Category : C Source Code
Archive   : OHLMAKE.ZIP
Filename : MAKE.DOC

Output of file : MAKE.DOC contained in archive : OHLMAKE.ZIP


make - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs

mmmmaaaakkkkeeee [ ----ffff makefile ] [ option ] ... target ...

This man paage is an extract of the documentation of _G_N_U
_m_a_k_e . It is updated only occasionally, because the GNU pro-
ject does not use nroff. For complete, current documenta-
tion, refer to the Info file mmmmaaaakkkkeeee or the DVI file mmmmaaaakkkkeeee....ddddvvvviiii
which are made from the Texinfo source file mmmmaaaakkkkeeee....tttteeeexxxxiiiinnnnffffoooo.

The purpose of the _m_a_k_e utility is to determine automati-
cally which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled,
and issue the commands to recompile them. This manual
describes the GNU implementation of _m_a_k_e, which was written
by Richard Stallman and Roland McGrath. Our examples show C
programs, since they are most common, but you can use _m_a_k_e
with any programming language whose compiler can be run with
a shell command. In fact, _m_a_k_e is not limited to programs.
You can use it to describe any task where some files must be
updated automatically from others whenever the others

To prepare to use _m_a_k_e, you must write a file called the
_m_a_k_e_f_i_l_e that describes the relationships among files in
your program, and the states the commands for updating each
file. In a program, typically the executable file is
updated from object files, which are in turn made by compil-
ing source files.

Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some
source files, this simple shell command:


suffices to perform all necessary recompilations. The _m_a_k_e
program uses the makefile data base and the last-
modification times of the files to decide which of the files
need to be updated. For each of those files, it issues the
commands recorded in the data base.

_m_a_k_e executes commands in the _m_a_k_e_f_i_l_e to update one or more
target _n_a_m_e_s, where _n_a_m_e is typically a program. If no ----ffff
option is present, _m_a_k_e will look for the makefiles _G_N_U_-
_m_a_k_e_f_i_l_e, _m_a_k_e_f_i_l_e, and _M_a_k_e_f_i_l_e, in that order.

Normally you should call your makefile either _m_a_k_e_f_i_l_e or
_M_a_k_e_f_i_l_e. (We recommend _M_a_k_e_f_i_l_e because it appears prom-
inently near the beginning of a directory listing, right

Sun Release 3.0B Last change: 22 August 1989 1


near other important files such as _R_E_A_D_M_E.) The first name
checked, _G_N_U_m_a_k_e_f_i_l_e, is not recommended for most makefiles.
You should use this name if you have a makefile that is
specific to GNU _m_a_k_e, and will not be understood by other
versions of _m_a_k_e. If _m_a_k_e_f_i_l_e is `-', the standard input is

_m_a_k_e updates a target if it depends on prerequisite files
that have been modified since the target was last modified,
or if the target does not exist.


----mmmm These options are ignored for compatibility with other
versions of _m_a_k_e.

----CCCC _d_i_r
Change to directory _d_i_r before reading the makefiles or
doing anything else. If multiple ----CCCC options are speci-
fied, each is interpreted relative to the previous one:
----CCCC / ----CCCC etc is equivalent to ----CCCC /etc. This is typi-
cally used with recursive invocations of _m_a_k_e.

----dddd Print debugging information in addition to normal pro-
cessing. The debugging information says which files
are being considered for remaking, which file-times are
being compared and with what results, which files actu-
ally need to be remade, which implicit rules are con-
sidered and which are applied---everything interesting
about how _m_a_k_e decides what to do.

----ffff _f_i_l_e
Use _f_i_l_e _a_s _a _m_a_k_e_f_i_l_e.

----iiii Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.

----IIII _d_i_r
Specifies a directory _d_i_r to search for included
makefiles. If several ----IIII options are used to specify
several directories, the directories are searched in
the order specified. Unlike the arguments to other
flags of _m_a_k_e, directories given with flags may come
directly after the flag: ----IIII_d_i_r is allowed, as well as
----IIII _d_i_r. This syntax is allowed for compatibility with
the C preprocessor's ----IIII flag.

----jjjj _j_o_b_s
Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simul-
taneously. If there is more than one ----jjjj option, the
last one is effective. If the ----jjjj option is given
without an argument, _m_a_k_e will not limit the number of

Sun Release 3.0B Last change: 22 August 1989 2


jobs that can run simultaneously.

----kkkk Continue as much as possible after an error. While the
target that failed, and those that depend on it, cannot
be remade, the other dependencies of these targets can
be processed all the same.


----llll _l_o_a_d
Specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started
if there are others jobs running and the load average
is at least _l_o_a_d (a floating-point number). With no
argument, removes a previous load limit.

----nnnn Print the commands that would be executed, but do not
execute them.

----oooo _f_i_l_e
Do not remake the file _f_i_l_e even if it is older than
its dependencies, and do not remake anything on account
of changes in _f_i_l_e. Essentially the file is treated as
very old and its rules are ignored.

----pppp Print the data base (rules and variable values) that
results from reading the makefiles; then execute as
usual or as otherwise specified. This also prints the
version information given by the ----vvvv switch (see below).
To print the data base without trying to remake any
files, use mmmmaaaakkkkeeee ----pppp ----ffff/_d_e_v/_n_u_l_l.

----qqqq ``Question mode''. Do not run any commands, or print
anything; just return an exit status that is zero if
the specified targets are already up to date, nonzero

----rrrr Eliminate use of the built-in implicit rules. Also
clear out the default list of suffixes for suffix

----ssss Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are

----SSSS Cancel the effect of the ----kkkk option. This is never
necessary except in a recursive _m_a_k_e where ----kkkk might be
inherited from the top-level _m_a_k_e via MAKEFLAGS or if
you set ----kkkk in MAKEFLAGS in your environment.

----tttt Touch files (mark them up to date without really chang-
ing them) instead of running their commands. This is
used to pretend that the commands were done, in order
to fool future invocations of _m_a_k_e.

Sun Release 3.0B Last change: 22 August 1989 3


----vvvv Print the version of the _m_a_k_e program plus a copyright,
a list of authors and a notice that there is no war-
ranty. After this information is printed, processing
continues normally. To get this information without
doing anything else, use mmmmaaaakkkkeeee ----vvvv ----ffff/_d_e_v/_n_u_l_l.

----wwww Print a message containing the working directory before
and after before and after other processing. This may
be useful for tracking down errors from complicated
nests of recursive _m_a_k_e commands.

----WWWW _f_i_l_e
Pretend that the target _f_i_l_e has just been modified.
When used with the ----nnnn flag, this shows you what would
happen if you were to modify that file. Without ----nnnn, it
is almost the same as running a _t_o_u_c_h command on the
given file before running _m_a_k_e, except that the modifi-
cation time is changed only in the imagination of _m_a_k_e.

_T_h_e _G_N_U _M_a_k_e _M_a_n_u_a_l

See the chapter `Problems and Bugs' in _T_h_e _G_N_U _M_a_k_e _M_a_n_u_a_l .

This manual page contributed by Dennis Morse of Stanford
University. It has been reworked by Roland McGrath.

Sun Release 3.0B Last change: 22 August 1989 4

  3 Responses to “Category : C Source Code
Archive   : OHLMAKE.ZIP
Filename : MAKE.DOC

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: