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Profiler for Turbo C 2.0. Shows the number of times your C routine was called and executed.
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Profiler for Turbo C 2.0. Shows the number of times your C routine was called and executed.
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TCPROF.DOC 41174 10022 deflated
TCPROF.EXE 30434 17860 deflated

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Contents of the TCPROF.DOC file

Turbo C profiler (TCPROF version 1.5)
Copyright (C) 1988 Andre Nancoz
all rights reserved


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Copyright information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Trademark information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
System requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Compilation and execution requirements . . . . . . . . 2
Restrictions and caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Executing the profiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Profiler options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

File usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Report content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Lines within functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Functions only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


LISTING 1..............................................11
EXAMPLE 1..............................................12
EXAMPLE 2..............................................13

Registered user information . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Registered user features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

PROBLEM REPORT/SUGGESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
REGISTERED USER ORDER FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18




TCPROF will show you where the most time is being spent in a
program written with Borlands' Turbo C. The output report
indicates the percentage of time (numerically and
graphically) spent in each function and line of your program.
Several options allow you to vary the amount of information
shown on the report. No changes to your source code are
required in order to run the profiler. The hardware timer is
read but not modified.

This program is distributed at no charge and is designed for
users who have an occasional need or curiosity about the
efficiency of their programs. A registered user version of
this program (TCPROFRU) is available which allows more
extensive tailoring of the output and can reduce the amount
of overhead and size of the report (See Appendix B for more


Version 1.0 First release.

Version 1.5 Update for Turbo C release 2.0. Timing logic
change to increase consistency.

Copyright information

Turbo C profiler program TCPROF and documentation
Copyright (C) 1988 by Andre Nancoz
all rights reserved

The Turbo C profiler is not public domain software. TCPROF
and it's accompanying documentation may be distributed freely
provided no fee is charged and it is not part of a package
for which a charge is made. Furthermore, the program and
documentation must be distributed with no modifications.

TCPROF is distributed as-is with no expressed or implied

Trademark information

Turbo C is a trademark of Borland International Inc.
IBM-PC is a trademark of International Business Machines
MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

October 4, 1988 INTRODUCTION - 1

System requirements

IBM-PC and true compatibles.
MS-DOS version 3.0 or above.
Minimum memory required is 39K above that required for the
program being profiled. Additional memory may be required
depending on the program being profiled. See the section on
memory usage for more information.

Compilation and execution requirements

In order to run a program under the profiler the program must
be compiled with, at least, the following options:

TCC command line;
-y generate line numbers in .obj file.
-M full link map.

TLINK command line;
/m or /s to generate a link map.
/l output line numbers in link map.

Integrated Development Environment;
O/C/Code generation/Line numbers..On
O/L/Map file..Publics or Detailed

NOTE: Line numbers and map options are required even if the
functions only option is used.

When running the profiler the .EXE and the .MAP file must be
available using the standard DOS search path, i.e. the
current directory of the current drive is checked first. If
not found, each directory in the environment PATH is checked.

Restrictions and caveats

If your program steals the timer interrupt it must chain to
the previous owner of the interrupt. The profiler does NOT
modify the timer rate but does read the timer chip. If your
program modifies the timer rate the profiler may still
operate correctly.

Single Step and Interrupt 3
If your program uses these, the profiler will not work
correctly. It may be reboot time.

Likely to mess up timing.

Static functions
All line numbers for a function defined as static will be
included with the last non-static function. This will likely
cause the warning message regarding inaccurate timing. The
profiler keeps track of entrances to and exits from


functions. Since static function addresses do not appear in
the link map the profiler does not have an accurate
indication of where the static function began or where the
previous non-static function ended.

Assembler modules should be assembled without the line number
option(TASM /ZD). The profilers' timing resolution cannot
handle interrupts at each machine instruction.

Unlike previous versions of Turbo C, version 2.0 passes the
line number option on to TASM when inline assembler is used.
When a single machine instruction is generated for a line of
C source it is likely that they will be reported as 0% due to
the profilers timing resolution. Some functions such as
enable(), disable(), etc. will cause the same problem. Use
of the emit() function to output one instruction per line
will also cause the problem.

If you are using previous versions of Turbo C, use of the asm
keyword within a C module will cause no line numbers to be in
the map, TCC invokes MASM without the line number option.
Therefore, functions which contain the asm keyword should be
compiled in a separate module from functions which you wish
to time.

