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File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
TCXL.DOC 124023 23947 deflated
TCXL.H 1389 338 deflated
TCXL.LIB 60416 20793 deflated
TCXLDEF.H 2941 824 deflated
TCXLDEMO.C 22540 4665 deflated
TCXLDEMO.EXE 30440 15810 deflated
TCXLDEMO.MAK 193 102 deflated
TCXLDEMO.PRJ 25 19 deflated
TCXLDSK.H 1431 407 deflated
TCXLEMS.H 1219 353 deflated
TCXLHIST.DOC 27729 6122 deflated
TCXLKEY.H 2432 709 deflated
TCXLMOU.H 1405 399 deflated
TCXLPRN.H 2274 603 deflated
TCXLQREF.DOC 16004 3745 deflated
TCXLSTR.H 2162 512 deflated
TCXLVID.H 4086 1194 deflated
TCXLWIN.H 10563 2488 deflated

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Contents of the TCXL.DOC file


T C X L
An Extended Function Library for Turbo C
Version 3.3
by Mike Smedley
(c) 1987, 1988 All Rights Reserved

This library is intended to be a supplement to the Turbo C function
library. It contains over 170 functions designed for use with the tiny and
small memory models. Libraries for the other models are provided with
registration. This library was compiled with Turbo C 1.5, however, you do not
need TC 1.5 to use this library. The following files should be included in
this archive:

TCXL.DOC - the library documentation
TCXL.H - header file for all functions
TCXL.LIB - the object code library
TCXLDEF.H - header file for miscellaneous functions
TCXLDEMO.C - the demonstration program source code
TCXLDEMO.EXE - the demonstration program
TCXLDEMO.MAK - the make file used for compiling the demo
TCXLDEMO.PRJ - project file used for compiling the demo
TCXLDSK.H - header file for disk functions
TCXLEMS.H - header file for EMS functions
TCXLHIST.DOC - history of changes
TCXLKEY.H - header file for keyboard functions
TCXLMOU.H - header file for mouse functions
TCXLPRN.H - header file for printer functions
TCXLQREF.DOC - quick reference for TCXL functions
TCXLSTR.H - header file for string functions
TCXLVID.H - header file for video functions
TCXLWIN.H - header file for windowing functions


Features of the TCXL Function Library.

- Windowing with multiple windows
- Lotus/Intel/Microsoft EMS memory usage
- EGA 43-line and VGA 50-line modes
- Mouse functions for Microsoft compatible mice
- Direct screen writing for fast screen writes
- Screen/window swapping to memory or disk
- DESQview window compatibility
- Advanced string manipulation
- String Pattern matching
- Data encryption
- Multi-field keyboard input from within windows
- Bar-selection/pull-down menus
- Formatted keyboard input
- Equipment detection
- Printing functions
- Sound function
- and more!







1



Registration Information.

You are free to copy and distribute this library freely, however, if you
find this library of use to you, you are encouraged to register your copy. The
registration cost is $20. Included in this registration cost is technical
support; libraries for the Medium, Compact, Large, and Huge memory models;
low-cost upgrades to future revisions; and best of all, the complete library
source code! This library may not be used in commercial applications without
registration. To register, please send payment and current version number to:

Mike Smedley
2441 N.E. Loop 410 #1505
San Antonio, TX 78217

Or, for more information, I can be reached at one of the following points
of contact:

Telephone - (512) 590-2910 (no collect calls, please)
CompuServe - User ID: 71331,2244
GEnie - Mail address: M.SMEDLEY
Abbey Road BBS - (512) 590-6036 1200/2400/9600 8-N-1
Telstar BBS - (512) 822-8882 1200/2400 8-N-1



DISCLAIMER: The author claims no responsibility for any damages caused by the
use or misuse of this library. This product is distributed "as is" with no
warranty expressed or implied.


Trademarks Used:

CompuServe is a registered trademark of CompuServe Incorporated.
DESQview is a trademark of Quarterdeck Office Systems.
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines.
LIM and EMS are trademarks of Lotus, Intel, and Microsoft Corporations.
Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Turbo C is a registered trademark of Borland International.

















2





Calling TCXL Functions from Turbo C.


To call these functions from Turbo C, you will need to have a line in your
source code file including the appropriate TCXL header file. Example:

#include "tcxlwin.h"

You will also need to link in the TCXL.LIB file when you link your program.
You can do this in one of three ways:

1. Compile & link from the environment. Your project (.PRJ) file
must contain 'TCXL.LIB' in it. It should look like:

myfile tcxl.lib

2. Compile & link from the command line. Type:

tcc myfile tcxl.lib

3. Command line link only. Type:

tlink c0s myfile,myfile,,tcxl emu maths cs /c/x































3


Calling TCXL Functions from Assembly Language.


Most of TCXL's functions (excluding macro-functions) can be called by
assembly language. Some functions will require the Turbo C CS.LIB library to
be linked in also. Any TCXL function which calls the Turbo C malloc() function
cannot be called by an assembly program because malloc() needs information from
the C0S.OBJ startup code. Functions that use malloc() include some string
functions, screen save/restore functions, and windowing functions.

Turbo C passes its arguments to a function via the stack. Arguments are
pushed onto the stack in reverse order. Turbo C places the underscore symbol
preceeding the function name, so to call the getns() function, you must call it
by _getns. After the call to the function, you must readjust the stack. For
every push on the stack, the stack pointer needs to be incremented by 2. The
return value (if any) will be in the AX register. Functions that return 16-bit
values will have the high value in DX and the low value in AX. Here's an
example for the getns() function:

EXTRN _getns:NEAR ; so assembler won't flag an error
mov ax,30 ; maximum length of input string
push ax ; push it onto the stack
mov ax,OFFSET straddr ; address of string to receive input
push ax ; push it onto the stack
call _getns ; call the function
add sp,4 ; adjust stack 2 for every argument
or ax,ax ; is return value = 0?
jnz exitprog ; no, Esc was pressed, exit program
(rest of program)

Here's how to assemble and link your assembly language program with the
TCXL function library:

1. Assemble your assembly source code file with the case-sensitive
switch on:

masm /mx myfile ;

2. Link your object file specifying TCXL as a library:

link myfile,,,tcxl cs

3. Convert to a .COM file if applicable:

exe2bin myfile myfile.com












4


Using TCXL's Windowing Functions.


TCXL has a a powerful windowing system that can be very useful in an
application program. All windowing functions are prefixed with a 'w'. The
windowing is controlled by TCXL's window manager which is called by every
windowing function. The window manager keeps track of which window is active;
each window's position, cursor location, attributes, etc.; how many windows are
open; and other information. All windowing functions set the _werrno global
variable before returning. The literal value of this variable can be viewed
by calling the werrmsg() function.

You may open as many windows as memory permits. Once a window is opened,
it immediately becomes the active window. TCXL's windowing functions can only
be performed on the active window. If you want to perform a function on a
inactive window, you must activate it first. See the supplied TCXLDEMO.C
program for a complete example of how to use the windowing system.


Example:

int w1,w2; /* window handles */
w1=wopen(0,0,10,40,0,LCYAN|_BLUE); /* open 1st window */
if(!w1) error_routine(); /* check for error */
waitkey(); /* wait for keypress */
wputs("Hello, ");
waitkey(); /* wait for keypress */
w2=wopen(7,20,18,60,2,LRED|_MAGENTA); /* open 2nd window */
if(!w2) error_routine(); /* check for error */
wputs("Hello, ");
waitkey(); /* wait for keypress */
if(wactiv(w1)) error_routine(); /* activate 1st window */
wputs("there");
waitkey(); /* wait for keypress */
if(wactiv(w2)) error_routine(); /* activate 2nd window */
wputs("there");
waitkey(); /* wait for keypress */
wclose(); /* close 2nd window */
waitkey(); /* wait for keypress */
wclose(); /* close 1st window */

















5


Using TCXL's Expanded Memory Specification (EMS) Functions.


TCXL contains several functions for simple management of expanded memory.
All of TCXL's EMS functions are prefixed with 'ems'. For those not familiar
with expanded memory, I will briefly explain it.

The 8088 microprocessor is only able to address 1 Megabyte of memory. When
applications started needing more memory, Lotus, Intel, and Microsoft developed
the Expanded Memory Specification. This specification allows access to more
than 1 Megabyte of memory by mapping 16K 'windows' of memory on an expanded
memory board in and out of an unused area of DOS memory. The Expanded Memory
Manager (EMM) is a software driver that controls the mapping.

Physical pages are 16K blocks of memory which are located in an unused area
of DOS memory. There are typically 4 physical pages comprising a 64K
contiguous area of mappable DOS memory. The EMS page frame base address points
to the beginning of the first physical page. Logical pages are 16K blocks of
memory on the expanded memory board. There can be as many logical pages as the
expanded memory board has, up to 8 Megabytes.

Every program that uses expanded memory must do the following:

1. determine if the EMM device driver is loaded
2. determine if there are enough free pages for its application
3. allocate pages of expanded memory
4. find out what the EMS page frame base address is
5. map logical pages onto physical pages
6. deallocate pages when finished with them

Here's an example of using TCXL's EMS functions to perform these
procedures:

int handle1,handle2;
char buf[14];
if(!emsexist()) { /* check for the EMM driver */
printf("EMM not loaded\n");
exit(1);
}
handle1=emsalloc(2); /* request 2 pages of EMS memory */
handle2=emsalloc(2); /* request 2 more pages */
if((!emsh1)||(!emsh2)) { /* test for allocation error */
printf("EMS allocation error\n");
exit(1);
}
emsmap(handle1,0,0); /* map logical page 0 of handle 1
to physical page 0 */
emswrite("Hello, world",0,13); /* write a string at offset 0,
automatically determines what
the page frame address is */
emsmap(emsh2,0,0); /* map logical page 0 of handle 2
to physical page 0 */
emswrite("How are you?",0,13); /* write a string at offset 0 */
emsmap(handle1,0,0); /* map logical page 0 of handle 1
to physical page 0 */


6
emsread(buf,0,13); /* read 13 bytes from offset 0
into buffer */
printf("buf = %s\n",buf); /* display buffer contents */
emsmap(handle2,0,0); /* map logical page 0 of handle 2
to physical page 0 */
emsread(buf,0,13); /* read 13 bytes from offset 0
into buffer */
printf("buf = %s\n",buf); /* display buffer contents */
emsdealloc(handle2); /* deallocate pages belonging to
handle 2 */
emsdealloc(handle1); /* deallocate pages belonging to
handle 1 */















































7


Using TCXL's inputsf() and winputsf() Functions.


The inputsf() and winputsf() functions in TCXL accept keyboard input
through the use of TCXL's own input format strings. These format strings are
not the same as what scanf() uses. They have the ability to restrict and
convert input for each character received from the keyboard. They also allow
for custom prompts between each character input. The format control characters
can be in any order in the string, but all letters must be in the case shown
here. Invalid control characters will cause the function to return an error
and the receiving string will be null. Spaces can be used to improve
readability of the format string. If the Escape key is not disabled, when
pressed it will return an error code and the receiving string will be null.
Valid control characters are:

!.......! - start and end exclamation points, any letters
between them are format command toggles. The
valid format command toggles are:

- - decreases text attribute, works with
winputsf() only

+ - increases text attribute, works with
winputsf() only

C - toggles copying of display (quoted)
characters to the receiving string.
(default is off)

E - toggles Escape key checking off/on.
When off, if the Escape key is pressed,
the function returns an error code and
the string will be null. The default
for inputsf() is on. For winputsf(),
the default is the value of _wesc upon
calling.

