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Appendix A.

Internal Data Structures Used by PGP 2.0 (draft 30 Aug 92)
==========================================================

This appendix describes the data structures used internally by Pretty
Good Privacy (PGP), the RSA public key cryptography application. The
intended audience mainly includes software engineers trying to port
PGP to other hardware environments or trying to implement other PGP-
compatible cryptography products.


Byte Order
----------

All integer data used by PGP is externally stored most significant
byte (MSB) first, regardless of the byte order used internally by the
host CPU architecture. This is for cross-compatibility of messages
and keys between hosts. This covers multiprecision RSA integers, bit
count prefix fields, byte count prefix fields, checksums, key IDs, and
timestamps.

The MSB-first byte order for external packet representation was
chosen only because many other crypto standards use it.


Multiprecision Integers
-----------------------


RSA arithmetic involves a lot of multiprecision integers, often
having hundreds of bits of precision. PGP externally stores a
multiprecision integer (MPI) with a 16-bit prefix that gives the
number of significant bits in the integer that follows. The integer
that follows this bitcount field is stored in the usual byte order,
with the MSB padded with zero bits if the bitcount is not a multiple
of 8. The bitcount always specifies the exact number of significant
bits. For example, the integer value 5 would be stored as these
three bytes:

00 03 05

An MPI with a value of zero is simply stored with the 16-bit bitcount
prefix field containing a 0, with no value bytes following it.



Key ID
------

Some packets use a "key ID" field. The key ID is the least
significant 64 bits of the RSA public modulus that was involved in
creating the packet. For all practical purposes it unique to each
RSA public key.


User ID
-------

Some packets contain a "user ID", which is an ASCII string that
contains the user's name. Unlike a C string, the user ID has a
length byte at the beginning that has a byte count of the rest of the
string. This length byte does not include itself in the count.


Timestamp
---------

Some packets contain a timestamp, which is a 32-bit unsigned integer
of the number of seconds elapsed since 1970 Jan 1 00:00:00 GMT. This
is the standard format used by Unix timestamps. It spans 136 years.



Cipher Type Byte (CTB)
----------------------

Many of these data structures begin with a Cipher Type Byte (CTB),
which specifies the type of data structure that follows it. The CTB
bit fields have the following meaning (bit 0 is the LSB, bit 7 is the
MSB):

Bit 7: Always 1, which designates this as a CTB
Bit 6: Reserved.
Bits 5-2: CTB type field, specifies type of packet that follows
0001 - public-key-encrypted packet
0010 - secret-key-encrypted (signature) packet
0011 - Message digest packet
0100 - Conventional Data Encryption Key (DEK) packet
0101 - Secret key certificate
0110 - Public key certificate
1000 - Compressed data packet
1001 - Conventional-Key-Encrypted data
1010 - Raw literal plaintext data, with filename and mode
1100 - Keyring trust packet
1101 - User ID packet, associated with public or secret key
1110 - Comment packet
Other CTB packet types are unimplemented.
Bits 1-0: Length-of-length field:
00 - 1 byte packet length field follows CTB
01 - 2 byte packet length field follows CTB
10 - 4 byte packet length field follows CTB
11 - no length field follows CTB, unknown packet length.
The 8-, 16-, or 32-bit packet length field after the CTB
gives the length in bytes of the rest of the packet, not
counting the CTB and the packet length field.



RSA public-key-encrypted packet
-------------------------------

Offset Length Meaning
0 1 CTB for RSA public-key-encrypted packet
1 2 16-bit (or maybe 8-bit) length of packet
3 1 Version byte (=2). May affect rest of fields that follow.
4 8 64-bit Key ID
12 1 Algorithm byte for RSA (=1 for RSA).
--Algorithm byte affects field definitions that follow.
13 ? RSA-encrypted integer, encrypted conventional key
packet. (MPI with bitcount prefix)

The conventionally-encrypted ciphertext packet begins right after the
RSA public-key-encrypted packet that contains the conventional key.



Signature packet
----------------

Offset Length Meaning
0 1 CTB for secret-key-encrypted (signed) packet
1 2 16-bit (or maybe 8-bit) length of packet
3 1 Version byte (=2). May affect rest of fields that follow.

4 1 Length of following material that is implicitly included
in MD calculation.
5 1 Signature classification field (see below).
Implicitly append this to message for MD calculation.
6 4 32-bit timestamp of when signature was made.
Implicitly append this to message for MD calculation.
10 2 Validity period, in number of DAYS (0 means forever)
Implicitly append this to message for MD calculation.

12 8 64-bit Key ID
20 1 Algorithm byte for public key scheme (RSA=0x01).
--Algorithm byte affects field definitions that follow.
21 1 Algorithm byte for message digest (MD5=0x01).
22 2 First 2 bytes of the Message Digest inside the
RSA-encrypted integer, to help us figure out if we
used the right RSA key to check the signature.
24 ? RSA-encrypted integer, encrypted message digest
(MPI with bitcount prefix).

If the plaintext that was signed is included in the same file as the
signature packet, it begins right after the RSA secret-key-signed
packet that contains the message digest. The plaintext has a
"literal" CTB prefix.

The validity period field is generally only used for certifying keys.
It should be set to 0 otherwise, for regular message signatures. It
may be useful for PEM-like capabilities in future versions of PGP.
PGP 2.0 will always just set it to 0, and will ignore it.

There is a length field that specifies how many bytes of material is
implicitly included in the MD calculation. If this length field is
5, it means the following 1-byte classification field and the 4-byte
timestamp are included in the signature packet. If the length byte
is 7, it means the 2-byte validity period is also included. In PGP
2.0, we are using a length field of 5 for the material to be included
in the MD calculation, so the validity period is unused and
unincluded, and is assumed to be zeroed. This makes the whole
signature certificate shorter.

The signature classification field describes what kind of
signature certificate this is. There are various hex values:
00 - Signature of a message or document, binary image.
01 - Signature of a message or document, canonical text.
10 - Key certification, generic. Only version of key
certification supported by PGP 2.0.
Material signed is public key pkt and User ID pkt.
11 - Key certification, persona. No attempt made at all
to identify the user with a real name.
Material signed is public key pkt and User ID pkt.
12 - Key certification, casual identification. Some
casual attempt made to identify user with his name.
Material signed is public key pkt and User ID pkt.
13 - Key certification, positive ID. Heavy-duty
identification efforts, photo ID, direct contact
with personal friend, etc.
Material signed is public key pkt and User ID pkt.
20 - Key compromise. User signs his own compromise
certificate. Independent of user ID associations.
Material signed is public key pkt ONLY.
30 - Key/userid revocation. User can sign his own
revocation to dissolve an association between a key
and a user ID, or certifier may revoke his previous
certification of this key/userid pair.
Material signed is public key pkt and User ID pkt.
40 - Timestamping a signature certificate made by someone
else. Can be used to apply trusted timestamp, and
log it in notary's log. Signature of a signature.

When a signature is made to certify a key/UserID pair, it is computed
across two packets-- the public key packet, and the separate User ID
packet. See below.

The packet headers (CTB and length fields) for the public key packet
and the user ID packet are both omitted from the signature
calculation for a key certification.

A key compromise certificate may be issued by someone to revoke his
own key when his secret key is known to be compromised. If that
happens, a user would sign his own key compromise certificate with
the very key that is being revoked. A key revoked by its own
signature means that this key should never be used or trusted again,
in any form, associated with any user ID. A key compromise
certificate issued by the keyholder shall take precedence over any
other key certifications made by anyone else for that key. A key
compromise signed by someone other than the key holder is invalid.

Note that a key compromise certificate just includes the key packet
in its signature calculation, because it kills the whole key without
regard to any userid associations. It isn't tied to any particular
userid association. It should be inserted after the key packet,
before the first userid packet.

When a key compromise certificate is submitted to PGP, PGP will place
it on the public keyring. A key compromise certificate is always
accompanied in its travels by the public key and userIDs it affects.
If the affected key is NOT already on the keyring, the compromise
certificate (and its key and user ID) is merely added to the keyring
anywhere. If the affected key IS already on the keyring, the
compromise certificate is inserted after the affected key packet.
This assumes that the actual key packet is identical to the one
already on the key ring, so no duplicate key packet is needed.
If a key has been revoked, PGP will not allow its use to encipher any
messages, and if an incoming signature uses it, PGP will display a
stern warning that this key has been revoked.

NOTE: Key/userid revocation certificates WILL NOT BE SUPPORTED in
this version of PGP. But if we ever get around to supporting them,
here are some ideas on how they should work...

A key/userid revocation certificate may be issued by someone to
dissolve the association between his own key and a user ID. He would
sign it with the very key that is being revoked. A key/userid
revocation certificate issued by the keyholder shall take precedence
over any other key certifications made by anyone else for that
key/userid pair. Also, a third party certifier may revoke his own
previous certification of this key/userid pair by issuing a
key/userid revocation certificate. Such a revocation should not
affect the certifications by other third parties for this same
key/userid pair.

When a key/userid revocation certificate is submitted to PGP, PGP
will place it on the public keyring. A key/userid revocation
certificate is always accompanied in its travels by the public key it
affects (the key packet and user ID packet precedes the revocation
certificate). If the affected key is NOT already on the keyring, the
revocation certificate (and its key and user ID) is merely added to
the keyring anywhere. If the affected key IS already on the keyring,
the revocation certificate is integrated in with the key's other
certificates as though it were just another key certification. This
assumes that the actual key packet is identical to the one already on
the key ring, so no duplicate key packet is needed.



Message digest "packet"
-----------------------

The Message digest has no CTB packet framing. It is stored
packetless and naked, with padding, encrypted inside the MPI in the
Signature packet.

The MD algorithm byte (1=MD5) is appended at the high end of the MD.
The padding is formed by appending a 0x00 byte, then a padding string
of 0xFF bytes, then appending a 0x01 byte at the most significant
byte to bring it just 1 byte short of the length of the RSA modulus.

If we looked at it as one big integer and displayed it as such in
MSB-first order, it would look this way:

01 00

On a LSB-first machine, this assembled byte sequence is reversed
before being used in an RSA calculation.

If we looked at it as a byte stream in LSB-first order, it would look
like this:

00 01

But remember-- PGP stores everything in MSB-order externally, so the
MSB-first representation is the one we use, not the LSB-first version.

All this mainly affects the preblock() and postunblock() functions in
mpiio.c.

There is no checksum included. We do include a copy of 2 bytes of the
MD in the outer packet to help determine if we used the correct RSA
key.

This scheme is the similar to that specified by RFC1115. Note that
RFC1115 has a similar approach for the DEK framing in the RSA
integer, but the 0x01 at the high end becomes a 0x02, and the
FFFFFFFF padding becomes a string of pseudorandom (but NONZERO!)
bytes.


Conventional Data Encryption Key (DEK) "packet"
-----------------------------------------------

The DEK has no CTB packet framing. The DEK is stored packetless and
naked, with padding, encrypted inside the MPI in the RSA
public-key-encrypted packet.

A 16-bit checksum is appended to the high end of the DEK. Then the
DEK algorithm byte (1=IDEA) is appended at the high end of that. The
padding is formed by appending a 0x00 byte, then a padding string of
NONZERO(!) pseudorandom bytes, then appending a 0x02 byte at the most
significant byte to bring it just 1 byte short of the length of the
RSA modulus.

If we looked at it as a byte stream in MSB-first order, it would look
like this:

02 00

The 16-bit checksum is computed on the rest of the bytes in the DEK
key material, and does not include any other material in the
calculation, such as the DEK algorithm byte. In the above MSB-first
representation, the checksum is also stored MSB-first. On a
LSB-first machine, this byte sequence is first assembled and then
reversed before being used in an RSA calculation. The checksum is
there to help us determine if we used the right RSA secret key for
decryption.

If we looked at it as a byte stream in LSB-first order, it would look
like this:

00 02

All this mainly affects the preblock() and postunblock() functions in
mpiio.c.



Conventional Key Encrypted data packet
--------------------------------------

Offset Length Meaning
0 1 CTB for Conventional-Key-Encrypted data packet
1 4 32-bit (or maybe 16-bit) length of packet
5 ? conventionally-encrypted data.
plaintext has 64 bits of random data prepended,
plus 16 bits prepended for "key check" purposes

The decrypted ciphertext may contain a compressed data packet or a
literal plaintext packet.

After decrypting the conventionally-encrypted data, a special 8-byte
random prefix and 2 "key check" bytes are revealed. The random
prefix and key check prefix are inserted before encryption and
discarded after decryption. This prefix group prefix is only visible
only after decrypting the ciphertext in the packet.

The random prefix serves to start off the cipher feedback chaining
process with 64 bits of random material. It may be discarded after
decryption. The first 8 bytes is the random prefix material, followed
by the 2-byte "key-check" prefix.

The key-check prefix is composed of two identical copies of the last
2 random bytes in the random prefix, in the same order. During
decryption, the 9th and 10th byte of decrypted plaintext are checked
to see if they match the 7th and 8th byte respectively. If these
key-check bytes meet this criterion, then the conventional key is
assumed to be correct.



Compressed data packet
----------------------

Offset Length Meaning
0 1 CTB for Compressed data packet
1 4 32-bit (or maybe 16-bit) length of packet
5 1 Compression algorithm selector byte (1=ZIP)
6 ? compressed data

The compressed data begins right after the algorithm selector byte.
The compressed data may decompress into a raw literal plaintext data
packet with its own CTB.



Literal data packet, with filename and mode
-------------------------------------------

Offset Length Meaning
0 1 CTB for raw literal data packet
1 4 32-bit (or maybe 16-bit) length of packet
5 1 mode byte, 'b'= binary or 't'= canonical text
6 ? filename, with leading string length byte
? 4 Timestamp of last-modified date, or 0, or right now
? ? raw literal plaintext data

The timestamp may be have to be derived in a system dependent manner.
ANSI C functions should be used to get it if available, otherwise
store the current time in it. Or maybe store 0 if it's somehow not
applicable.

Whne calculating a signature on a literal packet, the signature
calculation only includes the raw literal plaintext data that begins
AFTER the header fields in the literal packet-- after the CTB, the
length, the mode byte, the filename, and the timestamp. The reason
for this is to guarantee that detached signatures are exactly the
same as attached signatures prefixed to the message. Detached
signatures are calculated on a separate file that has no packet
encapsulation.



Comment packet
--------------

A comment packet is generally just skipped over by PGP, although it
may be displayed to the user when processed. It can be put in a
keyring, or anywhere else.

Offset Length Meaning
0 1 CTB for Comment packet
1 1 8-bit length of packet
2 ? ASCII comment, size is as in preceding length byte



Secret key certificate
----------------------

Offset Length Meaning
0 1 CTB for secret key certificate
1 2 16-bit (or maybe 8-bit) length of packet
3 1 Version byte (=2). May affect rest of fields that follow.
4 4 Timestamp
8 2 Validity period, in number of DAYS (0 means forever)
10 1 Algorithm byte for RSA (=1 for RSA).
--Algorithm byte affects field definitions that follow.
? ? MPI of RSA public modulus n
? ? MPI of RSA public encryption exponent e

? 1 Algorithm byte for cipher that protects following
secret components (0=unencrypted, 1=IDEA cipher)
? 8 Cipher Feedback IV for cipher that protects secret
components (not present if unencrypted)
? ? MPI of RSA secret decryption exponent d
? ? MPI of RSA secret factor p
? ? MPI of RSA secret factor q
? ? MPI of RSA secret multiplicative inverse u
(All MPI's have bitcount prefixes)
? 2 16-bit checksum of all preceding secret component bytes

All secret fields in the secret key certificate may be password-
encrypted, including the checksum. The checksum is calculated from
all of the bytes of the unenciphered secret components. The public
fields are not encrypted. The encrypted fields are done in CFB mode,
and the checksum is used to tell if the password was good. The CFB
IV field is just encrypted random data, assuming the "true" IV was
zero.

