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Small C Compiler.
File SCI-12.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category C Source Code
Small C Compiler.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
CALC.SCI 1664 441 deflated
SCI.COM 28800 12090 deflated
SCI.DOC 27904 8521 deflated
SHELL.SCI 2944 1080 deflated
VERSIONS 512 260 deflated

Download File SCI-12.ZIP Here

Contents of the SCI.DOC file

















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sssssss ccccccc
sss sss ccc ccc iiii
ssss ccc iiii
ssss ccc ii
sss sss ccc ccc ii
sssssss ccccccc iiiiiiii
sss ccc iiiiiiii

A "Small C" Interpreter for CP/M-80 (tm) systems
version 1.2: November, 1985
Bob Brodt
34 Mehrhof Rd.
Little Ferry, NJ 07643









DISCLAIMER
This program is being distributed under the Freeware (tm) concept
and, as such, may not be re-distributed for profit. If you find
the program useful please make a donation of whatever you feel the
program is worth, otherwise treat it as you would any other non-
communicable disease. The author makes no guarantees of any kind,
either expressed or implied, as to the bugyness of this program and
its documentation. Any bugs that you find in this program and or
documentation you may keep at no extra charge.





INTRODUCTION

SCI is a "C" language interpreter loosely based on the language subset
described in James Hendrix' "Small C" compiler (see the section
"DIFFERENCES FROM SMALL C", below). It is a fully interactive interpreter
(no compilation!) that includes a simple line editor and a program trace
facility. SCI was meant to be a stepping stone for the experienced BASIC
programmer who is ready to move up to the exciting world of "C"!

The SCI interpreter is very similar to BASIC internally - each line of
input is first scanned and "tokenized", a process in which language elements
are converted to one-, two- or three-byte "tokens" which are easier to
handle by a computer than arbitrarily long character sequences.


STARTING_OUT

The files on the distribution diskette are:

SCI.DOC - documentation and sound effects
SCI.COM - the interpreter proper
SHELL.SCI - the command shell, written in "Small C"
CALC.SCI - a short demo program

To start up SCI, make sure that SHELL.SCI resides on the current drive
and then execute SCI.COM. The interpreter will then read and execute the
program it finds in SHELL.SCI.


THE_SHELL

The "stock" version of the shell simply displays a prompt on the
console, reads a line of input, and attempts to execute the input line
The entire shell program (sans support routines) is shown below:

int size,top;
char line[80];
char program[16000];

main()
{
int from, to;

top=16000;
program[0] = 90; # This is an "End of program" token - required
size=1;

# print sign-on message
printf( "%s\nShell V1.1, 23 OCT 1985\n", sys(0) );

while(1)
{
puts("> ");
if(gets(line))
{
if (!strncmp(line,"edit",4))
size = sys(atoi(line+5),program,15); # envoke the editor
else if (!strncmp(line,"save ",5))
sys(line+5,program,21); # save the program buffer
else if (!strncmp(line,"load ",5))
size = sys(line+5,program,20); # load the program buffer
else if (!strncmp(line,"list",4))
{
if(line[4])
sscanf(line+4,"%d %d",&from,&to);
else
{
from=1;
to=32765;
}
sys(program,from,to,22); # list the program buffer
}
else if (!strncmp(line,"exit",4))
return; # return to previous shell
else if (!strncmp(line,"free",4))
printf("%d\n",top-size); # show amount of free space
else
#
# attempt to parse the line as a small c statement. Note that
# we will always display the results of the statement, so you
# could enter something like: 2+2 and a 4 would be printed.
#
printf("%d\n", sys(line,program,size,12) );
}
}
}

Later, as you become more familiar with the "C" language, you may wish
to modify the shell program and add your own commands. The stock version
of the shell recognizes four basic (pardon the pun) commands: "edit",
"load", "save" and "free". These are similar in operation to the BASIC
commands of the same name, with the exception that no quote (") is required
in front of the file name for the "load" and "save" commands. Anything
else typed at the shell is assumed to be a valid "Small C" statement and
is handed off to the interpreter to be executed.