I have tested the profiler with several TSRs with no
problems. The timing may be different for the same program
depending on which TSRs are loaded. Therefore, in order to
compare results of two profiler runs, the same environment
should be used for each run. Of course activating a TSR
during a profiler run would disturb the timing.

This program is not a debugger and expects a reasonably
behaved program. The profiler may be useful in detecting
some problems such as loops or functions executing the wrong
number of times or not executing at all, etc.



Executing the profiler

TCPROF [prof options] program-name [program-name options]
The brackets [] denote optional information, they are
not entered.

If the program-name is not entered, help information is

Program-name options are passed to program-name in the same
manner as if the program was executed stand-alone. The
argv[0] parameter contains program-names' full path. The
profiler report is written to stdout, any redirection applies
to both program-name and the profiler report. The profiler
uses stderr for error messages which cause it to abort the
run, also for a few messages to the console when stdout is

Profiler options

Profiler options may be entered in upper or lower case. The
leading character may be either a - or a /. All profiler
options must precede the name of the program to be profiled.

-F Profile by function. The default is a detailed
report by line number within function. Using
this option creates an output report with only
one line per function and substantially reduces
the profiler overhead when your program is

-Cnn Print only lines whose execution count is equal
to or greater than nn. The default value is 0.
This option only influences the amount of
report output. The option has no effect if the
-F option is chosen. The nn is interpreted as
an unsigned long integer.

-Lnn Number of lines per page. The default is 25.
If nn is omitted, 0 or an invalid number, the
default is 58 (a good value for 8.5 inch
printed output). This option does not change
the "pause between each page" output action,
which is controlled by whether or not stdout
has been redirected.

-Snn This option controls an internal memory
allocation parameter. Entry to a function
requires a word on an internal stack, the word
is released at function exit. The value
specified is the number of words to allocate.
The maximum is 32751 minus the number of


functions profiled. It should only be required
if your program uses recursion. The default
value is 10. If the warning message "Timing
may be inaccurate" occurs then this parameter
should be used. It should be set to the
maximum level of recursions that can occur at
any one time.



File usage

When the program to be profiled is run only the standard
Turbo C start up files are open. The spawn function passes
these files to the program to be run. The profiler uses
stdout and stderr before and after running your program. Any
redirection applies to both the profiler and the program
being profiled. Delimiter lines are written by the profiler
to stdout before and after running your program.

Besides the program to be profiled, the .MAP file must be
available for read only access, this file is not open while
your program is running. All file are located via the
standard DOS path search.

Report content

The profile report is written to stdout with a default of 25
lines to the page, the L option can be used to change the
default. If stdout has not been redirected the output will
pause at the end of each page and you may either display the
next page or cancel the remaining output, a clear screen is
issued between each page. When output has been redirected,
no pause or clear screen occurs between pages.

Appendix A contains a listing and two reports of a small test
program. The first report is by line number. This report
exhibits very high profiler overhead since majority of time
is spent within loops which generate a small number of
machine instructions per line of C code. In more realistic
programs overhead is in the 30% range. The second report is
the same program but it was run with the functions only

Only functions which are compiled with the line number option
"on" are shown on the report. The time for functions
compiled without line numbers are included in the lines of
your program from where they are called. As a consequence,
all the time for the system run time library functions (such
as printf) will be included in the lines from which they are
called. In the test program line 23 took 1 percent of the
main functions' time, this includes the time it took to
execute the printf function (with redirection to disk). On
the other hand, the time for line 19 only includes the time
to call and return from test_func, since test_func line
numbers are included in the map.

The first page of output contains general information about
the program being profiled. In reality this may be many
pages of output since it contains the stdout of the program
being profiled. The options section on this page shows all
the profiler options which were in effect during this


Prior to running your program, the .MAP file is analyzed and
a table is built in memory. After this is done the amount of
memory available to run your program is printed.

The "parameters" line contains the argv[0] to be passed to
your program, subsequent line(s) contain argv[1] to argv[n]
parameters each enclosed in quotes. A line is then output to
delimit the stdout of your program from that of the profiler,
it contains the full path and name of the program to be
executed. If stdout has not been redirected the profiler
will pause with a message allowing you to cancel execution or
run the profile, optionally you may clear the screen prior to
running your program.

After returning from your program, a line is output giving
the return code and the calculated time your program would
have taken if the profiler had not been used. This time is
the basis for the percentage calculations made in the body of
the report. The next line contains the start date, time, end
time and the percentage of the elapsed time spent within the

The body of the report starts on the next page. In Appendix
A, example 1 is lines within functions, example 2 is a
functions only report.

