Dec 072017
C source code for HACK.
File HACKSRC.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category C Source Code
C source code for HACK.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
-READ.ME- 2829 1371 deflated
ALLOC.C 877 411 deflated
APPLY.C 11034 3817 deflated
BONES.C 2796 1192 deflated
CMD.C 8297 3191 deflated
CONFIG.H 5312 2324 deflated
DECL.C 1793 893 deflated
DO.C 12766 4591 deflated
DOG.C 11230 4142 deflated
DO_NAME.C 7160 2580 deflated
DO_WEAR.C 8078 2412 deflated
EAT.C 11887 4333 deflated
EDOG.H 464 278 deflated
END.C 15169 4905 deflated
ENGRAVE.C 7367 2482 deflated
ESHK.H 776 409 deflated
FIGHT.C 10440 3787 deflated
FLAG.H 2062 942 deflated
GEN.H 426 271 deflated
GOLD.H 287 188 deflated
HACK.C 19837 6170 deflated
HACK.H 4661 1934 deflated
INVENT.C 21287 6417 deflated
LEV.C 13028 3717 deflated
MAIN.C 10582 4229 deflated
MAKE.DOC 34654 10037 deflated
MAKE.EXE 27826 16666 deflated
MAKE.INI 1782 768 deflated
MAKEFILE 2924 1015 deflated
MAKEMON.C 5591 2036 deflated
MFNDPOS.H 370 200 deflated
MHITU.C 8801 2896 deflated
MKLEV.C 18738 5839 deflated
MKMAZE.C 4227 1595 deflated
MKOBJ.C 3115 1233 deflated
MKROOM.H 663 412 deflated
MKSHOP.C 7028 2419 deflated
MON.C 22159 7545 deflated
MONST.C 2625 1110 deflated
MONST.H 2158 947 deflated
MSDOS.C 15349 5427 deflated
MSDOS.H 1316 588 deflated
OBJ.H 1660 770 deflated
OBJCLASS.H 1985 931 deflated
OBJECTS.H 10678 3455 deflated
OBJNAM.C 11936 3691 deflated
ONAMES.H 6191 2047 deflated
OPTIONS.C 8179 2472 deflated
O_INIT.C 5183 1789 deflated
PAGER.C 6480 2525 deflated
PERMONST.H 740 397 deflated
POTION.C 9220 3221 deflated
PRI.C 16553 5108 deflated
READ.C 13261 4189 deflated
RIP.C 1936 748 deflated
RM.H 1611 791 deflated
RND.C 310 167 deflated
RUMORS.C 2987 1237 deflated
SAVE.C 8798 2907 deflated
SEARCH.C 3397 1188 deflated
SHK.C 25293 7386 deflated
SHKNAM.C 4387 2066 deflated
STEAL.C 5156 1799 deflated
TERMCAP.C 7153 2884 deflated
TIMEOUT.C 1472 711 deflated
TOPL.C 3990 1480 deflated
TRACK.C 689 364 deflated
TRAP.C 10695 3822 deflated
TRAP.H 679 380 deflated
TTY.C 4044 1678 deflated
UNIX.C 1902 918 deflated
U_INIT.C 8045 2831 deflated
VAULT.C 5914 2318 deflated
VERSION.C 353 224 deflated
WIELD.C 2567 1078 deflated
WIZARD.C 8564 3250 deflated
WORM.C 4408 1386 deflated
WORN.C 1431 559 deflated
WSEG.H 302 213 deflated
ZAP.C 15693 5318 deflated

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Contents of the MAKE.DOC file

NDMAKE version 3.8
Copyright (C) 1985, 1986 D. G. Kneller
All rights reserved.

Program Description

NDMAKE is an implementation of the UNIX(tm) program maintenance
utility called `make'. It has the same syntax and most of the
capability. If you are familiar with UNIX `make' you should have no
difficulties with NDMAKE. In the rest of this documentation, NDMAKE
will be referred to simply as MAKE.

MAKE is a utility that helps you maintain programs, particularly
programs that are composed of several modules (files). Once you
describe the relationships between these modules, MAKE will keep track
of the modules and only `make' those that are out of date with respect
to their sources. MAKE can also be used as a general compile and link
tool for handling single files, much like a batch file.

One feature of MAKE that makes it very useful for software development
is its special handling of LINK. Under MSDOS(tm), commands must be
shorter than the command line limit of 128 characters. Since LINK is
used so often when doing modular programming, MAKE knows about it
specially and will automatically generate a response file if the LINK
command is longer than the limit.

MAKE requires at least DOS 2.0 and uses a minimum of about 40000 bytes
of memory. Since MAKE executes other programs from within itself,
this memory will be unavailable to them while MAKE is running. Also,
since MAKE uses the file time to determine which files are out of
date, it is imperative that you either have a real-time clock or are
diligent about setting the time and date when you boot up.


make [ -f makefile ] [ options ] [ macros ] [ targets ]

The [ ] delimit optional parameters. [ options ] and [ macros ] will
be discussed later.


MAKE executes commands in a MAKE description file to update one or
more targets. The targets are typically the names of programs. If no
-f option is present, the MAKE description file called MAKEFILE is

NDMAKE v3.8 page 2

tried. If makefile is `-', the keyboard (standard input) is used as
the makefile. More than one -f option may appear.

Make updates a target if it is older than the files it depends on, or
if the target does not exist. If no targets are given on the command
line, the first target in the makefile is `made'.

The MAKE description files

MAKE uses 2 description files: MAKEFILE and MAKE.INI. The description
files consists of several kinds of entries:

1) dependency and command lines
2) macro definitions
3) default rules
4) "dot commands"

When MAKE starts up, it looks for an initialization file called
MAKE.INI. This file usually contains only default rules and macro
definitions that you don't want to put in every makefile. The current
directory is searched first, followed by directories along the PATH.
You customize your copy of MAKE by changing MAKE.INI.

1) Dependency and command lines

These are lines that specify the relationship between targets and
prerequisites, and how to update the targets. The general form is:

targets : [prerequisites]

where is the tab character.

The first line of an entry is a blank-separated list of targets, then
a colon, then a list of prerequisite files. All following lines that
begin with a tab are commands to be executed to update the target.
For example, assume you have a program TEST.EXE that is composed of
modules MAIN.OBJ and SUB.OBJ. Each of these depend on a common
include file, INCL.H, and on their respective `.c' files. The
makefile might look like:

test.exe : main.obj sub.obj
link main.obj sub.obj, test;

main.obj : main.c incl.h
msc -AL main.c;

sub.obj : sub.c incl.h
msc -AL sub.c;

NDMAKE v3.8 page 3

If a target appears on the left of more than one `colon' line, then it
depends on all of the names on the right of the colon on those lines,
but only one command sequence may be specified for it. The previous
example could have been written as:

test.exe : main.obj sub.obj
link main.obj sub.obj, test;

main.obj sub.obj : incl.h

main.obj : main.c
msc -AL main.c;

sub.obj : sub.c
msc -AL sub.c;

When you do the command `make' without any arguments, the first target
in MAKEFILE gets made. A dummy target is often used as the first
target when you wish to make several targets. For example:

all : target1.exe target2.exe

target1.exe : ....

target2.exe : ....

Executing `make' with no arguments results in both target1.exe and
target2.exe being made. This happens because MAKE always ensures all
prerequisites are up to date before it makes a target. Here, the
target ALL has two prerequisite files - TARGET1.EXE and TARGET2.EXE.
First TARGET1.EXE then TARGET2.EXE get made, then MAKE checks if
either of these files are more current than ALL. Since ALL doesn't
exist MAKE assumes its very old. Both TARGET1.EXE and TARGET2.EXE are
newer than ALL, so the commands to update ALL will be executed. MAKE
sees there are no commands and stops.

2) Macro definitions

Makefile entries of the form:

name = [value]

are macro definitions. Macros allow the association of a name and a
value. Subsequent appearances of $(name) or ${name} are replaced by
value. If name is a single character, the parentheses or braces are
optional. Spaces between name and =, and between = and value are
ignored. If value is not given, the macro value is a null string.