NOTE: The secret key packet does not contain a User ID field. The
User ID is enclosed in a separate packet that always follows the secret
key packet on a keyring or in any other context.


Public key certificate
----------------------

Offset Length Meaning
0 1 CTB for public key certificate
1 2 16-bit (or maybe 8-bit) length of packet
3 1 Version byte (=2). May affect rest of fields that follow.
4 4 Timestamp of key creation
8 2 Validity period, in number of DAYS (0 means forever)
10 1 Algorithm byte for RSA (=1 for RSA).
--Algorithm byte affects field definitions that follow.
? ? MPI of RSA public modulus n
? ? MPI of RSA public encryption exponent e
(All MPI's have bitcount prefixes)

NOTE: The public key packet does not contain a User ID field. The
User ID is enclosed in a separate packet that always follows
somewhere after the public key packet on a keyring or in any other
context.



User ID packet
--------------

Offset Length Meaning
0 1 CTB for User ID packet
1 1 8-bit length of packet
2 ? User ID string, size is as in preceding length byte

The User ID packet follows a public key on a public key ring. It
also follows a secret key on a secret key ring.

When a key is certified by a signature, the signature covers both the
public key packet and the User ID packet. The signature certificate
thereby logically "binds" together the user ID with the key. The
user ID packet is always associated with the most recently occurring
public key on the key ring, regardless of whether there are other
packet types appearing between the public key packet and the
associated user ID packet.

There may be more than one User ID packet after a public key packet.
They all would be associated with the preceding public key packet.


Keyring trust packet
--------------------

The three different forms of this packet each come after: a public key
packet, a user ID packet, or a signature packet on the public key
ring. They exist only on a public key ring, and are never extracted
with a key. Don't copy this separate trust byte packet from keyring,
and do add it in back in when adding to keyring.

The meaning of the keyring trust packet is context sensitive. The
trust byte has three different definitions depending on whether it
follows a key packet on the ring, or follows a user ID packet on the
ring, or follows a signature on the ring.

Offset Length Meaning
0 1 CTB for Keyring trust packet
1 1 8-bit length of packet (always 1 for now)
2 1 Trust flag byte, with context-sensitive bit
definitions given below.


For trust bytes that apply to the preceding key packet, the following
bit definitions apply:

Bits 0-2 - OWNERTRUST bits- Trust bits for this key owner. Values are:
000 - undefined, or uninitialized trust.
001 - unknown, we don't know the owner of this key.
010 - We usually do not trust this key owner to sign other keys.
011 - reserved
100 - reserved
101 - We usually do trust this key owner to sign other keys.
110 - We always trust this key owner to sign other keys.
111 - This key is also present in the secret keyring.
Bits 3-5 - Reserved.
Bit 6 - VISITED bit- only used internally by the maintenance pass.
Bit 7 - BUCKSTOP bit- Means this key also appears in secret key ring.
Signifies the ultimately-trusted "keyring owner".
"The buck stops here". This bit computed from looking
at secret key ring. If this bit is set, then all the
KEYLEGIT fields are set to maximum for all the user IDs for
this key, and OWNERTRUST is also set to ultimate trust.

For trust bytes that apply to the preceding user ID packet, the
following bit definitions apply:

Bit 0-1 - KEYLEGIT bits- Validity bits for this key.
Set if we believe the preceding key is legitimately owned by
who it appears to belong to, specified by the preceding user
ID. Computed from various signature trust packets that
follow. Also, always fully set if BUCKSTOP is set.
To define the KEYLEGIT byte does not require that
OWNERTRUST be nonzero, but OWNERTRUST nonzero does require
that KEYLEGIT be fully set to maximum trust.
00 - unknown, undefined, or uninitialized trust.
01 - We do not trust this key's ownership.
10 - We have marginal confidence of this key's ownership.
Totally useless for certifying other keys, but may be useful
for checking message signatures with an advisory warning
to the user.
11 - We completely trust this key's ownership.
This requires either:
- 1 ultimately trusted signature (a signature from
yourself, SIGTRUST=111)
- COMPLETES_NEEDED completely trusted signatures
(SIGTRUST=110)
- MARGINALS_NEEDED marginally trusted signatures
(SIGTRUST=101)
COMPLETES_NEEDED and MARGINALS_NEEDED are configurable
constants.
Bit 7 - WARNONLY bit- If the user wants to use a not fully validated
key for encryption, he is asked if he really wants to use this
key. If the user answers 'yes', the WARNONLY bit gets set,
and the next time he uses this key, only a warning will be
printed. This bit gets cleared during the maintenance pass.

For a trust byte that applies to the preceding signature, the
following bit definitions apply:

Bits 0-2 - SIGTRUST bits- Trust bits for this signature. Value is
copied directly from OWNERTRUST bits of signer:
000 - undefined, or uninitialized trust.
001 - unknown
010 - We do not trust this signature.
011 - reserved
100 - reserved
101 - We reasonably trust this signature.
110 - We completely trust this signature.
111 - ultimately trusted signature (from the owner of the ring)
Bits 3-6 - Reserved.
Bit 7 - CONTIG bit- Means this signature leads up a contiguous trusted
certification path all the way back to the ultimately-
trusted keyring owner, where the buck stops. This bit derived
from other trust packets.

Note that the other kinds of trust bytes are mainly derived from the
OWNERTRUST bits. They are also derived from the BUCKSTOP bit (which
will be set after creating a key, or after setting the owner trust to
ultimate), and from the SIGTRUST bits, which is itself derived from a
combination of OWNERTRUST bits and possibly the user's ratification.

When testing a key's integrity, we follow a trusted contiguous
certification path back up to the owner of the key ring by following
keyring trust bytes (for signatures) that have the CONTIG bits and
SIGTRUST bits set, until we hit a keyring trust byte (for a key) that
has BUCKSTOP bit set. Then we know we've reached the top of the
trust pyramid, the keyring owner. Prior to this operation, we set
all the CONTIG bits by navigating the pyramid from the top down, by
testing the SIGTRUST bits that are "trustwise contiguous" with the
top of the pyramid, in a special keyring maintenance pass.

The key legitimacy is ultimately determined by a probablistic
fault-tolerant method, as follows. We also set KEYLEGIT if BUCKSTOP is
set, which means that this is our own key. The OWNERTRUST bits can only
become defined (nonzero) if KEYLEGIT is fully set already. At the
moment KEYLEGIT becomes fully set (and not before), we ask the user to
define the OWNERTRUST bits.

This probablistic fault-tolerant method of determining public key
legitimacy is one of the principle strengths of PGP's key management
architecture, as compared with PEM, for decentralized social
environments.

The trust of a key owner (OWNERTRUST) does not just reflect our
estimation of their personal integrity, it also reflects how competent
we think they are at understanding key management and using good
judgement in signing keys. The OWNERTRUST bits are not computed from
anything-- it requires asking the user for his opinion.

To define the OWNERTRUST bits for a key owner, ask:
Would you always trust "Oliver North"
to certify other public keys?
(1=Yes, 2=No, 3=Usually, 4=I don't know) ? _

If a key is added to the key ring the trust bytes are initialized
to zero (undefined).


[--manual setting of SIGTRUST/OWNERTRUST not implemented]
Normally, we derive the value of the SIGTRUST field by copying it
directly from the signer key's OWNERTRUST field. Under special
circumstances, if the user explicitly requests it with a special PGP
command, we may let the user override the copied value for SIGTRUST
by displaying an advisory to him and asking him for ratification,
like so:
This key is signed by "Oliver North",
whom you usually trust to sign keys.
Do you trust "Oliver North"
to certify the key for "Daniel Ellsberg"?
(1=Yes, 2=No, 3=I don't know) ? _

Or:
This key is signed by "Oliver North",
whom you usually do not trust to sign keys.
Do you trust "Oliver North"
to certify the key for "Daniel Ellsberg"?
(1=Yes, 2=No, 3=I don't know) ? _

An "I don't know" response to this question would have the same
effect as a response of "no".