Whenever a new module is encountered in the .MAP file a line
is output with the module name. When the beginning of a
function is identified a line is output with the name, the
percentage of time the function executed as compared to your
programs total time from page 1 and a graphic representation
of the percentage. In addition, for a functions only report
the count column contains the number of times the function
was executed, for a lines within function report this count
appears on the first line within the function.

The line number report has additional information. The first
column contains the starting address of the line, the line
number, the number of times the line was executed, the time
taken by the line as a percentage of the programs' time, the
time taken by the line as a percentage of the functions' time
and a graphic representation of the percentages.

Each column in the graph represents approximately 2.5%. Four
characters are used within the graph, asterisks, periods,
equal signs and dashes. The asterisks are used for function
lines only, no other characters appear on these graph lines.
Even though a report by lines is requested, if a function is
not executed only the function line will appear on the
report. The period only appears in the first column of the
graph, it is used when a line was executed at least once but
the time was less than 2.5%. The end of the equal signs
represents the lines' time compared to the total time. The
end of the dashes represents the lines' time compared to the
functions' time.


For the lines within functions report, the format of the
source file can affect the report. The listing in Appendix A
contains some examples which will be referred to in the
following discussion. The source for lines 33 and 34, and
line 39 are essentially the same and generate identical
machine instructions. On the other hand, the report is
different for these two instruction sequences due to the map
output. The compiler generates the initialization code of
the "for loop" and outputs the line address for the .MAP
file. Since the calculation is contained on the same line
nothing is output to the .MAP file for it. Therefore, line
39 reports that the line was executed only once and all the
time for the loop is included with line 39. In the case of
lines 33 and 34, the compiler outputs the line 33 address for
the initialization code and the line 34 address for the
calculation which shows 19999 executions of the expression.
In version 2 of Turbo C other loop constructs (while, do) are
now generated similarly, so that lines 21 and 37 are now
reported in the same manner as line 39.

All times for the last line of a function are reported with
the line which called the function. Therefore for best
results, the closing bracket of a function should appear on a
separate line. The count for the last line of a function is

The difference in times between lines 21 and 39 indicate the
efficiencies of register variables. In the main function two
dummy variables were allocated as registers so that the other
variables, which are used in line 21, could not be
automatically assigned by the compiler to registers. In
test_func the variables for the loop were allocated to

In version 2.0 of Turbo C the compiler outputs line numbers
to the .MAP file for floating point instructions. Therefore,
these lines are now reported correctly.

If you are using version 1.5 of Turbo C, lines 41 and 42
exhibit a problem when using floating point. If the first
machine instruction to be generated on a line is for a
floating point operation the compiler does not output a line
number for the .MAP file. Therefore, line 42 does not appear
in the report and all the time for line 42 is reported in
line 41. If you need to see one or more floating point lines
separately the only option would be to precede each statement
with a non-floating point statement, such as an increment of
a dummy integer variable (better yet, upgrade to version 2,
it's worth it).
Example: dummy++; r = a * b; /* on one line */



Lines within functions

"Memory required" =
16 * "number of lines mapped" +

2 * ("number of functions within the line map" +
"value of -S option") +
13 * "number of modules within the line map" +
"your program requirements" + 39k

Functions only

"Memory required" =
16 * "number of functions within the line map" * 2 +
2 * ("number of functions within the line map" +
"value of -S option") +
13 * "number of modules within the line map" +
"your program requirements" + 39k



Code Message

35 DOS version must be 3.0 or later.

36 Parameter invalid in response file.

37 File not found (.exe and .map required).

38 Invalid map file, no line numbers.
In the chapter "INTRODUCTION" see section "Compiler
and execution requirements".

39 Insufficient memory.

40 Logic.
This message is accompanied by other information. If
it should occur please notify me, giving the full
message displayed, details of your system and compile
options used on the program being profiled.

41 Not a Turbo C program.

42 Invalid map file, no public values found.
Refer to the section "Compiler and execution

43 NOTE: Timing inaccurate, see -S in documentation.
Refer to the section "Profiler options".

44 NOTE: Timing inaccurate, see caveats in
See the discussion on static functions under
"Restrictions and caveats".

99 Parameter display or error.

All return codes below 35 are identical to the errno
values used by Turbo C.




1 #include
2 #include
7 /* Prototype Definitions */
8 void test_func(void);
9 /* End Prototypes */
11 #define LOOP_CNT 20000
13 main()
14 {
15 register int reg_si, reg_di; /* dummy variables to use up regs */
16 int a = 10;
17 int i = LOOP_CNT;
19 test_func();
21 while (--i) a = a * a / a;
23 printf("Proftest executed");
24 return (0);
25 } /* end of main */
27 void test_func(void)
28 {
29 register unsigned int i;
30 register unsigned int a = 10;
31 float b, c;
33 for (i = LOOP_CNT; --i;)
34 a = a * a / a;
36 i = LOOP_CNT;
37 while (--i) a = a * a / a;
39 for (i = LOOP_CNT; --i;) a = a * a / a;
41 for (i = 50, b = 10.0; i > 0; i--)
42 c = b * b / b;
43 } /* end of test_func */



Turbo C Profiler (TCPROF V1.5) 1

Minimum line count printed(-C) 0: Lines per page(-L) 58
Internal stack size(-S) 10 default

18 lines in 2 functions in 1 module will be profiled

Building profile table
Memory available 437432 bytes

Parameters: C:\C\PROFTEST.EXE

Proftest executed

*** End of Program Output Return code 0 Time mm:ss 0:03 ***
Start 9-25-1988 16:41:26.67 End 16:41:42.22 Profiler overhead 84%

-------- Example 1 Page 1: tcprof -L proftest >proftest.ex1 --------

PROFTEST.EXE Turbo C Profiler (TCPROF V1.5) 2
Func/Addr Line Count %Tot %Fun...1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9...


main 36 ***************
0000:01FA 13 1 0 0 .
0000:0202 16 1 0 0 .
0000:0207 17 1 0 0 .
0000:020C 19 1 0 0 .
0000:020F 21 1 36 99 ==============--------------------------
0000:0229 23 1 0 1 .
0000:0232 24 1 0 0 .
0000:0236 25 1 0 0 .

test_func 64 *************************
0000:023C 27 1 0 0 .
0000:0244 30 1 0 0 .
0000:0247 33 1 0 0 .
0000:024C 34 19999 21 33 ========-----
0000:025D 36 1 0 0 .
0000:0260 37 1 18 28 =======----
0000:0273 39 1 18 28 =======----
0000:0289 41 1 0 0 .
0000:0299 42 50 7 11 ===-
0000:02B6 44 1 0 0 .


*** End of profile report for C:\C\PROFTEST.EXE ***

-------- Example 1 Page 2: tcprof -L proftest >proftest.ex1 --------


Turbo C Profiler (TCPROF V1.5) 1

FUNCTIONS ONLY(-F): Lines per page(-L) 58
Internal stack size(-S) 10 default

2 functions in 1 module will be profiled

Building profile table
Memory available 437656 bytes

Parameters: C:\C\PROFTEST.EXE

Proftest executed

*** End of Program Output Return code 0 Time mm:ss 0:03 ***
Start 9-25-1988 16:42:58.56 End 16:43:02.08 Profiler overhead 12%

------- Example 2 Page 1: tcprof -L -F proftest >proftest.ex2 -------

PROFTEST.EXE Turbo C Profiler (TCPROF V1.5) 2
Func/Addr Line Count %Tot %Fun...1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9...


main 1 38 ***************
test_func 1 62 *************************

*** End of profile report for C:\C\PROFTEST.EXE ***

------- Example 2 Page 2: tcprof -L -F proftest >proftest.ex2 -------



Registered user information

A registered users version of this program, TCPROFRU, is
available for $20.00 ($25.00 for 3 1/2" diskettes). Please
use the order form at the end of this document.

The registered user version has additional options which
allow you to tailor the amount of information gathered by the
program. On larger programs this reduces the overhead of the
profile runs and the size of the report.

Registered user features

-A[-]func-nm Alter the treatment of the named function.

If the profiler is being run in the default
mode of lines by function, each function named
by this option will NOT have line numbers
traced. A single line, as for a functions only
report, is output for each named function.

If the functions only option is "on" (-F) then
the named functions will have line number
tracing on.

For either case above, if a minus sign precedes
the named function it will not be traced and
all times for the function will be included in
the lines or functions that call it.

Multiple A options may be used. The function
name is case sensitive.

Ex: tcprofru -F -Afn1 -A-fn2 tstprg
Functions only plus fn1 lines and no trace on

-M[-]mod-nm Alter the treatment of all functions in the
named module.