L - toggles lower-case conversion. When on,
the case of input letters will be forced
to lower case. (default is off)

M - toggles mixed-case conversion. When on,
the case of input letters will be forced
to upper-case for the first letter of
each word and lower-case for the
remaining letters. (default is off)

R - toggles return key checking. When off,
the carriage return key will be ignored
until the end of the format string.
(default is on)

U - toggles upper-case conversion. When on,
the case of input letters will be forced
to upper-case. (default is off)


8


'.......' - start and end single quotes, any characters
between them will be displayed as text. If the 'C'
command toggle is on, the characters will also be
copied to the receiving string.

Character type codes:

# - accept numeric character '0' thru '9'
9 - accept numeric character '0' thru '9', '.', '-', and '+'
? - accept any character
A - accept alpha character 'A' thru 'Z', 'a' thru 'z', and space
L - accept alpha character 'A' thru 'Z', 'a' thru 'z', and space
input character will be converted to lower case
M - accept alpha character 'A' thru 'Z', 'a' thru 'z', and space
input character will be converted to mixed case
P - accept printable character (ASCII 20 thru 7E)
U - accept alpha character 'A' thru 'Z', 'a' thru 'z', and space
input character will be converted to upper case
X - accept alphanumeric character 'A' thru 'Z', 'a' thru 'z',
'0' thru '9', and space
Y - accept a yes/no character 'Y', 'y', 'N', and 'n'


<.......> - start and end angle brackets, accept a character
from valid list of characters between angle brackets.

Examples:

inputsf(str,"'Enter name: ' !UR! XXXXX !R! XXXXXXXXXX");

Prompts for name, inputs string from keyboard converting characters
to upper case as it goes, allows up to 15 alphanumeric characters
as input. The return key is disabled until at least 5 characters
have been entered. Characters will be copied to str. This space
must already be allocated!


inputsf(str,"!R! 'Enter phone: '!C! '(' ### ') ' ### '-' ####");

Prompts for a full phone number including area code, allows only
digit characters and displays format punctuation as it goes. The
entire field must be filled before return can be pressed. All of
the characters except the prompt will be copied to the receiving
string. The input string will be copied to str, which must have
already been allocated.


inputsf(str,"!R!'Enter SSAN: '<0123456>##'-'##'-'####");

Prompts for a Social Security number. Will not allow return to be
pressed until all digits have been entered. The first digit of the
SSAN must be 0 - 6. Dashes will be displayed as you are typing in
the data, but will not be contained in the receiving string str.




9
inputsf(str,"!R!'Enter DOB (MM/DD/YY): '<01>#'/'<0123>#'/'##");

Prompts for Date of Birth. Allows only valid digits for the input
date. Prevents the return key from working until all digits have
been typed in.






















































10


Using TCXL's Multi-Field Window Input Functions.


Two functions are needed to process multi-field keyboard input from
windows: winpdef(), and winpread(). The winpdef() function sets up an input
field. For every input field you want defined, you must call winpdef(). It
displays the current contents of what is to be the receiving string. The size
of the string before winpdef() is called will be the size of the input field.
You may need to resize the string before calling winpdef(). You can do this
with the strsetsz() function. The winpdef() function will also specify the
type of the field. Valid field types are:

# - allow only numeric characters '0' thru '9'
9 - allow only numeric characters '0' thru '9', '.', '-', and '+'
? - allow any characters
A - allow only alpha characters 'A' thru 'Z', 'a' thru 'z', and space
L - allow only alpha characters 'A' thru 'Z', 'a' thru 'z', and space
input characters will be converted to lower case
M - allow only alpha characters 'A' thru 'Z', 'a' thru 'z', and space
input characters will be converted to mixed case
P - allow only printable characters (ASCII 20 thru 7E)
U - allow only alpha characters 'A' thru 'Z', 'a' thru 'z', and space
input characters will be converted to upper case
X - allow only alphanumeric characters 'A' thru 'Z', 'a' thru 'z',
'0' thru '9', and space
Y - allow only yes/no characters 'Y', 'y', 'N', and 'n'

The case of the field type characters must be as shown. For every input
field you want defined, you must call winpdef().

The winpread() function processes all fields defined with winpdef(). The
user is allowed to move around and edit all of the fields. Valid editing keys
are:

LeftArrow - moves cursor left inside the field
RightArrow - moves cursor right inside the field
UpArrow - moves cursor to the previous field up
DownArrow - moves cursor to the next field down
Tab - moves cursor to the next field right
Shift-Tab - moves cursor to the next field left
Enter - if the cursor is in the last field on the screen, it will
process all fields. Otherwise it will skip to the next
field
Ctrl-Enter - processes all fields, wherever the cursor may be
Home - moves cursor to beginning of field
End - moves cursor to end of field
Ctrl-Home - moves cursor to the beginning of the first field on the
screen
Ctrl-End - moves cursor to the end of the last field on the screen
Ins - inserts a space at cursor location. All text to the
right of the cursor will be shifted right. The end
character will be dropped.
Del - deletes character at the cursor location. All text to
the right of the cursor will be shifted left and a space
will be inserted at the end of the field.


11
Esc - if enabled, cancels input and returns a W_ESCPRESS value.
Escape checking can be enabled or disabled by using the
wsetesc() function before winpread() is called.

After the winpread() function is called, all fields defined with winpdef()
will be cleared. The receiving strings of all defined fields will now contain
the data entered. If Escape checking was on and the Esc key was pressed, then
all receiving strings will contain the values they held before winpread() was
called.

Another function that can be used in multi-field keyboard input is the
winpxcel() function. What this does is cancel all fields defined with
winpdef(). For winpxcel() to have any effect, it must be called before
winpread() is.













































12


Using TCXL's Window Bar-Selection Menus.


Two functions are needed to use TCXL's bar-selection menus: wmbardef(),
and wmbarget(). The wmbardef() function displays the menu option on the
screen and assigns a tag character to it. The tag character is used for
identification of the menu option. The tag character must be alphanumeric and
is case insensitive. For every menu option you have, the wmbardef() function
must be called.

When all menu options have been defined, you will call the wmbarget()
function. The first argument to wmbarget() is the attribute of the selection
bar. The second argument is the tag character of where you want the selection
bar to initially be located. If an undefined tag character is used, then the
initial position of the selection bar will default to the upper-leftmost
option. The third argument of wmbarget() is the pulldown parameter. This is
used for a pull-down menu system. If a pull-down menu system is not being
used, then the pulldown parameter should be specified as zero.

If you are using pull-down menus, then the pulldown parameter may have
one of four values. PDMAIN is used to signify that the menu you have just
defined is to be the main menu of a pull-down menu system. PDMENU is used to
signify that the menu you have just defined is one of the pull-down menus from
the main menu. The other two values that the pulldown parameter can have are
used for movement between pull-down menus. PDPREV is used to signify that the
menu you have just defined is the main menu and you wish to automatically
select the option previous to the specified taginit. PDNEXT is used to signify
that the menu you have just defined is the main menu and you wish to
automatically select the next option after the specified taginit.

Movement/selection keys that are used during the wmbarget() function are:

LeftArrow - moves selection bar to previous option left. If inside a
pull-down menu, pressing this will cause wmbarget() to
return PDPREV.
RightArrow - moves selection bar to next option right. If inside a
pull-down menu, pressing this will cause wmbarget() to
return PDNEXT.
UpArrow - moves selection bar to previous option up.
DownArrow - moves selection bar to next option down. If pull-down
menus are being used and you are currently in the main
menu, then the option that the selection bar is on is
selected.
Tab - moves selection bar to next option right.
Shift-Tab - moves selection bar to previous option left.
Enter - selects the option that the selection bar is on.
Home - moves selection bar to upper left option.
End - moves selection bar to lower right option.
Esc - if enabled, cancels input and returns a zero. Escape
checking can be enabled or disabled by using the
wsetesc() function before wmbarget() is called. If
inside a pull-down menu, pressing this will cause
wmbarget() to return PDMAIN.

When an option is selected, it's tag character will be returned by


13
wmbarget(). The tag character will be in the same case as when defined. If
the Esc key was pressed and Escape checking was on, a zero will be returned and
the global variable _werrno will be set to W_ESCPRESS. If any other error
occurred, the return value will be zero and the global variable _werrno will be
set to an error code (see TCXLWIN.H). Once a selection is made, the wmbarget()
function automatically clears all menu options defined by wmbardef().

If you are using wmbarget() to process a pull-down menu (PDMENU), and the
LeftArrow or RightArrow key is pressed, then wmbarget() will return PDPREV or
PDNEXT, respectively. This allows you to input these return values back into
the main menu's wmbarget() pulldown parameter to automatically select the
previous or next pull-down window from the current pull-down window. The
Escape checking status will be ignored while using pull-down menus. Instead,
if in a pull-down menu (PDMENU), and the Esc key is pressed, wmbarget() will
return PDMAIN, which allows you to reinput that value back into the main menu's
wmbarget() pulldown parameter. For a complete example of using pull-down
menus, see the example in TCXLDEMO.C.

Another function that may be used for bar-selection menus is wmbarxcel().
This can be used if you need to cancel all defined options before wmbarget() is
called.

Example for a Bar-Selection Menu:

int selection;
wopen(5,10,20,50,4,LMAGENTA|_RED);
wmbardef(2,2,LGREEN|_RED,"Add record",'A');
wmbardef(4,2,LGREEN|_RED,"Delete record",'D');
wmbardef(6,2,LGREEN|_RED,"Print record",'P');
wmbardef(8,2,LGREEN|_RED,"Update record",'U');
selection=wmbarget(LRED|_GREEN,'A',0);
wgotoxy(10,2);
wprintf("You selected %c\n",selection);
waitkey();
wclose();
























14


Using TCXL's Mouse Functions.


TCXL has several functions used to facilitate Microsoft compatible mice.
All of these functions are prefixed with a 'ms'. These functions will work
on Microsoft mice or other mice using a Microsoft compatible driver. These
mouse functions allow you to:

1. Initialize mouse/determine if mouse exists.
2. Get the status of button presses/releases.
3. Hide/reveal the mouse cursor.
4. Get/set the mouse cursor position.
5. Select type of mouse cursor (hardware or software).
5. Adjust the mouse sensitivity (speed).
6. Get information on direction of mouse movement.
7. Establish horizontal/vertical boundries of mouse movement.

When reading or setting mouse coordinates, the values used are in pixels.
To calculate mouse coordinates in terms of column and row instead of X and Y,
you would multiply character width by column, and character height by row.
Typically, screen characters are 8 pixels wide by 8 pixels tall. So, to
position the mouse cursor at column 60, row 15, you would use:

msgotoxy(60*8,15*8);

The mscursor() function sets the cursor type. It takes 3 parameters:
ctype, smask, and cmask. If ctype = 1 then the cursor type is hardware. The
hardware cursor is the flashing block on your screen. If this type of cursor
is used, it will interfere with normal text cursor functions. When using the
hardware cursor type, the value for smask is the start scan line of the cursor,
and the value for cmask is the stop scan line of the cursor. If the ctype
parameter = 0, then a software cursor is used. For the software cursor, the
smask parameter is the screen mask, and the cmask parameter is the cursor mask.
The screen mask determines which of the characters attributes are preserved.
The cursor mask defines how the attributes are changed to show the cursor. For
both masks, the bit values are as follows:

Bits 0-7: ASCII value of character
Bits 8-10: Foreground color
Bit 11: Intensity
Bits 12-14: Background color
Bit 15: Blink

The msmotion() function determines direction and distance traveled since
last msmotion() call. The xcount and ycount parameters will either be negative
or positive depending on direction mouse moved. The amount will be the number
of pixels travelled.

When updating the screen, the mouse cursor should be hidden with the
mshidecur() function first, and then after the screen is updated, the
msshowcur() should be called to re-display the mouse cursor.






15


Description of TCXL Functions
-----------------------------


Name: attrib
Purpose: creates an attribute
Prototype: int attrib(int fore,int back,int bright,int blink);
Header: tcxlvid.h tcxlwin.h
Inputs: fore - foreground color code (0-7)
back - background color code (0-7)
bright - intensity (0-1)
blink - blinking (0-1)
Return: attribute
Also see: setattr wtextattr
Example:
prints(15,10,attrib(7,5,1,0),"Hello, world");


Name: beep
Purpose: sounds a beep in the speaker
Prototype: void beep(void);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: sound_
Example:
beep();


Name: biosver
Purpose: returns the ROM BIOS version date
Prototype: char *biosver(void);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: none
Return: address of the static string containing the ROM BIOS version date
Also see: machid
Example:
printf("ROM BIOS version date is %s\n",biosver());


Name: box
Purpose: draws a box on the screen
Prototype: void box(int srow,int scol,int erow,int ecol,int btype,int atr);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: srow - starting row upper left corner
scol - starting column upper left corner
erow - ending row lower right corner
ecol - ending column
btype - box type (0-5)
atr - attribute
Return: none
Also see: attrib boxd
Example:
box(0,0,22,79,1,WHITE|_BLUE);



16

Name: boxd
Purpose: draws a box directly on the screen (no BIOS calls)
Prototype: void boxd(int srow,int scol,int erow,int ecol,int btype,int atr);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: srow - starting row upper left corner
scol - starting column upper left corner
erow - ending row lower right corner
ecol - ending column
btype - box type (0-5)
atr - attribute
Return: none
Also see: attrib box videoinit
Example:
boxd(0,0,22,79,1,WHITE|_BLUE);


Name: capsoff
Purpose: toggles the CapsLock key off
Prototype: void capsoff(void);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: capson kbstat numoff
Example:
capsoff();


Name: capson
Purpose: toggles the CapsLock key on
Prototype: void capson(void);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: capsoff kbstat numon
Example:
capson();


Name: clearkeys
Purpose: clears the keyboard buffer
Prototype: void clearkeys(void);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: waitkey
Example:
int ch;
printf("Press a key: ");
clearkeys();
ch=getche();


Name: clockcal
Purpose: determines if a clock-calendar board is installed (usually this
board will only be in XT machines)
Prototype: int clockcal(void);


17
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: none
Return: a non-zero value if a clock-calendar board is present
Example:
printf("A clock-calendar is%s installed\n",clockcal()?"":" not");


Name: clreol_
Purpose: clears to the end of line using current attribute
Prototype: void clreol_(void);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: clrscrn clrwin
Example:
prints(10,5,LCYAN|_BLUE,"Hello, worldXXXXXXXX");
gotoxy_(10,17);
clreol_();


Name: clrscrn
Purpose: clears the screen (up to 50 lines) using current attribute, and
homes the cursor
Prototype: void clrscrn(void);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: clreol_ clrwin
Example:
clrscrn();


Name: clrwin
Purpose: clears a window of the screen using current attribute
Prototype: void clrwin(srow,scol,erow,ecol);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: srow - starting row upper left corner
scol - starting column upper left corner
erow - ending row lower right corner
ecol - ending column lower right corner
Return: none
Also see: clreol_ clrscrn
Example:
filld(10,10,20,20,'X',LCYAN|_BLUE);
clrwin(11,11,19,19);


Name: cvaltype
Purpose: checks given character against given character type code,
determines if character is valid type
Prototype: int cvaltype(int ch,int ctype);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: ch - character to test
ctype - character type code to compare with, see section on TCXL
format strings for a list of valid character type codes.
Return: a 1 if character is a valid character type, otherwise a zero
Also see: winpdef


18
Example:
int valid=NO;
char ch='Z';
valid=cvaltype(ch,'#');
printf("%c is %sa valid char of type '#'\n",ch,valid?"":" not");


Name: delay_
Purpose: delays program execution for a specified duration
Prototype: void delay_(unsigned duration);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: duration - duration (0-65535) ie. 18 = 1 second
Return: none
Also see: timer waitkeyt
Example:
printf("Testing\n1\n");
delay_(36);
printf("2\n");
delay_(36);
printf("3\n");


Name: disktoscrn
Purpose: copies a previously saved screen disk file back to the screen
Prototype: int disktoscrn(char *fname);
Header: tcxldsk.h tcxlvid.h
Inputs: fname - address of the string containing file name to read from
Return: a zero if no error
Also see: disktowin fexist scrntodisk
Example:
if(disktoscrn("SCREEN.DAT")) {
printf("Error reading input file\n");
exit(1);
}


Name: disktowin
Purpose: copies a previously saved window disk file back to the screen
Prototype: int disktowin(char *fname);
Header: tcxldsk.h
Inputs: fname - address of the string containing file name to read from
Return: a zero if no error
Also see: disktoscrn fexist wintodisk
Example:
if(disktowin("WINDOW.DAT")) {
printf("Error reading input file\n");
exit(1);
}


Name: emsalloc
Purpose: allocates pages of EMS memory. See the section on using TCXL's EMS
functions for more information
Prototype: unsigned emsalloc(int numpages);
Header: tcxlems.h
Inputs: numpages - the number of pages (16K blocks) requested
Return: the EMS handle or a 0 if an error occurred


19
Also see: emsdealloc emsexist emsfree
Example:
int handle1;
handle1=emsalloc(2); /* request 2 pages (32K) */
if(!handle1) {
printf("EMS allocation error\n");
exit(1);
}


Name: emsdealloc
Purpose: deallocate previously allocated pages of EMS memory
Prototype: int emsdealloc(int handle);
Header: tcxlems.h
Inputs: handle - the previously assigned EMS handle
Return: a 0 if no error or else an EMS error code
Also see: emsalloc
Example:
if(emsdealloc(ems_handle)) {
printf("EMS deallocation error\n");
exit(1);
}


Name: emsexist
Purpose: determines if the EMS device driver is loaded. See the section on
using TCXL's EMS functions for more information
Prototype: int emsexist(void);
Header: tcxlems.h
Inputs: none
Return: a 0 if EMS driver not loaded, or a 1 if EMS driver is loaded
Also see: emsalloc emsfree emstotal expmem
Example:
printf("EMS device driver is %sloaded\n",(emsexist())?"":"not ");


Name: emsframe
Purpose: returns the EMS page frame base address (segment)
Prototype: unsigned emsframe(void);
Header: tcxlems.h
Inputs: none
Return: the EMS page frame base address (segment) or a zero if an error
occurred
Also see: emsmap
Example:
printf("EMS page frame address is at: %X\n",emsframe());


Name: emsfree
Purpose: returns the number of free EMS pages (16K blocks)
Prototype: unsigned emsfree(void);
Header: tcxlems.h
Inputs: none
Return: the number of free EMS pages
Also see: emsalloc emstotal
Example:
printf("Free EMS pages: %d\n",emsfree());


20


Name: emsmap
Purpose: maps a logical EMS page onto a physical page address, emsalloc()
must be called prior to this function
Prototype: int emsmap(int handle,int lpage,int ppage);
Header: tcxlems.h
Inputs: handle - the EMS handle previosly assigned
lpage - the logical EMS page to map (0 - ?)
ppage - the physical DOS page to map to (0 - 3)
Return: a zero if no error, or else an EMS error code
Also see: emsalloc emsframe
Example:
if(emsmap(ems_handle,0,0)) {
printf("Error mapping logical page 0 to physical page 0\n");
exit(1);
}


Name: emsread
Purpose: reads bytes from an EMS page(s), emsalloc() and emsmap() must be
called prior to this function. The source segment used will be
the current EMS page frame address and the destination segment will
be the program's DATA segment.
Prototype: int emsread(void *dest,unsigned emsofs,unsigned numbytes);
Header: tcxlems.h
Inputs: dest - address to receive bytes read
emsofs - offset from the EMS page frame base address at which to
read the bytes from
numbytes - the number of bytes to read
Return: a zero if no error, otherwise an error
Also see: emsmap emswrite
Example:
if(!emsread(buf,0x100,64)) {
printf("Failed to read 64 bytes from EMS memory\n");
exit(1);
}


Name: emstotal
Purpose: returns the total number of EMS pages (16K blocks) on the system
Prototype: unsigned emstotal(void);
Header: tcxlems.h
Inputs: none
Return: the total number of EMS pages on the system or a zero if an error
occurred
Also see: emsfree expmem
Example:
printf("You have %d pages of EMS memory\n",emstotal());


Name: emsver
Purpose: returns the current EMS version
Prototype: char *emsver(void);
Header: tcxlems.h
Inputs: none
Return: the address of the static string containing the EMS version number


21
or NULL if error
Example:
printf("Your EMS version is %s\n",emsver());


Name: emswrite
Purpose: writes bytes to an EMS page(s), emsalloc() and emsmap() must be
called prior to this function. The source segment will be the
program's DATA segment and the destination segment will be the
EMS current EMS page frame address.
Prototype: int emswrite(void *src,unsigned emsofs,unsigned numbytes);
Header: tcxlems.h
Inputs: src - address of where to write bytes from
emsofs - offset from EMS page frame base address of where to write
bytes to
numbytes - number of bytes to write
Return: a zero if no error, otherwise an error
Also see: emsframe emsmap emsread
Example:
if(!emswrite(buf,0x100,64)) {
printf("Failed to write 64 bytes to EMS memory\n");
exit(1);
}


Name: expmem
Purpose: determines the amount (if any) of expanded memory on the system
Prototype: unsigned expmem(void);
Header: tcxldef.h tcxlems.h
Inputs: none
Return: the amount of expanded memory in Kilobytes
Also see: emsexist extmem
Example:
printf("Amt of expanded memory = %dK\n",expmem());


Name: extmem
Purpose: determines the amount of extended memory on an AT machine
Prototype: unsigned extmem(void);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: none
Return: the amount of extended memory in Kilobytes
Also see: expmem
Example:
printf("Amt of extended memory = %dK\n",extmem());


Name: fcmpdatm
Purpose: compares the dates and times of 2 files
Prototype: int fcmpdatm(char *fname1,char *fname2);
Header: tcxldsk.h
Inputs: fname1 - address of string containing filename1
fname2 - address of string containing filename2
Return: -1 if less than or equal to, 0 if error, 1 if greater than
Also see: fexist
Example:
int i;


22
i=fcmpdatm("C:FILE1.EXT","A:FILE1.EXT");
if(i>0) printf("Backup copy of file needs refreshing\n");


Name: fexist
Purpose: determines if a disk file exists
Prototype: int fexist(char *fname);
Header: tcxldsk.h
Inputs: fname - the address of string containing file name to check,
wildcards are allowed in the file name
Return: a 0 if file doesn't exist, a 1 if it does
Also see: fcmpdatm
Example:
int i;
i=fexist("\\COMMAND.COM");
printf("\\COMMAND.COM does %sexist\n",i?"":"not ");


Name: fhide
Purpose: hides a disk file
Prototype: int fhide(char *filename);
Header: tcxldsk.h
Inputs: filename - address of string containing file name
Return: a zero if an error occurred
Example:
if(!fhide("MYFILE.EXT")) {

printf("Could not hide file\n");
exit(1);
}


Name: fill
Purpose: fills in a region of the screen with specified character/attribute
Prototype: void fill(int srow,int scol,int erow,int ecol,int ch,int atr);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: srow - starting row upper left corner
scol - starting column upper left corner
erow - ending row lower left corner
ecol - ending column lower left corner
ch - character to fill with
atr - attribute of character
Return: none
Also see: attrib filld
Example:
box(1,1,10,10,3,LMAGENTA|_CYAN);
fill(2,2,9,9,' ',WHITE|_RED);


Name: filld
Purpose: fills in a region of the screen with specified character/attribute
by writing directly to the screen (no BIOS calls)
Prototype: void filld(int srow,int scol,int erow,int ecol,int ch,int atr);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: srow - starting row upper left corner
scol - starting column upper left corner
erow - ending row lower left corner
ecol - ending column lower left corner


23
ch - character to fill with
atr - attribute of character
Return: none
Also see: attrib fill videoinit
Example:
boxd(1,1,10,10,3,LMAGENTA|_CYAN);
filld(2,2,9,9,' ',WHITE|_RED);


Name: gameport
Purpose: determines if a game port is installed
Prototype: int gameport(int equip);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: equip - the result from the biosequip() function
Return: a 1 if a game port is installed
Also see: mathchip numflop numpar numser
Example:
int i;
i=biosequip();
printf("Game port is %sinstalled\n",gameport(i)?"":"not ");


Name: getchf
Purpose: gets a character from the keyboard from a list of valid
characters, provides Escape checking
Prototype: int getchf(char *valid);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: valid - address of list of valid characters
Return: the character pressed or 0 if the Escape key was pressed
Also see: getxch waitkey
Example:
char ch;
printf("Are you sure? ");
ch=getchf("YyNn");
if(ch!='Y'&&ch!='y') {
exit(0);
}


Name: getktot
Purpose: gets the total disk space in kilobytes
Prototype: unsigned getktot(int drive);
Header: tcxldsk.h
Inputs: drive - the drive to check (3 = C:, 4 = D:, etc.)
Return: size of the specified disk in kilobytes, -1 if error
Also see: getvol
Example:
printf("drive C: contains %u kilobytes\n",getktot(3));


Name: getns
Purpose: inputs a string of specified length from the keyboard, provides
Escape checking
Prototype: int getns(char *str,int max);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: str - address of allocated space to receive input string
max - maximum length of the input string


24
Return: a 1 if the key was pressed
Also see: inputsf prompts
Example:
char age[2];
printf("Enter your age: ");
if(getns(age,2)) {
printf("Escape was pressed\n");
exit(0);
}
printf("Your age is: %s\n",age);


Name: getvol
Purpose: gets the volume label from a disk drive
Prototype: char *getvol(char drive);
Header: tcxldsk.h
Inputs: drive - drive letter
Return: address of a static string containing the volume label or a zero if
the disk has no volume label
Also see: getktot
Example:
printf("The volume label on drive C is: %s\n",getvol('C'));


Name: getxch
Purpose: gets a key (ASCII code/extended ASCII code) from the keyboard
Prototype: void getxch(int *ch,int *xch);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: ch - the address of where to store input key's ASCII code
xch - the address of where to store input key's extended ASCII
code
Return: none
Also see: getchf
Example:
int ch,xch;
printf("Press a key: ");
getxch(&ch,&xch);
printf("\nch = %c, ASCII code = %d, extended = %d\n",ch,ch,xch);


Name: gotoxy_
Purpose: sets cursor coordinates on the screen
Prototype: void gotoxy_(int row,int col);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: row - cursor row (Y coordinate)
col - cursor column (X coordinate)
Return: none
Also see: readcur
Example:
gotoxy_(20,30);
printf("We are at row 20, column 30\n");


Name: home
Purpose: homes the cursor
Prototype: void home(void);
Header: tcxlvid.h


25
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: clrscrn gotoxy_
Example:
home();
printf("We are at row 0, column 0\n");


Name: inputsf
Purpose: inputs a formatted string from the keyboard
Prototype: int inputsf(char *str,char *fmt);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: str - address of the allocated space to receive string
fmt - address of the format string, see section on using format
strings
Return: a 0 if no error, a 1 if Escape, a 2 if invalid format string
Also see: getns prompts
Example:
char str[255];
inputsf(str,!RE!'Enter phone number: ('###') '###'-'####");
printf("\nYour phone number is: %s\n",str);
inputsf(str,!EM!'Enter your name: 'AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA");
printf("\nYour name is: %s\n",str);


Name: kbstat
Purpose: returns the status of the keyboard control keys
Prototype: int kbstat(void);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: none
Return: status word of the keyboard flag
Also see: capsoff capson numoff numon
Example:
if(kbstat()&CTRL) printf("The key is now being pressed\n");


Name: lcrlf
Purpose: prints a carriage return and line feed on the printer
Prototype: void lcrlf(void);
Header: tcxlprn.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: lprintc
Example:
lprints("Hello, world");
lcrlf();
lprintc(FF);


Name: lprintc
Purpose: prints a character on the printer
Prototype: void lprintc(int ch);
Header: tcxlprn.h
Inputs: ch - the character to print
Return: none
Also see: lcrlf lprintf
Example:


26
lprints("Hello, world\n");
lprintc(FF);


Name: lprintf
Purpose: sends formatted output to the printer, works like printf()
Prototype: int lprintf(const char *format,...);
Header: tcxlprn.h
Inputs: format - format string, refer to Turbo C manual under printf()
... - any additional arguments
Return: a zero if no error, otherwise a memory allocation error
Also see: lprintc lprintns lprints
Example:
char ch='X';
int i=327;
char *str="Hello";
lprintf("%s %c %d\n",str,ch,i);


Name: lprintns
Purpose: prints a string on the printer, formatting width
Prototype: void lprintns(char *str,int width);
Header: tcxlprn.h
Inputs: str - the address of the string to print
width - width to print string, uses padding or truncating
Return: none
Also see: lprintf lprints lprintsu
Example:
lprintns("Hello, world",5);
lcrlf();
lprintc(FF);


Name: lprints
Purpose: prints a string on the printer
Prototype: void lprints(char *str);
Header: tcxlprn.h
Inputs: str - the address of the string to print
Return: none
Also see: lprintf lprintns lprintsu
Example:
lprints("Hello, world\n");
lprintc(FF);


Name: lprintsb
Purpose: prints a bold-faced string on the printer
Prototype: void lprintsb(char *str);
Header: tcxlprn.h
Inputs: str - the address of the string to print
Return: none
Also see: lprints lprintsu
Example:
lprintsb("Hello, world\n");
lprintc(FF);




27
Name: lprintsu
Purpose: prints an underlined string on the printer
Prototype: void lprintsu(char *str);
Header: tcxlprn.h
Inputs: str - the address of the string to print
Return: none
Also see: lprints lprintsb
Example:
lprintsu("Hello, world\n");
lprintc(FF);


Name: machid
Purpose: returns the value of the machine ROM ID byte
Prototype: int machid(void);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: none
Return: the value of the machine ROM ID byte
Also see: biosver
Example:
if(machid()==IBMPCAT) printf("You have an IBM PC/AT\n");


Name: mathchip
Purpose: determines if a math coprocessor is installed
Prototype: int mathchip(int equip);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: equip - the result from the biosequip() function
Return: a 1 if a math coprocessor is installed
Also see: gameport numflop numpar numser
Example:
int i;
i=biosequip();
printf("Math coprocessor is %sinstalled\n",mathchip(i)?"":"not ");


Name: mode
Purpose: sets the video mode
Prototype: void mode(int mode_code);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: mode_code - mode code number
Return: none
Also see: setlines vidtype
Example:
mode(4);
printf("We are now in CGA graphics mode\n");


Name: msbpress
Purpose: gets info about specific button presses of mouse
Prototype: void msbpress(int button,int *bstat,int *bcount,int *x,int *y);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Inputs: button - button to check, 0 = left button, 1 = right button
bstat - address to receive button status (0 = not being pressed,
1 = currently being pressed)
bcount - address to receive number of times pressed since last
call


28
x - address to receive X pixel coordinate at time of press
y - address to receive Y pixel coordinate at time of press
Return: none
Also see: msbreles msstatus
Example:
int bstat,int bcount,int x,int y;
msbpres(0,&bstat,&bcount,&x,&y);
printf("bstat = %d, bcount = %d, x = %d, y = %d\n",bstat,bcount,
x,y);


Name: msbreles
Purpose: gets info about specific button releases of mouse
Prototype: void msbreles(int button,int *bstat,int *bcount,int *x,int *y);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Inputs: button - button to check, 0 = left button, 1 = right button
bstat - address to receive button status (0 = not being pressed,
1 = currently being pressed)
bcount - address to receive number of times released since last
call
x - address to receive X pixel coordinate at time of release
y - address to receive Y pixel coordinate at time of release
Return: none
Also see: msbpress msstatus
Example:
int bstat,int bcount,int x,int y;
msbreles(0,&bstat,&bcount,&x,&y);
printf("bstat = %d, bcount = %d, x = %d, y = %d\n",bstat,bcount,
x,y);


Name: mscursor
Purpose: sets the mouse cursor mode
Prototype: void mscursor(int curtype,int smask,int cmask);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Inputs: curtype - cursor type, 0 = software, 1 = hardware
smask - screen mask (SW) or start scan line (HW), see section
on using mouse functions for a description of mask
cmask - cursor mask (SW) or stop scan line (HW), see section
on using mouse functions for a description of mask
Return: none
Also see: msshowcur


Name: msgotoxy
Purpose: sets the mouse coordinates
Prototype: void msgotoxy(int x,int y);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Inputs: x - X pixel coordinate
y - Y pixel coordinate
Return: none
Also see: msstatus
Example:
msgotoxy(20*8,10*8); /* sets mouse cursor at row 10, column 20 */


Name: mshbounds


29
Purpose: sets the mouse horizontal bounds
Prototype: void mshbounds(int left,int right);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Inputs: left - left pixel boundry
right - right pixel boundry
Return: none
Also see: msvbounds
Example:
/* limits mouse movement between columns 40 and 60 */
mshbounds(40*8,60*8);


Name: mshidecur
Purpose: hides the mouse cursor
Prototype: void mshidecur(void);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: msshowcur
Example:
msshowcur(); /* now you see mouse cursor */
mshidecur(); /* now you don't */


Name: msinit
Purpose: determines if mouse is present. If so, initializes mouse. See
section on how to use TCXL's mouse functions for details.
Prototype: int msinit(void);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Inputs: none
Return: a 0 if mouse is not present
Example:
if(msinit()) {
printf("Mouse initialized!\n");
}
else {
printf("Mouse does not exist\n");
}


Name: msmotion
Purpose: gets information about the movement of mouse
Prototype: void msmotion(int *xcount,int *ycount);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Inputs: xcount - address to receive amount of X movement in pixels -/+
ycount - address to receive amount of Y movement in pixels -/+
Return: none
Example:
int xcount,ycount;
msinit();
msmotion(&xcount,&ycount);
printf("Move mouse, then press a key\n");
waitkey();
msmotion(&xcount,&ycount);
if(xcount<0) printf("mouse moved left\n");
if(xcount>0) printf("mouse moved right\n");
if(ycount<0) printf("mouse moved up\n");


30
if(ycount>0) printf("mouse moved down\n");


Name: msshowcur
Purpose: reveals the mouse cursor
Prototype: void msshowcur(void);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: mshidecur
Example:
msshowcur(); /* now you see mouse cursor */
mshidecur(); /* now you don't */


Name: msspeed
Purpose: adjusts mouse speed by changing its sensitivity
Prototype: void msspeed(int xratio,int yratio);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Inputs: xratio - horizontal speed (higher numbers are slower)
yratio - vertical speed (higher numbers are slower)
Return: none
Example:
msinit();
msshowcur();
printf("move mouse around, then press a key\n");
waitkey();
msspeed(15,15);
printf("now see how mouse moves\n");
waitkey();


Name: msstatus
Purpose: returns the mouse status
Prototype: void msstatus(int *bstat,int *x,int *y);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Inputs: bstat - address to receive button status (0 = not pressed, 1 =
pressed)
x - address to receive current X pixel coordinate
y - address to receive current Y pixel coordinate
Return: none
Example:
int bstat,x,y;
msstatus(&bstat,&x,&y);
printf("bstat = %d, x = %d, y = %d\n",bstat,x,y);


Name: msvbounds
Purpose: sets the mouse vertical bounds
Header: tcxlmou.h
Prototype: void msvbounds(int top,int bottom);
Inputs: top - top pixel boundry
bottom - bottom pixel boundry
Return: none
Also see: mshbounds
Example:
/* limits mouse movement between rows 10 and 20 */


31
msvbounds(10*8,20*8);


Name: numflop
Purpose: returns the number of floppy disk drives installed
Prototype: int numflop(int equip);
Header: tcxlmou.h
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: equip - the result from the biosequip() function
Return: the number of floppy disk drives installed
Also see: gameport mathchip numpar numser
Example:
int i;
i=biosequip();
printf("Number of floppy disk drives = %d\n",numflop(i));


Name: numoff
Purpose: toggles the NumLock key off
Prototype: void numoff(void);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: capsoff kbstat numon
Example:
numoff();


Name: numon
Purpose: toggles the NumLock key on
Prototype: void numon(void);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: capson kbstat numoff
Example:
numon();


Name: numpar
Purpose: determines the number of parallel ports
Prototype: int numpar(int equip);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: equip - the result from the biosequip() function
Return: the number of parallel ports installed
Also see: gameport mathchip numflop numser
Example:
int i;
i=biosequip();
printf("Number of parallel ports = %d\n",numpar(i));


Name: numser
Purpose: determines the number of serial ports installed
Prototype: int numser(int equip);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: equip - the result from the biosequip() function


32
Return: the number of serial ports installed
Also see: gameport mathchip numflop numpar
Example:
int i;
i=biosequip();
printf("Number of serial ports = %d\n",numser(i));


Name: printc
Purpose: prints a character to the screen at a specified location and
attribute
Prototype: void printc(int row,int col,int attr,int ch,int count);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: row - row
col - column
attr - attribute of character
ch - character to print
count - number of times to print character
Return: none
Also see: attrib printcd
Example:
printc(18,60,LGREEN|BLINK,'Z',5);


Name: printcd
Purpose: prints a character directly to the screen at a specified
location and attribute (no BIOS calls)
Prototype: void printcd(int row,int col,int attr,int ch);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: row - row
col - column
attr - attribute of character
ch - character to print
Return: none
Also see: attrib printc videoinit
Example:
printcd(18,60,LGREEN|BLINK,'Z');


Name: prints
Purpose: displays a string on the screen at a specified location
and attribute
Prototype: void prints(int row,int col,int attr,char *str);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: row - cursor row
col - cursor column
attr - character attribute
str - address of string to display
Return: none
Also see: attrib printsd
Example:
prints(20,10,LRED|_LGREY,"Hello, world");


Name: printsd
Purpose: displays a string at a specified location in a specified
attribute directly on the screen (no BIOS calls)


33
Prototype: void printsd(int row,int col,int attr,char *str);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: row - cursor row
col - cursor column
attr - character attribute
str - address of string to display
Return: none
Also see: attrib prints videoinit
Example:
printsd(20,10,LRED|_LGREY,"Hello, world");


Name: prompts
Purpose: prompts for a string and accepts keyboard input
Prototype: void prompts(char *prompt,char *str);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: prompt - address of string containing prompt
str - address of where to place input string
Return: none
Also see: getns inputsf
Example:
char name[30];
prompts("Enter your name: ",name);


Name: readchat
Purpose: reads the character and attribute under the cursor
Prototype: int readchat(void);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: none
Return: integer containing character in low byte and attribute in high byte
Also see: revattr setattr
Example:
int i;
prints(0,0,LGREEN|_BLUE,"Hello, world");
gotoxy_(0,7);
i=readchat();
gotoxy_(1,0);
printf("character is %c and attribute is %d\n",i,(i>>8));


Name: readcur
Purpose: reads the current cursor location
Prototype: void readcur(int *row,int *col);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: row - address of location to receive cursor row
col - address of location to receive cursor column
Return: none
Also see: gotoxy_
Example:
int row,col;
readcur(&row,&col);
prints(0,0,LCYAN|BLINK,"Hello, world");
prints(row,col,LWHITE,"Hello,world");


Name: revattr


34
Purpose: reverses the attribute of the character under the current cursor
location
Prototype: void revattr(int count);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: count - the number of characters to reverse attribute of
Return: none
Also see: readchat setattr
Example:
prints(0,0,LCYAN|_BLUE,"Hello, world");
gotoxy_(0,0);
revattr(5);


Name: scrndump
Purpose: dumps the current screen to the printer
Prototype: void scrndump(void);
Header: tcxlprn.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: scrntodisk ssave videoinit
Example:
printf("Turn printer on and press a key to continue....");
waitkey();
scrndump();


Name: scrntodisk
Purpose: copies the current screen to a disk file
Prototype: int scrntodisk(char *fname);
Header: tcxldsk.h tcxlvid.h
Inputs: fname - address of the string containing file to write to
Return: a zero if no error
Also see: disktoscrn scrndump ssave wintodisk
Example:
if(scrntodisk("SCREEN.DAT")) {
printf("Error creating file\n");
exit(1);
}


Name: setattr
Purpose: sets the attribute of the character under the current cursor
location
Prototype: void setattr(int attr,int count);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: attr - attribute to set character
count - the number of characters to set the attribute of
Return: none
Also see: attrib readchat revattr
Example:
prints(0,0,LCYAN|_BLUE,"Hello, world");
gotoxy_(0,0);
setattr(LRED|BLINK,5);


Name: setcursz
Purpose: sets the cursor size


35
Prototype: void setcursz(int sline,int eline);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: sline - start line of cursor (32 for no cursor)
eline - end line of cursor
Return: none
Example:
setcursz(1,7);
printf("The cursor is now large\n");


Name: setlines
Purpose: sets the number of lines on the display
Prototype: int setlines(int numlines);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: numlines - the number of lines to set the display to, valid
numbers are 25, 43 for EGA, and 50 for VGA.
Return: zero if no error
Also see: mode vidtype
Example:
if(setlines(43)) {
printf("You need an EGA monitor for 43-line mode\n");
}
else {
printf("You are now in EGA 43-line mode\n");
}


Name: sound_
Purpose: sounds a tone of specified pitch and duration
Prototype: void sound_(unsigned pitch,unsigned duration);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: pitch - pitch of tone (0-65535)
duration - duration of tone (0-65535) ie. 18 = 1 second
Return: none
Also see: beep
Example:
sound_(255,3);


Name: spc
Purpose: displays a specified number of spaces to the screen
Prototype: void spc(int num);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: num - number of spaces to display
Return: none
Example:
prints(15,50,7,"0123456789");
gotoxy_(15,53);
spc(3);


Name: srestore
Purpose: restores a previously saved screen
Prototype: void srestore(int *sbuf);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: sbuf - address of previously saved screen buffer
Return: none


36
Also see: ssave videoinit wrestore
Example:
int *sbuf;
sbuf=ssave();
clrscrn();
srestore(sbuf);


Name: ssave
Purpose: saves the current screen to a buffer
Prototype: int *ssave(void);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: none
Return: address of newly created screen buffer or 0 if allocation error
Also see: scrndump scrntodisk srestore videoinit wsave
Example:
int *sbuf;
sbuf=ssave();
clrscrn();
srestore(sbuf);


Name: strbmatch
Purpose: returns the best match of a string in an array of strings
Prototype: char *strbmatch(char *str,char *strarr[]);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of string to match
strarr - address of array of string pointers, the last string in
the array must be empty
Return: address of the string in the array that best matched the given
string
Also see: strmatch
Example:
char *strarr[4]= { "Hello","Computer","World","" };
char *str="help";
printf("best match is: %s\n",strbmatch(str,strarr);


Name: strchg
Purpose: finds all letters in a string matching one character and
replaces them with another
Prototype: char *strchg(char *str,int oldch,int newch);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of string to search
oldch - character to search for
newch - character to replace with
Return: the address of the modified string or a NULL if no matches found
Also see: strichg
Example:
char *str="Hello there";
printf("Before: %s\n",str);
strchg(str,'h','*');
printf("After: %s\n",str);


Name: strcode
Purpose: encodes/decodes a string, call this function to encode a string,


37
then call again using the same key to decode, when reading or
writing from a disk file, be sure to open the file in binary mode
Prototype: char *strcode(char *str,int key);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - the string to encode/decode
key - a key to encode the string with (1-255), to decode you must
use the same key as when encoded
Return: the address of the encoded/decoded string
Example:
char *str="Hello, world";
printf("Before: %s\n",str);
strcode(str,37);
printf("Encoded: %s\n",str);
strcode(str,37);
printf("Decoded: %s\n",str);


