regions 10

Chapter 4 Search and Replace 13

Chapter 5 Windows 17

Chapter 6 Using a Mouse 21

Chapter 7 Buffers 27

Chapter 8 Modes 30

Chapter 9 Files 36

Chapter 10 Screen Formatting 39

Chapter 11 Access to the Outside World 43

Chapter 12 Keyboard Macros 46

Chapter 13 MicroEMACS Procedures 48

Chapter 14 Debugging MicroEMACS Procedures 63

Chapter 15 Key Bindings, What they are and why 65

Appendix A MicroEMACS Command Line Switches and Startup Files 67

Appendix B Command Completion 69

Appendix C MicroEMACS Commands 70

Appendix D MicroEMACS Bindings 78

Appendix E Numeric Arguments 80

Appendix F Numeric Arguments to Commands 81

Appendix G Supported machines 86


Appendix H Function Keys 88

Appendix I Machine Dependent Notes 89

Appendix J Mode Flags 102

Index 104


 December 17, 2017  Add comments

Leave a Reply