The previous example could have had:

OBJS = main.obj sub.obj

NDMAKE v3.8 page 4

test.exe : $(OBJS)
link $(OBJS), test;

main.obj : main.c
msc -AL main.c;

sub.obj : sub.c
msc -AL sub.c;

$(OBJS) : incl.h

Macros can be entered as command line parameters. For example:

A> make CFLAGS=-AL LIBS= test.exe

MAKE evaluates macros only when needed, and the order in which macros
appear in a description file is insignificant. Conventionally, all
definitions appear at the top of the description file. If the same
name is defined more than once, the most recent definition is used.
The precedence of definitions is:

1. command line definition (highest)
2. MAKEFILE definition
3. MAKE.INI definition
4. environment definition (lowest)
- this refers to the environment variables put into the DOS
environment with the `SET variable = value' DOS command.

Predefined macros:

There are 4 "run-time" macros. These are:

$* - stands for the target name with suffix deleted
$@ - stands for the full target name
$< - stands for the complete list of prerequisites
$? - stands for the list of prerequisites that are out of date
with respect to the target.

These are usually used when defining default rules (to be discussed
next). Unlike UNIX `make', you can use these run-time macros anywhere
they make sense. Thus, a dependency line for OBJS could be:

$(OBJS) : $*.c

The macro `MFLAGS' gets filled in with the initial command line
options supplied to MAKE. This can be used to invoke MAKE on
makefiles in subdirectories and pass along the options.

The macro `CWD' gets filled in with the current directory. If you
`cd' to another directory, you can `cd $(CWD)' to get back.

The macro `$$' evaluates to the dollar sign `$'.

NDMAKE v3.8 page 5

3) Default rules

MAKE can use default rules to specify commands for files for which the
makefile gives no explicit commands. A default rule tells MAKE how to
create a file with a particular extension from a file with the same
base name but another extension. Default rules take the following

.from_extension.to_extension :

For example, to produce a `.obj' file from a `.c' file, the default
rule could be:

.c.obj :
msc -AL $*.c;

When MAKE finds a target with no commands, it looks for the first
possible name for which both a rule and a file exist. There may be
several ways to produce a `.obj' file (eg from a C, FORTRAN, or PASCAL
compiler, or from MASM), and the order in which rules are attempted is
specified by the `.SUFFIXES' list. This is a special target with a
list of extensions. For example:

.SUFFIXES: .exe .obj .c .asm .for

If MAKE was trying to make a TEST.OBJ file using a default rule, it
would first look for a `.c.obj' rule (since `.c' follows `.obj' in the
.SUFFIXES list). If it found a `.c.obj' rule, it would check for the
file TEST.C. If the file didn't exist, MAKE would look for a
`.asm.obj' rule (and TEST.ASM file), and finally a `.for.obj' rule
(and TEST.FOR file).

Assuming MAKE.INI contained the .c.obj rule and .SUFFIXES as defined
above, our previous example could be written more succinctly as:

OBJS = main.obj sub.obj

test.exe : $(OBJS)
link $(OBJS), test;

$(OBJS) : incl.h

Because of the default rules, MAIN.OBJ and SUB.OBJ implicitly depend
on files MAIN.C and SUB.C, respectively, as well as explicitly
depending on INCL.H.

Suffixes accumulate, so if the makefile had the line:

.SUFFIXES : .obj .pas

NDMAKE v3.8 page 6

the suffix list would look like: .obj .pas .exe .obj .c .asm .for
(the ".obj .pas" from .SUFFIXES of the makefile and the ".exe .obj .c
.asm .for" of make.ini).

A .SUFFIXES line with no suffixes clears the list of suffixes.

4) "dot commands"

Besides the special target `.SUFFIXES' mentioned above, there are a
few other special targets that can be put in MAKE description files.

.IGNORE - Commands returning nonzero status (ie. the exit code or
errorlevel) cause MAKE to terminate unless the special
target `.IGNORE' is in makefile or the command begins with
`-' (hyphen). Equivalent to the `-i' option.