Depending on the status of the F switch the
treatment of all functions within the named
module will be modified. This is a shorthand
method of altering(A[]) the treatment of all
the functions in a module.

Multiple M options may be used. The module
name is not case sensitive.

Ex: tcprofru -Mmod1 -M-mod2 testprog
Profile functions only in mod1, no profile of
functions in mod2, all other functions are
profiled by line.


-F[-][+] Alter the treatment of all functions in the

The -F- option causes all functions to be
skipped except those specified by A or M
options. The functions included by a -A or -M
option are profiled by line unless the name is
preceded by a -, in which case a single line
per function is reported. This is convenient
when only a few functions in a large program
needs to be profiled.

The -F+ option resets the default, profile by
line. It would be used if a response file ([email protected]
option) contains a -F option and you wish to
override it. The last -F option encountered on
the command line is the one in effect for all

The interaction between the -F, -M and -A
options result in 27 possibilities. The table
below is taken from the help screen of

-F[-][+] | No or + | Yes | with - |
-M[-]module | N | Y | - | N | Y | - | N | Y | - |
-A[-]function|N Y -|N Y -|N Y -|N Y -|N Y -|N Y -|N Y -|N Y -|N Y -|
resulting L F S F L S S L F F L S L F S S L F S L F L F S F L S
profile: L = lines; F = function; S = skip, add time to caller

The second, third and fourth columns are
interpreted as follows: N means that the
option not used for a particular module or
function. Y means that the option was used for
a particular module or function. The - means
that a particular module or function was
preceded by a minus.

Ex: tcprofru -M-module1 -Amod1fn2
Refering to the preceding table: The
"resulting profile" line gives the effect for a
particular function. the effect on functions
mod1fn1 and mod1fn2 in module1 is: No -F
option therefore, select -F column 1; -M-
specified for module1 therefore, select -M
column 3; for mod1fn1 -A was not specified
therefore, select -A column 7 which results in
this function not appearing in the report and
its time being added to the caller. On the
other hand, mod1fn2 is specified by a -A option
which selects -A column 8 and results in each
line of the function being profiled.


Ex: tcprofru -F- -Afn1 -M-mod2 tstprg
The -F- option turns off profiling of all
functions in the program. The -A and -M
options then modify this action as follows:
Profile by lines function fn1, one line per
function will be profiled for the functions in
module mod2, all other function times are
included with the caller's.

-PnnF&|T Only print lines whose percentage exceeds nn.

F = Line's percentage of function: T = Line's
percentage of total. If both are specified the
line is printed if either percentage exceeds
the nn value. If both are to be the same
percentage it may be specified as P20FT.

Ex: tcprofru -P50F -p10t tstprg
Only print lines, which are 50% or more of the
function or are 10% or more of the total.

-I[-] Include C source in the report.

This option interleaves the C source code with
the report. For each C module encountered in
the .MAP file a standard DOS path search is
made. If the source code is found it is
printed with the report. The -I- option can be
used to override a -I specified in a response
file ([email protected] option).

[email protected] Merge the named file with the command line

When the @ option is encountered on the command
line the file is opened and each line within
the file is treated as one profiler command
line parameter. The response file cannot be
used to specify the program to be profiled or
it's options. The options must be in the same
sequence as they would appear on the command
line. An @ option may not be contained within
the file. Multiple @ options may be used on
the command line.

Ex: tcprofru [email protected] -Aadd_fn tstprg




TCPROF version 1.5
From: Name: ___________________________________

Company: ___________________________________

Address: ___________________________________

City, State, Zip: ___________________________________

Received program from: _____________________________________

Hardware: _________________________________________

Operating system: ________________________ version: ______

Resident programs: _________________________________________


Error message (if problem report):


Description of error or suggestions:

If appropriate and available, printed output of the profile
report and a listing of the program or a fragment
illustrating the problem would be helpful.

Mail to:
Mr. Andre Nancoz
349 Quincy Ave.

Bronx, NY 10465


Mail to:
Mr. Andre Nancoz
349 Quincy Ave.
Bronx, NY 10465


Order for TC profiler registered users version (TCPROFRU):

Name: __________________________________________

Company: __________________________________________

Address: __________________________________________

City, State, Zip: __________________________________________

Received TCPROF program from:


Hardware: _________________________________________

Operating system: ________________________ version: ______


___ copies of 5 1/4" DSDD at $20.00 each ________

___ copies of 3 1/2" DSDD at $25.00 each ________

Total enclosed. $________
Checks only. U. S. funds. NO COD.

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