By the way, programs that are "save"d by SCI are ordinary text files,
suitable for editing with your favourite CP/M text editor (if there be
such a thing).


THE_EDITOR

To edit a program, simply type "edit", or "edit N", where "N" is the
line number in the program to start editing. The requested line will be
displayed and the cursor positioned on the first character of the line.

The editor has two different operating modes: EDIT and INSERT.
In EDIT mode, you may move the current character position ("cursor")
anywhere within the program and you may delete text. In INSERT mode,
any characters that you type are inserted into the program until you
return to EDIT mode.

Any changes you make during an editing session affect only the program
currently residing in memory. The copy of the program on disk (if one
exists) is not changed until you issue a "save" command.

To leave the editor and return to the command shell, type an
character.

Editing commands are divided into 3 categories: cursor movement,
text insertion and text deletion. The cursor movement commands allow
you to position the cursor anywhere in the program. These are:

'h' or CTL-S or -
moves the cursor to the left by 1 character position.

'l' (that's a lower-case "ell") or CTL-D or -
moves the cursor to the right by 1 character position.

'j' or CTL-X or or -
advances the cursor to the next line ON THE SCREEN and displays
the next line of the program.

'k' or CTL-E -
advances the cursor to the next line ON THE SCREEN and displays
the previous line of the program.

'g' -
prompts for a line number, advances the cursor to the next line
on the screen and displays the requested line of the program.

'f' -
prompts for a character sequence to be searched for in the program,
advances the cursor to the next line on the screen and displays the
requested line of the program.

If the cursor is moved past the end of the program, the editor will
display an and will not allow you to move past it. Similarly, if
the cursor is moved to the first line of the program, the 'k' command
will be inoperative.

The text insertion commands are:

'i' -
will cause characters to be inserted before the current cursor
position. As you type, the characters to the right of the cursor
will appear to be overwritten on the screen, but are actually shifted
(in the editor's buffer) to make room for the inserted text.
To leave the character insertion mode, end the line with a .
the cursor will advance to the next line on the screen and the line
will be redrawn with the newly inserted text.
'I' -
will enter line insertion mode. All characters typed will be inserted
into the program in front of the line the cursor was resting on.
To leave the line insertion mode, type and .

Text may be deleted from the program either a character-at-a-time or
a line-at-a-time:

'd' -
will delete the character the cursor is resting on. The cursor
advances to the next line on the screen and the current line is re-
drawn with the deleted character missing.

'D' -
will delete the line the cursor is resting on. The cursor advances
to the next line on the screen and the next line in the program is
displayed.

Remember, type to exit the editor!


LANGUAGE_ELEMENTS

Althgough SCI implements only a subset of the "C" language, it is
powerful enough to teach you the major principles of "C". We're going
to cop out now and refer you to a higher authority for a sound
introduction to "C", but we will list here the major features of the
language subset recognized by SCI.

* "char" and "int" data types, as well as pointers to "char"s and
"int"s and single-dimensioned arrays of "char" and "int".

* Decimal integer constants, character constants and string constants.
Character and string constants may contain all of the standard
escape characters such as "\n", "\b", etc. Hexadecimal and octal
integer constants are not supported.

* "if-else" and "while-break" control structures.

* Numerous operating system functions available to user programs
(see THE SYS FUNCTIONS, below).

* Program trace capability.