.SILENT - Commands to be executed are printed when executed unless the
special entry `.SILENT' is in makefile, or the first
character of the command is `@'. Equivalent to the `-s'
option. For example:

all.exe : 1.obj 2.obj 3.obj
link 1 2 3, tmp.exe; # this line will be echoed
- exepack tmp.exe all.exe # ignore any errors
@erase tmp.exe # don't echo this line

.PRECIOUS - Break (control-C) and command errors cause the target
being worked on to be deleted unless the target has no
prerequisites (explicit or implicit), or depends on the
special name `.PRECIOUS'. For example:

nerase.exe : nerase.obj .PRECIOUS
link nerase;

.BEFORE - Before MAKE starts determining which files need to be made,
it executes all commands associated with this target. Use
this to turn off resident programs which affect the workings
of MAKE (notably, the program DPATH). MAKE uses DOS
interrupt 3Dh to open files, then interrupt 57h to get the
file time.

.AFTER - After MAKE has finished running, all commands associated
with this target are executed. .BEFORE could turn off
DPATH, .AFTER could turn it back on. For example:

@ echo Hello world!
@ echo Goodbye cruel world ...

None of these special targets can be default targets.

NDMAKE v3.8 page 7


Options are entered on the command line with a `-' preceding them.
You cannot use `/' instead of `-'. Options can be grouped together
after a single `-', so -nd is equivalent to -n -d.

-d Debug mode. Prints information on macros, dependencies,
SUFFIXES, default rules. Also traces MAKE as it executes.

-h Print a help screen.

-i Equivalent to the special entry .IGNORE. Causes commands
that return errors to be ignored. Doing `make -i > errs'
collects all error messages into 1 `errs' file. To stop
running `make -i' you may have to push ^C several times.

-k Keep going. When a command returns nonzero status, abandon

work on the current target, but continue on branches that do
not depend on the current target.

-n Display but do not execute the commands needed to update the
targets. Doing `make -n > todo.bat' produces the batch file
TODO.BAT containing the commands to be done. Executing the
batch file will update the targets. This technique can be
used if you don't have enough memory for MAKE to execute the

-r Clears .SUFFIXES after MAKE.INI is read. The effect of this
is to prevent MAKE from looking for default rules.

-s Equivalent to the special entry .SILENT. Commands are not
echoed to the screen before they are executed.

-t Touch, i.e. set the file time of the out of date targets to
the current time without executing any commands. This will
create target files of length zero if they do not exist.
MAKE `touches' files just like the included TOUCH.EXE
program. The small tutorial included later in this
documentation shows how to use this flag.

NDMAKE v3.8 page 8

UNIX features

As with UNIX `make', dependency lines and default rules can have a
command on the same line as the `colon' line, provided the command
follows a semicolon:

.c.obj:; msc $*.c;
test.exe: $(OBJS); link $(OBJS), test;
@echo done

# are equivalent to

msc $*.c;
test.exe: $(OBJS)
link $(OBJS), test;
@echo done

If a name appears on a line with a double colon, `::', then the
command sequence following that line is performed only if the name is
out of date with respect to the names to the right of the double
colon, and is not affected by other double colon lines on which that
name may appear. Consider the following makefile:

1:: 2
@echo 2
1:: 3
@echo 3

If 2 and 3 are more recent than 1 and you type:

A> make 1

The response will be:

If 1 is more recent than 3, but 2 is newer than 1 the response is:

If 1 is more recent than both 2 and 3, the response will be:
Make: `1' is up to date.

NDMAKE v3.8 page 9

Additional notes and technical information

Lines in a MAKE description file that are too long to fit on one line
can be extended to the next line by putting backslash, `\', followed
be as the last two characters of the line. If you need a `\'
as the last character, put a space or comment character somewhere
after it on that line. The longest single line MAKE can handle is 512
bytes, but by using `\' to break up the line into shorter pieces,
there is no limit to line length (except available memory).

Case is unimportant, so `test.obj' and `TEST.OBJ' are the same.

Everything on a line after the comment character, `#', is ignored.

The character separating targets and dependents, `:', is also the
character used for the drive separator in MSDOS. To distinguish this
colon from the drive separator, it must be followed by space or tab
(eg: ), semicolon (eg:;), colon (eg::), or nothing (eg:). If
you consistently use a space you will have no problems.

If you type in a `makefile' from the keyboard (by using the command
`make -f -'), put a ^Z (control-Z) followed by a as the last
two characters. This tells MAKE to stop reading from the keyboard.

Targets defined in MAKEFILE take precedence over targets of the same
name defined in MAKE.INI. Targets defined in MAKE.INI can never be
default targets.

MAKE is stupid in that after the commands to update a target have been
executed without error, MAKE assumes the target is up to date. If you
give commands that don't really update a target, MAKE doesn't know.

When MAKE executes commands, such as `link', it first tries to find a
file called `link.exe' (or `'). If the file is not found,
MAKE loads a second copy of COMMAND.COM and passes it the command
line, in the hope that the command is an internal DOS command. This
is backwards to how COMMAND.COM normally works (first checking
internally, then checking externally). It is done this way for two
reasons: 1) for speed and lower memory requirements, and 2) because
the second copy of COMMAND.COM *does not* return the exit code of the
passed command. I'm using Microsoft C v3.0 and PCDOS 2.0, so if
anyone knows how to get the exit code back, please let me know.

You can force MAKE to load a second copy of COMMAND.COM by putting a
`+' as the first letter in the command. This will be faster for
executing internal DOS commands. You can put more than one of `-',
`@', and `+' for each command. Ex:

@+ echo Using + is faster for internal DOS commands

MAKE always uses a second copy of COMMAND.COM if the command involves
redirection of IO (with `>', `>>', `<', or `|'). If you're using IO

NDMAKE v3.8 page 10

redirection just to capture MAKE output, use redirection at the level
you invoke MAKE (ie. from DOS, something like `make > make.out').

Macros can refer to environment variables. For example, $(PATH) will
be filled in with the DOS environment variable PATH if there is no
PATH=... macro definition in MAKEFILE or MAKE.INI. This is handy for
environment variables like LIB (where your libraries are) and TMP (a
temporary area, usually a RAMdisk).

Macro definitions can refer to other macros. You could have:

CFLAGS = -A$(MODEL) -Od # remember, order is not important

When it comes time to use CFLAGS, MAKE will expand CFLAGS as
`-AL -Od'. Command line macros have the highest precedence, so:

A> make MODEL=S test.exe

results in CFLAGS having the value `-AS -Od'. For command line macros
that contain spaces, enclose entirely the macro in double quotes, " ":

A> make "CFLAGS=-A$(MODEL) -Zd" MODEL=M test.exe

MAKE will let you define a recursive macro:

macro1 = $(macro2) # macro1 = the value of macro2
macro2 = $(macro1) # macro2 = the value of macro1

but signals a `recursive macro' error if it tries to use it.

Changes since version 3.0

- The -k flag did not work due to a coding mistake.

- MAKE did not use the switchar when executing COMMAND.COM, thus not
working properly for people who had switchar = `-'.

- MAKE did not find MAKE.INI in directories ending with `\'.

- Targets in MAKE.INI no longer take precedence over targets in
MAKEFILE. Also, only the first target in MAKEFILE is used if MAKE is
invoked with no targets. Previously, if there was no MAKEFILE, the
first target in MAKE.INI got made.

- Too much memory was being used. MAKE used about 94000 bytes
regardless of the size of the makefile! Now MAKE uses a minimum of
about 40000 bytes. Larger makefiles require more memory.

- Touch (the -t flag) was made to act exactly like the UNIX version.
Previously it did not create a file if it did not exist.

NDMAKE v3.8 page 11

- .BEFORE and .AFTER were added to compensate for DPATH.

- Commas in the LINK command had to be separated by spaces if a
response file was being used. This was a bug.

- Space can be used instead of tab before command lines. This is
compensation for some editors which do not really do tabs.

- Fixed an uninitialized pointer problem that manifest itself with
large makefiles.

- Now "dot commands" and targets defined in MAKE.INI can no longer be
a default targets.

- .BEFORE and .AFTER have to been done even with `make -n'.

NDMAKE v3.8 page 12

Sample session - what MAKE does when it's running

Assume you have the following MAKE.INI file and MAKEFILE.


.SUFFIXES : .exe .obj .c .for .asm
M = S

.c.obj:; cl $(CFLAGS) -c $*.c

.obj.exe:; link $<, $@;

cl $(CFLAGS) -c $*.c
link $*.obj, $@;
erase $*.obj


OBJS = main.obj sub.obj

test.exe: $(OBJS)
link $<, $@,,\lib\local;

$(OBJS): incl.h

sub.obj: sub.c
cl $(CFLAGS) -Od -c sub.c

install: test.exe
copy test.exe $(BIN) # BIN comes from the environment


Assume the following files are in your directory: MAIN.C, SUB.C,
INCL.H. When you type:

A> make

MAKE first reads MAKE.INI then MAKEFILE. It sees the first target
TEST.EXE and tries to make it. But first, MAKE must know if the files
that TEST.EXE depends on are up to date. As TEST.EXE depends on
several `.obj' files, and these `.obj' files also have dependents, the
detailed procedure MAKE undergoes looks like this:

NDMAKE v3.8 page 13

- there are explicit commands for making TEST.EXE so don't
bother looking for implicit prerequisites.
- TEST.EXE depends on MAIN.OBJ and SUB.OBJ. Make these.
- Since there are no explicit commands for MAIN.OBJ, check
for implicit prerequisites based on default rules.
- Find rule `.c.obj' and file `main.c'.
- Add MAIN.C to the prerequisites of MAIN.OBJ.
- MAIN.OBJ depends on INCL.H and MAIN.C. Make these.
- Make INCL.H
- Since there are no explicit commands for making
INCL.H, check for implicit prerequisites.
- Since there is no `.h' suffix in .SUFFIXES, there are
no implicit prerequisites.
- There are no explicit prerequisites.
- There are no prerequisites, so assume INCL.H is up to
- Make MAIN.C
- Since there are no explicit commands for making
MAIN.C, check for implicit prerequisites.
- Since there are no `.from_extension.c' rules, there
are no implicit prerequisites.
- There are no explicit prerequisites.
- There are no prerequisites, so assume MAIN.C is up to
- Compare MAIN.OBJ with INCL.H and MAIN.C. Since MAIN.OBJ
doesn't exist, it is out of date with respect to its
prerequisites, so execute the (implicit) command:

cl -AS -c main.c

- Assume MAIN.OBJ is up to date.
- Make SUB.OBJ
- There are explicit commands for making SUB.OBJ so don't
bother looking for implicit prerequisites.
- SUB.OBJ depends on INCL.H and SUB.C. Make these.
- Make INCL.H
- MAKE already knows that INCL.H is up to date.
- Make SUB.C
- Since there are no explicit commands to make SUB.C,
check for implicit prerequisites.
- Since there are no `.from_extension.c' rules, there
are no implicit prerequisites.
- There are no explicit prerequisites.
- There are no prerequisites, so assume SUB.C is up to
- Compare SUB.OBJ with INCL.H and SUB.C. Since SUB.OBJ
doesn't exist, it is out of date with respect to its
prerequisites, so execute the (explicit) command:

cl -AS -Od -c sub.c

- Assume SUB.OBJ is up to date.
- Compare TEST.EXE with MAIN.OBJ and SUB.OBJ. Since TEST.EXE

NDMAKE v3.8 page 14

doesn't exist, execute the command:

link main.obj sub.obj, test.exe,,\lib\local;

- Assume TEST.EXE is up to date.

Note the way $< gets replaced with the files TEST.EXE depends on, and
$@ gets replaced with TEST.EXE. Although in this case we could have
used $(OBJS) for $< and TEST.EXE for $@, when writing default rules we
don't know in advance that we want to link $(OBJS) to make TEST.EXE.

Assuming no errors occurred, when you now type `make' you will get the
message that TEST.EXE is up to date. If you edit SUB.C and change it,
when you next type `make', MAKE will see that SUB.C is more recent
than SUB.OBJ and recompile SUB.C. MAKE will then see that SUB.OBJ is
more recent than TEST.EXE and relink the files.