Name: strdel
Purpose: deletes a substring from within a string
Prototype: char *strdel(char *substr,char *str);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: substr - address of substring to delete
str - address of string to delete from
Return: a NULL if the substring was not found, or the address of the
modified string
Also see: stridel strinc strins strmid
Example:
char *str="Hello, XXXXXworld";
strdel("XXXXX",str);
printf("%s\n",str);


Name: strichg
Purpose: finds all letters in a string matching one character and
replaces them with another, ignoring case of letters
Prototype: char *strichg(char *str,int oldch,int newch);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of string to search
oldch - character to search for
newch - character to replace with
Return: the address of the modified string or a NULL if no matches found
Also see: strchg
Example:
char *str="Hello there";
printf("Before: %s\n",str);
strichg(str,'h','*');
printf("After: %s\n",str);


Name: stridel
Purpose: deletes a substring from within a string, ignoring case of letters
Prototype: char *stridel(char *substr,char *str);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: substr - address of substring to delete
str - address of string to delete from
Return: a NULL if the substring was not found, or the address of the
modified string


38
Also see: strdel striinc
Example:
char *str="Hello, XXXXXworld";
stridel("XXXXX",str);
printf("%s\n",str);


Name: striinc
Purpose: determines if one string is included in another, ignoring case of
letters
Prototype: char *striinc(char *str1,char *str2);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str1 - address of string1
str2 - address of string2
Return: the address where string1 is included in string2, or a NULL if
string1 is not included in string2
Also see: strinc strmid
Example:
char *str1="HeLlo WOrLd";
char *str2="XXXXXXXHello, worldXXXXX";
if(striinc(str1,str2)) printf("%s is included in %s\n",str1,str2);


Name: strinc
Purpose: determines if one string is included in another
Prototype: char *strinc(char *str1,char *str2);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str1 - address of string1
str2 - address of string2
Return: the address where string1 is included in string2, or a NULL if
string1 is not included in string2
Also see: striinc strmid
Example:
char *str1="Hello world";
char *str2="XXXXXXXHello, worldXXXXX";
if(strinc(str1,str2)) printf("%s is included in %s\n",str1,str2);


Name: strins
Purpose: inserts one string into another
Prototype: char *strins(char *instr,char **str,int st_pos);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: instr - the address of the string to insert
str - the address of the address of the string to insert into
st_pos - the starting position for where to insert
Return: the address of the newly allocated string, or a NULL if a memory
allocation error occurred
Also see: strdel strinc
Example:
char *str="Hello!";
printf("%s\n",str);
strins(", world",&str,5);
printf("%s\n",str);
free(str); /* free memory when done with string */


Name: striocc


39
Purpose: returns the number of occurrences of a character in a string
ignoring the case of letters
Prototype: int striocc(char *str,int ch);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of the string to search
ch - the character to look for
Return: the number of occurrences of the character in the string
Also see: strocc
Example:
char ch='L';
char *str="Hello, world";
printf("%c occurs in %s %d times\n",ch,str,striocc(str,ch));


Name: strleft
Purpose: takes a specified portion of a string from the left and creates
a new string
Prototype: char *strleft(char *str,int num_chars);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of input string
num_chars - number of characters to copy
Return: address of the newly created string or a NULL if a memory
allocation error occurred
Also see: strmid strright strtrim
Example:
char *left;
char *str="Hello, worldXXXX";
left=strleft(str,12);
printf("%s\n",left);
free(left); /* free memory when done with string */


Name: strltrim
Purpose: trims leading spaces off of a string
Prototype: char *strtrim(char **str);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of the address of the string to trim
Return: address of the modified string
Also see: strright strsetsz strtrim
Example:
char *str=" Hello, world";
printf("%s.\n",str);
strltrim(&str);
printf("%s.\n",str);


Name: strmatch
Purpose: compares 2 strings, returns a match score
Prototype: int strmatch(char *str1,char *str2);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str1 - address of first string
str2 - address of second string
Return: a match score, the higher the score, the better they match
Also see: strbmatch
Example:
char *str1="hello";
char *str2="help";


40
printf("match score = %d\n",strmatch(str1,str2);


Name: strmid
Purpose: takes a section from input string starting at given position
and taking the given amount of characters creating a new string
Prototype: char *strmid(char *str,int st_pos,int num_chars);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of input string
st_pos - position in input string to start copying characters
(starting at position 0)
num_chars - number of characters to copy
Return: address of the newly created string or a NULL if a memory
allocation error occurred
Also see: strleft strright
Example:
char *middle;
char *str="XXXXXHello, worldXXXX";
middle=strmid(str,5,12);
printf("%s\n",middle);
free(middle); /* free memory when done with string */


Name: strocc
Purpose: returns the number of occurrences of a character in a string
Prototype: int strocc(char *str,int ch);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of the string to search
ch - the character to look for
Return: the number of occurrences of the character in the string
Also see: striocc
Example:
char ch='l';
char *str="Hello, world";
printf("%c occurs in %s %d times\n",ch,str,strocc(str,ch));


Name: strright
Purpose: takes a specifed portion from the right side of a string creating
a new string
Prototype: char *strright(char *str,int num_chars);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of input string
num_chars - number of characters to copy
Return: address of the newly created string or a NULL if a memory
allocation error occurred
Also see: strleft strltrim strmid
Example:
char *right;
char *str="XXXXXHello, world";
right=strright(str,12);
printf("%s\n",right);
free(right); /* free memory when done with string */


Name: strrol
Purpose: rotates a string specified number of characters left, characters


41
wrap around
Prototype: char *strrol(char *str,int count);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - the address of the string to rotate
count - number of characters to rotate
Return: the address of the modified string
Also see: strror strshl
Example:
char *str="Hello, world";
printf("%s.\n",str);
strrol(str,3);
printf("%s.\n",str);


Name: strror
Purpose: rotates a string specified number of characters right, characters
wrap around
Prototype: char *strror(char *str,int count);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - the address of the string to rotate
count - number of characters to rotate
Return: the address of the modified string
Also see: strrol strshr
Example:
char *str="Hello, world";
printf("%s.\n",str);
strror(str,3);
printf("%s.\n",str);


Name: strsetsz
Purpose: adjusts the length of a string by truncation or padding with
spaces
Prototype: char *strsetsz(char **str,int newsize);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of pointer to the string
newsize - the new length of the string
Return: address of the new string or a NULL if a memory allocation error
occurred
Also see: strtrim
Example:
char *str="Hello, world";
strsetsz(&str,25);
printf("%s.\n",str);
strsetsz(&str,5);
printf("%s.\n",str);


Name: strshl
Purpose: shifts a string specified number of characters left, characters
'drop off' and spaces are added to the string
Prototype: char *strshl(char *str,int count);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - the address of the string to shift
count - number of characters to shift
Return: the address of the modifed string
Also see: strrol strshr


42
Example:
char *str="Hello, world";
printf("%s.\n",str);
strshl(str,3);
printf("%s.\n",str);


Name: strshr
Purpose: shifts a string specified number of characters right, characters
'drop off' and spaces are added to the string
Prototype: char *strshr(char *str,int count);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - the address of the string to shift
count - number of characters to shift
Return: the address of the modified string
Also see: strror strshl
Example:
char *str="Hello, world";
printf("%s.\n",str);
strshr(str,3);
printf("%s.\n",str);


Name: strtrim
Purpose: trims trailing spaces off of a string
Prototype: char *strtrim(char *str);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of the string to trim
Return: address of the modified string
Also see: strleft strltrim strsetsz
Example:
char *str="Hello, world ";
printf("%s.\n",str);
strtrim(str);
printf("%s.\n",str);


Name: struplow
Purpose: converts a string to mixed upper & lower case characters
Prototype: char *struplow(char *str);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - the address of the string to convert
Return: the address of the modified string
Also see: touplow
Example:
char *str="heLlO, wOrLd";
printf("%s.\n",str);
struplow(str);
printf("%s.\n",str);


Name: tabstop
Purpose: calculates a tab stop from given column and tab width
Prototype: int tabstop(int col,int tabwidth);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: col - column
tabwidth - tab width


43
Return: the next tab stop
Example:
printf("tabstop after column 5 is %d\n",tabstop(5,8);


Name: timer
Purpose: returns the value of the BIOS timer
Prototype: unsigned long timer(void);
Header: tcxldef.h
Inputs: none
Return: current value of the BIOS timer
Also see: delay_
Example:
printf("%lu\n",timer());
delay_(36);
printf("%lu\n",timer());


Name: touplow
Purpose: converts a character to upper or lower case depending on previous
character
Prototype: int touplow(char *str,char *pos,int ch);
Header: tcxlstr.h
Inputs: str - address of string
pos - current position in string
ch - character to convert
Return: the converted character
Also see: struplow
Example:
char *str="Hello, world";
printf("Before: %s\n",str);
*(str+7)=touplow(str,str+7,*(str+7));
printf("After: %s\n",str);


Name: videoinit
Purpose: initializes TCXL's video system. By default all TCXL functions
performing direct screen writes go to the CGA video RAM segment at
0xb800. If you want these functions to work correctly with a
monochrome video adapter or within a DESQview window, you must call
this function. This function sets the value of the global variable
_videoseg
Prototype: void videoinit(void);
Header: tcxlvid.h tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: none
Also see: vidtype
Example:
videoinit();


Name: vidtype
Purpose: determines the display adapter type
Prototype: int vidtype(void);
Header: tcxlvid.h
Inputs: none
Return: see TCXLVID.H for return values


44
Also see: mode videoinit
Example:
int i;
i=vidtype();
if(i<=HGCPLUS) printf("A color adapter is installed\n");


Name: wactiv
Purpose: activates a currently open window
Prototype: int wactiv(int whandle);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: whandle - the window handle returned from the wopen() function
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_ALLOCERR - memory allocation error
W_NOTFOUND - window handle not found
W_NOACTIVE - no open windows
Also see: wisactiv wopen
Example:
int w1,w2;
w1=wopen(0,0,20,20,0,LMAGENTA|_RED);
waitkey();
w2=wopen(10,10,15,50,0,LGREEN|_BLUE);
waitkey();
wactiv(w1);
waitkey();
wactiv(w2);
waitkey();
wclose();
wclose();


Name: waitkey
Purpose: halts execution until a key is pressed, the keyboard buffer is
cleared first
Prototype: int waitkey(void);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: none
Return: the key pressed
Also see: clearkeys getchf waitkeyt
Example:
printf("Press any key to continue...");
waitkey();


Name: waitkeyt
Purpose: halts execution until a key is pressed or the specified time limit
expires, the keyboard buffer is cleared first
Prototype: int waitkeyt(int duration);
Header: tcxlkey.h
Inputs: none
Return: the key pressed or -1 if time expired before a key was pressed
Also see: clearkeys delay_ getchf waitkey
Example:
printf("Press any key to continue...");
waitkeyt(182); /* wait for a max of 10 seconds */




45
Name: wcclear
Purpose: clears the currently active window using specified attribute
Prototype: int wclear(int attr);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wactiv wclear wclreol
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,0,WHITE|_GREEN);
wprints(11,11,7,"Hello");
wclear();
waitkey();
wclose();