MY_FIRST_PROGRAM

To get you started writing "C" programs, step right up to your computer
(don't be shy), fire 'er up and insert the disk. Then type "SCI" and
wait for the shell program to load (don't get too anxious now!).
When the shell prompts you with "> " boldly type the word:

> edit_

and hit . You are now in the editor. Time to refer back to
the EDITOR section of this manual. Since there is nothing in the program
buffer, the editor displays:

1:_

Hold down that shift key and poke the key with the letter 'I' on it.
You are now in line insertion mode. Anything you type from here on will
be inserted into the program buffer until you press . Notice that
the editor prompts you with "new:" to tell you that you are entering a new
line. So, why not just type in the little program below:

new:hi()
new:{
new: puts( "hello, world\n" );
new:}
new:_

When you're done, hit to end line insertion mode. Your screen
should look like this:

new:hi()
new:{
new: puts( "hello, world\n" );
new:}
5:_

Then type again to leave the editor. When the shell gives you
its prompt, type:

> hi()_

and hit . The shell will hand the input line off to the
interpreter, the interpreter will scan the program buffer for a function
named "hi" and call that function. The "hi" function will then call the
library function "puts" to print the string "hello, world\n" on the console.
What you see is simply:

> hi()
hello, world
> _

Congratulations, even if six months ago you couldn't spell "programur",
you now are one!


THE_SYS_FUNCTIONS

The "sys" keyword has been reserved by SCI as a means of communicating
between a user's program and the interpreter. It is treated exactly the
same as a (pre-defined) function that may be referenced by a user program.
This is an interface to some complex and time-critical system functions,
that has been provided mainly as a convenience to the user.

A "sys" call may have several arguments, the number and type of which
depends upon the integer value of the last (right-most) argument. This
righ-most argument is called the "sys number" and defines the actual
function performed by a "sys" call. These "sys numbers" and the functions
performed by each are described below. Following the sys number, in
parentheses, is a mnemonic name for the function that is also the name
of a "library" function that may be found in the stock shell, SHELL.SCI.
These library functions provided in the standard shell are merely
intermediate functions to the "sys" call. They are intended to provide a
programming environment that is compatible with most commercially available
"C" compilers. The usage of these functions is identical to the "sys" calls
with the exception that the "sys number" need NOT be given in the library
function call.

library
sys # function description
----- --------- -----------
0 (version) - returns a pointer to a string containing the version
number of the interpreter.
1 (putchar) - sends a single character to the console.
RETURNS: the character that was displayed.

sys(chr,1)
chr - the character to be displayed.

2 (getchar) - reads a character from the console keyboard and echos
it to the console display.
RETURNS: the character read.

sys(2) - no arguments.

3 (fputs) - writes a string to a given file channel. The channel
must have been previously opened with sys(7), or it
may be either 1 or 2 to write to the standard output
file (initially the console) or the standard error
file (also initially the console).
RETURNS: the address of the string, or -1 on error.

sys(str,channel,3)
str - the string to be written.
channel - the file channel number.

4 (fgets) - reads a string from a given file channel. The channel
must have been previously opened with sys(7), or it
may be 0 to read from the standard input file
(initially the console). A string is roughly equivalent
to a single line of text in the file.
RETURNS: the address of the string, or 0 on EOF.

sys(buf,channel,4)
str - the address where the string will be read to.
channel - the file channel number.

5 (sprintf) - does a formatted print to a string. See the "printf"
function in your "C" manual for more info.
RETURNS: nothing interesting.

sys(buf,format,arg1,arg2 ... arg8,5)
buf - the address where the formatted string will
be written to.
format - the conversion format.
arg1...arg8 - up to 8 optional arguments that will
be converted, according to "format".

6 (sscanf) - does a formatted read from a string. See the "scanf"
function in your "C" manual for more info.
RETURNS: the number of items read.

sys(buf,format,arg1,arg2 ... arg8,6)
buf - the string to be scanned.
format - the conversion format.
arg1...arg8 - up to 8 optional arguments that will
receive the information scanned from "buf"

7 (fopen) - opens the given file name for read or write.
RETURNS: a non-negative channel number to be used for
subsequent reads or writes on the channel, or a -1 if
the file could not be opened.

sys(file,mode,7)
file - the name of the file to be opened.
mode - is the string "r" to open the file for read,
or "w" for write.

8 (fread) - reads a given number of bytes from a file channel. As
with sys(4), the channel must already be open.
RETURNS: the address of the data read, or 0 on EOF.

sys(buf,count,channel,8)
buf - the address where the data will be read to.
count - the number of data bytes to be read.
channel - the file channel number.