If you type `make install', MAKE will ensure TEST.EXE is up to date,
then copy it to your BIN directory. BIN was assumed to be defined in
your environment.

Use of flags -n, -t and -i

Now assume you edit INCL.H and make changes that only affect SUB.C
(for example, you change the value of a #define but you don't have to
edit SUB.C). If you were now to type `make', MAKE would compile both
SUB.C and MAIN.C. To have MAKE only recompile SUB.C you do three
things. First, `make -t' to touch (update) all files. You will see
that MAKE touches MAIN.OBJ and SUB.OBJ, then TEST.EXE. Now, `touch
sub.c'. This results in SUB.C being newer than SUB.OBJ. Finally,
`make' again. Now MAKE will compile only SUB.OBJ, then link the

The process of editing a common include file to change something that
only affects one file occurs often enough that the `make -t' + `touch'
+ `make' procedure can save a lot of time.

If you are changing an include file and also changing some of the `.c'
files, then usually you edit the include file, do `make -t', edit the
`.c' files, then do `make'.

The `-i' flag is useful for collecting all errors into a single file
without stopping MAKE. This is helpful when you're porting software
and expect a lot of errors or when you make global changes that may
produce a lot of errors (for example, changing a structure definition
in an include file or changing from small to large code models).

The `-n' flag is used when you just want to see what MAKE will be
doing. This is useful if you've changed several modules, but forget
which ones. `make -n' shows which ones will be compiled.

NDMAKE v3.8 page 15

Using MAKE without a makefile

MAKE can be used in a limited fashion without having a makefile.
Assume you have a file called XYZZY.C and using the same MAKE.INI file
described above, you type:

A> make xyzzy.exe

MAKE uses its default rules to compile XYZZY.C, link XYZZY.OBJ to form
XYZZY.EXE, then erases XYZZY.OBJ. If several `.exe' files exist in a
directory and you have just finished editing some of their `.c' files,
you could type:

A> make *.exe

and update only the `.exe' files that are out of date. By adding more
default rules to MAKE.INI, MAKE could invoke the FORTRAN compiler for
`.for' files or MASM for `.asm' files. In this way, MAKE can do the
right thing for each type of file. You can do `make *.exe' and have
MAKE figure out what to do.

NDMAKE v3.8 page 16


If you like and use this program, I ask you to consider
registering it. The benefits of registration include the first
bugfix/enhanced version free. Registered owners will get a response
to any questions they may have. I anticipate adding VPATH (a way to
look for dependent files in other than the current directory) and ARC
and LIB support for the next version. Also, I am certain there will
be some reported bugs or incompatibilities with UNIX `make' which will
be fixed in the first update.

The suggested registration fee is $20. Regardless of whether you
register or not, you may freely copy and distribute this program for
noncommercial purposes. The programs, MAKE.EXE and TOUCH.EXE, the
documentation, MAKE.DOC and TOUCH.DOC, and the initialization file,
MAKE.INI, must all be distributed together. If you post this program
to a public bulletin board, please put all the files in an ARChive
called NDMAKE38.ARC

Commercial use of this program requires my prior written consent.

I hope you enjoy NDMAKE and find it to be a useful addition to
your programming tools. If you have any questions I can be reached by
mail at:

UUCP: ...ucbvax!ucsfcgl!kneller
ARPANET: [email protected]
BITNET: [email protected]
FIDONET: node 125/84 (SCI-Fido 415-655-0667)

US MAIL: D. G. Kneller
2 Panoramic Way #204
Berkeley, CA 94704


UNIX is a registered trademark of Bell Laboratories.
MSDOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.

NDMAKE v3.8 page 17


Registration form for NDMAKE v3.8

Name: _________________________________________________

Address: _________________________________________________

City, State, Zip: _________________________________________________

Country: _________________________________________________

OPTIONAL: System description (computer, memory, DOS version)



COMMENTS: Please feel free to add your thoughts or suggestions!





Mail to:

D. G. Kneller
2 Panoramic Way #204
Berkeley CA, 94704

 December 7, 2017  Add comments

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