Name: wchgattr
Purpose: changes attribute of the active window, all text within the window
will be changed also
Prototype: int wchgattr(int newattr);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: newattr - the attribute to make the window
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wactiv wtextattr
Example:
wopen(0,0,10,10,0,LCYAN|_BLUE);
waitkey();
wchgattr(LMAGENTA|_RED);
waitkey();
wclose();


Name: wclear
Purpose: clears the currently active window
Prototype: int wclear(void);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wactiv wcclear wclreol
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,0,WHITE|_GREEN);
wprints(11,11,7,"Hello");
wclear();
waitkey();
wclose();


Name: wclose
Purpose: closes the currently active window
Prototype: int wclose(void);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_ALLOCERR - memory allocation error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window


46
Also see: wactiv wcloseall wopen
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,1,LCYAN|_BLUE);
waitkey();
wclose();


Name: wcloseall
Purpose: closes all open windows
Prototype: int wcloseall(void);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_ALLOCERR - memory allocation error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wclose
Example:
wopen(0,0,10,10,1,LCYAN|_BLUE);
wopen(5,5,15,15,0,LMAGENTA|_RED);
wopen(10,10,20,20,1,YELLOW|_GREEN);
waitkey();
wcloseall();


Name: wclreol
Purpose: clears to the end of the active window's line
Prototype: int wclreol(void);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wactiv wclear
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,40,0,LMAGENTA|_RED);
wputs("Hello, world");
wgotoxy(0,5);
wclreol();
waitkey();
wclose();


Name: wcopy
Purpose: creates a new window duplicating the active window, the new window
becomes the active window
Prototype: int wcopy(int nsrow,int nscol);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: nsrow - start row of the duplicate window
nscol - start column of the duplicate window
Return: the handle of the new window or a zero if an error occurred, the
error code will be in the global variable _werrno, see TCXLWIN.H
for error codes
Also see: wactiv wmove
Example:
wopen(11,11,20,40,0,LMAGENTA|_RED);
wputs("Hello, world");
waitkey();
wcopy(0,0);


47
waitkey();
wclose();
wclose();


Name: werrmsg
Purpose: returns an error message from the last windowing function
Prototype: char *werrmsg(void);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: the address of a static string containing an error message
corresponding to the error code from the last performed windowing
function
Example:
wopen(0,0,10,10,0,LCYAN|_BLUE);
wgotoxy(255,255);
printf("Error msg = %s\n",werrmsg());


Name: wgetc
Purpose: gets a character from the keyboard within the active window, echos
character pressed to the screen in the attribute set by the
wtextattr() function
Prototype: int wgetc(void);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: the ASCII value of the key pressed or a zero if an error occurred,
the error code will be in the global variable _werrno, see
TCXLWIN.H for error codes
Also see: wactiv wgetchf wtextattr
Example:
wopen(0,0,5,30,0,LCYAN|_BLUE);
wputs("Press a key: ");
wputs("\nYou pressed %c",wgetc());
waitkey();
wclose();


Name: wgetchf
Purpose: gets a character from the keyboard within the active window, allows
only characters listed in the string of valid characters. Escape
checking is provided by default. This can be turned off with the
wsetesc() function. Selected character is echoed into the current
window using the attribute set by the wtextattr() function.
Prototype: int wgetchf(char *valid);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: valid - address of the string containing the valid characters
Return: the ASCII value of the key pressed or a zero if an error occurred,
the error code will be in the global variable _werrno, see
TCXLWIN.H for error codes
Also see: wactiv wgetc wtextattr
Example:
wopen(0,0,5,30,0,LCYAN|_BLUE);
wputs("Are you sure? ");
wputs("\nYou pressed %c",wgetchf("YyNn"));
waitkey();
wclose();


48


Name: wgetns
Purpose: gets a string from the keyboard within active window, limits the
number of characters input to specified length. Escape checking
is provided by default. This can be turned off with the wsetesc()
function. Entered characters will echo to the active window
in the attribute set by the wtextattr() function.
Prototype: int wgetns(char *str,int maxlen);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: str - address of the allocated space to receive the input
string
maxlen - the maximum length of the input string
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_ESCPRESS - Escape key was pressed
Also see: wactiv wgets winputsf wscanf wtextattr
Example:
char firstname[5];
wopen(0,0,5,60,1,LCYAN|_BLUE);
wputs("Enter your first name: ");
wgetns(firstname,5);
wprintf("\nYour first name is: %s",firstname);
waitkey();
wclose();


Name: wgets
Purpose: gets a string from the keyboard within active window, echos the
characters to the screen in the attribute set by the wtextattr()
function
Prototype: int wgets(char *str);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: str - the address of the string to receive the input characters
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wactiv wgetns winputsf wscanf wtextattr
Example:
char fname[20];
wopen(0,0,5,60,0,LCYAN|_BLUE);
wputs("Enter your first name: ");
wgets(fname);
wputs("\nYour first name is: %s",fname);
waitkey();
wclose();


Name: wgotoxy
Purpose: plots cursor coordinates within the currently active window
Prototype: int wgotoxy(int wrow,int wcol);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: wrow - window row (Y coordinate)
wcol - window column (X coordinate)
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_INVCOORD - invalid coordinates
Also see: wactiv wpgotoxy wreadcur


49
Example:
wopen(0,0,10,10,0,YELLOW|_BLUE);
wgotoxy(1,1);
wputs("Hello");


Name: whide
Purpose: hides a previously saved window
Prototype: int *whide(int **wbuf);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: wbuf - address of the pointer to the window buffer to hide
Return: the address of the hidden window's buffer or a NULL if a memory
allocation error occurred
Also see: wsave wunhide
Example:
wopen(0,0,15,50,0,LCYAN|_BLUE);
waitkey();
whide(&_wrecord[_wcurrent].wbuf); /* hides active window */
waitkey();
wunhide(&_wrecord[_wcurrent].wbuf);
waitkey();
wclose();


Name: whline
Purpose: draws a horizontal text line in active window using characters
defined by given box type. If horizontal line crosses a vertical
line of the same box type, an appropriate intersection or corner
will be used.
Prototype: int whline(int wsrow,int wscol,int count,int btype);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: wsrow - window start row of line
wscol - window start column of line
count - number of line characters to display
btype - box type (0-5)
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_INVCOORD - text line too long for window
W_INVBTYPE - invalid box type
Also see: wtextattr wvline
Example:
whline(2,5,7,3);


Name: winpdef
Purpose: defines an area of the active window for keyboard input. See the
section on multi-field input for details.
Prototype: int winpdef(int wrow,int wcol,char *str,int ftype,int fattr);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: wrow - start of input, window's row coordinate
wcol - start of input, window's column coordinate
str - address of string to input, must already be the length
the input is to be. The string can be sized with the
strsetsz() function. Contents of str will be displayed
before keyboard input.
ftype - input field type, must be a valid character type code,
see the section on using window input functions for a


50
list of valid character type codes.
fattr - field attribute
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_ALLOCERR - memory allocation error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: winpread winputsf winpxcel wscanf
Example:
char *str1;
char *str2;
wopen(0,0,10,40,0,LCYAN|_BLUE);
wgotoxy(1,1);
wputs("Enter name:");
strsetsz(&str1,15);
winpdef(1,15,str1,'M');
wgotoxy(3,1);
wputs("Enter phone:");
strsetsz(&str2,7);
winpdef(3,15,str2,'#');
winpread();
wprintf("Name is %s, phone is %s\n",str1,str2);


Name: winpread
Purpose: processes keyboard input of all defined areas of active window
allowing editing back and forth between defined fields. When
carriage return is pressed in the last field, all fields will be
processed. If the Escape key is pressed while Escape checking is
on, all defined fields will be cancelled and an error code will be
returned. Valid editing keys are: BackSpace, Ctrl-End,
Ctrl-Enter, Ctrl-Home, Del, End, Enter, Esc, Home, Ins, Shift-Tab,
Tab, and the arrow keys.
Prototype: int winpread(void);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_ESCPRESS - Escape key was pressed
W_NOINPDEF - no inputs defined, see description for winpdef()
Also see: winpdef winpxcel wtextattr


Name: winputsf
Purpose: inputs a formatted string from the keyboard within a window
Prototype: int winputsf(char *str,char *fmt);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: str - address of the allocated space to receive string
fmt - address of the format string, see section on using format
strings
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_ESCPRESS - Escape key was pressed
W_INVFORMT - invalid format string
Also see: wgetns wgets winpdef wscanf wtextattr
Example:
char str[255];
wopen(0,0,10,40,0,LMAGENTA|_RED);
winputsf(str,!RE!'Enter phone number: ('###') '###'-'####");


51
wputs("\nYour phone number is: ");
wputs(str);


Name: winpxcel
Purpose: cancels keyboard of all defined areas of active window
Prototype: int winpxcel(void);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: winpdef winpread
Example:
char *str1=" ";
wopen(0,0,10,40,0,LCYAN|_BLUE);
wgotoxy(1,1);
wputs("Enter name:");
winpdef(1,15,str1,'M');
winpxcel();
wgotoxy(3,1);
wputs("Enter phone:");
winpdef(3,15,str1,'#');
winpread();
wprintf("phone is %s\n",str1);


Name: wintodisk
Purpose: copies a screen window to a disk file
Prototype: int wintodisk(int srow,int scol,int erow,int ecol,char *fname);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: srow - starting row
scol - starting column
erow - ending row
ecol - ending column
fname - address of the string containing file to write to
Return: a zero if no error
Also see: disktowin scrntodisk wsave
Example:
if(wintodisk(10,10,20,20,"WINDOW.DAT")) {
printf("Error creating file\n");
exit(1);
}


Name: wisactiv
Purpose: determines if specified window handle is active
Prototype: int wisactiv(int whandle);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: whandle - the handle of the window to check
Return: a zero if handle is not active, a 1 if it is active
Also see: wactiv
Example:
printf("handle 5 is %sactive\n",wisactiv(5)?"":"not ");


Name: wmbardef
Purpose: defines a window bar-selection menu option. See the section on


52
using bar selection menus for more information.
Prototype: int wmbardef(int wrow,int wcol,int attr,char *str,int tagchar);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: wrow - window row to display option at
wcol - window column to display option at
attr - attribute to display option with
str - address of the option string
tagchar - tag character to use for identification, must be
alphanumeric, case is insensitive
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_ALLOCERR - memory allocation error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_INVTAGCH - invalid tag character
Also see: wmbarget wmbarxcel
Example:
if(wmbardef(2,3,LCYAN|_BLUE,"Add record",'A')) {
printf("Error: %s\n",werrmsg());
exit(1);
}