9 (fwrite) - writes a given number of bytes to a file channel.
RETURNS: the address of the data written, or -1 on error.

sys(buf,count,channel,9)
buf - the address of the data to be written.
count - the number of data bytes to be written.
channel - the file channel number.

10 (fclose) - closes an open file channel.
RETURNS: 0 if successful, or -1 if not.

sys(channel,10)
channel - the file channel number.

11 (exit) - exits to CP/M

sys(11) - no arguments.

12 (stmt) - hands a string containing a "Small C" statement off to
the interpreter to be executed.
RETURNS: the results of the statement.

sys(str,12)
str - the string containing the C statement.

13 (totok) - "tokenize" the given string containing a "Small C"
statement.
RETURNS: the length of the tokenized string.

sys(srcbuf,tknbuf,13)
srcbuf - the string containing the C statement.
tknbuf - the destination of the tokenized version
of "srcbuf".

14 (untok) - "un-tokenizes" the given token string.
RETURNS: the length of the tokenized string.

sys(tknbuf,srcbuf,14)
tknbuf - the string containing the tokenized C
statement.
srcbuf - the destination of the untokenized version
of "tknbuf".

15 (edit) - envokes the program editor.
RETURNS: the new length of the program buffer.

sys(linenum,program,15)
linenum - the line number to start editing.
program - the tokenized program buffer.

16 (strcmp) - comparse two strings for equality.
RETURNS: 0 if the strings match, non-zero if not.

sys(str1,str2,count,16)
str1,str2 - the 2 strings to be compared.
count - an optional count of the number of characters
to be compared.
17 (corelft)- check how much free space is left in the heap.
RETURNS: the number of bytes of available memory.

sys(17) - no arguments.

18 (malloc) - request a given number of bytes of memory from the heap.
RETURNS: the address of the first byte of the allocated
block. This address must be given to sys(19) to return
the block back to the heap.

sys(count,18)
count - the number of bytes requested.

19 (free) - return a block of memory to the heap.

sys(address,19)
address - the address of the block (previously gotten
from sys(18).

20 (load) - load a program (in untokenized form) from a file into
memory.
RETURNS: the size of the tokenized program.

sys(file,program,20)
file - the name of the file containing the program.
program - an array that contains the tokenized
version of the program.

21 (save) - save a program (in tokenized form) to a file.
RETURNS: nothing interesting.

sys(file,program,21)
file - the name of the file where the program is to
be written to.
program - an array that contains the tokenized
version of the program.

22 (list) - list a program in tokenized form to the console.
RETURNS: nothing interesting.

sys(program,from,to,22)
program - an array that contains the tokenized
version of the program.
from - the starting line # to be listed.
to - the ending line # to be listed.

23 (trace) - enable or disable the program line trace function.
RETURNS: nothing interesting.

sys(on_off,23)
on_off - if non-zero will enable trace, zero will
disable it.


PROGRAM_TRACE

The library function "trace", described in the previous section allows
you to enable or disable the program trace feature. In the trace mode,
you can set and remove breakpoints, examine and modify program variables
control the execution of the program, and generally muck around in the
guts of your program as you please.

When trace is enabled, the interpreter displays each line of the program
on the console before it executes it, and then displays a question mark (?)
prompt. At this point you may either enter another "Small C" statement
(to display the contents of a variable for example) or enter one of the
following commands (NOTE: all of these commands start with a dot (.) in
the first column):

.b# sets a breakpoint at a given line in your program. The "#"
immediately following the "b" is the line number at which the
program will halt. You may set a maximum of 10 breakpoints.
.B displays all breakpoints set in the program.
.c continue program execution until the next breakpoint is
encountered.
.d# deletes the breakpoint at line "#". The breakpoint must have
been previously set with a ".b".
.D deletes all breakpoints set.
.q quits program execution altogether and returns to the shell.
.s# steps through the program without displaying each line as it
is executed. The "#" indicates the number of lines to be
executed.
.e# lets you examine the program with the program editor - you may
look, but not touch!
the interpreter executes the current line and goes on to the
next line in the program. This is the same as ".s1".
disables trace and continues execution normally.