If we had no information about the trustworthyness of the signer (the
OWNERTRUST field was uninitialized), we would leave the advisory note
off.


Certifying a public key is a serious matter, essentially promising to
the world that you vouch for this key's ownership. But sometimes I
just want to make a "working assumption" of trust for someone's
public key, for my own purposes on my own keyring, without taking the
serious step of actually certifying it for the rest of the world. In
that case, we can use a special PGP keyring management command to
manually set the KEYLEGIT field, without relying on it being computed
during a maintenance pass. Later, if a maintenance pass discovers a
KEYLEGIT bit set that would not have been otherwise computed as set
by the maintenance pass logic, it alerts me and asks me to confirm
that I really want it set.
[--end of not implemented section]


During routine use of the public keyring, we don't actually check the
associated signatures certifying a public key. Rather, we always
rely on trust bytes to tell us whether to trust the key in question.
We depend on a separate maintenance pass to actually check the key
signature certificates against the associated keys, and to set the
trust bytes accordingly.


The maintenance pass operates in a top-of-pyramid-down manner as
follows.

If at any time during any of these steps the KEYLEGIT field goes from
not fully set to fully set, and the OWNERTRUST bits are still undefined,
the user is asked a question to define the OWNERTRUST bits. First, for
all keys with BUCKSTOP set, check if they are really present in the
secret keyring, if not, the BUCKSTOP bit is cleared. SIGTRUST and
KEYLEGIT is initialized to zero for non-buckstop keys.

The real maintenance pass is done in a recursive scan: Start with
BUCKSTOP keys, find all userid/key pairs signed by a key and update
the trust value of these signatures by copying the OWNERTRUST of the
signer to the SIGTRUST of the signature. If this makes a key fully
validated, start looking for signatures made by this key, and update
the trust value for them.

If a signature fails to verify, obnoxiously alert the user, drop it from
the key ring, and then do the maintenance pass to calculate all the
ring-wide cascaded effects from this, if any. A failed signature should
be exceedingly rare, and it may not even result in a KEYLEGIT field
being downgraded. Having several signatures certifying each key should
prevent damage from spreading too far from a failed certificate. But if
dominoes do keep falling from this, it may indicate the discovery of an
important elaborate attack.



Public Key Ring Overall Structure
=================================

A public key ring is comprised of a series of public key packets,
keyring trust packets, user ID packets, and signature certificates.

Here is an example of an ordered collection of packets on a ring:

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Public key packet
Keyring trust packet for preceding key
User ID packet for preceding key
Keyring trust packet for preceding user ID/key association
Comment packet
Signature certificate to bind preceding User ID and key pkt
Keyring trust packet for preceding signature certificate
Signature certificate to bind preceding User ID and key pkt
Keyring trust packet for preceding signature certificate
Signature certificate to bind preceding User ID and key pkt
Keyring trust packet for preceding signature certificate

Public key packet
Keyring trust packet for preceding key
User ID packet for preceding key
Keyring trust packet for preceding user ID/key association
Signature certificate to bind preceding User ID and key pkt
Keyring trust packet for preceding signature certificate
User ID packet for preceding key
Keyring trust packet for preceding user ID/key association
Comment packet
Signature certificate to bind preceding User ID and key pkt
Keyring trust packet for preceding signature certificate
Signature certificate to bind preceding User ID and key pkt
Keyring trust packet for preceding signature certificate

Public key packet
Keyring trust packet for preceding key
Compromise certificate for preceding key
User ID packet for preceding key
Keyring trust packet for preceding user ID/key association
Signature certificate to bind preceding User ID and key pkt
Keyring trust packet for preceding signature certificate
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  3 Responses to “Category : C Source Code
Archive   : PGP20SRC.ZIP
Filename : PGFORMAT.DOC

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: http://www.os2museum.com/wp/mtswslnk/