Name: wmbarget
Purpose: gets a window bar-selection menu selection from the keyboard. The
user is allowed to use the cursor keys or the specified tag
character to select the option. After a selection is made, all
defined options are cleared. Escape checking is on by default, but
can be turned off with the wsetesc() function. See section on
using bar-selection menus for more details.
Prototype: int wmbarget(int barattr,int taginit,int pulldown);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: barattr - the attribute to use for the selection bar
taginit - tag character of initial selection bar position. If an
invalid tag character is specified, the position
defaults to the upper left.
pulldown - can one of the following values:
0 - not part of a pull-down menu system
PDMAIN - main menu of a pull-down menu system
PDPREV - main menu, automatically select the
previous pull-down menu
PDNEXT - main menu, automatically select the next
pull-down menu
PDMENU - pull-down menu
Return: the tag character of the selected option or zero if an error. If
error, the error code will be in the global variable _werrno. See
TCXLWIN.H for error codes. If PDMENU is specified for the pulldown
parameter, then this function will return PDPREV if LeftArrow is
pressed and PDNEXT if RightArrow is pressed.
Also see: wmbardef wmbarxcel
Example:
option=wmbarget(LCYAN|_GREEN,'A',0);
switch(option) {
case 'A':
......
case 'D':
......
case 0:
error_routine();


53
etc.
}


Name: wmbarxcel
Purpose: cancels all window bar menu options defined before wmbarget() is
called.
Prototype: int wmbarxcel(void);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wmbardef wmbarget
Example:
if(wmbarxcel()) {
printf("Error: %s\n",werrmsg());
exit(1);
}


Name: wmove
Purpose: moves the currently active window to a new location
Prototype: int wmove(int nsrow,int nscol);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: nsrow - new starting row of window
nscol - new starting column of window
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_ALLOCERR - memory allocation error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wcopy wsize
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,2,LCYAN|_BLUE);
waitkey();
if(wmove(0,0)) {
printf("Error: %s\n",werrmsg());
exit(1);
}


Name: wnopen
Purpose: returns the number of open windows
Prototype: int wnopen(void);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: none
Return: the number of open windows
Also see: wclose wcloseall wopen
Example:
printf("There are %d windows open\n",wnopen());


Name: wopen
Purpose: opens a screen window and makes it active, the cursor location
will be initialized to window row 0, column 0, and the text
attribute will be initialized to the same attribute as the window
Prototype: int wopen(int srow,int scol,int erow,int ecol,int btype,int attr);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: srow - starting row, upper left corner


54
scol - starting column, upper left corner
erow - ending row, lower right corner
ecol - ending column, lower right corner
btype - box type (0-5)
attr - attribute of window
Return: the window handle of the new window or a zero if an error occurred,
the error code will be in the global variable _werrno, see
TCXLWIN.H for error codes
Also see: videoinit wactiv wclose wcloseall wnopen
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,0,LCYAN|_BLUE);


Name: wpgotoxy
Purpose: plots pseudo cursor coordinates within the currently active window
by wrapping around if coordinates are out of range
Prototype: int wpgotoxy(int wrow,int wcol);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: wrow - window row (Y coordinate)
wcol - window column (X coordinate)
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_INVCOORD - invalid coordinates
Also see: wactiv wgotoxy wreadcur
Example:
wopen(0,0,10,10,0,YELLOW|_BLUE);
wpgotoxy(3,20);
wputs("Hello");


Name: wprintc
Purpose: prints a character in the currently active window, does not adjust
cursor position, recognizes no control codes
Prototype: int wprintc(int row,int col,int attr,int ch);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: row - cursor row (of the window)
col - cursor column (of the window)
attr - character attribute
ch - character
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_INVCOORD - invalid coordinates
Also see: wactiv wputc
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,0,WHITE|_GREEN);
wprintc(11,11,7,"T");


Name: wprintf
Purpose: outputs a formatted string to active window, works just like
printf() does
Prototype: int wprintf(const char *format,...);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: format - format string, refer to Turbo C manual under printf()
... - any additional arguments
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_ALLOCERR - memory allocation error


55
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wactiv wputc wputns wputs wtextattr
Example:
char str="world";
wopen(0,0,10,20,0,LMAGENTA|_RED);
wprintf("Hello, %s\n",str);


Name: wprints
Purpose: prints a string in the currently active window, does not adjust
cursor position, recognizes no control codes
Prototype: int wprints(int row,int col,int attr,char *str);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: row - cursor row (of the window)
col - cursor column (of the window)
attr - attribute
str - address of string
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_INVCOORD - invalid coordinates
W_STRLONG - string too long for window
Also see: wactiv wprintf wputns wputs
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,0,WHITE|_GREEN);
wprints(11,11,7,"Hello");
waitkey();
wclose();


Name: wputc
Purpose: prints a character in currently active window at current cursor
location, uses attribute set by the wtextattr() function,
recognizes the '\n', '\r', '\t', '\7' and '\b' control characters
Prototype: int wputc(int ch);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: ch - the character to be printed
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wactiv wprintc wprintf wtextattr
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,0,WHITE|_GREEN);
wgotoxy(5,5);
wtextattr(LMAGENTA|BLINK);
wputc('X');


Name: wputns
Purpose: prints a string in the active window, formatting width of output,
uses attribute set by the wtextattr() function, recognizes the
'\n', '\r', '\t', '\7' and '\b' control characters
Prototype: int wputns(char *str,int width);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: str - address of the string to print
width - width to display output string with
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wactiv wprintf wprints wputs wtextattr


56
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,2,WHITE|_GREEN);
wtextattr(LMAGENTA|BLINK);
wputns("Hello, world",5);


Name: wputs
Purpose: prints a string in currently active window at the current cursor
location, uses attribute set by the wtextattr() function,
recognizes the '\n', '\r', '\t', '\7' and '\b' control characters
Prototype: int wputs(char *str);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: str - the address of the string to print
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wactiv wprintf wprints wputns wtextattr
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,0,WHITE|_GREEN);
wgotoxy(1,1);
wtextattr(LMAGENTA|BLINK);
wputs("Hello, world");


Name: wrestore
Purpose: restores a previously saved window of screen memory
Prototype: void wrestore(int *wbuf);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: wbuf - address of previously saved window
Return: none
Also see: srestore wsave wunhide
Example:
int *wbuf;
wbuf=wsave(7,7,18,60);
clrscrn();
wrestore(wbuf);


Name: wsave
Purpose: saves a window of screen memory
Prototype: int *wsave(int srow,int scol,int erow,int ecol);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: srow - starting row, upper left corner
scol - starting column, upper left corner
erow - ending row, lower right corner
ecol - ending column, lower right corner
Return: address of newly created window buffer or NULL if a memory
allocation error occurred.
Also see: ssave videoinit whide wintodisk wrestore
Example:
int *wbuf;
wbuf=wsave(7,7,18,60);
clrscrn();
wrestore(wbuf);


Name: wscanf
Purpose: inputs a formatted string from keyboard, works like scanf() does


57
Prototype: int wscanf(const char *format,...);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: format - format string, refer to Turbo C manual under scanf()
... - any additional arguments
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_ALLOCERR - memory allocation error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wactiv wgetc wgets winpdef winputsf wtextattr


Name: wscroll
Purpose: scrolls text within the active window, up or down
Prototype: int wscroll(int count,int direction);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: count - number of lines to scroll
direction - a 0 to scroll down or non-zero to scroll up
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
Also see: wactiv
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,0,WHITE|_GREEN);
wprints(11,11,7,"Hello");
waitkey();
wscroll(2,DOWN);


Name: wsetesc
Purpose: sets the Escape checking for window keyboard input functions that
allow Escape checking
Prototype: void wsetesc(int option);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: option - (0-1), 0 = turn Escape checking off, 1 = turn Escape
checking on
Return: none
Also see: wgetchf wgetns winputsf wmbarread winpread
Example:
wsetesc(ON); /* turns Escape checking on */


Name: wsize
Purpose: adjusts the size of the active window
Prototype: int wsize(int nerow,int necol);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: nerow - new end row of sized window
necol - new end column of sized window
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_ALLOCERR - memory allocation error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_INVCOORD - invalid coordinates
Also see: wactiv wcopy wmove
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,0,WHITE|_GREEN);
waitkey();
wsize(23,40);
waitkey();
wsize(15,15);



58

Name: wtextattr
Purpose: sets the default text attribute for text displayed in active window
Prototype: int wtextattr(int attr);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: attr - the new text attribute
Return: a zero if no error, see TCXLWIN.H for error codes
Also see: attrib wchgattr
Example:
wopen(10,10,20,20,0,WHITE|_GREEN);
wgotoxy(1,1);
wtextattr(LMAGENTA|BLINK);
wputs("Hello, world");


Name: wtitle
Purpose: gives active window a title and displays title on top border line
of window
Prototype: int wtitle(char *str,int tpos);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: str - address of title string or NULL to delete title
tpos - position of title:
TDELETE - to delete title
TLEFT - left justified
TCENTER - centered
TRIGHT - right justified
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_TITLLONG - title string too long for window
W_INVTPOS - invalid title position argument
Example:
wtitle("[ My Window ]",TCENTER);


Name: wunhide
Purpose: unhides a previously hidden window
Prototype: int *wunhide(int **wbuf);
Header: tcxlwin.h
Inputs: wbuf - address of the pointer to the window buffer to unhide
Return: the address of the unhidden window's buffer or a NULL if a memory
allocation error occurred
Also see: whide wrestore
Example:
wopen(0,0,15,50,0,LCYAN|_BLUE);
waitkey();
whide(&_wrecord[_wcurrent].wbuf);
waitkey();
wunhide(&_wrecord[_wcurrent].wbuf);


Name: wvline
Purpose: draws a vertical text line in active window using characters
defined by given box type. If vertical line crosses a horizontal
line of the same box type, an appropriate intersection or corner
will be used.
Prototype: int wvline(int wsrow,int wscol,int count,int btype);
Header: tcxlwin.h


59
Inputs: wsrow - window start row of line
wscol - window start column of line
count - number of line characters to display
btype - box type (0-5)
Return: W_NOERROR - no error
W_NOACTIVE - no active window
W_INVCOORD - entire text line could not fit in window
W_INVBTYPE - invalid box type
Also see: whline wtextattr
Example:
wvline(3,9,14,1);
















































60

Global Variables
----------------

Name: _videoseg
Purpose: contains the current video RAM segment address used by direct
screen writes
Type: unsigned


Name: _wcurrent
Purpose: contains the array subscript of the window record that is currently
active
Type: int


Name: _werrno
Purpose: contains the error code from the most recently performed windowing
function. See TCXLWIN.H for error codes.
Type: int


Name: _wesc
Purpose: Escape key checking flag. This is set by the wsetesc() function
and used by several window keyboard input functions.
Type: int


Name: _whandle
Purpose: contains the last handle number given to a window
Type: int


Name: _winpcurr
Purpose: contains the subscript of the window input record array
Type: int


Name: _winprec
Purpose: a pointer to an array of defined window input records
Type: struct _winprec * (see TCXLWIN.H for definition)


Name: _wmbarlast
Purpose: contains the array subscript of the highest defined bar-menu option
Type: int


Name: _wmbarrec
Purpose: a pointer to the array of defined bar-menu options
Type: struct _wmbarrec * (See TCXLWIN.H for definition)


Name: _wrecord
Purpose: a pointer to an array of window records which contains window
handles and window buffer pointers
Type: struct _wrecord * (see TCXLWIN.H for definition)


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