Also, if the interpreter finds an error in your program, it will
automatically enable trace and halt the program at the offending line,
at which point you may wish to examine program variables or whatever.


PASSING_ARGUMENTS_TO_THE_SHELL

A mechanism has been provided to pass CP/M command line arguments to
the command shell in a way similar to most commerically available "C"
compilers. When you start up SCI from CP/M, a "-A" will cause all
following arguments to be passed to the command shell. For example,
suppose the following program to be the command shell:

main( argc, argv )
int argc, *argv;
{
int i;

while( i {
printf("<%s>\n",argv[i]);
i=i+1;
}
}

Then, typing the CP/M command:

A>SCI -A HELLO OUT THERE

would cause SCI to display the following:






DIFFERENCES_FROM_SMALL_C

SCI supports the subset of the "C" language defined by James Hendrix'
public domain "Small C" compiler, available for many CP/M and MS-DOS
machines. There are, however, some minor differences that have been
dictated in part by the fact that this is an interpreter. These are:

0) Program source lines are limited to 80 characters, just to keep
things simple. The editor will complain if you try to enter a line
longer than 80 characters.
1) There are no #define or #include statements, simply because there
is no pre-processor!
2) Comments are introduced by the number symbol (#) and are terminated
by the end of the line. The "/*" and "*/" combinations will only
be barfed at by SCI.
3) Statements in general are terminated by the end of a line - the
semicolon required by the "C" language at the end of a statement
is superfluous. This restriction imposes that an expression be
completely on one line (boooo, hissss!), however you no longer
get penalized for forgeting a semicolon (hurray, yay!). This also
implies that string and character constants are terminated by the
end of the line. In fact, if you forget to add the terminating quote
or apostrophe delimiter, SCI will insert one for you.
4) Increment and decrement operators are not recognized (aaaaww).
5) The comma operator is recognized ONLY when used in function calls
and data declarations. For instance, it would be illegal to say:
while ( argv=argv+1, argc=argc-1 );
6) Data declarations may appear ANYWHERE within a program or function
(hurray, yay!), however local data declarations remain active up
to the end of the function - they don't go away at the end of the
compound statement they were declared in (boooo, hissss!).
7) Pointers to integers are advanced to the next BYTE, not the next
integer. For example, *(ip+1) will point to the least significant
byte of the next integer (on a Z80 machine), not the next word
(booo, hisss!). But, ip[1] still points to the next integer (whew!).
8) Pointer expressions are not allowed on the left-hand side of an
equal sign. This restriction is due to the author's laziness.
9) Be careful, array references can be used on the left side of an
equal sign (ptewph, yuk, cough!).


ERROR_MESSAGES

missing '}' or ')'
Left and right braces or parentheses don't match up.

missing operator
The interpreter found two consecutive operands.

missing ')' or ']'
Left and right brackets don't match up

subscript out of range
The subscript used to index an array was larger (or smaller) than
what the array was declared to be.

not a pointer
An attempt was made to use a simple char or int variable as an array
or a pointer.

syntax error
An error was detected in the structure of a statement.

need an lvalue
An attempt was made to assign a value to a constant.

stack overflow
The expression is too complicated or function calls are nested too
deeply.

stack underflow
Something is wrong (?)

too many functions
Just what it says - the interpreter ran out of function table space.

too many symbols
The interpreter ran out of variable table space.

out of memory
Just what it says.

link error
The interpreter could not make sense out of the program.

missing '}'
Left and right braces don't match up.

sys error
The wrong number of arguments were passed to a sys call.

undefined symbol
A variable name was used that was never declared anywhere.

interrupt
A user program was interrupted by pressing the key. To resume,
press again.

unknown error
something is wrong with the interpreter (?).


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